This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Hili (Abu Dhabi), Arabia. The site is a Bronze Age oasis on the shores of the Persian Gulf; several illustrated articles describe the recent discoveries. In particular, the possible trade contacts with Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley are analysed. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
This is the official website of the African Diaspora Archaeology Network (ADAN), edited by Chris Fennell of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It is organised as a portal providing access to the most important online resources available for the study of communities of displaced Africans across the globe. The website publishes a regular newsletter which is searchable using an internal search engine. There is an open forum for discussion of any topic relevant to the broad subject, and also used to communicate news of research. The Web Resources section offers a substantial list of annotated links to useful pages. Most of these are external links: however, the reader should note the page on African American archaeology and Caribbean archaeology, written by the editor of this website and hosted on another server of the same university. It contains links to a number of papers, and the graphics suggests it is part of this cross-domain website.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Drimolen, South Africa. A few illustrated articles summarise the archaeological evidence of hominids in the region, namely Homo habilis and Paranthropus robustus. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the colour photos in the articles. There is a map and a short bibliography. This site may be useful to researchers interested in the study of the origins of humanity.
Antípoda : revista de antropología y arqueología is a journal available both in print and online that focuses on anthropological and archaeological research. This website contains contact information and guidelines for prospective authors, in addition to free and full-text editions of the journal. At the time of review, only the first issue of the journal was available; regular issues are published in PDF format (there are some large files). There are thematic issues on topics (e.g. "violence, reparation and remembrance: perspectives in Africa and Latin America"). Most of the papers are relevant to modern anthropology, but a few may be useful to archaeologists and there are also archaeological papers (e.g. water and disease among some Maya groups; impact of local perceptions of the environment, archaeological sites and archaeologists themselves on the ways in which the past is constructed). The geographic focus is on Latin America and Africa, though the published papers cover many continents. All papers are written in Spanish and have short English abstracts. Both researchers and students may find some of the papers useful.
Archbase is a website that contains details of various archaeological projects by different organisations. Featured projects include: excavations at the Graeco-Roman harbour of Berenite (Egypt), and the work of the Fayum Field school at the Graeco-Roman village of Medinet Watfa (also in Egypt). Full excavation reports (Fayum; Berenike; Eastern Desert Ware) and information with abstracts on related workshops (mobile people; residue analysis; ancient apprenticeship; history of the Eastern Desert) can be accessed from the home page. In addition, the website also contains the archaeological databases of some projects; to access these a password is required (researchers may be able to get one contacting the project's administrators). Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
This website is the official page of the Arid Climate, Adaptation and Cultural Innovation in Africa (ACACIA) project at the University of Cologne. The website presents the research projects of its members in Africa. The projects are divided into various sections which include: Holocene environmental and cultural history in northeastern Africa; history of the environment; settlement and language in southwestern Africa; land usage and survival strategies in southwestern Africa; land usage and concepts in regional and transcontinental comparison; and a few articles from study groups. Each section details the progress so far in that field of research and there are individual pages for each project illustrated with colour photographs and maps. Most projects involve specialists in archaeology, Egyptology, geography and African studies; the multidisciplinary character of each project is evident. Some of the texts are short presentations, but others are full length articles and there are some papers and posters presented at conferences available in PDF, Powerpoint or GIS format. Archaeological research focuses on pottery and metallurgy in Egypt, Nubia, the Sahara and the palaeoecology of Namibia. Of great interest are the reports about the Egyptian western desert and Sudanese palaeoenvironment, which suggest close links between climatic variations and human occupation of the territory during the past 12,000 years. Also notable are the reports about the Egyptian regions of Great Sand Sea, where ceramics decorated with Dotted Wavy Line patterns date to the 9th millennium BCE (the first ceramics in the Old World), and Wadi Howar, where cattle was introduced at the end of the 5th millennium BCE in a fertile environment. Rock art has also been found at several African sites and there is also a comprehensive atlas of Namibia that summarises scientific and archaeological data. The website makes available a small collection of audio files of African songs and music relevant to the research projects. There is also an extensive bibliography and an online bookshop selling the printed publications by the research teams.
