The Institute for European and Mediterranean Archaeology (IEMA) has been created in 2006 as a collaborative effort among several departments at the College of Arts and Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. The website provides information on the staff and their research projects as well as events sponsored by the institute. In the "research" page there are hyperlinks to laboratories available to the institute as well as journals published by its members, namely Arethusa; Discourse; and the Journal of World Anthropology. This website also publishes short illustrated summaries of several projects by members of the institute. Among the projects are a survey in the area of Galatas, Crete, which has identified a Neolithic settlement at Profitis Ilias Archalochori; a large Minoan building (60 x 16 m preserved); and 124 archaeological sites. The survey has also recognised an increase in population in the area in the Neopalatial period followed by a decrease and clustering at the end of the Late Minoan period. Another important project featured on the website is the Thy's Iron Age Project (TIA), which focuses on Iron Age and Early Medieval Denmark, for which some preliminary reports are available. Only scanty information is provided for other projects, which include the excavations at çadir Höyük and the Citadel of Nimrud Digital Project.
This website contains the excavation reports of the fieldwork and research projects carried out at 'Ain Ghazal, a Neolithic settlement located near Amman, Jordan. The settlement has yielded several artefacts suggesting a particular importance of symbolism within that ancient community and the reports mostly focus on this aspect. The reports are organised in chapters and present an overview of the site and symbolic items such as tokens of many shapes, animal and human figurines, modelled human skulls, "monumental" statues and motifs painted on walls and floors of buildings. This website also includes catalogues of human figurines and statues as well as a few papers exploring the significance of the recognised symbols. The reports are illustrated with colour pictures, graphics, drawings and plans and include bibliographies. The publication of a few more reports has been announced. 'Ain Ghazal was first settled during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (about 7250 BC) and thereafter expanded to include 30 acres of land. It was abandoned during the Yarmoukian Pottery Neolithic (about 5000 BC). A paper concentrates on a single stone statuette with flat breasts and no genitalia, which has been found in what has been interpreted as an open sanctuary. The figure is possibly connected to a fertility cult, interpreted as a reaction to increasing problems in farming. This and other reports within this website suggest that the changing environment had a paramount effect in the life on the settlement, a theme which is perhaps overemphasised.
Abila is located about 15 miles east of the southern end of the Sea of Galilee. Its archaeological history stretches from the Copper Age (3500 BC) to about 1500 AD. This website provides information on the excavations and at Abila and historical information on the site and nearby ancient sites. Pages describe the archaeological findings for each part of the site. There are pages devoted to tombs and basilicas found on the site. There are also glossaries of archaeological terminology and of archaeological periods for Syria-Palestine. The website also advertises fieldwork opportunities for students (only for forthcoming excavations at Abila).
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Hili (Abu Dhabi), Arabia. The site is a Bronze Age oasis on the shores of the Persian Gulf; several illustrated articles describe the recent discoveries. In particular, the possible trade contacts with Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley are analysed. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
Abu Dhabi Islands Archaeological Survey (ADIAS) is the website of the organisation responsible for: surveying; recording; and, where appropriate, excavating archaeological sites on the coast and islands of Abu Dhabi. Since its initiation, several hundred sites have been identified around Abu Dhabi. Operating primarily on a policy of non-intervention, the project's main goals have been to: locate; identify; and record the presence of sites, often utilising detailing topographical mapping. However, in recognition of the naturally unstable nature of archaeological remains, coupled with the rapid development of the coastal zone and islands of Abu Dhabi, surface collection of finds and even excavations have been undertaken in certain cases. The website provides access to many resources regarding the project, including: the project's newsletters from 2001 to 2006; press reports; images from excavated sites; and archaeological resources such as a radiocarbon archive. Contact details and information regarding staff are also available.
This website publishes the complete text of the out-of-print volume "The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium, Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Symposium, University of Cincinnati, 18-20 April 1997", which has been published in the Aegaeum series. Each paper is available as an individual PDF file. Several studies on cultural, religious, and economic aspects of the Bronze Age Aegean related to the ancient Near East are available. There are studies of cultural and artistic influences (Aegean objects in the ancient Near East and Near Eastern influences in Aegean culture); Minoan and Mycenaean exchanges in the Mediterranean; artistic styles in frescoes, ceramics ivories and other artefacts; theoretical and methodological papers. The discussions were recorded and are also available as PDF files transcripts. This website may be precious to researchers who cannot access the book, and perhaps save a trip to the library to the others.
This website publishes the preliminary report of the excavations at the Neolithic site of Akarçay Tepe, Turkey. At the time of review, the report was awkwardly divided in two pages, one in Catalan and one in Spanish. Obsidian and seashells have been found at the site and prove that a long distance exchange network was operational. The report also notices the architectural structures found so far, including some rectangular buildings. A long section focuses on the economy of the site; there also short notices on pedological and chronological analyses; zooarchaeology; stratigraphy; lithics; and other topics.
This is the official website of the excavations at Akarçay Tepe (nearest modern town is Şanlıurfa, in Turkey), the Anatolian Neolithic mound (350 x 150 m) that has yielded architectural structures and artefacts dated from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) to the Pottery Neolithic (PN) periods (dated ca. 7800 - 6000 BC). There is an introduction to the project; short reports of the yearly excavations since 1999 and short illustrated summaries of the main findings, including architectural structures, ceramics, stone and bone tools, as well as archaeozoological and archaeobotanical analyses. The radiocarbon C14 dates obtained from Akarçay Tepe are freely available from the CANEW project website. A comprehensive bibliography is available and there are some scanned versions of printed reports in PDF format (some in English and some in Turkish language). Readers should note that it is necessary to allow popups to access some resources.
Akarçay Tepe is particularly important because the stratigraphy clearly shows continuity between the PPNB and PN periods in the region. The mud brick buildings have stone foundations, multiple rooms and span both periods. Black Series pottery is associated with the earliest phases of the Pottery Neolithic period and quickly became an important local industry. The stone tools industry was also important and archaeologists could note the introduction of new technologies replacing the PPNB bipolar technique and a reduction of obsidian imports as the archaeological site entered the PN period.
A useful collection of original essays, articles reproduced from academic and popular journals, maps and archive photographs, weblinks and news stories on the archaeology of the Levant, part of the umbrella site Al Mashriq, which provides online information on many aspects of culture in the Middle East. A large part of the site deals with the Lebanon but Jordan is also featured along with links to other websites of archaeological interest. Interesting archive photographs of crusader castles nestle beside fascinating aerial shots of the submerged harbours of Saida, Tyre and Rouad. The political instability of the Lebanon in the 1970s and 1980s caused terrible damage to the archaeological heritage of the country but, ironically, the reconstruction programme has allowed the excavation of large tracts of urban space which have been built over for millennia. One of the key insights from this website is the difficult relationship between the needs of archaeological conservation on the one hand and economic reconstruction on another as well as raising the wider issues of the role of archaeology and heritage in post-conflict regions. Al Mashriq Archaeology will interest students and researchers of Near Eastern archaeology and history as well as heritage professionals or those who study the politics of culture in the Middle East.
The American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR), founded in 1900, is one of the chief bodies in North America which promotes the archaeology of the Near East from the palaeolithic to the present. The website provides a detailed overview of the aims, structure, membership and archaeological and research activities of ASOR and its affiliated research centres in the Middle East, as well as news features and information on past and future meetings of the organisation. Also featured are the texts of ASOR's policy statement on the protection of archaeological heritage and a valuable guide to its lobbying activities regarding cultural resource management in Iraq. This includes useful links to web reources on Iraqi and Near Eastern archaeology which complement the page of weblinks to excavation and survey projects in the region. The publications page provides the full-texts of the ASOR newsletter (in PDF format) as well as information on ASOR monographs and its published journals. Tables of contents and abstracts of the Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Near Eastern Archaeology (formerly Biblical Archaeologist) and BASOR from the mid-1990s onwards are complemented by the usual advice for contributors and authors. In addition to details of ASOR centres in Cyprus, Israel and Jordan, there is an overview of the work of the Baghdad and Damascus committees which oversee research and excavation work in Iraq and Syria, in the absence of functioning research institutions on account of the recent political climate. This includes a history of American archaeology in Mesopotamia and a short guide to the ASOR-sponsored excavations at Tell Qarqur with preliminary reports from 2000 and 2001, a contour plan and a bibliography of published reports. This website provides much practical material for students and researchers in Near eastern archaeology as well as a fascinating insight into the cultural heritage issues and politics of doing archaeology in this troubled region of the world.
The American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) is one of the main sponsors of Near Eastern archaeology in the United States and supports research and publications on the peoples and cultures of the Near East from the earliest times to the present day. It also directs overseas research centres in Amman, Jerusalem and Nicosia. The website for their newsletter gives access to online or PDF versions of the ASOR Newsletter from 1996 to the present. The newsletter includes reports on research funded by ASOR and the activities of their overseas research centres. It is published quarterly. The majority of the research sponsored by ASOR is archaeological, but ethnographic and other types of research are reported in the newsletter as well. The publication will be of interest to students and researchers in Near Eastern archaeology, history and heritage.
This site describes the archaeological activities of the Oriental Institute of Chicago in the Amuq Valley in The Hatay province of south-eastern Turkey (formerly northern Syria). The highly fertile and strategically located Amuq Valley or Plain of Antioch was one of the great crossroads of the ancient Near East and was densely occupied since the 6th Millennium B.C. The area was home to major urban centres such as Tell Atchana, Tell Ta'yinat and Antioch itself and played a major role in the development of bronze metallurgy and urbanization in the 4th-3rd Millennia B.C. The website is based on the series of annual reports published by the Oriental Institute between 1996 and 2001 which describe the multi-disciplinary work undertaken by the project. This includes settlement survey and geomorphology, archaeological excavation at the tell sites of Atchana, Kurdu and Judaidah, and a project of metallurgical analysis and exploration of possible ore-producing sites. The layout of the site allows you to link directly with the relevant sections of each annual report from the home page as well as to other University of Chicago projects in the Near East. The reports are provided with numerous high quality maps, figures and photographs which can be viewed at a number of scales. Among the photographs are useful archive material from the earlier excavations in the area in the 1920s-30s.This is a detailed and attractively presented resource which will benefit undergraduates as well as archaeological researchers who wish to work in an inter-regional and inter-disciplinary context.
The Anatolian Iron Age Ceramics (AIA) Project focuses on trade and exchange in Anatolia between 1200-200 BC by applying chemical and isotope characterisation analyses (INAA; ICP-MS; TIMS) to ceramics from several archaeological sites. The project runs from 2005 to 2009 and only a few data are available on this website. There are photographs and maps of the archaeological sites investigated, a short explanation of the methodologies employed by the researchers (including the scheme to assemble a "camera bucket" to take photographs in a light controlled environment) and a few posters in PowerPoint and PDF format. Further updates are due to appear as the project progresses. The website provides information about the developments of the project and contact details of the research team. This website may be useful to researchers studying Iron Age Anatolia or interested in the application of scientific analyses to ceramics. The project is funded by the Australian Research Council and the National Science Foundation (USA).
Among the many treasures gathered together at the Morgan Library in New York is a collection of ancient Near Eastern seals and tablets ranging in date from the fifth to the first millennium BC, which provide a fascinating insight into the art and iconographic traditions of Mesopotamia as well as demonstrating the extraordinary skill of ancient craftspeople to carve in miniature. This website provides a snapshot sample of some of the finer items with brief descriptions and high quality illustrations viewable at a variety of scales while the full collection of Near Eastern artefacts (and of the general library holdings) can be searched using Corsair, an elaborate, custom designed search engine which allows you to hypertext around the collection as well as making highly specific enquiries. This resource will interest both the general public but also provide a very useful research tool for researchers and teachers in archaeology and oriental or Middle Eastern studies.
This blog edited by Paul Cowie reports news related to the Ancient Near East and Egypt from prehistoric times to the 7th century AD. The same author also publishes ArchaeoWiki, which is an ongoing project publishing several referenced short articles on the ancient Near East. Several full-text academic papers published by individual authors on the Internet in PDF format are included in the references. Most articles discuss individual archaeological sites, but there are also a few other themes included, such as "Egyptian topographical lists"; "Amarna tablets"; and a gazetteer of Levantine polities under Egyptian rule or influence. This website may be useful especially to students.
Archaeogate is a portal for Italian archaeologists which also publishes numbers of preliminary reports of Italian excavations. Most of the contents on this website are in Italian and prepared for Italian students, but many preliminary reports are in English and useful to an international audience. In the section "Egittologia" (Egyptology), among the "rapporti di scavo" are preliminary reports of excavations in Egypt (Dra Abu el-Naga; Bakchias; Kí´m el-Ghoraf; Dime - El-Fayyum; Khelua; Medinet Madi; Antinoe; Kom El-Ghoraf; Nelson's Island; Uadi Sikait; Khelua; Farafra; Tebtynis - Umm el-Breigat; Gebelein; Abuqir; and Mersa - Wadi Gawasis); Sudan (Gebel Umm Nabari; Abu Dom; Gebel Barkal - Napata); and Bahrain (Siwa). Worth noting are the sites of Wadi Gawasis, where archaeologists have found the first Egyptian seagoing ships, and Gebel Barkal - Napata, which is the main site of an important Nubian culture. "Missioni italiane"; "itinerari" and "gallerie fotografiche" contain photographs of Italian excavations in Egypt and Nubia; some photographs originate from archives of old excavations; there are also interactive and archaeological maps of the region. In section "antichità classiche", there are "rapporti di scavo" (preliminary reports) on Roman sites such as Colleferro; Correggio; Scoppieto and Carthage. In the section "vicino oriente" (Near East), the "rapporti di scavo" (preliminary reports) include sites in Oman (Khor Rori; Salut); Armenia (Artaxata; Azat River Valley; Armavir); and Turkmenistan (Nisa - Mithradatkert). Mithradatkert was the capital of the Parthian Empire. All reports are accompanied by several colour photographs of the archaeological sites discussed as well as of some of the artefacts found.
This is the website for Archaeologists for Human Rights, which is a non-governmental organisation that aims to discover crimes against human dignity, with particular emphasis on the investigation of mass graves in Iraq and the Middle-East. It was formed in July 2003 by archaeologists in Münster, Germany in response to uncontrolled excavation of Iraqi mass graves by desperate family members, with the express purpose of examining mass graves with archaeological methods in cooperation with physical anthropologists and forensic experts and in concert with the local Iraqi authorities.
This is the official website of the archaeology collections at the University College London. The website contains some useful information to visit the collections; a database of collection materials available and a teacher's pack in the "Learning" section. There are no photographs of materials or detailed information on any artefact part of the collections and this is a pity the collections include the Sir Flinders Petrie collection of Palestinian artefacts and materials from the excavations of Dame Kathleen Kenyon at Jericho. The database can be very useful to researchers and school teachers in order to prepare a visit to specific collections.
This is the official website of the "Archaeology in the Levant" research project at the University of California at San Diego. The website provides information on the activities of the Levantine Archaeology Lab, and particularly of the research on GIS applied to Levantine archaeological sites. The website also publishes preliminary reports of field excavations and studies, among which are "the Edom Lowlands Project: Iron Age State Formation in Southern Jordan, ca. 1200 Ã¢â¬â 500 BC"; " the Chalcolithic Sanctuary at Gilat, Negev Desert, Israel"; and "Ethnoarchaeology in India: Traditional Bronze Casters in Tamil Nadu".
"Archaeology in the Reconstruction of Beirut" is an online collection of papers, articles and reports regarding the archaeology of Beirut. Throughout its turbulent history, the physical fabric of Beirut has undergone waves of destruction, demolition and decay, followed by periods of extensive reconstruction. Beirut is undergoing a new phase of reconstruction and, consequently, many of the physical remains of the past are being swept away. This website presents a collection of texts, which not only highlight this problem but also demonstrate how archaeology can play a vital role in Beirut's reconstruction. The collection comprises excavation reports, background materials, discussion articles and images.
