The 1662 Book of Common Prayer website contains the complete text of the Book of Common Prayer, along with some useful supplementary material. The BCP itself (which remains one of the authorised forms of Church of England liturgy) contains orders for the main church services (including the Collects and Epistle and Gospel readings for holy days and Sundays throughout the year) and for events such as baptisms, marriages, and ordination of clergy, along with other items such as the Psalter, the Thirty-Nine Articles, and the Table of Kindred and Affinity (which details which relations are forbidden to marry). Additional material on the site includes a list of amendments made to the BCP since 1662, extracts from pre-1662 BCP editions, notes on festivals of the church, and the order of service for the coronation of Elizabeth II. The site is straightforwardly presented and easily navigable, and there is a limited search function (although this does not appear to work in all browsers). The text is also available for download, in HTML, RTF, and ASCII formats. This seems to be the premier 1662 BCP site on the Web: numerous sites link to it, including Charles Wohlers' Book of Common Prayer site, the Anglicans Online resources section, and the Web page of The Prayer Book Society.
'A Hypertext Book of Hours' provides an introduction to the history and context of the Book of Hours (a work giving the texts for each liturgical hour of the day) and lists its usual structure, based on the 1599 'Primer, or Office of the Blessed Virgin Marie, in Latin and English'. This resource provides all calendar dates, Gospel readings, Psalms, prayers and suffrages normally found in a (sixteenth-century) Book of Hours in Latin and English. The site is easy to navigate and would serve well as a teaching tool. However, it underplays the relationship between the text and the often highly refined and detailed illuminations of most Books of Hours.
The website "Abbays et Sites Cisterciens d'Europe" is an online database listing Cistercian establishments in Europe and, where available, providing links to their websites. The site has some English content but the full version is available only in French. Sections on the site include: The charter; History; and Abbeys. A forum and a members area are also part of the site. The abbeys can be browsed alphabetically or by country or region via an interactive map. Very brief general information and a picture where possible are given for each abbey, and in some cases a more detailed history of the place is also available. The historical information about the Cîteaux abbey and the Cistercian movement is detailed and reliable, albeit rather brief. The statutes refer to the modern regulations of the Cistercians. The latest issue of the Newsletter can be downloaded from the site in PDF format, in French, English and German. The site also acts as a representative of the Cistercian federations in eight European countries that adhered to the 1993 Charter.
The website "Abbazia di Montecassino" ["Montecassino Abbey"] is a highly graphic site containing a sizeable number of images and other resources covering the history and role of the Benedictine Abbey of Montecassino, located in the Campania region of Southern Italy. The site outlines the major events in the Abbey's history from foundation by Saint Benedict in 529 to its reconstruction in 1964, following the destruction of 1944. In the course of its history, the Abbey was destroyed or severely damaged on a number of occasions, most notably by the earthquake of 1349 and heavy bombardment in 1944. For each event explanatory text is available together with images and, in the case of the 1944 destruction, additional film footage. A virtual tour enables users to explore the Abbey, moving through its floor plan to the various parts of the building. Texts and images are available including 360 degree viewing. Additionally, users can listen to a selection of monastic chants as performed by the chorus of Abbey monks. A section is dedicated to Saint Benedict (ca. 480 - ca. 547) founder of the Abbey, and the Rule which governs the monastic life of the Benedictine order. The life of Saint Scholastica (480-547), Saint Benedict's sister, who lived in the vicinity of the Abbey, is also recounted. The Diocese and to-day monastic life at the Abbey are described. Additionally, the site offers information on religious events and the "Terra Sancti Benedicti", a historical procession held in March each year during the Benedictine celebrations at Cassino and Montecassino. The site and its resources are accessible in both Italian and English.
Acta Sanctorum is an institution-only subscription site which allows electronic access to the complete printed text of the Acta Sanctorum. Acta Sanctorum is a collection of documents examining the lives of saints, organised according to each saint's feast day, and runs from the two January volumes published in 1643 to the Propylaeum to December published in 1940. Containing 68 volumes, Acta Sanctorum also contains all prefatory material and critical apparatus. This online version of the Societe des Bollandistes edition, published in electronic form by ProQuest Information and Learning, is an excellent historical-critical tool for theologians, historians, linguists and literary critics carrying out research into the Acta Sanctorum. The website offers information on subscription and a free trial to interested institutions.