Arkamani is a web portal and journal focusing on the archaeology of Sudan for Sudanese students. The Arabic section publishes some original research and Arabic translations of foreign academic papers; the English section contains English referenced papers, often translated from various foreign languages, on the prehistoric archaeology; Nubia; Kerma; the Napatan kingdom; the Meroitic kingdom; the Christian kingdoms; and miscellaneous papers. There is also an extensive bibliography both in English and Arabic; abstracts of Russian papers on Meroitic studies; several papers in Arabic (titles in English), including some historical written sources; original Arabic papers (Arabic contents; file names contain English translation of titles). The website publishes a substantial number of contributions to Sudanese archaeology, and although many are available in Arabic only, the website makes easy to find relevant texts. While researchers and Arabic speakers will find this website most useful, English speaking students may appreciate the many important papers on several African civilisations that could be used at undergraduate level.
Blombos Cave is an important Middle and Late Stone Age site in South Africa, discovered in 1991 by the author of this website, Chris Henshilwood, who is also excavating it. The website publishes a series of illustrated articles on the discovery and excavation of the cave (click on pictures to enlarge them); a gallery of pictures; and an updated and extensive bibliography with several publications freely available in PDF format. There are three main phases of occupation of the cave in the Pleistocene, and more recent evidence of occupation during the Holocene. Phase M1 (Middle Pleistocene) is characterised by "high densities of bifacial points"; bone tools (one engraved); perforated shell beads (Nassarius kraussianus); and ochre. In the 75,000 year old levels archaeologists have found two engraved ochre plaques with a criss-cross pattern, which has been interpreted as some of the earliest evidence of art. A section also contains recent press releases. It is possible to make a donation or buy pictures. This website may be useful to both researchers and students.
This is the website of the Nairobi-based British Institute in Eastern Africa, which promotes research into the archaeology, history, linguistics and anthropology of Eastern Africa. Founded in 1959 to challenge the Euro-centric view of the region, the Institute supports researchers and recent graduates, holds conferences and seminars, maintains a library, undertakes research projects, and publishes books and the peer-reviewed journal ‘Azania’ (some limited content available online). The website contains short descriptions of current research projects, including the AHRC-funded project ‘Belief and belonging: religion and identity in northern Kenya’ which explores the dramatic shifts which have taken place in the last fifty years in relationships between religion, ethnic identity and landscape in northern Kenya.
This is the free and full-text online version of the Bulletin trimestriel des antiquités africaines recueillies par les soins de la Société de géographie et d'archéologie de la province d'Oran, a French journal that published several notices and reports of early archaeological excavations. The past issues have been scanned for electronic publication. As is the case for all older publications, readers need to watch out for outdated information. The records and reports of old excavations, however, are irreplaceable and may be useful to both advanced students and researchers. The interface of the website makes easy searching through the journal, and it is possible with a free registration to add this and many other similar journal and older monographs to a private virtual space for easy retrieval. It is an excellent resource since the printed publication is now available only at a few libraries.
This is the website of Southampton University's Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins (CAHO). The resource outlines research projects in Europe, the Near East and Africa as well as providing information on project personnel and details of conferences, meetings and other events associated with the CAHO and its members. The biographical and bibliographical material also provides an interesting profile of some of the leading figures in early hominid research in the UK. This website contains almost exclusively profiles of researchers at the centre and a list of their publications.
This website focused on the history, art, music and culture of Coptic Cairo and is published by the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities. It provides substantial information on the Coptic Museum, including practical information and a good dataset presenting a selection of the collections in the museum. High quality pictures and concise but detailed texts make it very easy to access, and the beauty of the collections makes easy to be absorbed in wonder. Two further sections complete the website: one looks at the Coptic culture in general, with illustrated articles on topics such as art; traditions; monasticism; music; language (with audio sample) and characteristic script; while the other section presents "Old Cairo", including the churches, the Jewish synagogue (just a few pictures with captions) and the Roman fortress in Cairo, the "Babylon Fortress". This is a very useful website for all archaeologists (and art historians) interested in Coptic Egypt.