This website publishes a collection of illustrated articles, each focusing on individual archaeological sites in Israel. Among the topics are Akko during the Crusader Kingdom; the Canaanite sites of Arad, Gezer, Hatzor and Nahal Refa'im; the Chalcolithic sites of Be'er Sheva , Golan, and Cave of the Treasure (metal hoard); Bethsaida (of Biblical fame); the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Carmel Caves; the Philistine settlements of Ekron and Tel Qasile; the Herodium; Jericho; Jerusalem; Masada; Megiddo; the Islamic Nimrod fortress; Qumran (settlement and Dead Sea Scrolls); a Roman boat from the Sea of Galilee; Shaar HaGolan (Neolithic figurines); Tiberias; Timna (copper mines and Hathor Temple); Zippori (Sepphoris); and several articles on recent discoveries and underwater archaeology. Many articles focus on Biblical archaeology, but there are also some on prehistoric, Roman, Islamic and Medieval archaeology. This website maybe useful especially to students considering the introductory character of the articles.
This website is part of the Digital Library for International Research, a project of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC), and it publishes the first six volumes (1991-1999) of the "Arkeoloji Dergisi" journal. Papers are written in Turkish, German, French, and English and are accessible as individual full-text PDF files, with searchable text. The journal focuses on Greek archaeology and culture (e.g. red-figure ceramics; administrative system of the Attalids; the cult of Apollon; Roman roads), with several papers on artefacts and sites discovered in Turkey.
This is the official website of the Armenian Rock Arts Network which publishes papers and galleries of pictures on rock art in Armenia and surrounding regions (Turkey and Azerbaijan). The "library" section contains a substantial collection of full-text papers on the subject, in various languages (mostly English, Armenian and Russian). The "map of Armenian rock carvings" contains galleries of pictures of several archaeological sites in the region, including Avagyan; Geghama; Gobustan; Hushardzanner (Gueghamian mountains); Karabakh; Navasar; Van (capital of the Urartu kingdom); and Ughtasar (Syunik). The galleries are sometimes accompanied by captions in English or other languages. The pages on Hushardzanner are the online version of the book "Geghama Lerneri zhayrapatkernere" (The rock-carvings of the Ghegham Mountain Range) by A. A. Martirosian in English. This is an essential website for anybody interested on rock art in Armenia or surrounding regions.
This website publishes a single paper by Prof. David Schloen on the discoveries made at Ashkelon from 1985 up to the date of the paper, 1995. Further research is being carried out at Ashkelon by the Leon Levy Expedition (Harvard University); a separate website on the expedition is linked.
The ancient settlement of Ashkelon is situated 40 miles south of Tel Aviv in Israel and was the site of Canaanite kings and later a Philistine settlement. Canaanite Ashkelon has yielded the oldest and largest seaport yet, with Middle Bronze Age ramparts, and an arched gate still standing two stories high.
This is the official website of the Italian association of orientalists, scholars who study the ancient Near East. The website publishes information on the association and how to submit a CV or personal information to be published in "OrientaLista", a list of (mostly Italian) orientalists. The "Orientalia" publishes short reports; reviews; bibliographies; pre-prints; and papers; most files are in PDF format, and written in Italian or English. Among such contents are: "Wisdom Literature and Proverbs 1-9: A Bibliography"; "The Ugaritic Poems of Keret and Aqhat: A Bibliography"; "The So-Called Jehoash Inscription: Transcription and Bibliography"; "Magic and Divination in the Neo-Assyrian Period: A Selected Bibliography"; "Archaeometry of a Stone Tablet with Hebrew Inscription Referring to Repair of the House"; "Review of Gérard Toffin, Entre hindouisme et bouddhisme: la religion néwar, Népal"; "The Construction of Biblical Monotheism: An Unfinished Task"; "I colori nellastrologia mesopotamica".
The association also organises some learned meetings; some information on recent meetings is provided on this website. In section "Orientalia" are also available the free and full-text PDF editions of the proceedings of such meetings, including Le discipline orientalistiche come scienze storiche. Atti del 1º Incontro «Orientalisti» (Roma, 6-7 Dicembre 2001), edited by Giuseppe Regalzi; "Mutuare, interpretare, tradurre: storie di culture a confronto. Atti del 2º Incontro «Orientalisti» (Roma, 11-13 dicembre 2002)", edited by Giuseppe Regalzi; and "Definirsi e definire: percezione, rappresentazione e ricostruzione dellidentità. Atti del 3º Incontro «Orientalisti» (Roma, 23-25 febbraio 2004)", edited by Massimo Gargiulo, Chiara Peri and Giuseppe Regalzi. Researchers specialising on the ancient Near East will find this website useful.
This website outlines past and present German research projects and excavations in Assyria, particularly at Assur. There excavations began in 1903 with work sponsored by the Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft. A series of illustrated essays provides a guide to the excavations and an account of the history and archaeology of the archaeological site, including of the most recent work undertaken there by German archaeologists. The essays include "1903-1914: Assur - Das Herz eines Weltreiches" (1903-1914: Ashur, the heart of a world kingdom); "Wer baute die babylonische Arche?" (who built the Babylonian arch?); "Assur - eine altorientalische Großstadt" (Ashur, a town in the ancient Near East); and "Auf den Spuren assyrischer Gelehrsamkeit" (tracing back Assyrian sources). A separate website also publishes the preliminary reports of the recent excavations; most are available in both English and German, but the German version has more contents. This is largely a specialist, German language resource, which will interest researchers and teachers of Assyriology and related topics in the history and archaeology of the ancient Near East.
The Assyrian and Babylonian Intellectual Heritage Project (Melammu) is an international academic research project focusing on Mesopotamia between the 13th century and the advent of the Islamic period. This website publishes some information about the project and the full database produced as part of the Melammu research project. The encyclopaedic entries (about 4,000 at the time of review) are referenced and can be browsed or searched by keyword. The arguments are divided according to religious and ideological doctrines and imagery; religious and ideological symbols and iconographic motifs; religious festivals, cults, rituals and practices; religious and philosophical literature and poetry; scientific knowledge and scholarly lore; visual arts and architecture; crafts and economy; administrative systems; army and warfare; judiciary and legislature; language, communication, libraries and education; and Assyrian Identity. There is also a bibliographic database and the authors welcome submissions of new entries in either database by filling the appropriate forms in the website.
Several symposia have been organised by the Melammu team; information on past and forthcoming symposia, as well as related publications, are available selecting "Melammu Symposia". All papers presented in the past symposia that have been published are are also available online in PDF format. The volumes include "The Heirs of Assyria"; "Mythology and Mythologies"; "Ideologies as Intercultural Phenomena"; "Schools of Oriental Studies and the Development of Modern Historiography"; and " Commerce and Monetary Systems in the Ancient World". This website may be useful to both researchers and students.
Pella, one of the cities of the ancient Decapolis, is one of the largest archaeological sites in modern Jordan and was occupied continuously for 6000 years from the Neolithic to the Byzantine and early Islamic periods c5000 B.C.- circa 800 A.D. This website provides a guide to the current excavations conducted by the Department of Archaeology, University of Sydney and offers information for potential volunteers on the latest season of fieldwork at the site. There is a select bibliography of research on Pella since major excavation work began there in 1963 as well a detailed and attractively illustrated account of the most recent seasons describing, among other things, the Chalcolithic grain storage and processing complex, the Middle Bronze Age city walls and cult remains, the LBII/ Iron Age 'temple' and the Byzantine Cathedral. Some prior knowledge of the site is required as the website lacks a historical or archaeological overview, site plans or a location map. A useful resource for undergraduates and researchers in Near Eastern archaeology which also provides links to the wider archaeological programme of the University of Sydney.
This is the official website of the Australian Institute of Archaeology (AIA) at La Trobe University. The "AIA Newsletter" contains short articles of all current activities of the Institute and is available in PDF format. The scholarly journal "Buried History" is published by the Institute and focuses on Biblical archaeology; indexes of the volumes and abstracts of the published papers can be accessed for free. At the time of the review several sections of the website were incomplete.
This website publishes preliminary reports of the excavations at Shiqmim, Israel. At the time of review the website only contains some papers in PDF format. These include "Desert Chiefdom: Dimensions of Subterranean Settlement and Society in Israel's Negev Desert (ca. 4500-3600 BC) Based on New Data from Shiqmim"; "A Method for Skeletal Arsenic Analysis, Applied to the Chalcolithic Copper Smelting Site of Shiqmim, Israel" (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ICP-MS); "Recent Discoveries Concerning Chalcolithic Metallurgy at Shiqmim, Israel" (a smelting installation distinct from crucibles and evidence for copper production at Mezad Aluf are reported); and "Evidence of Interpersonal Violence at the Chalcolithic Village of Shiqmim (Israel)", where three circumscribed depressed fractures found on the skull of an adolescent boy and leading to his death are discussed. Researchers may find this website useful.
Recent excavations in Beirut have produced many exciting new finds. The Souks excavation uncovered a complex of buildings destroyed in an earthquake in AD 551. Interest has focused on the remains of a shopping street and an adjacent house (the House of the Fountains). The first buildings on the Souks were perhaps erected in the 5th and 4th centuries BC, but most of the site was not laid out until after the conquest of Alexander the Great. This website presents an interim and partial account of the investigations carried out in 1997 and 1998. The website describes the various elements of the site and the methods of construction used. It is liberally illustrated with plans, line drawings and photographs. There are sections covering the artefacts from the site, which are presented both as find types and thematically in terms of the water supply, lighting, and commercial activities. Some 3D VRML models of artefacts and a collection of pictures including artefacts and plans published in the Berytus 1997-1998 supplement CD are accessible from the same server.
The website is constructed as a collection of interlinked pages which cannot be navigated from one to the other easily. Starting from the first page and using the "prev" and "next" links, or increasing the page number in the address bar where necessary, are the easiest way to explore the website. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
The Beth-Shean Valley Archaeological Project website publishes information on two recent excavations in Israel, at Tel Rehov and Tel Beth-Shean. Preliminary reports; galleries of images; bibliographies; and chronological tables are available for both sites. Among the publications, some papers are freely accessible online. New filedwork campaigns are organised yearly, and the website provides information on how to participate that may be useful to students.
Tel Rehov is an important settlement dating between Late Bronze Age and Iron Age, a period of turmoil in parts of the ancient Near East. Tel Beth-Shean has yielded important information on the Egyptian rule in Canaan during the Late Bronze Age. In particular an Egyptian garrison and a residency have been found. Later levels, dating from the Iron Age up to Medieval times have also been recognised.
This website introduces the archaeological excavations currently being undertaken in Bethsaida, Israel, just north of the Sea of Galilee. The town is frequently mentioned in the New Testament and it is purported to be where many of Jesus' miracles were performed. In addition to uncovering the Roman-Hellenistic town, excavations have revealed an iron-age city gate complex, and it is now believed that Iron Age Bethsaida was the capital of the kingdom of Geshur. The website provides a brief history of Bethsaida and the excavations, and contains details of lodgings and expenses for archaeologists wishing to work on the dig. There are pictures of a few of the more important recent finds, including Powerpoint presentations, and a three-dimensional virtual reality walk-around of the iron-age gate system (requires Cortona VRML client).
The Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem contains collections encompassing all great civilisations surrounding Israel, including Greece, Egypt, the Levant and Mesopotamia. There is a short history of the museum and its founder, Dr Elie Borowski, as well as pictures from some of the artefacts in the permanent collection and a QuickTime VR tour of the rooms. Past and forthcoming events (lectures, conferences, special exhibitions, etc.) are listed and described with some illustrations or even a full interactive catalogue (e.g. Three Faces of Monotheism). Section "study resources" also publishes a list of books and periodicals from the museum's library that are being sold: this may interest some researchers. There is also an online shop selling publications, gifts and reproductions and it is possible to subscribe to a mailing list diffusing announcements. The website does not provide much information on the collections, though at the time of review more information was forthcoming. Yet, students and researchers may find useful information, even if they do not plan a trip to the museum.
The "Bible walks" website contains a series of illustrated articles outlining major places to visit at several Levantine archaeological sites that are mentioned in the Bible. Most articles focus on visiting the sites and contain Biblical references; there are numerous photographs shot by the author accompanying the texts and these may prove useful to students. The website also contains several articles on general topics related to the Old and New Testament; a mailing list; a blog (with a section focusing on archaeology); and forums (user registration required). The blog is updated and publishes interesting news. There is also a small shop that sells mainly books and photographs. This website, written by an amateur archaeologist, may be useful primarily to students as source of simple articles and pictures.
"Bioarchaeology of the Near East" is a yearly journal available free and full text online; individual papers are available as PDF files. "The aim of the journal is to promote research on the history of human populations inhabiting South-Western Asia (chiefly Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Anatolia, Iran, and Egypt)". It concentrates on papers on physical anthropology and bioarchaeology. In addition to papers and reviews (both peer reviewed), the journal also publishes short fieldwork reports. Information for prospective authors is also available. At the time of review (just two issues available) the journal was still relatively unknown and mainly publishing reports of field projects carried out by the editors. Yet, the journal has potential given the topic, and being peer reviewed, free, and giving space primarily to eastern European authors it provides a venue for publishing research that just a few years ago would have been difficult to access for an international audience. Advanced students and researchers are the primary audience for this website.
This website is part of the Digital Library for International Research, a project of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC), and it publishes the first nine volumes (1973-1981) of the "Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Dergisi: Hümaniter Bilimler" journal. This journal contains papers on a variety of topics, including modern literature; history of art; philosophy; history and archaeology. Among the papers are "Plato's Criticism of Parmenides' Conception of Being as Found in the Sophist"; "The Paradox in the Epilogue of Troilus and Criseyde"; "The Sale of Slaves in the Ottoman Empire"; "The City and the Desert as Nineteenth Century Mythical Topoi"; "Turkish Women and the Amazons in Renaissance English Drama"; and "Islam and Turkish Literature". Papers are written in English or Turkish and are accessible as individual full-text PDF files, with searchable text.
The British archaeological expedition to Kuwait (BAEK) is a project which began in 1998 in the area known as H3, As-Sabiyah, to search for archaeological evidence of early seafaring in the Middle East. The project was undertaken by a British team in collaboration with the Department of Antiquity and Museums in Kuwait. The actual excavation began in 1999 and ended in 2004. The website details information about the valuable discoveries, which include: pottery; ceramics; artefacts; stone boats and tools. In addition, there are pictures and references to the project. Detailed information about the project team is also provided. It is a useful site full of historical information that would suit researchers as well as the members of the public who are interested in maritime history and archaeology.
The British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara (BIAA) was founded in 1948 and serves to support, promote, and publish British research into the archaeology and related subjects of Turkey and the Black Sea region. The Institute funds a variety of research projects, most of which have links from the site. Grants and awards are available for undergraduate level study upwards.The website provides information about the facilities and funding the Institute can offer. There are also sections on upcoming events and conferences and recent publications. Membership details and conditions are described. Those embarking on the study of Anatolian archaeology or anthropology should consider membership of the Institute.
This website contains a selection of the free online ‘Occasional Papers’ published by the British Museum. At the time of writing, these (the result of specific research into the museum’s collections) were varied in range and included: ‘A researcher's guide to the Lachish collection in the British Museum’ covering the 17,000 objects from the 1930s British excavations at Lachish in Israel; ‘Sir Aurel Stein, proceedings of the British Museum study day’ a useful reference for the study of the “scholar, explorer, author”; ‘Albrecht Dürer and his Legacy ‘, the result of a conference accompanying the landmark 2002 exhibition of the same name; ‘Cleaning and Controversy: The Parthenon Sculptures 1811-1939’ a study of the controversial 1930s cleaning of the Elgin marbles, and the historical context of this; ‘Development and evaluation of the HSBC Money Gallery at the British Museum’ a narration the creation of a new and important gallery at the museum, and a study of its impact; ‘Access to Museum Culture: the British Museum from 1753 to 1836’ a study of the early access arrangements to the museum’s collections. Each of these PDF documents is broken down by chapter for ease of reference and speed of download.
