A Guide to Thirteenth Century Theologians is an online directory compiled by Gary Macy of the University of San Diego. It lists professional theologians with at least some extant works who were associated with the Universities of Paris and Oxford during this period. The theologians are organised by religious affiliation: Dominican, Franciscan, or secular. The entries themselves are brief, containing only a small amount of biographical material, with the real value of the site to be found in the bibliographic references, which point users to scholarly editions of works, or major academic publications relating to the author in question. These notes allow users to move beyond this website in order to research further their chosen figure, although because of the limited material presented, the site is likely to be of most use to those seeking a starting place for their research. The design of the site is rather basic (there is, for example, no search function), and despite sporting a large 'Under Construction' notice, work on it unfortunately seems to have been abandoned some time ago.
The Alberti Magni E-Corpus provides online editions of the works of the medieval philosopher and theologian, Albert the Great (ca. 1193-1280). Users can download PDF image files of over 30 volumes of Albert's works, taken from the Borgnet edition. Over 20 works (including Ethica, De Morte et Vita, and Super Porphyrium De V Universalibus) have also been transcribed for online browsing and searching, and there are plans to add further works in the future. Users should note that the texts are only available in the original Latin. The site home page and search interface are available in English and French. This resource is hosted by the University of Waterloo in Canada.
The Aquinas Translation Project is a Web-based project which aims to provide translations of those writings of St Thomas Aquinas which are not currently readily available in English. The works featured include Aquinas's Commentary on the Psalms, his 'A Disputed Question: Concerning the Union of the Word Incarnate', and his 'De Motu Cordis' ('On the Motion of the Heart'). This is a work in progress, so not all the translations on the site are complete. In particular, the co-ordinators of the Commentary on the Psalms translation invite input from anyone interested in contributing to the project. The original Latin of each text is given alongside the translation. The material is simply presented and easy to navigate. This site is a mirror of the Aquinas Translation Project page hosted by Niagara University; both sites feature the same works. However, the DeSales site provides more direct access: some links on the Niagara site simply invite the user to visit the DeSales site, rather than leading to the text itself.
This interesting resource forms part of the Jacques Maritain Center website of the University of Notre Dame, Indiana. They provide a collection of texts written by the Catholic philosopher Jacques Maritain (1882-1973) and others on various subjects, but particularly on Thomism and St. Thomas Aquinas. The works by Maritain at the site include: "St. Thomas Aquinas"; "Reflections on America"; "Art and Scholasticism"; "The Frontiers of Poetry"; "The Responsibility of the Artist"; "Moral Philosophy"; and "The Range of Reason". A section of the site headed 'The Thomistic Revival' includes texts from a number of different authors writing about scholasticism and the renewal of interest in medieval philosophy in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A list of links to external websites dealing with issues of Catholic theology and philosophy concludes the contents of the site. The texts themselves are presented as plain HTML, and are divided by chapter.
Those searching for introductory information on medieval Christian heresies and fluent in French may wish to visit the website "Catharisme, hérésies médiévales et inédits". Created by one of the most widely recognized authorities on Catharism, Jean Duvernoy (Toulouse), the site offers brief background discussions on some of the most widely known heretical groups of the Middle Ages. Details and references for Cathars / Bogomils and Beguins, who flourished in western Europe during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and were ultimately suppressed by Christian authorities on the basis of their supposed questionable sexual activity and dualistic belief in the relationship between body and soul. The site is an impressive collection of transcribed archival documents (registers, inquisition protocols) by following the links to the three main sections on the site: medieval heresies; primary sources; and unpublished texts. Those requiring further information can scroll through Jean Duvernoy’s weighty bibliography of his own publications. The site has not been updated since 2003 but the patient reader will find a wealth of sources for medieval heresies.
This is the website of the "Center for Hellenic Traditions" established in 2004 at the Central European University in Budapest, Hungary. The site reflects the activities and publication profile of this centre. Its proclaimed aim is to "promote innovative research into the history of Hellenic culture in a number of less frequented research areas". Thus, the research fields include religion, theology, philosophy, literature, and history of art, while the geographical area covered comprises the Balkans, the Eastern Mediterranean, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Middle East and India from Antiquity to the Early Modern period. The site informs about the workshops and colloquia organised by the center and introduces the most recent publications. The center is also part of a larger project of digitisation of Syriac manuscripts in Southern India. A call for application for fellowships is posted on the site. The titles in the lecture series hosted by the centre gives a god overview of the research interests of the centre and of the good academic reputation it has acquired among specialists.
The website of the Centre for the Study of the Cantigas of Santa Maria of Oxford University gives information on the Centre, and the poetical works which are the object of its studies. The Centre, created in 2005, brings together two projects working on the Cantigas (a collection of 13th-century Spanish poems, many describing the miracles of the Blessed Virgin Mary). One project is working on a database of the contents of the Cantigas, the other is a critical edition of the poems themselves. The website provides access to: the Cantigas de Santa Maria database; a short introduction to the poems; the 'Electronic Poncelet' (an index of incipits belonging to the poems concerning Mary); a comprehensive bibliography; and related news and links. This site would be of interest to scholars of medieval European literature in particular, but would also be useful in locating texts relating to particular saints or medieval theological ideas.
The Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL) is one of the largest and best online collections of Christian theological and spiritual works. Directed by Harry Plantinga at Calvin College, the library contains an immense assortment of electronic texts ranging from the earliest of Christian theologians through to 19th century authors. Notable offerings include: the complete Early Church Fathers series (all thirty-eight volumes of the Ante-Nicene, Nicene, and Post-Nicene Fathers are available); the works of St Thomas Aquinas (English translations of the Summa Theologica and Catena Aurea are available); and a selection of works by Anselm, Dante, Walter Hilton, St John of the Cross, Martin Luther, John Calvin, John Foxe, John Wesley, and many others. The works are available in a variety of formats, and may be either read online or downloaded (downloading requires free registration). The site may be browsed by author, title, or subject, and a search engine is also provided. There are also occasional links to texts hosted off-site. Most of the texts offered by CCEL are in English (though users should note that copyright considerations mean that translations are often some decades old); a few are also in other languages. Many works on the site have been encoded in Theological Markup Language (ThML), which provides special support for theological needs such as scripture references and Strong's numberings. Music students and lovers of church hymns may enjoy perusing the Hymnary, organised both by song title and composer. In many cases it is possible both to download the score for a hymn and to listen to a MIDI file. A valuable resource for scholars and students alike.
Corpus Thomisticum is a mammoth online project run by Enrique Alarcón of Navarra University, Spain. Its aims include: offering a complete online version of the works of Thomas Aquinas (in the original Latin, where possible following the best critical texts); providing a regularly updated extensive bibliography of Aquinas scholarship from the 13th century to the present day; constructing a database that allows users to search, compare, and sort words, phrases, and quotations, and to compile statistical information about the texts; and digitising the main manuscripts of Aquinas's work. The Corpus is still a work in progress, but there is already a great deal here, and the resource shows exhaustive, meticulous scholarship. The project welcomes contributions from other Aquinas scholars. A possible drawback for non-Latinists is that the lingua franca of this site is Latin, although a brief introduction is provided in eight other languages.
The Ecole (Early Church On-Line Encyclopedia) Initiative is a reference resource about the Christian church during its first 1,500 years. The site offers three main tools: first, a glossary which contains hundreds of brief descriptions on major figures within the early church. Secondly, a collection of longer articles covers major topics in medieval and classical Christianity. Thirdly, a chronology gives brief details of significant events in ecclesiastical and secular history from 55 BCE to the end of the 15th century. Hyperlinks between the sections are provided where relevant. The site also offers a bibliography and a list of links to related resources; however, the site is unfortunately no longer being maintained, and remains online chiefly for archival purposes. Consequently users should note that the bibliography will not include the most recent works, and it is likely that the external links will decay over time. Nevertheless, the locally hosted material offers a useful introduction to early church history.
The English theologian and philosopher Robert Grosseteste lived from around 1170-1253. The website of the Electronic Grosseteste project, originally funded by the British Academy, aims to make available electronic resources for research into Grosseteste's writings. Offered on the site are full-texts versions of those of Grosseteste's works which are in the public domain (chiefly in the original Latin), plus the facility to search and view extracts from published editions which still carry copyright restrictions. An extensive bibliography is also available on the site, along with further information about the life of Robert Grosseteste and the project itself.
The Episcopus Society is dedicated to fostering the study of bishops in medieval society. The website of the society provides an international directory of scholars involved in this field, aimed at encouraging the sharing of information amongst researchers, lecturers and students. Also available on the site are: links to online translations of relevant medieval texts; details of upcoming events; and a list of members' publications. The society does not charge fees to join, and encourages students and scholars to contribute to its work. This resource would be of interest to those researching medieval theology, or western medieval history more generally.
The Franciscan Authors website is a catalogue of writers connected to the Franciscan order who lived between the 13th and 18th centuries. The authors can be browsed via an alphabetical index, though unfortunately there does not appear to be a search function. A typical entry will include a short biographical note, a list of works, and may also include suggestions for further reading. An extensive bibliography section provides information for those wishing to pursue the topic further. There are also sections for anonymous writers, lives, Franciscan provinces as they were around 1350, plus a substantial but unannotated list of links to related resources.