The Cyrenaica Archaeological Project (CAP) website provides information about an international, collaborative research project on the site of the Greco-Roman city of Cyrene (a UNESCO World Heritage Site) in northern Libya. An overview of the project, as well as maps and photographs of the site are included. There is also some material on the Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone (Kore) located at the site. A PDF of the 2006 Field Survey, GIS and Assessment report on the sanctuary by the University of Birmingham (UK) and the University of Alberta (Canada) is provided and this includes: photographs and aerial images; a site plan of the sanctuary area; an outline of the topography; an overview of relevant methodologies; and a discussion of the results. This is a high quality academic site survey which would be invaluable to anyone, particularly researchers, who would like to know more about the project. Its open accessibility also makes it useful for higher education students of archaeology who would like to read through an example of a thorough site report. The website is straightforward to navigate, but the link to the project report PDF only appears in the text of the introduction and is not listed in the navigation bar.
The "Digging Kenya: on the Laikipia Plateau" blog website is documenting a research project led by Dr. Kathleen Ryan, Associate Curator of the African Section at the Penn Museum, on the "Arrival and Expansion of Pastoralist Economies on the Laikipia Plateau". The research concentrates on the first groups of cattle-herding peoples in the area, between 2000 and 3000 BC. The blog amounts to a dig journal of the field research being carried out in Kenya and it benefits from pictures and short videos shot by a professional photographer. A separate page on Flickr collects more pictures. The blog focuses also on the ethnography and natural history of the area. At the time of review the archaeological research had just started and therefore it can only be hoped at this stage that in the future substantial preliminay reports will appear in the blog. Both students and researchers interested in the area may find this website useful.
This website presents the preliminary reports of the archaeological excavations at Aksum, Ethiopia, by the University of Naples and Boston University. A general introduction to the archaeological site is available and can be accessed using the menu at the top of the page ("presentazione", etc.); the reports can be accessed by clicking on "rapporti di scavo" on the menu on the left. The short introduction and menus are written in Italian and the reports are written in English. The preliminary reports summarise the research carried out each year. The area excavated is called Ona Enda Aboi Zewgè and it is a large stelae field and cemetery. By clicking on "archaeology" it is possible to have a summary of all the excavated archaeological strata. Of great interest is the annexe in the 1995 report, which summarises all scientific analyses carried out at the site, including radiocarbon, archaeobotanical and osteological ones. Pollen analyses have determined that barley and wheat were the most important cultivation in the Early Aksumite period; teff, lentils, and grapes were introduced during the Middle Aksumite period. The website also contains reports on specific categories of finds, such as ceramics, glass and lithics. Among the most important finds, a platform on which rituals may have been performed has been unearthed in the cemetery.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Tuto Fela, Ethiopia. Many stelae have been found at the site and especially in the nearby site of Sidamo and these are the subject of a few articles, reporting on recent studies on the region. No chronological date is yet available for the stelae. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a useful bibliography.
The website "Exploring Nubia" offers an introduction to the archaeology of Sudan and presents reports and results from the Mahas survey. Sudan was known as Nubia in the past, and in the short introduction it is possible to appreciate its long history and many kingdoms. Kerma, Meore and Medieval Nubia are featured, and there are a few pictures. A book on the subject by one of the authors is advertised. The second part of the site, the Mahas survey, is the most interesting. The 2002 report, linked from the home page, lists over 45 new archaeological features in the area. The main report, however, offers a series of illustrated pages on the many features found. These include: rock-art; New Kingdom and Napatan sites; Meroitic and post-Meroitic settlements; Medieval and post-Medieval sites. Fieldwork reports from several seasons are available. The survey is a cooperative project between the Universities of Khartoum (Sudan) and Leicester (UK). A bibliography that includes books on oral traditions completes the site. Although the pages are very simple, the access to some pages is not intuitive or organised, and the introduction to Nubian archaeology is very succinct. Nonetheless, Nubia is one of the few regions in the world rich in history but largely unexplored. This site may possibly be the only source of information on some of the sites mentioned and should be visited by anybody interested in ancient Egypt or the archaeology of Africa.
