This website is dedicated to the life and works of the eminent Islamic scholar Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (1058-1111). On offer are: original and translated versions of his writings in areas as diverse as theology, jurisprudence, logic, Sufism and philosophy; monographs and other works related to him; and access to bibliographic materials on the web. The site, which can be accessed in over 10 languages, also includes a short biography of al-Ghazali and access to further biographical material on the web; lecture transcripts; portraits; maps of areas and eras important for studies on al-Ghazali; and a search engine. Some materials are in PDF format. This resource would be particularly useful to postgraduate researchers.
'Alkhazina' is an intelligent, well-balanced and therefore much-needed database on Islamic culture in the Middle East. Developed as a teaching resource by Princeton University, it concentrates on Islamic civilisation from the 8th till the 14th centuries but does not ignore more contemporary Muslim issues either. It contains the full-text of the Qur'an in Arabic as well as in English translation, and various links to sites enabling searches on words or phrases from the Qur'an and other works central to Islamic tradition. It has sections dedicated to Sufism and the Hajj, and to maps of the Arabic world from the Middle Ages till the present. You will also find an Islamic timeline, a chapter on medieval Islamic scholars and a resources page. Finally it provides a link to an informative and politically balanced discussion on Islam in the context of the attacks of 11/09/2001 and America's 'War Against Terrorism'.
Correspondences: Jewish Mysticism, Indian Philosophies is a dissertation by Axel Randrup and Tista Bagchi. The work can be downloaded in HTML format from the Oxford Text Archive website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)). The authors examine correspondence between eight significant traits of Jewish mysticism and traits of Buddhism and other systems of Indian religion and philosophy in the literature. This is a study in comparative religion, but some important relations between these Indian and Jewish belief systems and modern science are also discussed. The work is freely available, although users are asked to agree to a brief terms and conditions statement before downloading it.
The International Association of Sufism is an educational organization dedicated to peace-keeping and community building. This home page contains information about the events and projects which it organises. It also introduces users to the different departments within the association and their respective roles and activities. In addition to these, it provides several articles on the study, practice and discipline of Sufism. And lastly, it gives details about the journal, newsletters, and audio-visual materials published by the organization. This is an interesting resource for anyone wishing to learn more about Sufism.
Adrift in a sea of polemics and postulation, the wonderful 'Islam and Islamic studies resources' website is a truly welcome presence on the Internet for its commitment to collecting and evaluating useful Internet resources on the Islamic faith. Maintained by Dr Alan Godlas at the University of Georgia, these pages seek to provide a scholarly overview of Islam, and Islam related issues, with the site divided into a series of categories that introduce the reader to an array of historical and contemporary discussions, but which are detailed enough to entice the most discerning of users. By combining introductory summary material with links to additional external sites, the author provides not only a brief tutorial in Islam but simultaneously identifies and critiques the best Islamic resources on the net. Categories include everything from the basic divisions in Islam, to mysticism, science, women's issues, history and art. Most sections offer additional bibliographic material, and new students will find the collection of bibliographic links and glossary of terms especially helpful. Those who wish to learn about Islam through electronic resources while remaining confident of the quality of material would do well to begin here.
The Jacob Boehme Resources Web page provides a lightly annotated gateway to online material for the study of the Christian mystic and theologian Jacob Boehme (1575-1624). For ease of navigation, the links are divided into a number of sections: introductory resources (which includes both biographical and bibliographical material); a list of primary texts available on the Web; text archives that include Boehme's works; articles and other secondary texts available online; images and art; miscellaneous Boehme pages; and a list of related thinkers, texts, and movements. As is likely to be the case with any substantial gateway, there are some broken links, although at time of review the proportion was relatively small. The site is the work of Bruce B. Janz, Chair of the Philosophy Department at the University of Central Florida.
Jewish Roots of Eastern Christian Mysticism is the website of an on-going interdisciplinary research seminar organised by graduate students at the Department of Theology, Marquette University. The seminar is organised into over twenty-five themes, and the website presents articles and discussion relating to each theme. Texts are available in HTML or PDF, many of which are exclusive to the seminar's website. The resources normally include previously published and unpublished scholarly articles, electronic publications, lectures, reviews, and sometimes critical responses to these materials. In addition, there are links to numerous bibliographies relating to hellenistic Judaism and Eastern spirituality.