Geographies of Orthodoxy is the website of an AHRC-funded project that aims to chart the: literary; linguistic; and theological effects of pseudo-Bonaventuran English vernacular lives of Christ circulated in the period 1350 - 1550. At the time of writing the Project is still in its early stages, and the content of the site reflects this. Eventually the Project aims to digitise all the remaining manuscript pseudo-Bonaventuran works and make them openly accessible. By examining the content and context of these manuscripts, the Project hopes to shed new light on the nature of pre-Reformation devotional thought. Eventually, the Project also aims to provide a record of the various scribal hands involved in the preparation of the manuscripts in question. The website describes the Project and its aims in some detail, together with the makeup of the Project team. Also provided is a blog containing related items of interest, including book reviews and articles on topics such as the nature of 'vernacular theology'. This site, and ultimately the work of this Project would be of interest to students and researchers working in the fields of: medieval theology; manuscript studies; English literature; and history.
This is an online bibliography for the study of medieval Church history, consisting of sections covering: primary sources; guides to using primary sources, divided geographically and by subject; guides to Latin (including dictionaries and specialised vocabularies, plus works on abbreviations, place names, and palaeography); guides to prosopography (information about individual people), topography, and chronology; general handbooks on Church history; and specialised encyclopaedias. The list is extensive and is equally useful to the beginner and to the more advanced researcher in the field. It is arranged on a single webpage, which allows for easy browsing. At time of review, the bibliography did not include works published after the mid 1990s. The list was compiled by Thomas Head at the Hunter College, City University of New York.
The Hagiography Society's website provides information on the Society and its activities. The Society, founded in 1900, is based at the University of Wisconsin--Madison and aims to promote interdisciplinary communication between scholars whose work involves the study of early Christian and medieval saints' lives. Although the majority of the Society's members are based in north America, a significant proportion are from the UK and other European countries, and the Society sponsors sessions at conferences on both sides of the Atlantic. The website provides: an introduction to the Society; the latest edition of the Society's newsletter (in PDF format); a selection of relevant Web links; details on how to join and pay dues; and a questionnaire for any scholar (including non-members) working in the field who would like their details to be included in the Society's directory. This site would be of use to academics already researching in this area, and also students wishing to undertake further study in this field.
Hortulus is an online medieval studies journal, published annually since 2005 by graduate students, for a graduate student audience. The journal is peer-reviewed, and claims an "international board of graduate students", although the staff and contributors listed appear to come mainly from North America. The published articles are of a high standard and cover a broad spectrum of subjects, including among other things: "Power and the Subversive Body in Chaucer's Wife of Bath"; "The Music of Dante's 'Purgatorio'"; "Astrology of the Arabic World and Albertus Magnus"; and "Seeing the World with the Eyes of God: the Vision Implied by the Medieval Icon". Hortulus is accompanied by a smaller magazine section entitled "Lighter Fare", which attempts to entertain and educate in tandem with the more serious scholarly tone of the main journal. "Lighter Fare" includes: interviews with medieval scholars and other professionals; light-hearted articles on anything from Gregorian chant to the production of manuscripts; book reviews; and reports on conferences and events of interest to medievalists. The website is easy to navigate, and allows readers to respond to articles directly. However, the site's reliance on images and tables may present access problems for some users.
The Internet Biblia Pauperum website provides access to an electronic version of the 'Biblia Pauperum' or 'Bible of the Poor'. The Biblia was popular in the 14th and 15th centuries and was a graphic representation of related scenes from the Old and New Testaments (with a few lines of Latin text included) as a way of explaining their content to those could not read or did not have access to books and manuscripts. The Internet Biblia Pauperum builds on a postgraduate project completed at the Univiersity of Illinois at Chicago, which initially aimed to present the Biblia to students, with the Latin text translated into modern English. The online version of the project provides a selection of the original illustrations (from medieval block books), with English translation of the Latin text revealed by rolling the cursor across the image (requires Java). Where the illustrations are not provided, diagrammatic representations of the pictures (describing the images and their position, and translating the original Latin into modern English) are provided instead. Where images are provided, sections can be enlarged for clearer viewing. Short introductions to the Biblia Pauperum and to the project itself are also provided, together with a brief bibliography. This site would be of interest to students studying medieval iconography and typology, as well as those interested in theology, bibliography and art history.
This website was founded in 1996 as an online source of medieval texts. Content scope is broad, covering a wide range of medieval studies. The majority of the sources are organized into one of three major categories: selected sources; full-text sources; and saints' lives. Additional categories include selected secondary resources, medieval legal history, and maps and images. The selected sources section offers an index to facilitate finding texts for particular periods or topics, and deals with material dating from the end of the classical world through to the reformation and renaissance. Topics listed include: economic life; the crusades; church history; intellectual life; Jewish life; and sex and gender. The full-text resources are arranged by document type, including: church councils; historiographical works; literary texts; spiritual writings; and legal documents. The saints' lives are presented in broadly chronological order, beginning with the apostolic era and going through to the post-medieval period. Saints of Byzantine, Western European, and Celtic origin are included. The site is part of the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies project (ORB), developed by Paul Halsall, the ORB sources editor, and located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.