Since in foundation in 1932, the British School of Archaeology in Iraq (BSAI) has been the main institution in the United Kingdom responsible for organising archaeological fieldwork in Iraq, Mesopotamia, Syria and the Persian Gulf. The official website provides a concise guide to the activities and chief officers of the school as well as providing online version of its biannual newsletter from 1998 onwards and links to websites providing information on the impact of the 2003 war on the archaeological heritage of Iraq. The newsletter features summary accounts of excavations and research projects carried out by associates of the school, many accompanied by bibliographic references and hypertext links to contact addresses of individuals and institutions, as well as providing details of new publications and conferences. There is also a brief history of the school, a guide to the monographs and journals it publishes and a section outlining the research and excavation projects supported by BSAI grants. This resource is a very useful overview of the work of an important scholarly institution as well as providing an insight into the relationship between archaeology and politics in the contemporary Middle East.
This website is a useful preliminary report of the Late Bronze Age Uluburun shipwreck excavated by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology's (INA) between 1984 and 1994. The shipwreck contained one of the largest collections of Late Bronze Age items found in the Mediterranean, including significant quantities of raw materials. The shipwreck has become an essential source of information for the study of Late Bronze Age Mediterranean trade and this website provides an overview of the discovery; several pictures of the artefacts that were part of its cargo and an essential (not updated) bibliography. Among the contents were beads; jewellery; ivory; glass; Egyptian scarabs; Egyptian, Mycenaean and Levantine seals; copper oxhide ingots (354 ingots weighing over 10 tonnes); tin ingots; elephant tusks; ebony logs; ostrich eggshells; murex sea shells (the Phoenicians became famous in later times for extracting a red dye from these shells); terebinth resin (also used for dyeing clothes) found inside amphorae; glass ingots; Canaanite, Cypriot and Mycenaean pottery; gold; exotica; weights; and more artefacts. The shipwreck has been dated to 1310 BC thanks to the preservation of parts of the hull. A timely and extensive program of conservation has allowed for several scientific analyses being carried out. There are maps of the excavated site and a layout of the shipwreck as it was found.
This website is an essential resource for the study of Late Bronze Age Mediterranean trade at all levels.
This website is part of the Digital Library for International Research, a project of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC), and it publishes all volumes of the "Bulletin of the Jewish Palestine Exploration Society" journal from 1933 to 1967. Papers are written in Hebrew and English summaries are available at the end of each volume; they are accessible as individual full-text PDF files, with searchable text.
Among the papers are: "The expedition of Tiglath Pileser III to Palestine in 732 B.C."; "An ancient Jewish cave on the Jerusalem-Shechem Road"; "The list of Canaanite kings (Joshua 12)"; "Greek inscription from the vicinity of Caesarea"; "The cleaning of coins"; "The origin of the mosques and the open air-weli in Shilo"; "The Palestino-Sinaitic inscriptions"; "The ancient water supply of Jerusalem"; "Rain and water conditions in the Negev"; "The Tabula Peutingeriana"; and "The Neolithic period in Palestine". There are also numerous preliminary reports from archaeological excavations running in the 1930s to 1960s in Israel and Palestine.
The Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies was established in 1983, with the object of furthering study and knowledge of the history and culture, language and literature of the Byzantine Empire and its neighbours. The website is intended primarily as a platform to disseminate information about SPBS events, research grants and publications. There are abstracts and some longer reports on current projects. A page of links direct the user to a variety of online sources concerning the Byzantine empire. Information on joining the society is available on this website. Researchers in particular may be interested by this website.
The "Central Anatolian Neolithic e-Workshop" (CANeW) project collects and researches radiocarbon and geoarchaeological data on the Neolithic period in Anatolia, the Aegean and Upper Mesopotamia. This website is mainly a repository of data, which include 14C databases, chronological charts, site databases and geoarchaeological maps. In addition, this website presents the archives of the academic electronic discussions leading to a founding meeting for the project. All the papers presented at that meeting, as well as additional papers and reviews are also freely available in the website. Many papers, databases and charts are available in PDF format. The specialist data provide a great updated reference for the research on chronology and geoarchaeology of Neolithic Anatolia and Mesopotamia. Researchers in particular will find this website most useful.
The Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük was first discovered in the late 1950s. It became famous due to the large size and dense occupation of the settlement, and the spectacular wall paintings and other art that was uncovered inside the houses. This website presents the results of investigations at Çatalhöyük since 1993. There is a wide variety of material in the website including detailed archive reports, newsletters, excavation diaries, an excavation database (searchable by unit number, feature number or by keyword from the discussion element of the database record), a forum, a searchable gallery of pictures, information on the project and practical information. The gallery of pictures includes photographs and illustrations of artefacts and architectural structures as well as photographs taken during the excavations. The site is well illustrated with photographs and line drawings. Various reconstructions are presented as images, VRML models and Quicktime panoramas.
'Cave of the warrior', is an online exhibition from the American Museum of Natural History. It accompanied an exhibition at the Museum from 1998, that presented the archaeological remains of burials from the "Cave of the Warrior" in Wadi el-Makkukh, near Jericho, that included unusual textiles, sandals, and the oldest bow known to be preserved in the Middle East - photographs of which are displayed here. The exhibition also presented objects found in other regional burial sites of the time. The finds date from the fourth millennium BCE, the Chalcolithic period, thousands of years before the Late Bronze Age Jericho recorded in the Bible as being captured by Joshua and the Israelites circa 1400 BCE. The exhibition was the result of collaboration between the American Museum of Natural History and the Israel Antiquities Authority.
The "Centro ricerche archeologiche e scavi di Torino" focuses on research in the Middle East and publishes on its official website short illustrated reports of its field activities. The reports are available selecting "progetti" from the menu on the top and then "progetti di ricerca". It is possible to access the individual reports by browsing by name or using a convenient map. Reports are available for excavations carried out in Italy (GIS survey of the Verbano, Cusio and Ossola area; virtual reconstruction of a Greek capitel from the Greek temple at Marasí , Locri Epizefiri; temple E of Selinunte); Tunisia (Carthage; Colonia Iulia Pietas Tertiadecimanorum Uthina); Lebanon (Beirut); Jordan (Jerash); Iraq (Seleucia on the Tigris; Choche; Nimrud; Hatra; Hamrin dam; Kifrin; Eski Mosul dam; Ninive; museum of Baghdad); Iran; Turkmenistan (Nisa - Mithradatkert); Pakistan (Udegram). Most reports are just introductions to the research projects and contain limited useful information. Among the most interesting and referenced reports are those of Carthage, focusing on the ancient harbours of the Punic town, between the second and third Punic war (202-146 BC); Nisa, focusing on clay figurines, rhyta, marble and metal sculptures; Seleucia, focusing on clay figurines, ceramics, seals and architectural structures such as the archives, the stoa and the southern square; Nimrud, focusing on artistic finds dated to the period of king Sin-shar-riskum; and Nineveh, focusing on the conservation of the palace of Sennacherib.
"Chroniques Yéménites" is a free full-text journal in French focussing on the archaeology and history of Yemen and publishing referenced academic papers. It is possible to access printable pages of any paper by clicking on "version imprimable"; to perform a full-text keyword search; and to subscribe to a mailing list that sends table of contents of new issues. A few papers are in English or Italian; and some focus on the recent history and culture of Yemen; yearly summaries of political events have been published for both Yemen and Saudi Arabia. The journal includes papers on megalithism; rock art; epigraphy; Islamic manuscripts and studies; trade on the spice route; and other archaeological studies. There are papers as diverse as "A Chinese in the Nubian and Abyssinian Kingdoms (8th Century)" by Wolbert Smidt about ancient contacts between China and the Axumite Empire and "La psychiatrie au Yémen" by Claire Harbonn-Sotty about the state of mental health facilities in contemporary Yemen.
The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) website contains articles on the archaeology of Iran as well as news, pictures and a list of events. The website was still incomplete at the time of the review, but it contains enough information to be useful. This website has been produced by a group of amateurs with the participation of academics. The section on news appears to be updated daily and it can be a precious resource for both students and researchers to remain updated on recent discoveries. The gallery of pictures can be useful primarily to students. The "articles" section is a comprehensive collection of texts on the archaeology of Iran, but quality varies and not all the articles have adequate bibliographic references; students should not rely primarily on these articles to prepare academic essays, especially when using articles without references. Some illustrated short reports about excavations may be used by researchers.Considering the difficulties in obtaining updated information on recent archaeological research on Iran, this website may be very useful primarily to researchers as a source of information on recent work and discoveries as well as to students looking for pictures.
This is the website of CNRS Info, an online publication of the French National Council of Research. A special issue on archaeology dated 2000 is available full-text and summarises French archaeological research across the globe. It also includes some articles on environmental archaeology and archaeometry. The several illustrated articles are organised by region, with articles on French sites being also subgrouped according to chronological period, from the Palaeolithic to the historical period. Among the sites are: Closeau, near Rueil-Malmaison (France, Palaeolithic); Le Mourral, Trèbes (France, Neolithic); Rhí´ne Valley (France); medieval Marseille (France); Jerf el Ahmar (Syria); Alexandria (Egypt); Tahiti (French Polynesia). The site of Jerf el Ahmar is particularly important as it has been studied in relation to the emergence of agriculture and the social impact it had. There is a map, a small bibliography, a few pictures and a glossary in PDF format. Overall, this website can be very useful as it contains many summaries of important researches and provides a French perspective on state-funded research. The home page is quite confusing as the summaries of all issues of CNRS Info are provided and none of them contains any article on archaeology. Moreover, from within each article it is only possible to return to the home page. This unnumbered issue between issues 384 and 385 is in reality a separate volume that has been almost "buried". Researchers may find this website useful.
This archive, hosted by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS), represents the raw information from a project designed to collect and analyse archaeological data from two Near Eastern sites - namely Tell Brak in north-eastern Syria, and Kilise Tepe in Southern Turkey. The data is intended to aid study into the use of space within the two different urban settlements, and the respective excavations utilised standardised objectives and procedures to enable more comparative analyses.Much of the identification and analysis of the materials recovered from the excavations was undertaken in U.K. laboratories, specifically at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research (Cambridge), at the EAU (York), and UCL (London). The final versions of these analyses have been compiled into a single electronic archive in Cambridge.Available through these webpages are the various components of this electronic archive, including sections on the sampling procedures, excavations, and many final reports on artefactual and environmental materials. The text-based files are available for download in HTML, RTF (rich text format) and plain text formats. Images are available as TIFFs, whilst other file types include comma-delimited and Microsoft Excel files.
The 'Current Archaeology in Turkey' website is a useful database of all ongoing archaeological excavations, surveys and field research projects in Turkey written by the Anatolian Iron Age research project team at the University of New England, Armidale, Australia. The archaeological sites can be browsed by name; period; and region. For each archaeological site, survey or research project there is a short article summarising recent results from presentations given at the 'International Symposium of Excavations, Surveys and Archaeometry, Turkey' and preliminary reports provided by individual excavators. A few records have a short bibliography, but for most archaeological sites this website provides the only published source of information available. The text is in English and Turkish and it is possible to switch between the two languages clicking on the lateral columns. This is a precious resource for researchers.
'Databases about Aegean Subjects' is a website by the University of Florence that publishes archaeological databases on the subject of Aegean prehistory. At the time of review only the database on Middle Minoan hieroglyphic seals was accessible and allowed to perform complex search queries, though it is still incomplete. Each record is catalogued according to CMS and CHIC identification numbers and includes at least one black and white photograph (obtained with macro lens); a drawing and detailed captions. It is possible to access enlarged versions of the photographs and drawings by clicking on them. Before using this database, the authors suggest downloading and installing a special set of specialist fonts, which may be useful to researchers. Other databases are planned, including one on the Hittite tablets mentioning the Ahhiyawa; one on archaeological artefacts conserved at Florence, Italy; and one on "textile work areas in Bronze Age Crete". Details of each database and the associated projects can be read on the website. In section "the Ahhiyawa question" of "bibliographies" there are copies and transcripts of Hittite tablets mentioning the Ahhiyawa in PDF format as well as hyperlinks to online papers. There is also a news section. This website may be useful especially to specialist researchers.
This website publishes a short history of the restoration of the monastery of St. Julian of the East (Syria) and a collection of photographs taken during these investigations that began in 2001. Dayr Mar Elian esh Sharqi (the monastery of St. Julian of the East) is located to the west of the village of Qaryatayn in the Syrian desert between Homs and Palmyra. As an oasis settlement Qaryatayn has been inhabited for many millennia, as illustrated by the substantial tell south of the modern village. It is on the Damascus-Palmyra trade route on a Roman limes and so housed a garrison of soldiers to safely escort visitors across the desert - a practice that was continued until the end of the nineteenth century. Local legend attributes the foundation of the monastery to late antiquity.
This is the official website of the ongoing archaeological excavations at Tel Kabri, Israel. The website contains information to participate at forthcoming excavation campaigns (both students and volunteers are welcome; application forms can be downloaded) as well as preliminary reports (in PDF format). Tel Kabri has been recognised as the centre of a Middle Bronze Age (ca. 2000-1550 BCE) Canaanite polity; massive fortifications (Area C), residential architecture and tombs (Areas B and C), as well as a large palace (Area D) dating from this period have been identified. Of great importance was the discovery of one Aegean-type fresco from the palace (more information is given in the 2008 preliminary report), one of just four such frescoes found in the Near East, and possibly the oldest. Evidence for occupation in other periods, from the Neolithic to the Iron Age, has also been found, including an Iron Age fortress with imported Greek pottery. Details of the staff members are given, and it is possible to contact them directly through this website. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
The Digital Library for International Research is a project run by the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC) that publishes several documents (books; journal; photographs; maps) on archaeology as well as modern literature and languages in digital format. It is possible to use section "Online Catalog" to perform a search across all contents, including library holdings. Section "E-books Collections" contains the ALMA (African Language Materials Archive Project) project archive, with several e-books written in African languages (including Bamanankan; Criol; Fula/Peul/Pular; Fulfulde; Jula/Dyula; Mandinka; Moore; and Wolof). Section "Photo Archives" contains over 125,000 photographs from the American Institute of Indian Studies, Center for Art and Archaeology (AIIS-CAA) in Gurgaon, India. Section "Map Collections" contains the archives of the ongoing Mapping Mediterranean Lands (MedMaps) project. Only a few maps were accessible at the time of review, and there is a section aimed at school teachers. "Journal Collections" contains the digitised version of several journals.
More contents should be added as the projects progress and new projects and archives are added to the collections. This website will be useful to researchers, teaching staff and students.
The DigMaster website presents the artefactual evidence (specifically figurines) from two separately excavated Persian sites (Tell Halif and Maresha) together with those from the Pierides Foundation Museum in Larnaca, Cyprus. The site provides an easy to use figurine database interface with a wealth of images and VR media. The DigMaster website is simply set out and very intuitive. There are pages describing the geography and environment, the excavation, survey and ethnography of the sites, as well as a summary of the stratographic settings of the figurines. A simple visual browse structure enables the users to view the figurines arranged by type. There is also contact information for the site's authors, and links to related projects. This is an excellent example of the way in which electronic publication of fieldwork results can move way beyond the limitations of traditional 'hard copy' publication. A new website, DigMasterII, is expanding this website.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
This is the website of "The Nahal Tillah Regional Archaeology Project" by the University of California at San Diego. This project is a part of "Archaeology in the Levant", led by the department of anthropology, University of California. The website gives details of the staff involved in the project and abstracts of recent publications. A page to a sequence of Photograph galleries contains only dead links. It can be difficult to follow some hyperlinks through server maps, some patience and several attempts are required.
