The website "Żydowski Instytut Historyczny" (Jewish Historical Institute) introduces the activities and the holdings of this institution dedicated to the history and culture of Polish Jews, which is based in Warsaw, Poland. The website presents the history of the institute; one learns for example that the Underground Archives of the Warsaw ghetto (the Ringelblum Archives) are now deposited there. The guide to collections includes overviews of the institute archives; of the library with an online catalogue; of the institute's museum; and of the section dedicated to monuments. In the latter photographs of historical Jewish towns, synagogues, quarters, streets in Poland can be seen. The site also presents in great detail the exhibitions held at the institute, permanent and temporary. Permanent exhibits include the Jewish art gallery and the Warsaw ghetto exhibition, all illustrated with photographs. A third section on the site covers the research and education activities carried out by the institute, of which details can be found on the site. The "Jewish History Quarterly" published by the Institute is introduced on the site with tables of contents for the latest issues, but the full texts can be read via the CEEOL. Further sections of the site are not present on the main page but appear as one navigates through the site. The institute runs a Genealogical Project, has a document preservation laboratory and started creating a large database with the Jewish communities in Poland before WWII. Online shopping for books, other publications, films and other memorabilia is available. The site also informs about entry fees, opening hours and access.
The website "A Holokauszt Magyarországon" (The Holocaust in Hungary) is an online digital collection of teaching and learning resources about the fate of Hungarian Jews during WWII. The page is a project of the Budapesti Holokauszt Múzeum és Oktatási Központ (The Budapest Holocaust Museum and Teaching Centre). The site is only available in Hungarian but it is an indispensable resource for understanding the Holocaust, the main events and characters in Hungary. There are two main sections: one with resources for teachers; and a section for students. For teachers, the site offers suggestions lessons plans for 12 lessons, with additional digital auxiliary material and primary sources. The digital material aimed at students and learners is structured differently, according to major questions and events in Horthy Hungary, such as: introduction to the history of Hungary Jewry; Jewish laws and labour services; ghettos and deportations; anti-Semitism; or extermination, but it also tackles delicate issues such as: what was known about the Holocaust at the time, collaborators; or Jewish reactions. There are common resources for both target groups: interactive maps (of Budapest during the Horthy regime and ghettos; of concentration and extermination camps in Europe); statistics; a who's who; a glossary and a virtual tour of the Birkenau crematorium. The Roma Holocaust is also present among the topics in the glossary. From the technical guide for using the digital material, published in PDF, it is clear that this material on the site is also available as CD-ROMs. This website is a great resource for those interested in the Holocaust in Central Europe.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Toruniu (The state archive in Toruń)" is in Polish with very succint English and German versions. It provides information on accessibility, opening hours, its collections, and its history. It is one of the oldest collections, dating from the medieval period, and the first extant mention of the archive comes from 1570. Destroyed for the first time during the Swedish invasion of 1703, and also later, under the Prussian partition authorities, the nature of the archives changed again. As is the case with many of the Polish archives, their history is as interesting as the records themselves. The archive also has a department in Włocławek. A catalogue of the records held has been published online, which is of great use to the researcher, and it can be reached via the centralised databases of the Polish National Archives (SEZAM, PRADZIAD, IZA and ELA). A site of interest to those who are working on German or Polish history.