The Iter project offers a series of online bibliographic databases pertaining to the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (400-1700). Access to the databases is available only to members of subscribing institutions and individual subscribers: subscription information is available from the site. The main Iter database contains more than a million bibliographic records for books, journal articles, reviews, and other scholarly material, and is updated daily. Lists of journals and essay collections indexed are provided. Other resources accessible via the Iter interface include a John Milton bibliography; Iter Italicum, a catalogue of Renaissance humanistic manuscripts; Baptisteria Sacra, which offers descriptions of fonts from the early Christian period to the 17th century; and the International Directory of Scholars. A number of journals can also be accessed through the site.
This website is the Jacques Maritain Center's page on St. Thomas Aquinas. A saint, philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church (Angelicus Doctor), and patron of Catholic universities, colleges, and schools, Aquinas was born at Rocca Secca in the Kingdom of Naples in 1225 or 1227, and died at Fossa Nuova, 7 March, 1274. The site is a detailed outline of his life and thought. A biography and general overview introduces Aquinas, but then the text concentrates on his most important publication - the Summa Theologica - and provides a relatively short, but dense, reading. A basic site, this is a very good introduction to one of the most influential European thinkers.
The Julian of Norwich Web pages are part of the Luminarium Anthology of Middle English Literature, and are a general introduction for students to the life and works of the medieval mystic and anchorite. When Julian of Norwich (1342-1416) believed she was dying she had a series of visions which ultimately became 'The Revelations of Divine Love', an example of the genre of spiritual biography, and the first book to have been written by a woman. This website provides links to: a number of short biographies; the complete online version of 'The Revelations' from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College; a short bibliography of primary and secondary texts; and a limited selection of essays and articles. A section of additional sources includes links to other relevant sites about Julian of Norwich, an essay on the manuscripts and their cultural contexts as well as a series of images, such as the Westminster Cathedral manuscript (the second oldest surviving manuscript), and the stained glass window at St Agnes' Anglican Church. Whilst the website does not offer detailed critical or bibliographical information about Julian of Norwich or her historical and literary context, it is pleasantly presented and provides a good introductory account of the mystic.
"Julian of Norwich's 'Christ as mother' and medieval constructions of gender" is the online version of a paper presented by Professor Thomas L. Long (Thomas Nelson Community College) in 1995. Long's main argument is that whereas Christianity today still displays a great amount of patriarchal anxiety about the idea of Christ as a mother, medieval religious texts did more freely allow the trope of a feminine God. The focus of Long's paper is the transgendered image of Christ in 'A Revelation of Love' by the 14th-century female mystic Julian of Norwich. This resource is clearly written and contains endnotes and a bibliography. This paper is one of a number on medieval topics on Long's homepage, and would be of interest to medieval studies or religious studies students.
The Life of King Edward the Confessor website gives access to a digitised version of the only copy of an illustrated Anglo-Norman verse life of St Edward the Confessor, probably originally written in the later 1230s or early 1240s. The manuscript is held by Cambridge University Library (Cambridge University Library MS.Ee.3.59), and consists of thirty-seven folios, with a total of sixty-four pictures. The images are of good quality, allowing the user to zoom in to areas closely, and each folio is accompanied by a brief description. Folios can be browsed from start to finish, or via a summary page showing thumbnails of the images, with their descriptions. The website provides a brief introduction to the manuscript, and suggestions for additional reading. This site would be of interest to scholars studying: art history; manuscript history; religious texts or medieval history.
The Lollard Society website provides information about this academic association dedicated to the study of Lollardy. The site is presented in blog format, and offers relevant news and announcements, including calls for papers and conference details. Available elsewhere on the site are society membership information, and perhaps most usefully for the serious scholar, a series of bibliographies, covering both primary and secondary texts. Where the texts listed are out of copyright, a PDF version of the full work is sometimes provided. Also known as Wycliffism (because its member followed the teachings of John Wycliffe) Lollardy was a religious and political movement which flourished in England between the mid 14th century and the Reformation, and which was characterised by criticism of the western church.
The beautifully crafted and highly useful 'Luminarium' website, created and edited by Anniina Jokinen, is an excellent resource for all students of early English literature and literary history, as well as the allied subjects of: history; religious studies; and philosophy. The site offers four different collections of literary works and resources relating to the period from the later middle ages to the Restoration. The first section, an anthology of Middle English literature (1350 – 1485), includes links to the writings of: Chaucer; Margery Kempe; and Julian of Norwich; as well as an assortment of plays and lyrical works. The second grouping is of resources relating to Renaissance literature (1485-1603) and contains links to the works of such recognizable authors as: More; Spenser; Hooker; Marlowe; Gascoigne; and, of course, Shakespeare. The third series covers the early 17th Century until 1660, and once again offers a substantial number of resources and links relating to: Bacon; Donne; Lovelace; and Cowley, just to name a few. The final section covers the Restoration period, including authors such as: Pepys; Dryden; Pope and Jonathan Swift. This site is an excellent starting point for the study of early English literature, particularly for the undergraduate user, as the compiler has spent considerable effort in gathering and posting articles, citations and essays (both student and professional) for each of the seventy-plus authors. The images and striking web-design that accompany these secondary resources make this site not only a literary feast, but also a visual one.