The Julian of Norwich Web pages are part of the Luminarium Anthology of Middle English Literature, and are a general introduction for students to the life and works of the medieval mystic and anchorite. When Julian of Norwich (1342-1416) believed she was dying she had a series of visions which ultimately became 'The Revelations of Divine Love', an example of the genre of spiritual biography, and the first book to have been written by a woman. This website provides links to: a number of short biographies; the complete online version of 'The Revelations' from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College; a short bibliography of primary and secondary texts; and a limited selection of essays and articles. A section of additional sources includes links to other relevant sites about Julian of Norwich, an essay on the manuscripts and their cultural contexts as well as a series of images, such as the Westminster Cathedral manuscript (the second oldest surviving manuscript), and the stained glass window at St Agnes' Anglican Church. Whilst the website does not offer detailed critical or bibliographical information about Julian of Norwich or her historical and literary context, it is pleasantly presented and provides a good introductory account of the mystic.
"Julian of Norwich's 'Christ as mother' and medieval constructions of gender" is the online version of a paper presented by Professor Thomas L. Long (Thomas Nelson Community College) in 1995. Long's main argument is that whereas Christianity today still displays a great amount of patriarchal anxiety about the idea of Christ as a mother, medieval religious texts did more freely allow the trope of a feminine God. The focus of Long's paper is the transgendered image of Christ in 'A Revelation of Love' by the 14th-century female mystic Julian of Norwich. This resource is clearly written and contains endnotes and a bibliography. This paper is one of a number on medieval topics on Long's homepage, and would be of interest to medieval studies or religious studies students.
The beautifully crafted and highly useful 'Luminarium' website, created and edited by Anniina Jokinen, is an excellent resource for all students of early English literature and literary history, as well as the allied subjects of: history; religious studies; and philosophy. The site offers four different collections of literary works and resources relating to the period from the later middle ages to the Restoration. The first section, an anthology of Middle English literature (1350 – 1485), includes links to the writings of: Chaucer; Margery Kempe; and Julian of Norwich; as well as an assortment of plays and lyrical works. The second grouping is of resources relating to Renaissance literature (1485-1603) and contains links to the works of such recognizable authors as: More; Spenser; Hooker; Marlowe; Gascoigne; and, of course, Shakespeare. The third series covers the early 17th Century until 1660, and once again offers a substantial number of resources and links relating to: Bacon; Donne; Lovelace; and Cowley, just to name a few. The final section covers the Restoration period, including authors such as: Pepys; Dryden; Pope and Jonathan Swift. This site is an excellent starting point for the study of early English literature, particularly for the undergraduate user, as the compiler has spent considerable effort in gathering and posting articles, citations and essays (both student and professional) for each of the seventy-plus authors. The images and striking web-design that accompany these secondary resources make this site not only a literary feast, but also a visual one.
Mapping Margery Kempe is an online digital library of resources relating to the contextual study of Margery's and her spiritual biography (known as the 'Book of Margery Kempe'). The site is based at the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachussets, USA, and provides various resources, including an online, original-spelling edition of the Book of Margery Kempe itself. The text of the book has been formatted so that users can locate particular sections and chapters quickly and easily, and is supported by an online glossary and bibliographical resources. The website also offers an excellent range of contextual material including biographies of some of Margery Kempe's most significant influences and contemporaries, and material relating to: medieval piety; pilgrimage; saints' lives; and church history. There are also detailed photographic resources relating to the church in Norfolk that Margery Kempe attended. Mapping Margery Kempe would be of interest not only to literary scholars but social and cultural historians of the medieval period. It is an ideal resource for those interested in contexual approaches to Margery Kempe's writing.