The project obtained new archaeological data from southern Israel to examine the role of early Egyptian civilization in the rise of urban communities in the southern Levant during the late 4th-3rd millennium BC (especially 3300 - 3000 BC). In particular, "the discovery of an unambiguous incised serekh-sign with the name of Narmer, most likely dating from the end of his reign, adds texture to models concerning the process of early Egyptian expansion into southern Canaan".
This webpage summarises recent research on the most ancient evidence of human beings in Gobustan, a World Heritage site famous for its rock art dating from the Upper Palaeolithic to Roman times. The illustrated article is an excellent introduction for students to an archaeological site only recently (2007) recognised by UNESCO. It was printed in the "Azerbaijan International Magazine" and there is a previous article on the same magazine and by the same authors linked. Featured in the two articles are "cart ruts", prehistoric tracks (roads); petroglyphs (rock art); cupmarks; water channels; sacrificial sites; wine presses; and megalithic monuments. Despite their simple structure, the two articles summarise a lot of archaeological evidence at a very important site. Students in particular may find this website useful.
The free and full-text online East-European Archaeological Journal publishes illustrated papers and archaeological preliminary reports of excavations on Central European and Russian archaeology, normally written in Russian only. The vast majority of papers are authored by Ukrainian and Russian scholars; the journal provides easy access to scholarship that may be difficult to find in libraries. The titles of the papers are also available in English, and at the very least might be useful to identify potentially useful papers. There are plenty of excavation reports, as well as papers of broader subjects ranging from the Palaeolithic to the Middle Ages. Most papers focus on Slavic and Russian sites, but some include related topics such as the origins of the Veneti; osteological studies; Scythian-Syberian art; Thracians; trade; Byzantine pottery; Crimea; and the Black Sea to name but a few. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The archaeological site of Ras Shamra is situated a few kilometres east of the Mediterranean coast of Syria, and constitutes the remains of the ancient city of Ugarit. This website documents the discovery of Ras Shamra and the early excavations. Ras Shamra produced a large number of artefacts some of which are displayed in a virtual museum on the website. The site also produced a number of texts inscribed on clay tablets. These are currently being examined and presented as high resolution images with transliterations and translations of the inscriptions.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Tell el-Herr, Egypt (Sinai peninsula). The site is located on a strategic position between Egypt and the Levant and has been occupied from the fifth century BC to the sixth century AD. The site was a Roman settlement, later a Persian settlement and finally an early medieval Egyptian site. Several illustrated articles concentrate on the archaeological evidence unearthed by a French team of archaeologists. Achaemenid, Roman and Ptolemaic monuments are discussed. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
This is the website of The Michael C. Carlos Museum at Emory University, Georgia, which holds the largest collection of ancient art in the American South East from the earliest prehistoric period to Roman domination. This resource features a modest sample corpus of Egyptian, Nubian, and Near Eastern objects in this collection, providing brief catalogue details and photographs of items ranging in date from 2300 BC and the 5th and 6th Pharaonic dynasties to the 8th century BC. The museum has been collecting objects from North Africa and the Middle East since the early part of the 20th century and has benefited from its associations with figures such as Emory Professor William Shelton, who participated in the American Scientific Mission, Kathleen Kenyon at Jericho, and Edwin Link at Caesarea Maritima. This resource, which provides links to other parts of the museum website including several virtual exhibitions as well as to other websites containing further information on the Ancient Middle East, will interest the general public, as well as provide information on a variety of Near Eastern artefacts for school children and their teachers.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Mleiha, United Arab Emirates. It contains a few articles and the preliminary results of the French studies in the region of Oman, which are focussing on the third century BC settlement of Mleiha. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
ETANA is a cooperative project between ten scholarly institutions and organizations, funded by the Mellon Foundation, with the aim of enabling wider access to Abzu (the Internet gateway for Ancient Near East studies) and the digitization of core texts in the field. At the time of review, there were over 350 digitized texts, covering topics including ancient Egyptian and Babylonian history, biblical archaeology, and the religion of the Semites. There are also over 180 digitized cuneiform texts. Texts include an electronic version of the 'Pantheon Babylonicum: Nomina Deorum e Textibus Cuneiformibus Excerpta et Ordine Alphabetico Distributa' by Deimel, Panara, Patsch and Schneider. The site also offers a short list of links to archaeological projects and organizations affiliated with ETANA. The ETANA core texts collection can be browsed alphabetically, or keyword searches can be performed using the Abzu interface. Abzu also offers details of a vast array of websites, online journals, and ebooks relevant to academics and students working in this area.
This is the blog of Dr Fusun Ertuğ, an archaeobotanist at the University of Istanbul. Her blog contains a mixture of articles on Anatolian archaeology; archaebotany and Turkish ethnography. There are only a few posts, mostly announcements, in English, the rest is in Turkish. However, researchers interested in the archaeobotany and especially ethnography of Anatolia may find it quite useful. Some of the author's recurrent themes are the relationship between women and plants in Turkey, which is a very original approach to gender studies, and handwoven baskets.
This website describes the excavations on two early prehistoric sites at Pinarbasi, 25km from Çatalhöyük in central Turkey. The excavations were conducted in 1994 and 1995 under the joint direction of the University of Edinburgh's Department of Archaeology and the Karaman Museum. These sites were of particular interest due to the possible presence of a series of rock-shelters dating from the Early Neolithic, and an open-village settlement of similar date. Information on the sites' discovery, location and excavation is provided, along with details of the results. Particular attention has been directed to the plant remains, animal bones, and chipped stone recovered from bulk sampling.
This website is a record of the Finnish excavations, begun in 1998, on a monastery on the Mount of Aaron overlooking the ancient settlement of Petra, Jordan. Evidence for the previously not excavated monastery was uncovered by an early 1990s excavation in a basilica church in Petra's centre, in which a charred papyrus referring to the hilltop building was found. In addition to preliminary reports, pictures and 3D and digital terrain models of the area (large files!), there is also a page on the environment. The AVI videos require an old version of the Windows OS as the playback of the particular codec used has been deliberately prevented in Windows Vista and Apple Quicktime. The website publishes the preliminary reports for the 1997-2005 field seasons. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
This is the official website of the Geo-Archaeological Information Applications (GAIA) laboratory in the School of Human Evolution and Culture Change at Arizona State University. The laboratory contains numerous case studies on GIS applications in the archaeology of the ancient Near East. The website contains information about the new "Digital Archaeological Atlas of the Holy Land" and the projects; the "Jordan Antiquities Department Information System" (JADIS) database; a presentation of the Iraq Cultural Heritage GIS database; and true colour Landsat satellite images of the Levant (including Cyprus), Egypt and Morocco. The JADIS database contains data about all known archaeological sites of Jordan from 20,000 BC to the modern ear and can be searched by keyword, or browsed through a Java applet (TimeMap). A version of the JADIS database using Google Earth was not working at the time of review. The West Asian Spatial Temporal Atlas (WASTA) is an extension of the JADIS database containing more archaeological sites in Mesopotamia and Near East; it uses the TimeMap Java applet. Simple instructions on the use of the Java database are provided. The Landsat satellite images available on this website picture Israel; Palestine; Jordan; Lebanon; Cyprus; Syria; Iraq; Saudi Arabia; Egypt; Libya; Turkey; Iran; Kuwait; Morocco; Algeria; and Western Sahara. They are available as georeferenced photographs (GeoTIFF format) and have been compressed. They can be very large, over 100 Mb each. Details on how they were produced and how to obtain and produce similar images of other areas are given. This website is important for researchers of GIS applications in archaeology as well as for those interested in the ancient Near East.
This website publishes the online free and full-text version (since volume 116) of the Hadashot arkheologiyot journal, which publishes reports of excavations carried out by the Israel Antiquities Authority. Most reports are short, and only a few are illustrated; none has references. Individual papers can be conveniently printed with or without images (PDF files may be produced in this way if appropriate software is installed on the computer). There are some prepared PDF versions of whole volumes. The website also includes contents and abstracts of a few of the past volumes, from 1996 to 2002. Each volume contains an initial table listing all site for which a report is available in that volume and a search form allows to search by name or keyword. The advanced search allows to browse the contents of the available volumes according area or period and might be more useful. The website also publishes the guidelines for prospective authors. Researchers interested in the archaeology of Israel will find this website essential.
Hattusha (modern Boghazköy) in central Turkey was the capital city of the powerful Hittite Empire in the second millennium B.C. and is a UNESCO world heritage site. This is an attractively presented and highly informative online guide to the archaeological site and current excavations, published by the German Archaeological Institute in Istanbul (DAI). The resource is available in English, German and Turkish and includes links to websites relevant to archaeological research in Turkey. The historic overview of Hattusha (variously spelt Hattusa and Hattuscha) and its hinterland from the 6th millennium B.C. onwards provides an introduction to the excellent guide to the archaeology and topography of the settlement itself. This guide is illustrated with many very high quality plans and photographs, including some computer reconstructions, and includes the important Hittite rock sanctuary of Yasilikaya east of Hattusha which is noted for its rock-cut reliefs. The news section (available in German only) provides a detailed account of the current DAI excavations in and around Hattusha and a bibliography of research by the DAI team.This website will have a broad appeal to anyone interested in Eastern Mediterranean archaeology, from undergraduates and specialist researchers to the general public. The quality of the presentation and content reflects the academic pedigree of the publishing institution.
This website publishes information on the current archaeological excavations by staff at the Institute of Archaeology of "The Hebrew University of Jerusalem" in Israel. Several projects run fieldschools or invite volunteers and students to participate. Contact details and dates of field seasons at each site are given. Both students (for the fieldwork opportunities) and researchers (for the preliminary reports) may find this website useful.
A collaborative venture between the Webgestütze Forschungs-kommunikation of the University of Würzburg and the Hethitische Forschungen department, Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, University of Mainz and a number of institutional partners from Europe and North America, this site aims to develop the potential of the WWW as a study tool in addition to providing a gateway to existing online resources for the study of the archaeology, language and history of the Hittites and related Anatolian and Near eastern cultures. The project itself features resources such as a concordance of Hittite texts, the Mainz archive of photographs of cuneiform texts, a Hittite onomasticon, and an address list of scholars working in this field (for which you need to register).The large selection of weblinks provides access to a judiciously chosen series of resources in German, English, French and Turkish, including the Catalogue of Hittite texts (CHT), the Chicago Hittite Dictionary, H. Craig Melchert's Anatolian Databases, various bibliographies and guides to current Hittite researcher and academic institutions, together with a list of links to excavations and surveys in Turkey and surrounding areas with Hittite remains. This is a specialist resource which will mostly interest university level students and researchers in Hittite and Near Eastern studies.
The Oriental Institute of Chicago has sponsored the preparation of the Chicago Hittite Dictionary since 1975, under the direction of Harry A. Hoffner, Hans G. Güterbock and, more recently, of Theo van den Hout. This website provides a brief introduction to the Hittite language together with annual reports of the Chicago Hittite Dictionary Project from 1992 to the present as well as technical information on the online version of the dictionary and the curriculum vitae (and publications) of the editors. The project was originally conceived to fill the need for a Hittite-English lexical tool and a concordance for lexicographical research for all parts of the corpus of Hittite texts. Even though the Hittite language has been a major subject of study since the first large scale excavations at Boghazköy in 1906 began to reveal the first examples of a corpus of texts which now numbers some 10,000 in total, scholars of this important language (the first Indo-European language to survive in written form) still have no comprehensive lexicon for research purposes. This website is a specialist research tool documenting the progress of an important project relevant to scholars of ancient IE languages and Near Eastern archaeology and ancient history.
The InscriptiFact project at the University of Southern California publishes photographs of ancient Middle Eastern inscriptions, mainly from Phoenicia, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. To access the website it is necessary to register by faxing a signed user agreement; read the instructions (PDF files); and install Java components (administrator rights required). The database is accessed using a special Java browser (Mac and Windows supported). After logging in, it is possible to browse the inscriptions by period, site, language, support and collection, or search them. Once a list of relevant inscriptions is produced, clicking on any entry will display the metadata associated with that inscription. Clicking on the "go" button on the list of inscriptions provides access to a series of thumbnails of all the available photographs for that inscription; there is a set of BW and colour photographs for each inscription. The thumbnails can be saved as TIFF or JPEG pictures, or preferably as full resolution JPEG2000 photographs (recommended). There is also a standalone viewer to visualise Reflection Transformation Imaging (RTI) images.
There are no transliterations or translations of the inscriptions. Among the scripts are Ammonite; Arabic; Aramaic; Coptic; Cuneiform (Akkadian; Babylonian; Sumerian; Ugaritic); Egyptian hieroglyphs; Greek; Hebrew; Latin; Nabatean; Phoenician; Semitic and others. There are also early alphabetic inscriptions such as that from Wadi el-Hol and some Dead Sea scrolls. This website can be useful primarily for teaching and researching, but postgraduate students specialising in ancient languages may also find it useful. The project has been funded by several organisations, including the Underwood Family Trust Fund; the Ahmanson Foundation; and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
The Inscriptions of Israel/Palestine website aims to publish an electronic version of all inscriptions found in Israel dating from the Hellenistic period (ca. 330 BCE) to the Islamic Conquest (640 CE). A search engine allows users to access some 15,000 inscriptions, with searches possible for individual inscriptions or words, including proper names, occurring in one or more inscriptions. There is, however, no browse function, which makes general access to the site difficult without prior knowledge of sources. Ultimately users should be able to access detailed maps of every single archaeological site that contains inscriptions of the period concerned, as well as photographs of every inscription with a translation. The site also provides a bibliographic database and lists related links; links to some scholarly essays on epigraphy were broken at the time of last review.
The Hellenistic sanctuary and royal burial ground of Nemrud Dag in south-eastern Turkey, a UNESCO World heritage Site, is one of the most spectacular archaeological sites in the Near East, built to glorify the local Kommagenian dynasty with a unique fusion of Parthian, Persian and Greek iconography and architecture. This website provides an introduction to the history, topography and art of this impressive site and promotes the work of the International Nemrud Foundation, based in the Netherlands, which aims to preserve and restore the monument. The Kingdom of Kommagene appeared in the 9th century BC as a wealthy vassal of the Assyrian kings, paying tribute in precious metals and cedar wood from the local hillsides. The strategically located region became particularly significant when Mithradates I Kallinikos broke away from Seleucid rule around 130 BC., marking his accession by constructing a series sanctuaries around his realm to bolster his authority and which deliberately conflated Greek and Persian divinities. His son Antiochus I Theos constructed the extraordinary dynastic memorial at Nemrud Dag which required the excavation of 200,000 cubic metres of stone and the erection of ten statues, each weighing six tonnes and more than ten metres high, to form a gigantic horoscope. The 500m of inscriptions proclaim the religious glory of the king and the fabulous wealth of his (as yet) unexcavated tomb. The resource provides a concise guide to the site with a photo gallery, video clips, animations of the horoscope, drawings and texts of key epigraphic documents and a research bibliography in addition to an outline of the historical and religious significance of the site. This resource, available in English, Dutch, German and Turkish versions, will interest students and researchers of Hellenistic, Roman and Near Eastern art and archaeology.
The website "Iraq - The craddle of civilization at risk" is an excellent and highly topical gateway resource published by the H-Museum providing links to a wealth of high quality material on the impact of military action and political instability on the cultural heritage of Iraq since the Gulf War of 1991. There is an impressive array of articles published in academic journals, popular archaeology magazines as well as many links to cultural heritage documents and declarations such as the Hague Convention and UNESCO. The News Digest provides links to recent stories on cultural heritage in Iraq published by the major news agencies. Also included are the web links to a wide range of museums, art galleries, archaeological projects and academic publications. A search function for specific enquiries is available. The H-Museum forms part of the wider H-Net which aims to promote the education potential of the Internet by providing an interdisciplinary forum for humanities and social scientists to exchange information and ideas. This resource will interest a wide range of academics, students, professionals in the museum and heritage sector in addition to having a wider appeal to the general public interested in and concerned about 'heritage under fire'. The site has been updated last in 2003, thus some of the links to related internet resources are broken.