Mapping Margery Kempe is an online digital library of resources relating to the contextual study of Margery's and her spiritual biography (known as the 'Book of Margery Kempe'). The site is based at the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachussets, USA, and provides various resources, including an online, original-spelling edition of the Book of Margery Kempe itself. The text of the book has been formatted so that users can locate particular sections and chapters quickly and easily, and is supported by an online glossary and bibliographical resources. The website also offers an excellent range of contextual material including biographies of some of Margery Kempe's most significant influences and contemporaries, and material relating to: medieval piety; pilgrimage; saints' lives; and church history. There are also detailed photographic resources relating to the church in Norfolk that Margery Kempe attended. Mapping Margery Kempe would be of interest not only to literary scholars but social and cultural historians of the medieval period. It is an ideal resource for those interested in contexual approaches to Margery Kempe's writing.
The 'Marginalia' journal website is part of a larger site also called 'Marginalia', which is the home of the Medieval Reading Group at Cambridge University. This peer-reviewed journal is published and edited by postgraduate students of medieval studies, with the assistance of an advisory board of established academics. The editors invite submissions of long papers and shorter notices on any aspect of the Middle Ages in England within the broad period from 500 CE to 1500 CE. All articles are based on original research. The publication also includes book reviews. This journal showcases new work being undertaken by young researchers, and will be of interest to students and scholars of medieval studies in all disciplines. The first edition of the journal, with the theme of 'Margins', appeared in 2005. Published papers available on the site include: 'The marginalization of John Lydgate'; 'The participation of women in the fourteenth-century manor court of Sutton-in-the-Hole'; 'A previously unidentified fragment of 'Pearce the Black Monke upon the Elixir' in MS. Mellon 43'; 'The hem of whose garment? Intertextual allusion in Osbern of Canterbury's Miracles of St Dunstan'; and 'Museums and medieval material culture'. The contents of the journal are presented as simple Web pages, with hypertext links to footnotes. The site also includes notes for contributors and links to other online journals.
Designed by history students of Kenyon College (Gambier, Ohio), the Marginality and Community in Medieval Europe website offers a good introduction to a selection of medieval communities who found themselves socially isolated because of physical infirmities or what was regarded as deviant behaviour by medieval society. After a brief introduction to the topic and a survey of the methodologies used, the site is divided into five major categories, covering: sexuality (including homosexuality and prostitution); medieval heresy; leprosy; Jews; and witchcraft. Each sub-section offers some limited historical background about the relevant group's status and, in the case of heretics, briefly explains the philosophies of such groups as Lollards, Waldensians, Beguines, and Cathars. Selected bibliographies of introductory texts are provided, and for some sections there are also extracts from relevant primary source texts. Finally, there are lists of external links to primary and secondary sources, though unfortunately the site has not been updated for some time, resulting in a number of broken links. Nevertheless, these pages are both a valuable resource for students needing preparatory information on medieval heresy and social marginality, and a good example of integration of electronic media into curriculum and teaching goals.
The Medieval Logic and Philosophy website is the work of Paul Vincent Spade (Professor of Philosophy at Indiana University). Through a compilation of PDF-files (often from Spade's own teaching resources), this site offers a solid introduction to major philosophical discussions of the Middle Ages. A wide range of topics are addressed including, but not limited to: universals; metaphysics; and the trinity. Spade also touches upon such authors as: Richard Rufus; Aquinas; and Boethius. Texts by these authors and others (located under 'Stuff to Download') will be of considerable interest to undergraduate students coming to grips with a specific question in medieval philosophy. However, both postgraduates and lecturers may benefit from the many primary resources available or be interested to observe how Spade has structured and selected his own teaching materials.For those really struggling with a particular issue or requiring more information on a particular topic, there is an extensive collection of annotated links on medieval resources and materials. As of March 2007the site will no longer be updated, but the existing information remains available for use.
The website 'Medieval and Modern Thought Text Digitization Project' is the homepage of this database run by Stanford University Libraries and Academic Information Resources. This ongoing project makes available digital versions of texts from the collections of Stanford Library and its partners. The main areas included at the time of review are: the medieval Church and its law and organisation; language, grammar and linguistics; reference works; and philosophy. Subjects covered range from Ambiguity and Anaphora to Theology and Trees. Many of the texts are lecture notes published in collaboration with Stanford University's Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI). Others are editions of early works on the Church, and secondary works covering its development. Notable items include Matthew Paris' 'English History', in both English and Latin, and Roger Bacon's works in Latin. The expansion of the collection is likely to be governed by local research needs. The resource will be most useful for scholars and students researching in all the areas it covers, and will increase in value as the collections continue to develop. The archive of texts may be searched using a simple or advanced query, and the site includes a page of search tips for researchers. The collection may also be browsed by author, title or subject. Each record includes brief bibliographical information. The texts are available in full as PDF files, and may be viewed or downloaded. They are digitised in their original languages, which include: Latin; French; German; and English.