An attractive and well-designed website, Centropa is a platform for Jewish history in Central Europe. The site has contributors from across the region and it serves scholars, teachers, genealogists and the general public. The site contains a large collection of book reviews; travel suggestions for those visiting from abroad; excerpts from fiction and memoirs; historical summaries; and links pages. In the broad range of material, there are two main projects which dominate the site: Jewish Witness to a European Century (An Interactive Database to Jewish Memory) and Centropa Films (The Library of Rescued Memories). Both projects are online collections of family pictures and other photographs related to Jewish life. There is a good search engine with advanced capability. Of additional interest are the site's slideshows, which are chosen according to set themes. These are not to be missed, as they render the site much more than a database with a search engine: they provide historical context and commentary for the collections. Among the slideshows are the Life Book project, with interviews and photographs from a retirement home in Prague whose residents lived through the Holocaust. Another notable slideshow is an anti-Semitic postcard collection. Valuable for its instructive content and clear navigability, the site also provides continuity between past and present for the troubled history of the Jews of Central Europe. The slideshows pose a question best expressed by one of the contributors: how does one photograph an absence? It is a problem that the site clearly seeks to redress and is necessary now for a comprehensive understanding of the region. This message, augmented by the further comment that the past lurks in the shadows in Central Europe, even when it lies in plain sight, is worth remembering. The website has a German version, a Hungarian version, and Centropa student, a site for students interested in Jewish studies.
The Web Site of the Library of Agudas Chassidei Chabad Ohel Yosef Yitzchak Lubavitch is part of a larger Web Site on the Chabad Hassidim (Chasidim, Hasidim, Hassids), run from the headquarters of the Jewish movement in New York. The Lubavitchers are a branch of the Hasidic sect of Jews which was founded in the middle of the eighteenth century in Poland. The Chabad - Lubavitch Library collections have been subject to much destruction and some squabbles over ownership, but have now been amalgamated into one collection in one place and is one of the most important resources for researchers, religious scholars as well as the general public, who are able to visit general exhibitions. The site provides information on the exhibitions curated along with some illustrations. However, most useful is the library catalogue, which is in Hebrew and English on works in a variety of languages, including obviously Yiddish. The site describes the Library as "one of the most distinguished Judaic libraries, containing approximately 250,000 books, the majority of which are aged and rare. Around 200,000 of these are printed in the languages of Hebrew and Yiddish, while the remaining 50,000 are in a variety of other languages". The catalogue is arranged in alphabetical order by title and by author and is easy to use. A useful site for students and researchers of Eastern and Central Europe, Jewish Studies, and Religious Studies.
The website of the "Danish Centre for Holocaust Studies" is the English version of the main Danish site. Not all of the Danish pages are available in English. The aim of the site is to provide teaching materials and learning materials for those researching the Second World War Holocaust. The site begins with a basic overview which examines the ghettos of Poland, extermination camps, the Final Solution, the fate of Danish Jews, and of the Roma and Sinti. The background and aftermath are also briefly described. The bibliography is somewhat misnamed but serves the purpose of providing a brief introduction to leading protagonists. It is, in fact, the literature section that contains details of books, articles, and films in German and English. The timeline is also useful as well as the list of links to pertinent websites. A good site for those studying World War Two or the Holocaust.
The Web Site "Eydes : Evidence of Yiddish Documented in European Societies" has versions in both German and English and obviously contains a lot of material in Yiddish. The aim of the project is to archive the dialects, folklore, customs and life experiences of the East and Central European Jewry. This is essentially home to a project on the language and culture atlas of Ashkenazic Jewry. The project authors have chosen 603 cities, towns and villages to focus on and have collected over 6,000 hours of tape recordings. This archive represents an amazing resource for ethnographers, anthropologists, historians, and sociologists. This resource is an international academic collaboration between scholars in the US, Poland, and Germany, sponsored by the Commission of the European Union, among other organisations. There is an interactive map with audio clips of regional differences in dialect. There are links to an online Yiddish course (in German) and to other sites of relevant interest. Audio and visual plug-ins are available for download on the site.
The website "The Forgotten Camps" is a very personal site featuring accounts of survivors and their liberators, hosted by JewishGen, Inc. The subject of this project, touched upon rarely, is the lesser-known camps and sub-camps that were scattered around Europe. A comprehensive list of these camps is available on this site. Links are also made to the pages of other camps where they exist. An online exhibition of the art work of Fernand von Horen, a survivor of both Esterwegen and Flossenburg camps captures the brutality of camp life. A very useful section on the site is the glossary of slang used in camps, and there are also short histories of the main camps and some of the smaller camps such as: Drancy, Radogosz, and Nordhausen. The bibliography tends towards personal accounts rather than historical works, and also has a wide selection of French literature on the subject.