The Mas’ud Ahmed Khan website has evolved substantially from its early origins as a newsgroup run in the 1990s by the administrator. Its resources mainly reflect the interests and concerns of an increasingly vocal and articulate section of British Muslim society interested in reviving a traditionalist Sunni version of Islam, Sufi orientated, and keen on maintaining a strong British identity (one section is dedicated to British Muslim Heritage). Leading figures of this community (US born Nuh Ha Mim Keller and Cambridge don Abdul Hakim Murad, who both produce a bulk of the articles) have grown in importance over the last decade, particularly following 9/11 and the increasing media attention given to Muslims in the West. Therefore, this website is useful to those interesting in researching discussion among British Muslims over issues relating to citizenship and jihad, articulated not only in contemporary article form, but also in the language of classical juristic and theological scholarship. Numerous video and audio resources are also available, including lectures and radio interviews. These resources deal not only with contemporary social issues, but also long-standing theological debates that are still current in modern Muslim society.
The Matrologia Latina page is part of the website of the Peregrina Publishing House. The site specialises in material by or about women and relating to the mystical and spiritual traditions of western Christianity. Two essays by the site's creator, Margot H. King, provide a survey of the 'Desert Mothers' - female religious hermits of the patristic and medieval periods. Additionally, several Latin texts are offered: Books 1 and 2 of Gertrud of Helfta's 'The Herald of Divine Grace', plus three 'vitae' (lives) of three other medieval holy women: Christina Mirabilis; Lutgard of Aywières; and Marie d'Oignies. The lack of English translations means this site is not as accessible as it might be, but for those for whom this is not a bar, this remains a useful resource on medieval spirituality.
'The Metaphysics of Mysticism' is the complete etext version of a book by Geoffrey K. Mondello. The work is a philosophical commentary on two major works by the sixteenth century Spanish mystic, St John of the Cross: the Ascent of Mount Carmel, and his Dark Night of the Soul. The book is chiefly concerned with the possibility of developing what the author calls 'a coherent mystical epistemology', that is, a theory of knowledge which can be applied to mystical experience. A brief biography of St John is also included. The site is straightforward to navigate; links to all chapters are provided at the bottom of each page. There does not, however, appear to be a search function. Visitors to the site are also invited to email the author to obtain a free zipped copy of the manuscript.
This is currently one of the best internet resources in English on the great Andalusian mystic and philosopher Ibn ‘Arabi (1165-1240), also known as the Greatest of Spiritual Masters (Shaykh al-Akbar). The subjects covered include Ibn ‘Arabi’s works, theological and philosophical discussion of themes in his writings, later commentators, and the spread of his teachings. The Muhyiddin Ibn ‘Arabi Society was founded in 1977, and is based in Oxford, with a branch in the United States, and has organised numerous events and publications relating the Ibn ‘Arabi not only addressed to an academic audience, but also a wider group of Ibn ‘Arabi enthusiasts and admirers of his teachings. Information about related events and publications are found here, as well as free podcasts of lectures. Many of the contributors to the website are Ibn ‘Arabi scholars well known in the West, such as Michel Chodkiewicz, William Chittick, Claude Addas and James Morris. These authors and others have contributed original essays and articles for this website, but reproductions of articles from books and journals can also be found here in very readable format. Unfortunately, there are hardly any articles that provide information on his background and historical context, as well as the negative reaction his teachings provoked in some quarters of the Muslim world. Also, works by Ibn ‘Arabi and his commentators are found only in translation, and not in their original languages.
The Brazilian Institute of Philosophy and Science Ramon Llull has made available a fair number of resources on the Majorcan philosopher and mystic. Author of over 250 works in Catalan, Arabic, and Latin, Lull devoted much of his life to converting the Saracens to Christianity through a unification of theology and philosophy. His most important work is the 'Ars Magna', which involved a mechanical logic machine. The front page of the site is available in English, German, or Catalan, but most of the actual content is in either Catalan or Portuguese. There is a biography and chronology of Lull's life, along with a map of his last voyage. Another section details the current state of research into Lull and the progress towards compiling a complete critical edition (in Latin and Catalan). There are links to a good number of primary and secondary texts. A catalogue is provided of the alchemical works of the Pseudo-Lull (there has been a long tradition of crediting Lull with an extensive body of occult works on alchemy). Links are provided to other sites that may be of interest to scholars studying Lull.