This website records the expeditions in the Libyan Desert of amateur archaeologist András Zboray. The geography, natural environment, history of explorations, rock art and other archaeological features of the Sahara desert are presented in a series of lavishly illustrated articles. The texts are generally short, but there are many pictures and references to recent scholarly literature. All pages are integrated by a clever use of hyperlinks. The section about rock art includes pages on Karkur Talh, Karkur Murr, Western Uweinat (Ain Doua & Karkurs), Jebel Arkenu, Jebel Kissu, Yerguehda Hill, Mogharet el Kantara (Shaw's Cave), Wadi Sora and Northern Gilf Kebir (including wadis). The author asks the public to submit pictures and information on other Saharan sites for publication in his website; an extra page about the site of Karkur Talh is already available. The section about the archaeology of the Sahara presents some interesting discoveries, mostly preliminary reports from archaeologists working in the region. The major features include Bagnold's stone circle, some evidence of Egyptian voyages in the desert, several wadis and Abu Ballas "Pottery Hill", where 400 ancient water jars have been found 180 Km from the nearest oasis, possibly to supply caravans. The website also provides a free collection of maps, a collection of Landsat images and an updated bibliography. A collection of hyperlinks to other researchers and institutions studying the Sahara deserves some attention, as some of the featured explorers embody the literary and cinematographic figure of the lonely archaeologist explorer.
This website publishes a preliminary multimedia-rich report on the burials found at Gobero, Niger by paleontologist Paul Sereno when looking for dinosaurs. The approximately 200 Neolithic tombs, many are multiple tombs, mostly date from 8000 BC to 5000 BC. The website should be considered a multimedia addition to the paper published in 2008 and entitled "Lakeside Cemeteries in the Sahara": there are nice videos and pictures on the website, but all scientific information is summarised in that freely accessible paper.
Archaeologists have concluded that the archaeological site was a lakeside site, and there were two distinct phases of use: 7700-6200 BC (sedentary hunter-fisher-gatherers and oldest Sahara cemetery found yet), and 5200-2500 BC (clams, fish, and savannah vertebrates eaters, some cattle husbandry also evident). Interestingly, the people of the second phase appears to have been anatomically different: they were "more gracile" than the earlier buried. Climate change (it is a frequently pointed cause these days) would have been responsible for the hiatus, though more research on this will be needed.
Both students and researchers may find this website and the paper useful.
This is the official website of the Humboldt University Nubian Expedition, largely bilingual English and German, but with some German only pages. The website publishes information about the research project by the Humboldt University of Berlin in Nubia (Dar al-Manasir region and especially the two large river islands of Us and Sur) and contains several short preliminary reports, with maps and colour photographs. The finds span a very long period of time, from the Neolithic to modern times. Archaeologists have found a few Neolithic sites; several sites associated with the Kerma, Napata and Meroitic cultures and datable to the New Egyptian Kingdom; a post-Meroitic tumulus; several medieval churches (one of which has been excavated in the 2007 field campaign) and other sites. Pottery, tombs, lithic tools; rock art; and late antiquity parchments (written papyri) have been found in large quantities. The research project has been funded by the Packard Humanities Institute and the Gerda Henkel Stiftung. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
The official website of the International Association for Obsidian Studies (IAOS). The website provides the opportunity to learn about the IAOS and explore technical information relating to obsidian characterization (provenance) studies and obsidian hydration methods. Also available is an online source catalogue detailing obsidian from many locations around the world. The website features an obsidian source catalogue, which provides geographically organised lists of obsidian sources found throughout the world. It also contains a library of obsidian related articles (at the time of review focusing exclusively on the USA), abstracts and IAOS Bulletins. A list of Internet resources relating to obsidian is also given, in addition to a directory of laboratories that specialise in obsidian provenance and hydration studies.