The website of the Galicia Jewish Museum presents the activities of this institution established in 2004 and based in Cracow, Poland. The site explains that the aim of the museum if primarily to celebrate Jewish culture of (Polish) Galicia and to commemorate the victims of the Holocaust. The museum organises exhibitions, runs educational programmes, publishes material relevant to the history and culture of Galician Jewry. The site describes the permanent exhibition, "Traces of Memory", and also the current photographic exhibitions. There is a section dedicated to events, which consist of concerts, lectures, seminars, and film projections. The educational programmes are presented in a PDF brochure. The museum is part of the Jewish Culture Festival in Cracow and the events are also posted online as a scanned image of the printed brochure. The museum hosts the largest Jewish bookshop in Poland and all books can be ordered online via the museum's site.
The site aims to disseminate information about the non-Jewish victims of the Holocaust, which number over 5 million. The author of the site (Terese Schwartz-Pencak) is widely published on the subject, is the daughter of Holocaust survivors, and has converted to Judaism. The site features extracts from Nuremberg trial documentation and an excellent page of links to resources on the Holocaust. Individual stories of survivors along with pictures and images enhance the site. Those given a voice here, Afro-Europeans, Roma and Sinti, Poles, Homosexuals, the disabled, and Jehovah's Witnesses, are among those frequently by-passed by Holocaust histories. The site is of use to those seeking an individual insight into the Holocaust and those who were both victims and heroes.
The website "Holocaust Education Resources" is essentially a teaching pack designed for those teaching on the Holocaust in schools and universities, and so is of interest also to those learning about it. Notes for students and teachers are provided, including an excellent section on how to deal with Holocaust denial. The interesting aspect of this resource, is that it is based on material from survivors and refugees. Produced by the Centre for German-Jewish Studies at the University of Sussex, the teaching pack draws on their extensive archives, expert academics and the centre's consultations with survivors and Jewish groups.The course is divided into twelve topics, including: History of Antisemitism; History of the Third Reich; Women in the Holocaust; Survivors; and Holocaust Education. Each section provides a paragraph introduction to the theme and images, films, oral accounts, personal correspondence, or links to further information. The pack makes particular reference to and use of the Arnold Daghani collection and one of the most moving sources is a letter from a young man in Auschwitz (Oświęcim) to his mother. The site deals almost exclusively with the Holocaust of the Jewish populations, mentioning briefly some groups, such as the Roma/Gypsies, but omitting others. At the time of last review, the last update on the site was from 2003 therefore the bibliographies and links might not be entirely up to date.
The website "Holocaust Era in Croatia: Jasenovac 1941-1945" provides the history of Jasenovac, the largest complex of the concentration camps built under the fascist Croatian Ustaa régime between 1941 and 1945. It is an online exhibition of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. There are three sections to the site, provided in English, Serbian, and Croatian versions: memorial; historical; and collection. The memorial section pays tribute to camp victims through quotations from prisoners and photographs. The historical section features an impressive six-part narrative history of the Jasenovac camps, accompanied by an automated slide show. The narrative reveals that the camps held political, religious, and racial prisoners. The Balkan context for these conflicts is only briefly or implicitly described. A clearer explanation of the nature of camps in this region compared to those in Germany and Poland would be valuable, especially for teachers and students of Holocaust studies. Further historical commentary on the relationship in this region between Muslim, Orthodox and Roman Catholic faiths and ethnic and political groups - as well as the relative place of the Jewish minority - would have added historical depth to the site. This would be all the more valuable, given remarks from site authors that documents from the camp were burned and any assessment of events is subject to a great range of varying nationalist interpretation. A related links section provides limited additional information from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The collection section provides an exhibition of artefacts, photographs, and maps related to the camp. Its most interesting component is its video section, with interviews with museum staff who have collected and restored excavated evidence, and one captured German newsreel from 1944 of the Croatian Ustaa leader, Anton Pavelić. There are also small excerpts from oral histories and personal histories, including audio excerpts from interviews. The site has won a Web award for style and content, affirming its value as a resource for teachers and students. Navigation is largely automated. This can be difficult to follow on some pages, as text and photographs scroll by on opposite sides of the screen simultaneously.