The Medieval Calendar Calculator is a simple online tool which allows the reader to see a calendar page for any year or month between 500 and 1582. By entering the year and month in the navigation bar, and by selecting the type of calendar (with the choice between a generic; the Hereford; or the Nicholas of Lynn calendars), the site automatically produces the relevant calendar pages. Each page provides information on the major feast days (colour-coded according to their liturgical rank) prescribed by the different calendars, but omits the ordinary festa. The site's functions are limited, and it lacks any further information on the history of the separate calendars, the existence of possible controversies, or indeed any background at all. Unfortunately, it also lacks the option of requesting the date of a particular feast day in a particular year. Nevertheless, it serves its purpose as a quick reference site.
The website 'Medieval Manuscripts of Canon Law and Roman Law' provides access to a list of Canon law incipits compiled and maintained by Dr Giovanna Murano, and to a database of Canon law and Roman law manuscript shelfmarks developed by Gero Dolezalek at the University of Leipzig. The website aims to provide a comprehensive cumulative inventory of all manuscripts of Canon law and Roman law mentioned in catalogues or in legal-historical publications. It is designed as a tool for scholars in order to assist with the discovery of who published what, where and on which manuscript. In addition, the website also provides a gateway of annotated links to other web resources related to manuscripts of medieval Canon Law and Roman law and to some general medieval manuscripts sites. The Canon Law incipit list can be downloaded as a compressed file.
Medieval Philosophy and Theology is a freely available online peer-reviewed journal. The time period and subject area are interpreted broadly: everything from the patristic period to the neoscholasticism of the 17th century is within the journal's remit, and all areas of medieval philosophy and theology are covered, including logic and the natural sciences, and the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic traditions. The journal began publication in 1991, and has since then produced one or two issues per year, each containing six to eight articles. These appear on the website (which is supported by Cornell University's Digital Publishing Initiative) in PDF format. At time of cataloguing, not all volumes were available online, but further issues are promised in the near future. This resource will be of value to those with an interest in medieval thought.
The Medieval-religion website houses the archives of the online discussion forum on medieval religion, and subjects that relate to religious life and thought in Europe from late antiquity to the early modern period. Hosted by JISCmail, the National Academic Mailing List Service, it allows access to all postings to the site since April 1996. These are organised chronologically on a monthly basis but users can also search the archives according to Author and Topic. The site provides information about how to post to the list; and how to join and leave the list.
The New Advent website offers a valuable collection of resources related to Catholic theology. The site's most important feature is an online version of the Catholic Encyclopedia, based on the 1913 edition. This offers over 11,000 articles on notable theologians, doctrine, and history as it relates to the Catholic Church. Also available is an extensive collection of primary texts, including the complete Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas, the works of dozens of Church Fathers (mostly dating from the 3rd to 5th centuries, although some earlier and later works are also included), accounts of church councils, apocryphal works, and the Douay-Rheims translation of the Bible, presented in parallel with the Latin Vulgate text. The library section offers a variety of church documents, including papal statements. There are some adverts on the site, but these are not unduly intrusive. Overall, this is a key resource, most obviously for those with an interest in Catholicism, but also for Christian theology more generally.
The Online Medieval Sources website provides a searchable bibliography of texts written in the Middle Ages, including: private letters; wills; household accounts; literary works; philosophical treatises; chronicles; court proceedings; and church records, which are available in printed or electronic form. The database is easily navigated using the comprehensive search form that gives help on: subject headings; record types; and medieval authors. The database entries themselves provide detailed information on the works cited, including: contents; genre; archival reference; and language, as well as hyperlinks to any online sources. The database would be invaluable to researchers and students working on history or literature of the medieval period.
'Philosophers' Criticisms of Anselm's Ontological Argument for the Being of God' is a compilation of fully sourced e-text versions of extracts from the writing various philosophers put forward in response to St. Anselm's ontological argument for the existence of God. The resource was compiled by Paul Halsall, a professional historian and editor of the Internet Medieval Sourcebook, of which this site is a part. This Sourcebook itself is hosted by the website of Fordham University, USA. St. Anselm (1033-1109) proposed the ontological argument as an attempt to prove by reasoning that God exists. In broad terms, the argument states that since God is defined as the greatest conceivable being, and since a being that exists in reality is greater than a being who exists merely in the imagination, God must therefore necessarily exist. A similar version of the ontological argument was later put forward by French philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650), and this is also provided by this resource. In total, the resource provides responses by nine philosophers. They are: René Descartes; Benedict Spinoza; John Locke; Gottfried W. Leibniz; Immanuel Kant; Georg W.F. Hegel; J.A. Dorner; Lotze; and Robert Flint. The site is easy enough on the eye, with medium-size black type on a white background, and is simple to navigate, with hyperlinks to the individual responses. Those new to the subject should note that this site offers the primary texts only, without additional exposition or commentary. Nevetheless, this site would be of use to any student or scholar studying the ontological argument who wants quick access to some of the major responses to Anselm.