This website details the architectural history of the city of Isfahan (or Esfahan) in Iran. Isfahan is a designated UNESCO world heritage site, with an architectural history dating back to the eleventh century CE. This site describes, and provides photographs of, all the minarets, bridges, palaces, mosques, and shrines in the city that were built before the twentieth century. There is a section on the fundamental concepts of Persian architecture, which explains the religious significance of the design and colouring of the several parts of the Persian mosque. The site also provides basic introductions to: Shi'ism; the influence of Sufism in the development of Iranian culture; and the historic events that have affected Persia/Iran. The site includes an extensive bibliography and links section, which references: publishers that produce works on Iranian/Persian history; other websites that refer to Isfahan; sites concerned with Iranian religion, culture, and literature; and Iranian newspapers.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Israeli site of Mallaha (Eynan). The earliest material culture found suggests that this was a Natufian settlement inhabited from ca. 12,000 to 10,000 years ago. The first inhabitants settled on the foot of a slope and dug there semicircular or circular stone dwellings: an entire village dating to the Final Natufian has been unearthed. This website offers a general overview, which also summarises the scientific analyses that have been carried out, and presents two dwellings and a 'small pit' from the Final Natufian village. The material culture consists mainly of stone tools, but some bone beads have been found in a tomb nearby. Some incised stones and a possible figurine have also been found. This resource consists of short illustrated articles, with some colour maps, and a 'diaporama' (gallery of pictures from the site). This is a great introduction to this archaeological site for both students and researchers; it is concise and effective. Students will find the bibliography useful, and researchers will certainly appreciate that contact details of the excavators are provided.
The Israel Antiquities Authority website is the official website for the Israeli body responsible for Israel's antiquities and antiquity sites, including their: excavation; preservation; conservation; study; and publication. The website provides information on ongoing and past excavations (with an interactive map), and publishes an annual report and news items about Israeli archaeology. It is possible to volunteer for many excavations by contacting the authority. There is a section focusing on underwater archaeology, which provides some general information and mentions some of the past and current projects. There are numerous abstracts of papers on recent research. There is also an excellent exhibition of the Dead Sea Scrolls. A short section reports on the "archaeological survey of Israel". The most valuable content is in the "gallery of sites and finds" section, which contains brief illustrated reports on several sites. It is possible to enlarge the pictures on these reports by clicking on them.
The Jerablus Tahtani Project, located in northern Syria, is an archaeological research programme designed to investigate four key themes: the expansion of the Uruk civilisation in the 4th millennium BC; secondary state formation in Early Bronze Age Syria; urban recession in the Near East during the late 3rd millennium BC; and the early history of archaeologically inaccessible Carchemish. Fieldwork, conducted as the British contribution to the Syrian government's International Tishreen Dam Rescue Programme, focused upon the excavation of Tell Jerablus Tahtani and was undertaken between 1991 and 2000, with the University of Edinburgh. Excavation Reports from 1998, 1999 and 2000 are available online via the website, as are several of the major databases from the site (downloadable in Excel, Access and Word formats). A bibliography is also provided.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Neolithic site of Abu Hamid, Jordan. An overview of the site and some preliminary results of the excavation and associated research work are discussed in a few illustrated articles. Particularly interesting is the section concentrating on rituals: some fourth millennium BC figurines have been found, including some violin-shaped ones. These figurines, dated ca. 3800 BC, are found across the entire Levantine coast. Similar figurines were manufactured about five hundred years later in the Cyclades, and have spawned the tradition of Cycladic figurines. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) contains many colour photos and drawings. There is also a map, an extensive bibliography, and the contact details of the excavators.
The Kerkenes Project is a collaborative and multidisciplinary venture between the Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara and the British Institute of Archaeology in Ankara to explore the urban dynamics and landscape development of the city of Kerkenes in central Turkey from the early prehistoric period until the end of the Iron Age. Kerkenes was the largest city in pre-Hellenistic Anatolia, covering some 2.5 square kilometres. Kerkenes has been identified as the ancient Pteria, which was the scene of major military conflicts between the Assyrians, Persians and Lydians, including the famous 'Battle of the Eclipse' in 585 B.C. recorded by the Greek historian Herodotus. The website provides information on the work carried out since 1993 by Dr Geoffrey Summers. The website is divided into three main sections. The first section publishes the first decades of work and contains information on the historical background; photographs of early discoveries including an ivory plaque; drawings; maps, including 3D maps; and several preliminary reports. The second section publishes recent preliminary reports (some in PDF format); a geological background; further photographs from the excavations; the results of a geophysical survey; a postgraduate thesis on the application of multi-sensor remote sensing techniques by Zeynep Nahide Aydin; a useful bibliography. The third section contains information on the "Kerkenes Eco-Center Project" and environmental research carried out in Kerkenes. This is an important resource for researchers studying the Ancient Near East.
The wiki-style webpage presenting the "Kfar HaHoresh Neolithic Excavations" includes a simple table of contents and a small gallery of pictures. Kfar HaHoresh is a Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (ca. 8,500-6,750 BC) site in use for about 1,500 years. "Six distinct architectural levels have been recognised; the main architectural features at Kfar HaHoresh include several terrace walls, as well as a series of mostly quadrilateral lime plaster-surfaces. Numerous human burials have been documented at Kfar HaHoresh". Among the artefacts are lithic tools; exotica from Mesopotamia; and several figurines of both human and animal depictions (including a phallus), made on stone and clay. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
This website focuses on the excavations at Khirbet Cana by the University of Puget Sound. It contains the field reports of the various excavated squares as well as specialist reports by the project's geologist, ceramicist, lithic analyst, and glass technologist. Images of a number of the artefacts that were unearthed are also provided. These include Byzantine coins, a Neolithic obsidian arrowhead, a Hellenistic lamp fragment, and decorated pottery from the Byzantine and early Islamic periods. There is an aerial photograph of the site, and an excavation diary, but little to place Khirbet Cana in its historical or geographical context.
The archaeological site of Khirbet Iskander ('the ruin of Alexander' in Arabic) in central Jordan is an important Early Bronze Age urban site which sits on a major trade and communication route used in antiquity called the 'King's Highway'. This website uses the results of multidisciplinary archaeological and environmental work carried out here since 1981 by Gannon University, Pennsylvania and Lubbock Christian University, Texas (in association with Erie Art Museum) to introduce the theories and methods of modern archaeology to students in the north-west Pennsylvania area. Khirbet Iskandar, a medium sized settlement of around 8 hectares occupying a prominent hilltop location by a major wadi system, was first settled at the beginning of the Early Bronze Age (circa 3500 BC) but, unlike other urban centres which disappeared or decline at the end of EBIII, survived as an important settlement focus in EBIV and was finally abandoned at the end of this period around 2000 BC. The resource provides an illustrated account of the archaeology of the site and a brief guide to the most important excavation and recordings methods used by the project team. The resource also includes a useful glossary of archaeological and related terms which are hypertexted with the main text. The website will mainly benefit preliminary undergraduate students as well as school children who may wish to pursue archaeology at university but may also be useful for more advanced scholars as a source of basic information and images of this important archaeological site.
The website "Kilise Tepe" describes an excavation in the Goksu Valley between Karaman and Silifke in South-central Turkey. The excavation was carried out by a team of experts from the UK in conjunction with Turkish archaeologists. The page contains a brief outline of the project, those who took part in it, its sponsors and publications arising from the excavations. The free and full database of the projects at Kilise Tepe and Tell Brak and other documents are now accessible online in a separate depository.There are links to a picture of the site, and to organisations that lent their archaeologists to the project or supported it financially, such as English Heritage, British Museum, The Leverhulme Trust and the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The archaeological site of Kusakli in the mountains of Cappodocia in eastern Turkey, the important Hittite city called Sarissa mentioned in historical documents of the later second millennium B.C., has been excavated by a team from the prehistory department of the Philipps-Universität Marburg since 1992. This attractively presented German language website provides an historical overview of the ancient city together with a brief guide to the archaeological and geomorphological discoveries at Kusakli-Sarissa. Other institutions associated with the Kusakli project include the Institüt für Geophysik of the University of Kiel and the Malcolm & Carole Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology at Cornell University. Unlike other Hittite centres which developed out of older settlements, Kusakli was a new foundation of the 16th century B.C. and its dramatic, naturally fortified location contributed to its importance in the settlement hierarchy of the Hittite empire. Largely abandoned when the Hittite empire collapsed after 1200 B.C., the city was refortified from the 7th century B.C. onwards. The resource provides an area-by-area guide to the current excavations on the acropolis of Kusakli itself and at the sanctuary of Huwasi 2.5 km to the south which is probably mentioned in a Hittite text discovered at the main site. The text is complemented by numerous high quality maps and photographs, which can be viewed both as thumbnails and at a larger scale. Also provided is a list of publications on the site (which can be also be viewed as a PDF. file) and links to other websites of interest to Hittite studies.This website is a useful addition to the corpus of online reports on current excavations in Anatolian and Near Eastern archaeology and will benefit students and researchers in these areas, even those with limited German.
The official website of the excavations being carried out at Ashkelon, Israel and funded by the Leon Levy Fundation provides a basic overview of the recent (2007 onwards) campaigns primarily aimed at attracting volunteers and students. Section "Learn" at the time of review only contained a useful bibliographic list. There are also a few galleries of images (without captions) and some old press releases.
The excavations focus on the local Canaanite (2000-1200 BC) and Philistine (1175-604 BC) periods, or the Bronze and Iron Ages. During the Canaanite period Ashkelon was one of the oldest and largest harbours. During the Philistine period Ashkelon thrived as member of the Philistine pentapolis. Undergraduate students, especially if looking for fieldwork opportunities, may find this website useful.
Levantine mirage is a database of 19th century studio photographs of the Levant conserved at the Griffith Institute, Oxford. The photographs may be useful to researchers to assess the degradation of monuments, visualise lost features or can be used in teaching classes due to their high quality. The collection can be browsed or searched and contains photographs of classical and medieval antiquities. Students may find some photographs useful for research assignments.
The website of the free and full-text Liber Annuus journal publishes papers on Biblical archaeology and theology and other Biblical studies, including linguistic ones. The papers are available in PDF format and are published in English, Italian, French or German. The journal is published by the Franciscan Printing Press of Jerusalem (Studium Biblicum Franciscanum) and therefore the papers follow the theology of the Roman Catholic Church. The website published at the time of the review all volumes dated between 1991 and 2006. The excavations reports include sites in Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria and Egypt. The excavated sites reported in the papers are often ecclesiastical properties and religious buildings and therefore there is a strong focus on the archaeology of Christian religious areas. Researchers in particular may find this journal useful.
This is an excellent resource offering articles on ancient history and archaeology together with an impressive library of photographic images of ancient sites which can be down-loaded for free for non-commercial use. The website is laid out geographically with sections on Greece, Persia, Anatolia, Carthage and Punic Sicily, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Judaea, Germania and Rome (as well a Dutch language resource on Dutch history) while the authoritative but very readable text has many cross links between them. There is no overall structure to individual sections: the Greek entries have a strong emphasis on Alexander the Great and his successors, on various authors such as Plutarch and Herodotos (including selections of extracted texts) and a series of short encyclopaedia-style entries on politicians, philosophers and literary figures. The Judaean passages discuss, for instance, Messianic claimants, the Diaspora and anti-Semitism in the ancient and mediaeval worlds, alongside more linear accounts of the Roman wars and potted biographies of leading Jewish figures. This website will benefit both students and teachers of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern world but the author makes the pointed observation that students must combine the use of electronic resources with proper library research for which the Web is not a substitute.
The Louvre Museum in Paris has one of the largest collections of antiquities from Iran, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, the Levant and Anatolian, Cyprus and North Africa in the world ranging in date from 6000 B.C. to the 17th century A.D. This is English version of the official website of the museum's Department of Oriental Antiquities and Islamic Art. The resource introduces the collection with a brief history of the Department which began to acquire Near Eastern antiquities from 1847 through the archaeological activities of individuals such as Paul-Emile Botta, Ernest Renan and Ernest de Sarzez. Selected objects from the collection are presented region by region as a series of enlargeable thumbnail photographs which can be expanded into a full size image and description field. The high quality colour images can be enlarged to full screen size. The main website (in French only) allows you to search the collection more thoroughly with a well organised and efficient search engine and to produced detailed lists of objects for research purposes. An attractive introduction to the Near Eastern collection of one of the world's great museums which will interest the general public and school children as well as university level students of archaeology and ancient history.
The Madaba Plains Project has been investigating the rich archaeological remains of the fertile uplands of central Jordan since 1968, focusing in particular on the development of urban society in the Bronze Age (3500-1200 BC) and the relationship between human settlement and environmental adaptation over the past five millennia. The project is a collaborative multi-disciplinary venture between a number of North American institutions (Andrews University, Canadian University College, La Sierra University, Pacific Union College and Walla Walla College) the results of which are available in a variety of online publications. This website provides a loosely structured introduction to the overall project (in part intended as a guide to prospective students and volunteers with basic bibliography on Jordan and its archaeology and history) with photographs and online slideshows of the relevant sites. The website contains brief reports of excavation and survey work of archaeological sites centred on the prominent and long-occupied Tell el-'Umeiri (Tall al-Umayri) and include: the cave site of Khirbet Rufeis (Roman, Byzantine, Ummayyad, Late Islamic and Modern occupation); Tell Jawa (South), a large urban settlement dating from the Bronze Age; El-Dreijat, occupied from the Iron Age II period onwards with notable remains from the Persian/Hellenistic period and again from Byzantine and Ummayyad times; Rujm Selim, a multi-period site with Iron Age II, Persian and Hellenistic remains as well as Roman wine presses and hydraulic features; various smaller trial excavations at Bronze and Iron Age burial and settlement sites within the 5km hinterland of Tell el-'Umeiri. Many of the sections are accompanied by bibliographies of published sources for this project. In addition there are detailed descriptions of the various survey strategies pursued by the project, again with accompanying bibliographies for more detailed research.
This website is a major corpus of artifactual and historical material relating to the people of Canaan/Israel and surrounding areas in the Middle and Late Bronze Age and Iron Age I-II periods, c2200-550 B.C. This resource is aimed at both undergraduate students and researchers in archaeology and ancient or biblical history. It will also be of interest to those interested in ancient Near Eastern religions and the origins of Judaism. The site uses a Hypertext medium to interpret Canaanite material culture in the context of the historical and literary record which is provided through extensive quotations from J.B. Pritchard's seminal Ancient Near Eastern Texts (ANET). The material in this resource can be accessed in three main ways: a period by period account provides a chronological and cultural framework based on contemporary historical sources, biblical accounts and excavation reports; a topical index based on important aspects of culture such as burial customs, dress and personal adornment, warfare and architectural; a Hyperlink general index with links to over 90 key topics of Canaanite, Israelite and Phoenician culture.There are many photographs and drawings of artifacts, architecture and archaeological contexts from all over the region while bibliographic references accompany all of the major entries. Quicktime Plug-in 4.1 or later is required for some of the interactive features. The lack of a word-search index is frustrating given the considerable quantity of material in the resource and the historical sources are not explicitly indexed. Nonetheless the quantity and range of the material is impressive and the website will be of widespread interest.
This is the official website of the scholarly journal "Mediterranean Archaeology", which is the official journal of the Australian Archaeological Institute. There are indexes of current and past volumes and it is possible to purchase many volumes. Guidelines for submission of papers are provided.