The AdHoc Image and Text Database on the History of Christianity is an online compendium maintained by members of the Yale Divinity School. The collection of images is by far the larger, offering several hundred items covering the history of Christianity from the early church through to the modern period. The text collection offers a couple of dozen works, mostly relating to the Reformation. Users can browse by geographical area, historical era, object type, and topic, and there is also a sophisticated search tool. A minority of images are only available to users from Yale, and unfortunately there does not seem to be a way of excluding these from search results. The database was built primarily as a teaching tool for instructors, and the images available may be of interest to anyone wishing to provide visuals to complement their lectures and teaching.
African-American Religion: A Documentary History Project (AARDOC) is the website of a research project based at Amherst College. The project aims to produce a comprehensive history of African-American religion, from the earliest African-European encounters in the mid 15th century up to the present day. A range of relevant materials are offered on the site, including brief overviews of three periods: African-American religion in the Atlantic world, 1441-1808; the continental phase, 1808-1906; and the global phase, 1906-the present. There are also sample primary documents (for example, the journal of a young black female 19th-century missionary); bibliographic essays; teaching resources including syllabi; and a small collection of articles. A useful resource for those interested in this area.
The AHRC Early Modern Worship Network (EMWN) is a current AHRC research network based at Durham University. It aims to be a network for "historians, literary scholars, theologians, musicologists and other early modernists [who] all share an interest in the practice of religion in the early modern world" and in particular for the examination of "religious practice and its meanings in early modern British culture". The EMWN has two mains themes: "collective and public worship; and private and household devotions". Two major EMWN conferences will be held on these topics in Sept 2008 and June 2009. The website also has news of a £20,000 EMWN fund to send academics to selected conferences during 2008 and 2009. The website has full details of the aims, steering group, members, and funding.
Alexander Street Press's Religion online catalogue page offers information about a number of subscription-only primary source text collections. These include the Digital Library of Classic Protestant Texts, and the Digital Library of the Catholic Reformation (both formerly owned by Ad Fontes). Focusing on the 16th and 17th centuries, these fully-searchable collections offer online access to many hundreds of theological works, including confessional documents, pastoral works, biblical commentaries, and polemical treatises. Both databases have been hand-indexed to ensure that search options are useful to the theological scholar, and are excellent resources for all those interested in Reformation and post-Reformation literature and history.
This Web page also gives details of Alexander Street Press's Digital Karl Barth Library. The latter ultimately aims to provide a definitive electronic edition of Barth's theological writings (in the original German, with English translations of the most important works), complete with metadata tagging designed to meet the needs of researchers. At time of cataloguing, this ambitious project was still in progress, but already appears to be a valuable tool for serious Barth scholars.
Maintained by Csanády Miklós with the texts taken from the presently defunct St. Michael's Depot (Australia), the 'All Catholic Church Ecumenical Councils - All the Decrees' website quite simply brings together the canons, decrees and other official proclamations of every ecumenical council from Nicaea in 325 to Vatican II. Generally, information from each council can be accessed either online or downloaded through a compressed zip-file. The files briefly detail the occasion of the council's opening, major events, and its official statements.
'The American Colony in Jerusalem', which is made available by the US Library of Congress, presents an online exhibition of material from the American Colony-Vester Collection. This is a collection of original source material relating to the American Colony, a Christian utopian society that undertook philanthropic work in Jerusalem during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, most particularly during the First World War. The Colony was founded by Horatio and Anna Spafford of Chicago in 1881, in the aftermath of a family tragedy. Its members practiced charity without regard to the religion of the recipients. This exhibition describes and illustrates the history of the Colony, covering many aspects, including: the religious beliefs of its members; the locust storm in 1916; the lives of the Spafford family members; the legacy of the Colony; and its charitable activities during World War I, including the establishment of an embroidery workshop for the support of poor women. During the War, members of the Colony were permitted to photograph behind Turkish lines, and some of their photographs are reproduced in this exhibition. The material made available through this website provides an interesting insight into a little-known aspect of the history of Jerusalem and of utopian communities, and will be of use to all those with an interest in these subjects. The site is simple to use. It is divided into sections. In each section, images of the documents from the exhibition are presented together with explanatory text. Documents include: correspondence and telegrams; newspaper and magazine articles; family pictures; images produced by American Colony photographers; and artefacts. Some letters are reproduced in full.