The Brazilian Institute of Philosophy and Science Ramon Llull has made available a fair number of resources on the Majorcan philosopher and mystic. Author of over 250 works in Catalan, Arabic, and Latin, Lull devoted much of his life to converting the Saracens to Christianity through a unification of theology and philosophy. His most important work is the 'Ars Magna', which involved a mechanical logic machine. The front page of the site is available in English, German, or Catalan, but most of the actual content is in either Catalan or Portuguese. There is a biography and chronology of Lull's life, along with a map of his last voyage. Another section details the current state of research into Lull and the progress towards compiling a complete critical edition (in Latin and Catalan). There are links to a good number of primary and secondary texts. A catalogue is provided of the alchemical works of the Pseudo-Lull (there has been a long tradition of crediting Lull with an extensive body of occult works on alchemy). Links are provided to other sites that may be of interest to scholars studying Lull.
This is the website of the Dutch Research Group John Duns Scotus, which studies the work of this medieval theologian and philosopher. The site offers a short biography of Duns Scotus (1266-1308) plus a discussion of his significance. There is also a brief history of the research group, which is attached to the Franscican Study Centre in Utrecht, and a list of its current members. Details of books and articles by research group members are also given, although users should note that most of the works listed are in languages other than English. Finally, there is a list of links to other academic institutions and scholars engaged in study of Duns Scotus, which may be helpful to those looking for further information about this thinker, or to researchers seeking potential collaborators.
The Richard Rufus of Cornwall project is a scholalry undertaking to produce critical editions of the complete extant works of this important medieval scholastic philosopher-theologian who taught at the Universities of Paris and Oxford between 1231 and 1255. The project website provides an introduction to the life of Richard Rufus, a complete list of his works, the manuscripts where his texts can be found, and the incipits. Each listing is annotated with a shortdescription. A section is dedicated to his works - which have been translated into English, French, German, Italian and Spanish. Users will find an impressive bibliography, a search facility, and help with abbreviations used in the resource. There is also a brief outline of the purpose of the project, and the profile of the editors and sponsors.
The Saint Anselm Journal is a refereed online journal that publishes original articles, discussion papers, and book reviews that examine the life, thought, teachings, and influence of the Medieval Christian philosopher and theologian Saint Anselm of Canterbury. The journal is published by the Institute for Saint Anselm Studies, an academic research centre based at Saint Anselm College, New Hampshire, and it is intended to further the aim of the institute, which is to bring Saint Anselm into living contact with the culture of the 21st century. Many of its articles first appeared in colloquia or conferences hosted or sponsored by the institute. The journal was first published in Autumn 2003, and since 2005 it has appeared biannually, in spring and autumn. Current and previous editions are freely available without subscription as PDF files, and require Adobe Acrobat Reader software to be viewed. The site, which is simply designed and easy to navigate, contains information on journal editorial policy and submissions, and an index of authors published by the journal.
The Society for the Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (SSBMA) provides a forum for the discussion of ideas and themes relating to medieval biblical studies. The Society's website includes: a bibliography of papers presented at conference sessions sponsored by the Society (1993-1999); news of upcoming conferences, with calls for papers; and a directory of society members. The directory gives details of members' research interests and publications, as well as contact details. The site also provides links to related web pages.
'Summa Theologica' is an online version of St Thomas Aquinas's (c.1225-1274) influential 13th century treatise on theology and philosophy. The copy text is the 1920 revised edition translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province. The online version has benefited from the addition of links between the various sections, as well as to encyclopaedia entries. The parent site, New Advent, is the work of a Catholic layman. The resource is freely accessible, but does display advertisements around its borders. Theologians and those studying medieval philosophy should find the site of interest.
The TASC website is the project home page of the Transnational Database and Atlas of Saints' Cults, hosted by the University of Leicester and created by Graham R. Jones. The site provides information about the project, and also allows access to some of the datasets that have been produced. The datasets contain information regarding church dedications in parishes across Britain and parts of Europe, which can be used to map the distribution and density of Christian saints' cults in particular areas at particular times. Included in the European datasets are: Munster, Uberstift; West Frisia; Karelia; Novgorod; Catalunya; and the Former Yugoslavia (Kosovo). British pre-reformation data includes the dioceses of: Lincoln; Worcester; Bath and Wells; and London. The data (organised by location within the aformentioned regions) would be useful primarily to researchers working in the fields of religious and cult history, but may also be of interest to local historians and general readers. The project's main page includes information on the development and methodology of the project, in addition to details of various colloquia and publications organised and produced by the TASC project. Users can view the datasets online, or download them for further use. The site gives helpful information on: the structure of the data, including a glossary of terms; tips for searching and sorting; and methods of accessing the data. Despite the usefulness of the data provided here, accessibility is limited by the fact that most of the datasets are only available online via Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.01 and above or, as in some cases, for download as Microsoft Excel files. The site has last been updated in 2005, therefore does not reflect recent developments in this field.