This is the website of the Megiddo Expedition of Tel Aviv University. The archaeological site of Megiddo in Israel, the Armageddon of the Book of Revelation, was occupied continuously from ca. 7000-500 B.C. and features prominently in Near Eastern and biblical history in the second and first millennia B.C., particularly in the period of the United Monarchy when it was one of King Solomon's regional capitals. This attractively presented website provides a useful introduction to the history and archaeology of the settlement and surrounding region as well as providing information on a wide range of topics connected with digging in Israel and biblical archaeology. Apart from providing reports on the renewed excavations at the site by Tel Aviv University and a history of previous campaigns at Megiddo, this website describes a number of ancillary projects connected with Megiddo including the landscape survey of the surrounding countryside, the magnetometer survey of the city itself, the petrographic analysis of the pottery discovered during excavations and a guide to the controversy surrounding the dating of archaeological sites of the United Monarchy. Also featured is "Revelations from Megiddo" the newsletter of the expedition which has numerous articles on issues related to the archaeology and history of Megiddo and the Jezreel Valley.The text is accompanied by numerous attractive images including a 3D virtual tour of the highlights of the archaeology. VISCAPE is required for this presentation. The website also provides detailed information for volunteers wishing to take part in the archaeological excavations.This site will mainly appeal to the interested amateur and to undergraduates but also provides a useful overview for a more specialist audience, particularly the extensive bibliography and the up-to-date chronological information.
This webpage outlines the results of the archaeological excavations at the Syrian village of Khishâm. Rock art is abundant in the area, and several colour pictures make easier to understand the art. Architectural structures and a necropolis have also been found. Researchers in particular may find useful this page, available only in French.
Har Karkom is an important archaeological region located in Israel that is being investigated by Prof. Anati. This website contains a biographic note of Prof. Anati and extracts from his printed book "The Riddle of Mount Sinai - Archaeological Discoveries at Har Karkom". In the book, Anati suggests that Har Karkom is the Biblical Mount Sinai. Apart from this interpretation, a full catalogue of about 1,200 archaeological sites and features in the region of Har Karkom is provided. Har Karkom appears to have been a ritual or cult place since the Palaeolithic, and probably it was a sacred mountain at least since the Bronze Age. A significant concentration of rock art has been reported from Jebel Ideid, in the Har Karkom region, and in the same region there are also large geoglyphs. Most texts include small galleries of pictures and maps. The website also offers information on current activities of the excavation team. The website requires Microsoft Internet Explorer for an optimal navigation.
The Madaba Plains Project (MPP), a multi-disciplinary collaborative venture between a variety of North American institutions, has been exploring this archaeologically rich part of Jordan, associated with ancient Moab and Edom of the Bible, since 1968 with excavation work focusing at tell sites such as Hisban, Umayri and Jalul. This is an 'umbrella' website providing links to online publications of the excavation and survey data generated by this wide-ranging archaeological project along with many additional links to websites on archaeology in the Near East and Jordan in general. It is hosted by the Center for Applied Spatial Analysis (CASA) at the University of Arizona. This in-progress resource features a series of detailed online preliminary reports and bibliographies, data sets (such as a gazetteer and interactive map of some 140 sites in the hinterland of Tall al-Umayri) and interpretative papers on the archaeology and human ecology of the area up to the modern period which provides an important survey of the changing relationship between people and environment over the longue durée. Modern spatial technologies such as GIS are prominent here and the manual of archaeological survey included here is a useful outline of current survey methods in the Near East. Links to other websites include the University of Toronto's excavations at Tell Madaba itself and related MPP websites hosted by Walla Walla College, Washington State and Andrew's University, Michigan. This site is a useful addition to online resources in Near Eastern archaeology and will interest students and researchers in this and related subjects.
This is the official website of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, available in Turkish only. The website includes articles and photographs of the museum collections, including information on several archaeological sites. Several sections of this website are incomplete. At the time of the review the greatest value of the website was in the series of pictures available.
The website of the Museum of Cycladic Art contains useful information on all collections and activities at the museum, and is aimed primarily at the general public. The website is very neat and easy to navigate, and contains sections on the "museum" with practical information and an online version of a DVD presenting the museum ("virtual tour"). Section "permanent collections" is the most interesting, especially for undergraduate students. It includes artefacts from the Cycladic Collection and Collections of Ancient Greek Art and Ancient Cypriot Art, pictured and described in some detail. The selection of Cycladic artefacts follows an educational criterion, for example several figurines out of the very few in existence with traces of paint have been included. Figurines are one of the key topics, and this evident also in section "special topics", where there are also diagrams ordering the know types. There are also sections on Greek art and Cypriot antiquities (the latter focusing on trade), also with selected artefacts presented in greater detail. For each of the three sections there is a Special topics area. These are thematic essays on various issues (including a large number of texts on Ancient Greek Art). Bibliographies are given in some pages, concentrating on publications of the museum (a section on these is also available). "Donators" (sic) is an interesting section on the donors that from the start gathered the collections of the museum. It may interest anybody who is interested in the sometimes difficult relationship between collectors and public museums. Section "education" is also noteworthy, and is aimed at schoolchildren. It includes a "resources" area, which provides online virtual tours to all the collections and museum publications, available as PDF files. Section "activities" outlines the research carried out by staff or promoted by the museum, and some occasional lectures and seminars organised by the museum may interest researchers. The "exhibitions" section provides information about current and upcoming exhibitions, as well as all previous exhibitions - whether art or archaeological exhibitions - presented at the MCA. There are many colour illustrations, maps and diagrams throughout the website, making this website an excellent educational tool up to undergraduate level.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Near Eastern antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on the collection as well as several pages on individual objects (about 200 at the time of review); there is a map and a timeline. Anatolia, Persia, Mesopotamia and the Levant are all represented in the objects analysed in detail. Several tablets and inscriptions of famous texts, such as the Code of Hammurabi, are also presented in some detail, though translations are only partial. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long). An attractive introduction to the Near Eastern collection of one of the world's great museums which will interest the general public and school children as well as university level students of archaeology and ancient history.
This website focuses on the ongoing excavations at the Iron Age settlement of Zincirli Höyük, Turkey. The illustrated website presents past and recent research as well the research goals for the future in a several pages. Zincirli was the capital of a small Aramean kingdom and boasted a monumental palace, massive outer walls, and ornate city gates adorned with sculpted stone reliefs. A page outlines the main finds of the recent excavations, including a written stele naming a royal official called "Kuttamuwa". Further excavations are planned and volunteers may wish to contact the project directors. Both students and researchers may find this updated website valuable.
This is the official website of "The New Tiberias Excavation Project". Tiberias is an important site for the Jewish; Christian; and Islamic religions. The website at the time of review only contained a few pictures and practical information on how to participate in the fieldwork, which will be useful to students.
This Web page gives access to the full-text of 'Orient: Report of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan' (1960-2004), and despite the word 'report' in the title this is actually a substantial academic journal. Tables of contents, abstracts, and PDF files of articles are all freely available online. The journal was published in English, with occasional articles in German and French, and was devoted to reports and scholarly articles on archaeological and historical topics, with forays into linguistics. Example article titles include: 'Historical problems of the early Achaemenian period'; 'Hadiths as historical sources for a biography of the prophet'; 'A Japanese view of Lord Cromer's rule in Egypt'; and 'A Century of Turkish Studies in Japan', among many others. The latest issue available at 2009 is the 2004 issue, a special on the history of glass and glass-making. This will be a useful full-text resource for those engaged in the historical study of the Near East. The journal issues are held on the Japanese central online archive of ejournals (which is presented in English, but which otherwise contains only scientific journals), and as such the page does not have details of editors and Editorial Board - but these may be found by browsing the preface of recent issues or by searching Google.
This is the website of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago. The goals of the Institute are to document and study the languages, history and cultures of the ancient Near East. The site includes a link to an Index to Ancient Near Eastern Resources on the Internet (ABZU), now run in partnership with Etana, and information about research, projects and publications. The Oriental Institute Museum is a showcase of the history, art and archaeology of the ancient Near East. The Museum exhibits major collections of antiquities from Egypt, Mesopotamia, Iran, Syria, Palestine, and Anatolia. Highlights from these collections are displayed online.
"The Origins and Ancient History of Wine" website by Dr Patrick McGovern provides a wealth of information on the earliest known evidence about wine. Most of the evidence concentrates in the ancient Near East, including Egypt. For the curious, the earliest evidence is provided by some Neolithic (5400-5000 BC) jars originally from Hajji Firuz Tepe in Mesopotamia and now at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. There are short articles focusing on individual regions; a map; a glossary; and a basic introduction to archaeological chemistry ("How did we know it was wine?"). Chemical analyses have been carried out by the "Museum Applied Science Center for Archaeology" (MASCA). The articles are aimed at the general public, but might be used also as introduction to this important topic in any class. There is an interactive quiz (for instance, "how much wine was buried in Scorpion I's tomb?") and the possibility to leave a comment about your preferred wine.
The city of Petra in Jordan was one of the wealthiest caravan cities of the ancient Near East which particularly flourished in Hellenistic and Roman times (c.300 BC-c.100 AD) and is famous for its beautiful 'rose red' architecture and dramatic topography. This is the web publication of the excavations by Brown University, Rhode island at the Great Temple, one of the major public buildings located in the centre of the city, between 1992 and 2001. A concise introductory history of the town is followed by a guide to the architecture of the Great Temple itself and a series of detailed reports on the excavation, reconstruction and conservation work of the Brown University project. Plans and photographs are numerous and can be viewed as thumbnails or at large scale. An extensive bibliography back to 1993 and details of the paper publication are also provided. This is an attractively presented and informative site which will appear to students and researchers of Near Eastern, Hellenistic and Roman art and archaeology and provide up to date information on this important archaeological site.
Eight examples of the oldest human-form statues ever found in the Near East were on display from 28 July 1996 to 6 April 1997 at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC in an exhibition entitled 'Preserving ancient statues from Jordan'. This website provides information about the discovery, construction, conservation and display of the statues found at the Neolithic site of 'Ain Ghazal and explores them as works of art and ritual objects. The site also includes a short bibliography.
The webpage of Professor Jeffrey R. Zorn focuses on Tell en-Nasbeh, which is a multi-period settlement some 8 miles north of Jerusalem in Israel. Many scholars believe the settlement to be the biblical site of Mizpah, the scene of many important events in the Bible. In this attractively presented and well illustrated website, Dr. Zorn of Cornell University attempts to re-interpret the results of the old excavations from the 1920s-1930s in the light of more recent research into the archaeology of the Bronze and Iron Age in Israel. The author provides a useful introduction to the biblical history of the town, illustrated with extensive quotations, in addition to a brief history of the older excavations and a full bibliography of research up to 2006. Also included is a stratum by stratum description of the archaeological levels which extend from the Late Chalcolithic to the Hellenistic and Roman periods, illustrated with many useful, though rather small scale, photographs. Of added interest is a series of video clips of the 1935 excavations (MPG format) and a large scale reproduction of the original site plan from the 1947 report. The website also provides a link to the excavations at the important Iron Age site of Tel Dor excavations which are directed by Professor Zorn. There is also a collection of papers and articles (in PDF format) published by the author. This resource will be useful to those studying or interested in the Bronze and Iron archaeology of ancient Israel at a basic level and provides a useful interface between material culture and biblical texts.
The Project on Ancient Cultural Engagement (PACE) focuses on ancient authors who found themselves in between cultures in order to address problems of cultural identity and cultural interaction in the Roman world, 200 BCE to 300 CE, with particular emphasis to the Greek and eastern world. Among the texts included are those of Polybius of Megalopolis; Flavius Josephus; Diodorus Siculus and others. The website publishes Classical texts with original text; English translations; full commentary; and textual parallels. The website also publishes full-text papers and books in PDF format ("scholarly studies") and abstracts of relevant theses ("dissertations"). There is a section on "History of Reception" concerned with the reception of "The Judean War"; "The Judean Antiquities"; "Life of Josephus"; and "Against Apion". It is possible to perform keyword searches on the bibliographic database only or on the bibliographic database plus the geographical (places) and archaeological notes; the notes can also be browsed. It is possible to contribute to this project by registering using a form. This website may interest researchers interested in the topics of cultural identity and acceptance in the Roman world.
This is the official website of the Italian archaeological mission excavating the archaeological site of Qatna, also known as Mishrifeh, which dates from the Early Bronze Age III and IV (2600-2000 BC) to the Iron Age II (ca. 900-600 BC) periods. During the Bronze Age, Qatna was an independent kingdom contended by the Egyptians, the kingdom of Mitanni and the Hittites. The excavations have unearthed a vast Royal Palace, the second largest palace in Syria after that of Mari as well as a large pottery manufacturing area on the top of the acropolis. This website contains short texts and is thoroughly illustrated with maps; satellite and aerial photographs; colour photographs of architectural structures and artefacts; and drawings. A complete and updated bibliography of the excavations can be accessed directly or downloaded in PDF format. The useful menu on the top simplifies the navigation of this website. This website is principally aimed at students and the general public, but can also be used for teaching.
This website offers access to reports of contract archaeology excavations carried out by the Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies at the University of Haifa, Israel. Among the reports is the one of Tirat-HaCarmel, where hundreds of glass vessels dating from the Late Roman period have been found. The text uses the hypertextual capabilities of HTML to integrate several pictures and a bibliography within the report. Further reports, including one on a salvage excavation at the village of Beit Zarzir are available in Hebrew only. However, English-speaking readers can benefit from abstracts, pictures and bibliography and may be able to translate the full-text Hebrew pages with some online translation service.
This website is part of the Digital Library for International Research, a project of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC), and it publishes the first five volumes (1931-1938) of the "Revue archéologique syrienne" journal. Papers are written in French and Arabic and are accessible as individual full-text PDF files, with searchable text. Among the topics are the excavations at Aleppo; the languages of Hatti; Ras Shamra (Ugarit); and reports of archaeological excavations in Syria during the 1930s.
The blog of Ritmeyer Archaeological Design contains news about Biblical archaeology and especially on new illustrations produced by this commercial firm. In addition to some short reports on recent archaeological projects, several posts in the blog contain quality imagery that may be useful to students. Anyone interested in virtual reconstructions and their use in movies and public presentations may also find some interesting posts. It is also possible to purchase some finished products in the online store.
The Rough Cilicia Archaeological Survey Project has been using surface survey to map and record evidence of past human existence in western Rough Cilicia, southern Turkey. The website presents detailed reports on the results of surveys carried since 1996 and, in particular, on the discovery of Juliosebaste, a prominent town at least from the early Roman through the Byzantine era. A series of pages present a web GIS which show the survey areas and the major sites found. A Survey Pottery Study Collection has photographs and descriptions of the major classes of pottery found plus a number of QuickTime movies illustrating, with commentary pottery classes. Further QuickTime movies and animated gif images show discoveries made during the surveys and computer reconstructions of some settlements. Many of the pages of the website have a navigation bar in a frame at the left of the browser window although some pages open in a new browser window and are devoid of navigation aids. The website makes intense use of multimedia resources, but section "Article" contains a summary of the research suitable for undergraduate students, including an essay entitled "What is Survey?"
This is the official website of the excavations at Ugarit (Ras Shamra), in French only. There are short illustrated articles and an updated bibliography. Clicking on some illustrations opens larger pictures and some maps of the archaeological site may be of particular interest.
Ugarit was an important Bronze Age settlement and harbour, the site of a local kingdom and the principal "port of trade" in the Levant for tin, which was sourced in Elam and reached Ugarit via Mesopotamia. A special quarter at the harbour (Minet el Beida) hosted representatives of foreign powers that traded with the kingdom. Ugarit was conquered by the Egyptians (1400-1350 BC) and later by the Hittites (1350-1200 BC), though the kingdom enjoyed some freedom in trade. Texts in seven languages have been found in most houses, some of which were written in the local language, Ugaritic. Substantial amounts of Cypriot and Mycenaean pottery have been found in Late Bronze Age contexts. Ugarit was destroyed by the so-called Sea People at the end of the Late Bronze Age.