The Web Site Images of Polish Synagogues is published by the Institute of Global Communications and compiled by David Dickerson. The site is based on photographs of a selection of surviving or rebuilt synagogues in Poland, and a handful of books on the subject. The synagogues featured at the time of cataloguing were: Łańcut, Noźyk (in Warsaw), Tykocin (near Białystok), and the Rema and Old Synagogues (both in Kazimierz, a district of Cracow). The sections contain a couple of photographs, a few lines on the history of the synagogues prior to their fates during the Second World War and an entry from the Encyclopedia Judaica on the Holocaust. This is an interesting site for those wanting to glimpse an aspect of Polish Jewish culture.
The website 'Elie Wiesel' National Institute for the Study of Holocaust in Romania (INSHR) reflects the activities of this research institute founded in 2005 in Bucharest, Romania. The website is in Romanian with a good but incomplete English version. The site presents the aims of the institute of collecting information about the Holocaust but also of disseminating the research results by creating learning materials for teaching. The section on publications introduce the monographs and testimonial books edited by the staff of the institute, some of which are available in full text in Romanian and French, while the tables of contents and forewords of most of them can be consulted in English. The section dedicated to documents holds several testimonies of Holocaust survivors or deported Jews, but they are only available on the Romanian version of the site. An opinion survey about the perception of Holocaust and ethnic minorities in Romania, carried out in 2007, can be downloaded in PPT format. The site also gives details about events and news. For survivors of the Holocaust or their relatives a registration form is posted on the site. Also a list with the names of persons awarded with the 'Righteous Among the Nations' by the Yad Vashem is published on the site. They appear individually or as a family, with a very brief biography. One of the most crucial resources of the site is the 'Wiesel Report', which provides an authoritative overview of the Holocaust in Romania. It was written under the supervision of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania and published in 2004. The report covers in its impressive 416 pages chapters such as: the events in Romanian history leading to the Holocaust; the Romanian-German relations; the anti-Semitic propaganda and communism; the anti-Semitic legislation of Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard; deportations of Roma to Transnistria; Holocaust in Northern Transylvania; the aftermath of WWII and minimisation of Holocaust; and recommendations and findings. This website is a great resource for Jewish studies and the Holocaust.
The website "Literature of the Holocaust" is maintained by Alan Filreis, a Professor of English at the University of Pennsylvania and acts as a portal to a vast array of online resources involving the Holocaust. The material is arranged rather haphazardly, in an alphabetical list according to the first word of the entry. However, the entries are not named in a consistent way, so a tremendous amount of digging has to be done, or users are recommended to use the search facility at the bottom of the page if they know what they are looking for. Subjects, found in a variety of formats, such as images, newspaper articles, essay, and books include: the controversy over Swiss bank accounts; the Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies; survivors' testimonies; the truth about Oskar Schindler; and Primo Levi. What is interesting is that the site also contains brief information on Africans and German Africans living in Germany during the Nazi period, and on the atrocities in the Balkans in the nineteen nineties. Although the site is constantly updated by its creator, some older external links are broken.