The website 'Of God and His Creatures' features an electronic version of Joseph Rickaby's slightly abridged translation of Aquinas's work 'Summa Contra Gentiles', originally written between 1261-64. The translation was first published in 1905 and was re-edited by Jacques Maritain. It has now been made available online by the Jacques Maritain Center of the University of Notre Dame. The text can be browsed by book and by chapter. The layout of this resource is rather basic, as its primary goal is to serve as teaching tool.
'Thomas Aquinas in English: A Bibliography' is a website maintained by Thérèse Bonin. It contains a useful bibliography of works by and about the medieval Catholic philosopher and theologian St Thomas Aquinas (c.1225-1274). The list is divided into the following categories: theological syntheses; commentaries on scripture; commentaries on Aristotle; commentaries on neoplatonic texts; disputations; polemical writings; other authentic works; works of uncertain authenticity; and spurious works. There are links to online editions where available. Further links are provided to other websites of interest (e.g. on early Christian writers; medieval authors; the middle ages; and Islamic philosophy).
The Thomas Instituut te Utrecht is a collaborative organisation founded by theologians and philosophers in the Netherlands for the study of St Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274). The Institute has the status of an interuniversity institute of the Catholic Theological University at Utrecht and the Tilburg Faculty of Theology. The site provides an online database of bibliographic information relating to the works of Aquinas. The tools section of the site is especially useful for researchers new to Aquinas, where an online essay contains links to primary and secondary literature or resources, together with printed and electronic aids. The Institute also maintains an online news service.
Thomistica.net is primarily a news website devoted to the medieval philosopher and theologian, Thomas Aquinas. The site hosts news items, a newsletter (available both online and for download in a number of formats), and also offers an RSS newsfeed. The frequently updated news items are presented in blog format, and include information about new publications, conferences, and online resources. Some other resources are also provided: the documents section contains a small selection of short articles and translations relevant to Aquinas and his works, and the picture gallery offers photos of places which in some way relate to him. There is also a useful annotated links list. A valuable resource for those engaged in the study of this thinker.
Twelve Websites on Julian of Norwich is an online resource that makes an immense amount of valuable information available to students and scholars interested in this medieval Anchorite or any aspect of women's lives in the later Middle Ages. Directed by Julia Bolton Holloway, these pages offer a comprehensive introduction to Julian's spiritual and often mystical text, the 'Showing of Love' (also known as the 'Showings' or as 'Revelations of Divine Love'. Contained within are many images and analyses of original manuscript folios, partial transcriptions of the text, and essays. Users will also find many other related Web pages dedicated to the cloister in which Julian lived and the materials to which we suppose she had access. In addition, some resources on the medieval woman's relationship to the Bible are provided, plus information on medieval mystics and theologians who lived both before and after Julian. Special attention is paid to St. Birgitta of Sweden: the complete Latin text of her 'Revelaciones' plus Thomas Gascoine's 'Life of St Birgitta' are included. A Google search utility enables the user to overcome any difficulties in navigating this intricate and colourfully presented website. Lecturers may welcome the wide variety of manuscript images and details on the development of the 'Showing' itself.
The Bibliothèque Humaniste (Humanist Library), at Sélestat in Alsace, France, is one of the great libraries of Europe. Their website provides bibliographic information about the Sélestat treasures, including: a special exhibition of bindings; ancient collections of the religious communities of its region, and 15th-16th century collections from the period during which the city was a leading centre of the Humanism movement in Europe. Most well-known is the collection of Beatus Rhenanus; and it houses an important collection of the music scores of Alsatian composers. An online catalogue is available. Visitors are welcome in person at the library and there is a blog-style page featuring news and job vacancies at the library.
The Kommission zur Herausgabe des Corpus der Lateinischen Kirchenväter (Commission for Editing the Corpus of the Latin Church Fathers, or CSEL), is one of the many divisions of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. The CSEL website provides information about the Commission's projects, which revolve around research on notable medieval texts. Projects include: a series of critical editions of Christian Latin authors from late antiquity to the early medieval period; research into the manuscript tradition of the works of St Augustine; a series of monographs; and the publication of Wiener Studien, a journal for classical philology, patristics and Latin studies. The site also features a database of patristic editing projects currently being undertaken around the world (scholars are invited to contribute details of projects they are working on); conference information; and a useful list of links to related online resources.