Shabakat rawḍ al-rayāhīn is an Arabic website devoted to resources on Sufism. It includes: a periodic magazine highlighting Sufi texts and poetry; excerpts from books on Sufism; a collection of mystical poetry by various authors; online versions of important texts by Sufi authors, including Ahmad al-Tijani; and full-text versions of books and theses on Sufism available as zipped or PDF files. The site also contains a number of recordings that can be played with RealPlayer, including lectures on different topics as well as recorded recitations and dhikrs (devotions). The site is available only in Arabic. It will be of most use to advanced researchers looking for primary sources on Sufism and Sufic practice.
The Simone Weil Home Page provides an eclectic selection of information about the French Christian mystic, philosopher, and social activist who lived in the first half of the 20th century. The website offers a small collection of articles about Weil, a brief biography, and excerpts from both her religious works (including a description of her own mystical experience) and from her lectures on philosophy. Contact details for the American Weil Society are also provided. While this is not an extensive site, it does provide a useful starting point for those interested in learning more about this intriguing thinker.
'Sufism, Sufis, Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths' is an online essay by Dr Alan Godlas of the University of Georgia, introducing Sufism, the mystical or inner dimension of Islam. The work takes the reader through definitions and issues important to Sufism, including: obstacles and internal struggles; awakening and remembrance of God; and Islam's relationship to Sufism. There is also a section dedicated to a number of well-known Sufis like Hasan al-Basri, Mansur al-Hallaj and Abu Hamid al-Ghazali; and another to Sufi Orders and their Shaykhs. Throughout the essay are numerous hypertext links (their presence explained within the text) to further texts by the author or to external sites. The essay ends with a list of annotated links relating to Sufi orders, books and other resources. The essay forms a part of the author's 'Islam and Islamic Studies Resources' site.
This is the official website of Swami Krishnananda of The Divine Life Society in Rishikesh. Born in India, Swami Krishnananda was one of the most revered philosophical thinkers of his time. His thought embraces Eastern and Western philosophy, the philosophy of education, the philosophy of religion, metaphysics, mysticism, cosmology and, of course, spirituality. Before his death in 2001, Swami Krishnananda agreed to allow more than thirty of his books to be placed online for free access. Accurate electronic versions of many of his writings are, then, available on the site. The website also contains articles, poetical writings, audio recordings and video clips (with transcripts), all on various aspects of philosophy and spiritual development. A biography of Swami Krishnananda is included, as is information about the Divine Life Society.
Twelve Websites on Julian of Norwich is an online resource that makes an immense amount of valuable information available to students and scholars interested in this medieval Anchorite or any aspect of women's lives in the later Middle Ages. Directed by Julia Bolton Holloway, these pages offer a comprehensive introduction to Julian's spiritual and often mystical text, the 'Showing of Love' (also known as the 'Showings' or as 'Revelations of Divine Love'. Contained within are many images and analyses of original manuscript folios, partial transcriptions of the text, and essays. Users will also find many other related Web pages dedicated to the cloister in which Julian lived and the materials to which we suppose she had access. In addition, some resources on the medieval woman's relationship to the Bible are provided, plus information on medieval mystics and theologians who lived both before and after Julian. Special attention is paid to St. Birgitta of Sweden: the complete Latin text of her 'Revelaciones' plus Thomas Gascoine's 'Life of St Birgitta' are included. A Google search utility enables the user to overcome any difficulties in navigating this intricate and colourfully presented website. Lecturers may welcome the wide variety of manuscript images and details on the development of the 'Showing' itself.
Compiled by Bruce Janz of the University of Central Florida, 'Who's Who in the History of Western Mysticism' is an online guide to a wide variety of reference resources from all over the Internet, assembled in chronological lists. The bulk of the material deals with Christian mystics (divided into three sections: the early church; medieval Catholic and Orthodox mystics; and non-Catholic Christian mystics of the 16th-18th centuries), but there are also brief sections on pre-Christian mystics and on the Jewish and Islamic traditions. The site provides brief descriptive paragraphs about the mystics listed and about some key concepts, along with links to more detailed information available elsewhere (in, for example, resources such as the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Medieval Sourcebook, and various university websites). While the majority of these sources are still available, the site does not seem to be updated particularly frequently, and consequently there are some broken links. There is also a reasonably thorough bibliography of secondary sources on mysticism, although this does not include any material published after 1998.