The Samarra Archaeological Survey website publishes information on the work carried out at Samarra, especially the tell at Qadisiyya, which yielded artefacts dating from the Umayyad period up to the 13th-14th centuries. The archaeological area has been the focus of archaeological research throughout the twentieth century but this website concentrates on the last campaigns held in the 1980s. The website is largely graphical in nature (i.e. mostly pictures) and contains some detailed drawings of architectural structures. There is also a bibliography. The website acts as a preliminary report and may be useful primarily to students.
A useful educational and research website based around the small collection of cuneiform tablets held by the University of Minnesota Science Museum which provides a short guide to the history and culture of cuneiform script and political and economic administration in ancient Sumer (southern Iraq) over four thousand years ago. The core of the resource is a description of the physical form, provenance, date and context, and content of each of the dozen tablets owned by the museum accompanied by high quality photographs, viewable at a number of scales, of each object. The actual texts are published in transliteration and translation and mostly deal with administrative and religious matters. Most of the texts belong to the so-called Sumerian Renaissance of the UR III period circa 21st century BC and come from cities in southern Iraq but several others date from the Neo-Babylonian period of the 6th century BC and feature famous kings such as Nebuchadnezzar and Nabonidus. In addition there is a fascinating account of the formation of the collection by archaeologist and adventurer Edgar James Banks ('The forgotten Indiana Jones') who worked in the Middle East in the twilight years of the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the 20th century. This modest resource will particularly interest students and researchers of ancient Near Eastern studies but also forms an attractive introduction to cuneiform texts for the more general reader.
This website is the online publication of a Stanford University conference entitled "Seeing the past". Many of the papers presented at the conference can be accessed through this website. Topics of the papers include general papers on human sight, Neolithic Catalhoyuk, Mycenaean art, Neolithic Italy, Bulgaria, Mesoamerica and Classical archaeology. There are thematic papers focusing on the Lupanar at Pompeii, the Greek symposium and visual problems with the imagery used in virtual reconstructions and aerial archaeology. This website can be useful especially to researchers.
This website publishes the preliminary reports of the excavations at Sepphoris, Israel, by the University of South Florida from 1993 to 2001. Some of the reports are illustrated, and should be treated with caution as more complete publications are available on paper. A revised edition of an academic paper appeared in Israel Exploration Journal [44, 3-4 (1994), pp. 216-227, and 45, 2-3 (1995), pp. 171-187] and entitled "Excavations at Sepphoris: The Location and Identification of Shikhin" by Strange, Groh and Longstaff is available along with a bibliography of early publications and a preliminary report Joan Keller on glass finds. This website acts as archive for reports of early excavations at Sepphoris and may be of interest especially to researchers. A separate website (Zippori) documents the results of recent excavations.
The archaeological site of Sha'ar Hagolan in the Jordan Valley in Israel, dating from the 6th millennium BC, is one of the most important early Neolithic villages excavated in the Near East and has produced an impressive quantity of ancient art objects and the largest assemblage of prehistoric artefacts recovered in the country. This resource offers a guide to various aspects of the settlement which has been excavated by Yosef Garfinkel of the Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, since 1989. The website provides a brief summary of the aims and methods of the research excavations and an account of the historical significance of the site as well as a brief note on the Sha'ar Hagolan museum and some images of the excavations and its key artefacts. An online version of Garfinkel's article "The Yarmukian Culture in Israel" from the journal Paleorient 19, 1 (1993) provides a useful introduction to the Neolithic background of the site and is complemented by a short bibliography of key readings (in addition to the more extensive bibliography published with Garfinkel's article). This site is a useful addition to the online resources available in Near Eastern prehistory for knowledgeable undergraduate students and researchers.
Sidon was one of the most important settlements in the Levant from the Bronze Age up to Phoenician times thanks also to its strategic location. The favourable location has ensured continuity of occupation, with the modern town eventually being built on top of the ancient one. Only recently archaeological excavations could take place, and this website details them by campaign. Of particular interest, also for the chronology, are the Egyptian materials, which have been discovered up to the Late Bronze Age levels, at a time when the rest of the Levant was in turmoil. In spite of the importance of the archaeological site, the website contains only limited information. A useful bibliography can be downloaded as a PDF file. Students may find this website useful.
The Society for Arabian Studies is a scholarly organisation based in London that aims to... "support and encourage research in the Arabian peninsula in the fields of archaeology, history, culture and the environment". The website is presented in English. The Society publishes an annual 'Bulletin' magazine in English, which is freely available online in PDF format. The 'Bulletin' aims to be a comprehensive survey of scholarly activity in the field during the past year, and at October 2008 three issues of this journal are available for download. Also available on the website are full details of the organising committee, membership fees, the Society's conferences, lectures, its Monograph Series, and other activities. The Society also offers small grants, of £500. This website will be especially useful for those seeking an accessible summary of recent scholarship in this area.
This website publishes the preliminary results of an ongoing project in the plain of Tehran, Iran, by a research team from Durham University; the University of Tehran; the University of Bradford; and Azad University. The researchers are focusing upon the transformation of simple, egalitarian Neolithic communities into more hierarchical ones; have dug the archaeological site of Cheshmeh-Ali and are working at the site of Tepe Pardis while carrying out an extensive survey of Tehran Plain. Although the focus of the project was on the fifth millennium BC, much research has interested later periods. The information available on the website is really limited, a basic introduction, but there is a useful bibliography. The website may be successfully used by researchers as an introduction to the project.
'Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization' is a full-text open access ejournal, with issues available online from 1991 through to 2009. The journal is published in English and French from the Jagiellonian University Institute of Archaeology, in Poland. Recent articles are primarily in English, and all articles are freely available in PDF format. Example article titles include: 'Egyptianising Grave Monuments in London's Brompton Cemetery'; 'Dwarf Figurines from Tell el-Farkha'; 'Gazelles and Ostriches from Tell el-Farkha'; 'A Forgotten Scarab of Horemheb', among others. Volume 11 was a special issue covering recent research on Greek colonies of the northern Black Sea coast. The journal will be of interest to scholars of... "pre-dynastic and early dynastic Egypt, the archaeology of ancient Egypt and Middle East, archaeology of Greece, Cyprus, Italy; the history of collecting and the history of archaeological research". The journal website has full details of the Editorial Board and submissions process.
Styppax, named after a celebrated Cypriot sculptor mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, is a valuable online resource for the study of sculpture from the island of Cyprus, particularly from the Cypro-Geometric, Cypro-Geometric and Cypro-Classical periods (circa 1050-300 BC). The resource consists of an extensive bibliography of published works (including book reviews) related to sculpture and related arts in ancient Cyprus but also to the surrounding region from which Cypriot material culture drew so many of its influences in the Iron Age. The bibliography includes sections on collections of Cypriot art in world museums, travellers accounts and the work of early archaeologists and antiquarians, provenience and distribution studies on Cypriot sculpture, as well as iconographic and religious aspects. Miscellaneous essays on aspects of Cypriot art include the full-text of Mylonas's 1998 University of Mannheim doctoral dissertation on 'Archaische kalksteinplastik Zyperns' (which includes a survey of stone sculpture on the island beginning circa 1900 B.C.) and Jenkins's article arguing for a Cypriot origin for the kouroi from Naukratis in Egypt reproduced from AJA 105 (2001). Also included are maps of Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean and a series of web-links to institutions holding substantial or significant collections of Cypriot art as well as to websites with images of Cypriot sculpture. This website will benefit a wide range of students and researchers working in Mediterranean and Near Eastern archaeology and art history.
SCIEM2000 is a major inter-disciplinary research project aiming to refine our understanding of the chronological relationships between Eastern Mediterranean cultures of the second millennium BC using a variety of archaeological, historical and scientific dating techniques. This website is currently being updated and only contains essential contact information.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on northern Syria. This overview of French archaeological research in Syria summarises the history and material culture of the region. There is also a short history of research. Two illustrated articles concentrate on the villages of Sergilla and Déhí ÃÂ¨s. There is an extensive bibliography and numerous colour pictures, plans, and drawn reconstructions. This website may be of particular use to students.
This website provides an online guide to the Tafila-Busayra Archaeological Survey (TBAS), a three year project (1999-2001) carried out in the Trans-Jordanian Plateau south-east of the Dead Sea which was intended in part as a hinterland study of the Edomite capital of Busayra. Conducted by Dr Burton MacDonald of the St. Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia, the project attempted to connect, both geographically and chronologically, with the work of the Wadi al-Hasa Archaeological Survey (WHS; 1979-83) and the Southern Ghors and Northeast 'Arabah Archaeological Survey (SGNAS; 1985-86). The survey area, covering a region of some 480 sq. kilometres in the region from west of Tafila and Busayra to Jurf ad-Darwish in the east, had previous been explored by Nelson Glueck in the 1930s and Stephen Hart in the 1980s. The resource provides illustrated summary reports (including valuable artefact scatter data) which can be downloaded as Word files for each of the three years of the project along with bibliographic references to the paper publication in the American Journal of Archaeology, the Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan and the American Center of Oriental Research Newsletter. This resource will benefit specialists and students in Near Eastern archaeology, particularly those interested in long-term landscape developments and intensive inter-disciplinary survey methods.
This is the website of "The Archaeological Settlements of Turkey", a project aiming to catalogue all known pre-Classical settlements within the territory of modern Turkey. The targeted settlements date from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age, though the database does not include yet any settlement past the Early Bronze Age. The website offers access to a growing database of settlements and a GIS version of it. Computing technologies are extensively used, sometimes openly experimented, and a Java enabled browser is required to access the GIS section, which only plots the settlements on a map of Turkey and return on click of each site the corresponding database record. The database can be queried using a simple or advanced search, but the latter only refines the geographical region to be searched. By clicking a period underneath the simple search form, it is possible to access an advanced form limited by period, which is perhaps the best way to perform a search. The data returned by the database are often succinct, and only at times there are maps and pictures. It is also possible for the public to add settlements to the database, or modify data in any record. Such modifications are reviewed before inclusion in the online version. The Turkish team of archaeologists behind TAY is not affiliated to any institution and this is perhaps most evident in the decision to involve the public in the compilation of the database. The website is hosted by the Istanbul Technical University, Turkey.
Tel Dor is one of the few natural harbours on Israel's Mediterranean coast and is one of the country's largest archaeological sites. Throughout Biblical times the harbour acted as a magnet, drawing commerce and conquerors to the Carmel coast. The University of California team's work focuses on the ancient citadel and its approaches and the Roman temples. Previous work at Tel Dor has already revealed the huge stone gate of Solomon's city, cylinder seals from Assyrian times, numerous terracotta figurines from the Persian occupation, well-preserved stone walled houses from the Hellenistic period, and mosaic floors dating to Roman times. The website has brief excavation reports for the seasons of 1986 through to 1999. There is a bibliography and information for volunteers; a link to the official website of Tel Dor is also available.
This website, featuring the new excavations initiated by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 2003, provides a valuable illustrated overview of the history and archaeology of Tel Dor, including a comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography, and includes details of the project personnel and publication strategy of the project. Tel Dor is a large and important archaeological site on the Mediterranean coast 30km south of Haifa which played an important part in the commercial and cultural history of the Levant in the second and first millennia BC, though the archaeological record extends almost continuously down to Crusader times, circa 1300 AD. A period by period account outlining older and more recent discoveries is complemented by useful interactive photographs which provide a virtual guided tour of Dor. The chief aims of the new work and the wider research issues include: to provide a detailed stratified database to study cultural and ethnic changes at the town over time, particularly the presence and role of the Sea Peoples and the Phoenicians in the Late Bronze and Iron Age I-II periods; to further define the role of important harbour settlements such as Dor in the economy of inland empires, such as the Assyrians and the Persians, who dominated the region in the first millennium BC; the Hellenisation, and later Romanisation, of the indigenous populations of the region in the later centuries of the first millennium; the application of scientific methods such as sedimentology to aid the understanding of site formation; the application of computer technology to ceramic analysis. Given the quantity and quality of the archaeology and the important historical questions raised by Dor, this website will interest students and researchers in ancient Near Eastern and Eastern Mediterranean archaeology and history.
This illustrated website publishes the preliminary data from the excavations at Tell 'Acharneh in Syria by Laval University, Quebec, which has been exploring this important ancient urban centre since 1998. Acharneh, 35 km south-west of Hama in modern Syria, is a large tell site of some 70 hectares located on the Orontes river in the southern portion of the fertile Ghab valley whose strategic position helps to explain its long history of human occupation from the Early Bronze Age to the mediaeval period. This site has been identified with the powerful city of Tunip mentioned in Near Eastern and Egyptian documents of the second millennium BC and central to our understanding of the political makeup of the region in this period. The ancient town disappears from ancient records at the arrival of the Sea Peoples at the end of the Bronze Age. As part of the project, archaeologists are revising the pottery sequence, which is used as an important chronological yardstick in Near Eastern stratigraphy. The website publishes short fieldwork reports since 1998 (accessible by year or excavation area); bibliographic references; a video produced from GIS data; topographical and satellite maps; news on recent research; and lists of project members by year. The English language version of this website was in preparation at the time of review. This is an informative resource on an important archaeological site and will benefit students and researchers in Near Eastern archaeology and history and related subjects. However, the scanty data from the preliminary reports only allow for an introduction to the research at this archaeological site.
This website presents the Danish excavations in the site of Tell Aushariye, in northern Syria. The site was an ancient fortress which probably dates from the 9th century BC. The excavation team has proposed to identify the site with the recorded ancient name of Pitru. The website contains illustrated short reports on the excavations and artefacts, from the Middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age, with a summary of the preceding periods. The website also contains a few maps, a general introduction, information on the fieldwork activities and a bibliography. This website will be useful to researchers.
The Tell Brak / Kilise Tepe archive is the result of an archaeological excavation focusing on the contextual analysis of the use of space at two Near Eastern Bronze Age sites. This archive represents the raw material of a project designed to collect and analyse data from two Near Eastern excavations, Tell Brak in north-eastern Syria, and Kilise Tepe in southern Turkey. The project was jointly initiated by Dr. R.J. Matthews and J.N. Postgate, and was funded by the Leverhulme Trust. The archive consists of introductions to the excavations at Tell Brak and Kilise Tepe; reports on archaeobotanical, zooarchaeological, micromorphological and ceramic analyses. The files composing the archive can be freely downloaded; they are in BMP; delimited text; plain text; MS Word; MS Excel; GIF; HTML; RTF formats. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This website in the form of a blog publishes up to date information on the archaeological site of Tell es-Safi. Tell es-Safi is a large archaeological site located between Jerusalem and Ashkelon, which has been identified as Gath, one of the major Philistine centres. Preliminary reports are often linked, but contents are subject to change at short notice given the preliminary nature of such publications. This website may be useful to both researchers and students interested in the archaeology of Israel and the Philistines. Students may find information on how to participate in the excavations.
The "Goliath inscription", which is is written in archaic Proto-Canaanite script, but contains two Indo-European? names, Alwt and Wlt is worth singling out as a notable discovery from the site.
The archaeological site of Madaba 30km south-west of Amman in the highlands of modern Jordan is best known its well preserved Byzantine buildings and mosaics, including the famous mosaic map of Palestine discovered in 1896 but the area has in fact been the focus of urban settlement for more than 5000 years. The Tell Madaba Archaeological Project (TMAP) of the University of Toronto has examined the development of early urban society around Madaba since 1996 and has attempted to chart its long history of occupation from a Early Bronze Age tell site to a modern population centre within the wider context of long-term changes in subsistence and environmental adaptation. The settlement began as a medium-size tell site around 16 hectares in extent situated in the fertile upland plains of central Jordan. The town is mentioned in the 9th century BC Mesha inscription which provides an important link between ancient Moab and the Bible while later sources and archaeological remains attest to its wider prominence in ancient times. This resource introduces the aims and methods of this research project, provides a brief background to the archaeological site and its region along with preliminary reports of fieldwork from 1996 onwards and includes a concise bibliography of past scholarship and discoveries. The text is illustrated with numerous attractive satellite maps of the area as well as GIS topographic plans which will be augmented in future with full site plans, details of finds and video footage. This website is intended in particular for undergraduate students and researchers in the archaeology and human ecology of the Near East.