The website "Mapping the Holocaust" is an exhibition page of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), which uses a variety of very good visual and textual sources to present an extremely comprehensible overview of the geography of the Holocaust. There are excellent animated maps showing the geographical context of the Holocaust. One map shows the general directions of attack and invasion by Allied and Axis forces, another shows the movement of Jewish and other persecuted groups to death and labour camps. There are also animated maps of the Warsaw Ghetto, Auschwitz (Oświęcim), Łódź, and the aftermath of the Holocaust. Photographs, paintings, and text are also used in this exhibition, to great effect. There are also non-animated maps, and many Holocaust Learning Center Articles on topics such as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, extermination camps, rescue, and personal stories of both the rescued and the rescuers. The website has the advantage of referring to other resources within the USHMM on World War II. The website encourages users to browse the Holocaust Encyclopedia, which is available in English, French, Arabic and Farsi. Some of the maps in the online exhibition have Spanish versions. "Mapping the Holocaust" was short-listed for Best Innovative or Experimental Application in the 2003 Best of the Web competition sponsored by the Museums and the Web conference, to recognise achievement in heritage website design.
The "National committee for attending deportees" is a website dedicated to the activity and archive of this committee created in Budapest in 1945 (Deportáltak gondozó országos bizottság - DEGOB) to deal with the Jewish refugees stranded abroad and returning to Hungary after the war. DEGOB aimed to help repatriate Hungarian Jews; offer relief and support together with the National Jewish Aid Committee; and to record the testimonials of survivors of the Holocaust. The records kept by DEGOB are organised in the website in a database which can be search by keyword or category (gender, date of birth, place of birth, occupation, residence, concentration, ghetto, camp). The authors of the site have also prepared statistics based on the survivors, with aged, profession or gender. The returning Jews gave accounts of their personal stories between 1945 and 1946, according to a questionnaire created by the DEGOB staff. Over 5000 testimonies have been recorded by DEGOB. The site also offers a glossary of terms related to Holocaust, deportations and concentration camps. The section 'Encyclopedia of Camps' was empty at the time of cataloguing. On the right-hand column, rich material on the Holocaust in Hungary is placed, with sections such as: perpetrators (police, gendarmerie, public administrators); the gentile population; regions of destruction; women; the first massacre; anti-Semitism; the Jewish Council (which were the interface between the German and Hungarian authorities and the Jewish communities); resistance, Zionists; death factory-Auschwitz Birkenau 1944; rescue; looting; and labour service. All texts on the site are provided with footnotes and bibliographical references. This is a complex site which gives a thoroughly documented overview of the fate of Hungarian Jews during and after WWII. It is a crucial resource for the study of Holocaust and of recent European history.
The website "Oliver Lustig's Text Presentation of Historic Holocaust Photographs" makes available online a series of images from The Auschwitz Album, a book of about 200 photographs taken by Auschwitz official photographers in May 1944. The images show the arrival and processing of a single Jewish transport at the Birkenau camp. On this site a selection of these images is presented with text by Oliver Lustig, a survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau and Dachau and author of many books about the Holocaust. This commentary forms a narrative account of the events depicted from the author's personal experience. The images are of good quality and would be useful for the classroom; they could be used to help children to visualise the effects of the Holocaust on families, for example. Clicking on each image takes the user to a larger version. The photographs show maily groups of individuals; none show graphic images of the real horrors of Auschwitz, which are liable to cause upset. The text has been translated from the original Romanian into reasonable English, and also into Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Danish, Dutch, French and Russian. It is highly emotive. The site includes links to a brief biographical sketch of Lustig, and to his Concentration Camp Dictionary, a commentary on phrases and words in use at the camps. The Dictionary is very detailed and contains numerous accounts from Lustig's personal experience; the translation is not good, but the material is compelling. Lustig's testimony is by no means impersonal and, again, the tone used is vehement. This part of the website contains typographical and coding errors. The website seems aimed at the general reader, but teachers and schoolchildren might also find some of the material useful. It offers an insight into the effects of Auschwitz and the Holocaust on its survivors, in addition to the images of the transports and their victims. This should help readers broaden their knowledge of the human costs of the Holocaust.