This is the official website of the International Commission of the Later Prehistory of NorthEastern Africa. It publishes information on the organisation, its members and its activities. The Commission organises regular symposia; information, circulars and programme of the most recent one are available in the website. Researchers interested in the later prehistory of Egypt and Sudan (and surrounding areas) may find this website useful.
The International Society for Nubian Studies website publishes information on the association and membership as well as notices regarding relevant conferences, and especially the Nubian Studies conference. In section "archaeological projects" there are a few recent papers related to the Merowe Dam Archaeological Salvage Project as well as a useful "Provisional Type Series of Monuments" document listing and illustrating some of the commonest types of architectural features encountered in the area of the project, primarily huts and tombs, by typology. All documents are freely available in PDF format. Researchers and advanced students in particular may find this website useful.
This is the official website of the archaeological excavations at Kerma, Nubia (Sudan). The website is available in French and English (click on E or F on the logo to switch between the two), but published papers are only available in one language (some are in English and some in French). This well organised website publishes short articles, accompanied by several colour pictures, on the history of Kerma and the research carried out so far by the Swiss team working there. Similarly organised are sections "Archaeological Sites" and "Museum". Section "Publications" contains a comprehensive bibliographic list with several papers freely available in PDF format. Section "Media" lists the recent TV and radio broadcasts to which team members have participated. Although all links point to external resources, at the time of review it was possible to access the original broadcasts, all of which were in French. A simple sitemap, contacts and an internal search engine complete this commendable website.
Kerma, referred to as Kush in Egyptian texts, is a very important site consisting of a settlement and the eastern necropolis, dated between 2500 and 1500 BC, and it was the capital of the Nubian kingdom. The nearby Nubian sites of Napata and Meroe are also mentioned in the illustrated texts and papers. In addition to have been an independent kingdom, Nubia's history is inextricably intertwined with that of Egypt: throughout the long history of ancient Egypt, pharaohs invaded several times Nubia, but a few dynasties of pharaohs were also of Nubian origin. This website provides a concise and clear history of the facts, including a chronological table, and section "Publications" expands on many themes. This website also publishes the preliminary reports from the ongoing excavations. It is an essential website for anyone interested in the ancient history of Africa or Egyptology, hosting contents that should satisfy everyone, from the curious amateur archaeologist to advanced researchers.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Dchar Jdid, Morocco. The site was founded as a Roman colony, then named Colonia Iulia Constantia Zilil. The colony is mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary and was located near the borders of the Roman Empire, in the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana. The website contains a map tracing the Antonine Itinerary in the province. There are also short illustrated articles about the site, including one on the identification of the colony. A couple of artistic objects are examined in some detail; the 'diaporama' (picture gallery) contains a number of images, including photos of artefacts and drawings of pottery. Another article summarises six centuries of history at the site, from the Roman period to the palaeo-Christian period. The article about the the mountain sanctuary describes a platform located inland, outside the Roman town, in a deserted area, and the excavators suggest that this is the temple of Mercury mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as the nearest station. (This would be an exciting discovery, since it would help in tracing the route of the Itinerary towards the extreme southern borders of the Roman Empire, and identifying some of the remaining sites: the Antonine Itinerary reports that the main route split at Zilil between a costal route, which is fairly well known, and an inland route, of which little is known.) Interested researchers will find the contact details of the excavators and a bibliography in the section entitled 'Pour en savoir plus'.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Roman colonies of Volubilis, Thamusida, Banasa, and Lixus, in the province of Mauretania Tingitana. It includes illustrated articles on: the temple quarter of Lixus; Volubilis and its Carthaginian influences such as the tophet (place for depositing human remains) and the stelae (engraved stones); Banasa and its Roman forum; and Thamusida and its religious buildings. There is also a bibliography, and a gallery of pictures and plans. This website provides a useful overview of the province and its Mediterranean influences, aimed primarily at students.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Jazīrat Sāy (Sai Island), ancient Nubia (Sudan). The site is located near the first cataract of the Nile, and was inhabited since the seventh millennium BC. A few articles summarise the recent discoveries, which include a few cemeteries of Kerma culture and medieval churches. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Seddenga, Sudan (ancient Nubia). Seddenga is located between the second and third cataract of the Nile, north of Kerma (land of Kush), in a territory scarcely explored. Several illustrated articles focus on various topics, a Neolithic cemetery; an Egyptian temple of Queen Tiy; a cemetery used by people of Napata and Meroë culture; a medieval church (tenth century) and other topics. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a topographic map of the site and an extensive bibliography.