Tell Tayinat is a large low-lying mound located 45 kilometres west of Antakya (ancient Antioch) in Southeastern Turkey. This website publishes the preliminary reports of the University of Toronto excavations and a summary of previous research. As part of this research project, the data gathered in the Amuq Valley by the University of Chicago are being reviewed. The illustrated preliminary reports (1998 to 2005 at the time of review) are the most useful asset of this website that may be useful to both students and researchers.
Past and present excavations have unearthed so far several large palaces (called bit hilani); a temple; and numerous beautifully carved stone reliefs and sculptures. The history of the settlement spans the Early Bronze (ca. 3000 to 2000 BC) and the Iron Age (ca. 1200 to 550 BC). The discovery of ancient inscriptions has allowed scholars to identify the archaeological site as ancient Kunulua, capital of the Neo Hittite/Aramaean Kingdom of Patina/Unqi.
Tell Tuneinir, on the Middle Khabur river in north-eastern Syria, was continuously occupied from the Bronze Age to the mediaeval periods circa 2500 B.C.- 1500 A.D. and was a very active commercial and manufacturing town in the latest phases of its existence as well as being home to an elaborate Syriac monastic complex. This attractively produced resource provides a concise account of the results from the current excavations conducted by St Louis Community College, St Louis Missouri together with a bibliography of publications by the expedition team. The website provides an area by area description of the discoveries at Tell Tuneinir with plans and photographs of the buildings and archaeological contexts as well as selections of the small finds. The Bronze Age levels are particularly rich in zoological remains. There is a particular emphasis on the Byzantine and Islamic periods whose houses, market buildings and places of worship have been uncovered. The website thus provides a useful overview of a Middle Eastern settlement of the medieval period which will be of use to students and researchers of Late Roman, Byzantine and Islamic archaeology and art history as well as to those interested in the earlier levels of the settlement.
The Temehu Tourism Services website has a special and substantial section on the museums in Libya, and also provides a directory of the little-known museums in that country. This new 2009 website also aims to make scholarly information and images freely available. The website includes "detailed reviews and analysis of all the museums of Libya, a photo gallery about the whole country, organised by town, a video gallery, a Libyan jewellery & traditional crafts gallery, and prehistoric art galleries". Details of opening times and museum entrance fees are also given, along with other practical details. Travel without an approved guide and planned route is still forbidden in the country, so the website has suggestions for its own Libyan tours, routes, and hotels. There is an associated weblog, which currently has details of the new (June 2009) changes in the Tourist Visa Law in Libya, advice on driving in Libya (apparently it is rather dangerous), and other useful current advice. This website would appear to be an important resource for archaeologists and historians planning to visit Libya, although other scholarly tour guides and resources may be available.
Archaeology, Nationalism and Heritage in Islamic Society: a Turkish Case Study is an investigation undertaken by Dr David Shankland into the relationship between culture, nationalism and the remains of the past within Islam, taking Turkey as a specific example. The research took place between July 2000 and September 2001 in the Konya region of Turkey, centring largely upon the Neolithic archaeological site of Çatalhöyük. Visits were also made to population centres, such as nearby Konya, for the purposes of comparison and corroboration of findings. This archive presents a visual document of Dr Shankland's research, providing access to over 500 images and their accompanying annotations. They include photographs from the main focus of research at Çatalhöyük and other archaeological sites in Turkey.
The official website of the Iraq Museum publishes some information on the galleries. For each gallery there are a few pictures (thumbnail size) with captions. Some texts do appear in a few galleries. Further information may appear in the future as there are placeholder pages for an extensive website (possibly the whole website as reviewed is a placeholder for future contents). Students will find very little reason to visit the website for the information it contains at the time of review. In recent years the museum has come to symbolise the damage to cultural heritage that conflicts may do and unfortunately the website mirrors the state of the real museum. A blank page on the "looting impact" is an icon by itself. The arabic version of the website opens in a new domain, but is currently empty, not even the scanty information available in the English version has been translated. Hopefully as things progress on the ground, they will do so also on the Web.
The official website of the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism publishes a series of publications of interest to archaeologists. These are available free and full-text in PDF format; all text is in Turkish. The principal periodic publications are: "Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi (1933-1997)", (Turkish Journal of Archaeology); "Türk Etnografya Dergisi (1956-1997)", (Ethnography Journal of Turkey); and "Türk Arkeoloji ve Etnografya Dergisi", (Turkish Journal of Archeology and Ethnography). The following collections of periodic publications are also available: "Müze Çalışmaları ve Kurtarma Kazıları Sempozyumu Yayınları", (Rescue Excavations and Museum Studies Symposium Publications); and "Uluslararası Kazı, Araştırma ve Arkeometri Sempozyumu Yayınları", (International Excavation, Research and Archaeometry Symposium Publications). Information on printed publications is also available. Contact details for the official departments of the ministry that regulate archaeological excavations and museums can also be found in the contacts (İLETİŞİM) page. Researchers in particular may find this specialist website useful.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Tilbeshar, Turkey. It contains a series of illustrated articles documenting the excavations at the site. The site was in use from the fourth millennium BC until the Middle Bronze Age; the site was then reoccupied during the medieval period. Tilbeshar was an important centre during the Uruk, Obeid and Halaf periods. This resource also offers a bibliography, contact details for both excavators and researchers (including those who have carried out scientific analyses), and a 'diaporama' - a gallery of pictures.
Umm el-Jimal is a well preserved Byzantine/Early Islamic town in the lava lands east of Mafraq, Jordan. There are over a hundred and fifty standing buildings, one to three stories, and several towers up to five and six stories. A programme of excavations has been carried out at Umm el-Jimal by Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan. The website gives brief descriptions of the results of the excavations plus more detailed field reports and interpretations. At the time of review the website was being expanded with many pictures; larger sections on the history of excavations; and an heritage section focusing on the preservation of the ancient culture in the contemporary population. Several academic papers published by the excavation team are available in PDF format. This is a website to explore and keep an eye on. Some information is already available but much more is promised (too many placeholders for future pages complicate accessing those pages with information).
The mound of Umm el-Marra, located in the Jabbul Plain east of Aleppo in northern Syria, was an important urban centre occupying a strategic position on the east-west routes connecting the Orontes Valley and the Mediterranean with the Upper Euphrates, which flourished between 3000 and 1200 BC. This attractively presented website provides a useful overview of the excavations conducted by John Hopkins University and the University of Amsterdam since 1994 and includes numerous maps, illustrations and drawings of the discoveries together with an up-to-date recent bibliography. A particular aim of the expedition is to explore the development of urbanisation in western Syria and the Upper Euphrates Valley in the course of the 3rd millennium BC and to determine the relationship of Umm el-Marra with better documented centres in the region, particularly the famous site of Ebla which dominated north-west Syria in the later 3rd millennium BC. The site is also believed to have functioned as a 'gateway' between the settled communities of the plain and the nomadic populations of the steppe lands to the east. The website provides a period by period overview of the Bronze Age levels, chronicling the fluctuating economic and political fortunes of the city, particularly the urban floruit of the Early Bronze Age, its 'decline' and almost total abandonment of the site in Middle Bronze I (2000-1800 BC), and its later relationship with the powerful kingdoms of Yamhad (Aleppo), Mitanni and the Hittites. Another phase of abandonment around circa 1200 was followed by more sporadic occupation in Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Roman and Islamic times but the site appears never to have regained its relative importance in the Bronze Age. This resource will benefit students and researchers working in the archaeology and early history of the Near East and is a useful addition to the corpus of online site reports for archaeologists working in this area.
This website presents the excavations at Urkesh, modern Tell Mozan. Urkesh is a Hurrian site located in Syria and dates at least to the Akkadian period, when the royal palace containing an archive of cuneiform tablets was built. Life at the site continued well into the Babylonian period, when the site eventually declines. The website offers two introductory PDF files available in both English and Arabic, one proposing tours to visitors of the actual site and the other introducing a few artefacts. There are then a series of pages dedicated to various themes and categories of artefacts. Some of these pages use PowerPoint presentations, and although they do not need any special software, a broadband connection is recommended. The digital library offers free access to abstracts and full-text ebooks in PDF format of several scholarly publications on Urkesh and ancient Mesopotamia in English, Italian and German. A general bibliography completes the site. As of 2005, a new version of this website is in progress, which should contain more pages targeting the general public.
The Virtual Karak Resources Project (VKRP) web-site provides an attractively illustrated guide to the archaeological, environmental and historical research which has been carried out by several American theological colleges in the Karak region of central Jordan (ancient Moab) since 1995 with a view to exploring the landscape and landuse in this region from the Palaeolithic period to the 20th century A.D. Although the presentation style and level suggests an intended undergraduate or general audience, there is much to offer researchers in a wider range of Middle Eastern studies. The wide range of case studies of the area are grouped under four study headings: archaeological; cultural; environmental; and historical. Historical, cultural and geological studies are complemented by numerous practical articles. The latter include an introductory tutorial on handling and studying pottery recovered from archaeological sites and a very useful over-view of pottery of the Islamic period from the 7th-20th centuries A.D. based on the KVRP excavation at the archaeological site of Mudaybi. Throughout, the text is complemented by numerous maps, satellite images and high quality photographs and a timeline. In addition to individual bibliographies and lists of web-links attached to individual articles, there is also a list of publications and abstracts by members of the VKRP team since 1995.
"The Virtual Museum of Iraq" website has been produced under the scientific supervision of the Italian Research Council (CNR) and is supported by the Italian Foreign Ministry. Despite the involvement of research staff, the website is aimed at the general public in a bid to help the Iraqi people reconstruct their cultural identity and it is of limited value to students. The website recreates graphically the environment of a museum and selected artefacts are displayed in "halls", each focusing on a distinct chronological period (prehistoric to Islamic periods). The selection of many artistic objects suggests the use of old fashioned criteria and limits the value of the website as an educational tool. For each artefact there is a "description" with a picture, and often there are 360 degrees QuickTime VR representations of the artefact ("Explore") and a "video" a few minutes long outlining the archaeological and/or cultural contexts. The information for the individual artefacts is succinct and correct. Section "backstage" (bottom bar) contains short videos by the scientific curators providing additional information on the project; these videos are available in Italian only.
The website is very polished and uses of several multimedia technologies, including virtual reconstructions, but navigating through it is not as easy as it could be. Virtual reconstructions are however based on "best guess" policies and therefore of limited value to anyone serious about the study of a culture. There is also a distracting running music that cannot be switched off permanently. The layout of the website appears to be that of a real museum. The project saw the involvement of staff from the Iraq museum in Baghdad, but is not the official website of the museum even if at times it may appear to be. It would have been preferable to see less graphics and no virtual walls potentially suggesting that the website acts as a replacement of the real museum. Since the real museum has been damaged in a conflict, the use of virtual reality to recreate that environment as good as it can be seems ethically challenged and may well become the subject of academic discussions involving students. Despite the obvious great efforts in producing the website, the graphics and multimedia seem to overshadow the actual artefacts and whilst the casual user may think that the website is a great introduction to the Iraqi culture using the latest technologies, even undergraduate students will struggle to squeeze out of it some educational value.
The Wadi Arabah project focuses on the archaeological investigation and research of the area between Jordan and the Negev of southern Israel divided by the Wadi Arabah. The project aims at mapping archaeological surveys on GIS maps. The website includes information on the methodology of research; news; a few photographs of archaeological sites; an extensive bibliography; maps (both ancient and modern GIS maps). Further information on chronology; geology, environment; and the history of research are also available from the home page. The navigation of this simple website requires the use of the "back" button. This website may be useful to researchers interested in the Wadi Arabah region.
"WebGIS" is a powerful web application that combines the functionality of Google Earth with scientific data from a GIS survey. At the time of the review only one archaeological site was active, Babylon, which is accessible by clicking on Iraq in the initial map and then "Babilonia". The interactive map consists of a digital map of a central area of Babylon that can be searched by building or coordinates. It is possible to generate and display in the browser a picture of any parts of the area; this mode requires few resources from the computer and is therefore faster. There is a legend from where the layers can be activated or deactivated and a small help page. The selectable layers include Quickbird and Ikonos satellite data; topographic map; aerial photograph; digital elevation model; elevation curves; vegetation; roads, elevation points; buildings and others. If the computer has at least 512Mb of memory installed, Google Earth can be started from the browser and it will automatically download and load all datasets. From within Google Earth it is possible to select or deselect several layers; start a virtual tour of all buildings; use additional satellite photographs to map the terrain. The interface is very intuitive and written partially in English; users should note that all contents and interfaces from Google Earth will appear in the same language of the copy of Google Earth installed on their computer. It is suggested to use Google Earth to visualise the data for greater control and simplicity, but users should note that it is possible to access the legend, identify buildings, read elevations and access other features only from the browser. This is an innovative use of GIS and web technologies applied together to archaeology research. Babylon is an excellent case study and this website can be very useful to anybody interested in the archaeology of Mesopotamia.
This website publishes the West Bank and East Jerusalem Archaeological Database Project by the S. Daniel Abraham Center for International and Regional Studies at the University of Tel Aviv. The website publishes the full-text PDF and data files of the 2009 publication "Israeli Archaeological Activity in the West Bank 1967 - 2007: A Sourcebook". There is also an interactive map using Google Maps to plot the sites. "The West Bank and East Jerusalem archaeological database forms part of an Israeli-Palestinian dialogue initiative concerning the standing of archaeological sites and materials in the event of final status negotiations between Israelis and Palestinians. Some data are also available in Microsoft Excel format. Researchers in particular may find the website useful. The area interested by the survey is a political "hot-spot" making very difficult for researchers to visit the area and therefore awaiting political solutions this database is most welcome.
The website "Ancient Near Eastern Art" introduces this collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, which possesses one of the largest and most significant collections of Near Eastern artefacts in the world. This beautifully produced and easily navigated website provides an excellent guide to these holdings for both the general public and the professional academic. The collection can be searched in a number of ways, from a series of 50 highlighted objects selected by the museum or via a search engine which allows you to store a personal collection of search results for future research. Each record provides brief but informative descriptions of each object together with a high quality illustration which can be viewed at a variety of scales from thumbnail to full screen size. The Heilbrunn timeline of world art history which accompanies the entire museum collection, presented as an attractive interactive world map, situates the objects in their wider chronological and cultural context. This resource is a fine example of online museum publishing and will interest a wide public from the interested amateur and school children (and their teachers) to university level students and researchers of ancient Near Eastern art, archaeology and history.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Shabwah, capital of the kingdom of Hadramaout in Yemen. The site was part of a trade network since the seventh century BC because it is here that one of the most prized varieties of incense tree grows naturally. Several articles focus on the site and trades; noting the changes in the third century BC as the trade network reaches the West Mediterranean. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a small bibliography.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Tamna (also known as Timna; modern Hajar Kuhlân), ancient capital of Qataban, Yemen. The site was in use during the first millennium BC and became especially important during the fifth century BC thanks to extensive trade links. The website contains a series of short texts on recent studies and excavations by a French team and includes plans, colour pictures and an updated bibliography. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles.
This is the website of the Zippori (Sepphoris) excavation project, an archaeological site in the Lower Galilee between the Mediterranean and the Sea of Galilee. It is run by the Israel National Park Authority. This resource includes information on: Zippori during the Roman Period; the Art and Architecture of Byzantine Zippori; the Mosaic Pavements of Roman and Byzantine Zippori; a Bibliography; and a History of the excavation and the Hebrew University team. A history of the site's excavations is provided, as are recent reports on the park, running from 1998 onward.
Zippori, a former ancient capital of the Galilee, possessed a vibrant religious, commercial, and social community. Today, Zippori covers 16 square km and the excavations were opened to the public in 1992.