The Polish Center for Holocaust Research website is available in Polish and English and introduces the activity of this research institute founded in 2003 as part of the Institute of Philosophy and Society of the Polish Academy of Sciences based in Warsaw. Its main goals consist of disseminating research results about the Holocaust in Poland, publish books, take part in international research project and manage the Warsaw ghetto database. The website details the research projects and the seminars held at the centre. On the main page the upcoming events and recent news are advertised. The section on publications was available only in Polish at the time of cataloguing; it presents the volumes edited by the members of the centre. The Polish Center for Holocaust Research publishes the annual "Zagłada Żydów. Studia i Materiały" (Holocaust studies and materials), which has its own website. There is a very good page with links to other sites, research institutes, archives, or sites dedicated to death camps.
Russia religion news is a long-established, searchable online archive of selected, translated articles from the Russian media on religion in the former Soviet Union from 1996 to date. Articles are taken mostly from the mainstream media, including Interfax and Russian monitors of religious news such as portal-credo.ru. Links to the original Russian text are provided for most recent items. The compiler and translator, US academic Professor Paul D. Steeves, will provide copies of those originals unavailable online on request, where possible. The site may be searched by any word or phrase, with a refine option to narrow results if need be, or browsed by year. Articles selected are weighted towards: major news stories related to religion; religious minorities; persecution of and discrimination against believers, including antisemitism; national and religious identity; religious conflict; interfaith relations; legislation. A brief links page provides access to: the 1997 Russian law 'On freedom of conscience and religious associations' in Russian and in English translation; US Department of State reports on religious freedom; statistics and surveys on religious associations and affiliation up to 2004; and other organisations monitoring religion in the former Soviet Union. A useful guide to abbreviations shows the full Russian and English names for all acronyms used. An option to be notified by email when the site is updated is available from the recent news page. This resource will be of most use to researchers and teachers of post-Soviet religion and Russian media, and of contemporary religious affairs.
The Literature section of the online Teacher's guide to the Holocaust, provides a practical guide to Holocaust literature for educators, researchers and students. Part of a broader site, these pages outline the scope and diversity of literary writing related to the Holocaust. Divided into seven sub-sections, these pages cover: writing by victims; survivor testimonies; accounts of resisters; narratives about rescuers; texts which offer an insight into the cultural, social and political context in which Nazism grew and gained momentum; and a selection of literary and critical reflections which have emerged since. Some of these address the moral issues facing contemporary society in the aftermath of the Holocaust, whilst others focus on commemorating victims and survivors. A final sub-section provides a collection of pedagogical resources which includes: a glossary; discussion topics; student handouts; detailed bibliographic material; and a sequence of lesson plans. Whilst these materials are designed for teachers within an American educational context, the detailed overview the section provides will also be useful to those teaching and studying within Further and Higher Education in the UK, offering as it does an accessible and reliable grounding to Holocaust literature.
The website "The Holocaust Beyond Auschwitz" is an online exhibition that resulted from a study trip undertaken in 2001 by students of the Department of Jewish and Hebrew Studies, University College, London. The aim of the trip was to discover Jewish culture and society prior to 1939 and during the Holocaust. The site has pictures of Jewish synagogues, cemeteries, and of concentration and work camps. The commentary is that of an observer, and is not academically qualified. Although the site is easy to use and very basic, it serves rather as an illustration of places connected with the Jewish community that are rarely visited by tourists, rather than an informative resource.
The website "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum" introduces America's national institution for the documentation, study, and interpretation of Holocaust history, which serves as the country's memorial to the millions of people murdered during the Holocaust. The site is an amazing and extensive resource which provides a comprehensive history of the Holocaust. Whilst the emphasis is mainly on the Jewish experience from 1933-1945, the persecution and extermination of other groups such as homosexuals, Communists, Jehovah Witnesses, Slavs, and the disabled is also covered. An extensive Holocaust Encyclopedia covers all the major issues related to the events in Europe during the WWII. There is a dedicated education section that caters for teachers, students, families, adults, and undergraduates, and there is also a learning centre. In addition, the site features a well-pitched introduction, personal histories, interactive maps, and online exhibitions. Access is provided to the online catalogue of the Museum Library, which includes photo and document archives. The website also carries information about the museum's Registry of Holocaust survivors, plus other research facilities.