This German website publishes the preliminary results of a project focusing on the archaeology of Nubia, and especially Meroë, the Meroitic Empire, and its language. There are several pages detailing the project; section "Archäologie" contains a series of illustrated short reports, including a short history of research; useful tables to help deciphering the Meroitic language; and a substantial bibliography. Most pictures can be enlarged by clicking on them. A separate gallery of images contains a large number of photographs of buildings; ceramics and ornaments. The images are perhaps the most valuable resource of this website and may be useful to both students (to complement readings) and researchers.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the research of human fossils and some of the earliest archaeological evidence of human presence in the Western Rift Valley, Uganda. A few articles concentrate on the Oldowan site of Nyabusosi as well as on geological and palaeontological discoveries in the region. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. This website includes maps, drawings and a bibliography.
This website stores the database produced by the "Predicting the Location of Hominin Sites in Africa and Asia" research project. It contains two parts: a searchable textual database recording all sites with their geographic location and key bibliographic references; and a GIS database, plotting the sites on a map. Together they form a highly specialised tool to further research by helping in visualising the existing sites and predicting the best areas to conduct new research. All data can be consulted using the online interface or downloaded and imported into local software applications. Only researchers and postgraduate students may truly benefit from this work.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Zankor, province of Kurdufān, Sudan. It is the preliminary report of a survey carried out by French archaeologists, focussing particularly on medieval antiquities. There are a few articles illustrated with plans and colour pictures. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. A bibliography, a map and contact details of the surveyors are provided.
The website "Tombs, Landscape and Society in Southern Madagascar" describes fieldwork carried out in many sites in Madagascar. The website provides a five-page description by Mike Parker-Pearson of the University of Sheffield, of a project which aimed to identify some of the earliest stone tombs on the island, to establish the landscape and investigate the social and genealogical contexts. The project also excavated the remains of ancient Ambaro, probably visited by Robert Drury in 1703. The project brought together the disciplines of botany, archaeology, anthropology and geomorphology to trace the history of Madagascan settlements from as early as the 11th century.The website describes the excavations undertaken, and provides information about Drury's travels in the eighteenth century. There are also images of the sites. Particular attention is paid to royal Tandroy centres, and the political geography of the early Tandroy Kingdom. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The Trust for African Rock Art (TARA) is an independent non-profit organisation dedicated to preserving ancient rock art in Africa. TARA is based in Kenya. The website offers full information about the organisation and its aims, plus news, five free newsletters for download, and exhibition listings. TARA claims an "an extensive library of over 70,000 African rock art images" and there is a gallery on the website showing 17 examples images. Prints may be purchased. There is a listing of rock art sites open to the public in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Middle Palaeolithic site of El Akarit, on the Golfe de Gabès, Tunisia. This is a preliminary report of a rare Mousterian site in northern Africa, dating to at least 50,000 years ago. A few illustrated articles, a gallery of pictures ('diaporama'), and a bibliography are available, as well as the contact details of the excavator.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Sidi Jdidi, near the town of Hammamet, Tunisia. A series of illustrated articles summarise the archaeological evidence, focusing on two churches unearthed by French archaeologists. The churches demonstrate the importance of the site in fifth century Africa. Additionally, there is a bibliography, and the names and institutional affiliations of the members of the team working on the project.