This website on the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (not to be confused with the Warsaw Uprising in August-September 1944) in Nazi-occupied Poland is published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. It is linked with the NBC miniseries, "Uprising," which documents the resistance movement in the Warsaw ghetto. On the site, users can access a range of resources to help them learn more about events in Warsaw in 1943, including biographies, photographs, video interviews, maps and articles. The site also features a few questions to encourage users to think about the Holocaust in greater detail. The video clips require users to have RealPlayer, which can be freely downloaded from the Internet. The site includes links to further resources on the history of the Warsaw ghetto, on the deportation of Jews to and from the Warsaw ghetto, on the Holocaust and other ghettos. This is an excellent resource for teaching and study purposes.
University over the Abyss: Lectures in Ghetto Theresienstadt, 1942-44 is a website describing lectures which were held by the inmates of Theresienstadt (Terezin), a fortress near Prague which the Nazis converted into a transit concentration camp during the Second World War. Site authors remark that the "prisoners were mainly professional Jews from Czechoslovakia, Germany, Austria, Holland and Denmark, many of them a part of the European cultural elite." Site creators collected information regarding inmates' lectures which was scattered around archives and libraries in Europe, Israel and the United States. They now possess a computer database with over 480 names and about 2,300 lecture titles, along with related documents. Of these, the time and location of most have been determined, but texts and listeners' notes of only some 80 remain. A book has been published on the basis of this research, as has a second, enlarged, reedited edition in 2004. Ordering details, as well as information on further research, translations and publications, are on the site. The main page lists a brief collection of lecture titles within the fields of Jewish Studies; Humanities (including Art, Music and Drama); Social Studies; Law; Medicine; and finally, sociological lectures on the camp itself. The site's most impressive feature mirrors this research, with an alphabetical list of lecturers at Theresienstadt, the cities from which they were deported, and their deportation dates to Auschwitz. There is another column indicating camps in which they survived, for the tiny number that did so.
The Warsaw Ghetto Database website contains a large collection of data concerning the ghetto in Warsaw. There are several sections in the site: on the top bar the links to guides to the database and a timeline of the history of Warsaw Jews during WWII. Under "How to use" a thorough explanation of the sections of the database is offered. The titles of these sections are on the left hand menu of the main page. Thus, the database can be accessed via "Places", "People", "Events" and "Sources". The sources are grouped into categories of documents, and for each of them a description together with the location are provided. A map of the Warsaw ghetto is also available, with possibilities to move around it with an arrow and to enlarge sections of it. The search after a category leads to a hyperlinked list of entries. Each entry has a description with cross-references to related entries. Although the website is presented in Polish and English, the database is not yet entirely translated into English. The database was created by the Polish Center for Holocaust Research based in Warsaw.
The website "Borussia" is in Polish and reflects the activity of this not-for-profit cultural organisation, founded in 1990 in the Polish town of Olsztyń, by a group of intellectuals, historians, and writers. It aims to create dialogue between all Polish and non-Polish communities between the rivers Vistula and the Niemen, the areas known as variously, Warmia, the Mazury, and Prussia. It seeks to provide a forum for the discussion of identities, self-realisation, and the relationship between self and place. It is funded by the Polish Ministry of Culture and Art, the Foundation for Polish-German Co-operation, and the Stefan Batory, Friedrich Ebert, and Robert Schuman Foundations. The website provides information on its various volunteer projects, seminars and conferences, publications, and exchange programmes. The association also has a branch in Leipzig, germany. The Borussia foundation addresses questions of interest to those researching immigration and emigration in Central and Eastern Europe, or the history of Lithuania, Germany, Poland, Prussia, Ukraine, Belarus, or Jewish communities.