This is the website of the American Society of Church History, founded in 1888 as an organisation dedicated to encouraging scholarly research into both church history specifically and the relationship between religion and society more broadly. The Society convenes twice annually, in January and Spring. The principal scholarly outlet of the Society is the quarterly journal entitled, 'Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture.' Tables of contents and abstracts are available for recent issues. The Society also promotes historical research by awarding five prizes for outstanding historical research, three of which are on an annual basis. Details of the various prizes are made readily available. The site is well presented and accessible.
This website is the online presence of the Ancient and Medieval Studies Reading Room of the Butler Library at Columbia University. Although the site's primary intended audience is members of Columbia University (some resources require a username and password), free access is provided to a number of features which may be of interest to a wider public. These include: a guide to the publications of Monumenta Germaniae Historica; a basic bibliography in medieval history; and a finding aid to Papal documents. There is also a list of links to various resources relevant to ancient and medieval studies that are available on the Internet, as well as a listing of electronic journals. Information is also provided on the Reading Room's physical collection, which consists of over ten thousand volumes of reference books of interest to researchers studying the literature and history of Greco-Roman antiquity and the middle ages. The collection is a selection of primary texts as well as commentaries, concordances, and reference works useful in study of these texts.
The Albani archive project makes available online digital reproductions of some archival fonds originating from the private archive of Pope Clement XI (1700-1721), born Giovanni Francesco Albani (1649-1721). The Archive consists of documents dating from the XVI to the XVIII centuries. A dedicated database can be searched or browsed online. At the time of this review the digital archive is estimate to hold 4.000 documents, totaling in the region of 20.000 images. The entire collection has never been fully classified and only a summarised and incomplete inventory was made in 1939. The online archive contains documents of various typologies, such as: correspondence, memorials, petitions and administrative papers. Present too is a biography of Giovanni Francesco Albani and a short history of the private library of the Albani Family of Urbino.
This website provides details of the archives held by the Archivio storico del patriarcato di Venezia [Historical archive of the patriarchate of Venice]. The archive's contents relate to the Church in Venice and an alphabetical list of the parishes, religious organisations, and religious figures, whose papers are held, are made available. A short description of the history of parishes and churches is included. The site describes the Archive's library and gives a link to enable catalogue search. Details of conferences and events related to the Archive's activities are included, as is a bibliography of relevant works. A brief history of the Archive is available, together with information on its involvement with local schools. A site map facilitates navigation of the site. This resource would interest anyone wishing to obtain information about the history of the Church in Venice generally or on specific parish churches.
The Armenian Church website provides an overview of the history of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in 301 AD, and the site gives a brief history of Christianity in the region, plus background information about the country and details of the church's hierarchy. While the site gives a useful introduction to the subject, it is probably not detailed enough to be of use for more advanced research. It does, however, offer an interesting gallery of several dozen black-and-white images of aspects of church architecture and decoration, and of key personnel and events in the Armenian church, though unfortunately detailed descriptions of these are not provided. The site features text adverts, which some users may find distracting.
The Baptist Library Online offers access to a range of important and hard-to-find texts by English and American authors in the Baptist tradition between the 17th and 19th centuries. The primary focus is on General Baptists and the Arminian (that is, free will) theology closely associated with them. Brief biographical information is included about key Baptist leaders whose work appears on the site, and a copy of the 1660 General Baptist Confession of Faith is available. Most texts are offered as PDF files - often facsimiles of printed editions - and HTML versions of many are also available. Also included is a short list of links to other related resources. A useful site for anyone with an interest in the history or theology of the Baptist church.
Baptisteria Sacra is a project assembling an online index of baptismal fonts from the early Christian period to the 17th century. At time of review, the database contained almost twelve thousand entries, with another three thousand additions planned. Access to the full records is restricted to subscribers, though free access is provided to the basic index and to a small number of examples. The full records contain a great deal of information, including: photographic images; location information; information about the workshop producing the font and the materials in its construction; its dimensions; its description by various categorised features; and there are also sometimes extensive notes. References and bibliographies are provided for each font. The search engine allows advanced searching by a number of the above criteria. The authors of the site encourage new submissions. This is a significant project and an excellent resource. Scholars interested in the history and decoration of fonts or church architecture may wish to consider subscription.
This is the official website of the Basilica Papale di San Francesco Assisi [Papal Basilica of Saint Francis Assisi]. The Basilica is home to an Order of Friars Minor Conventuals. The website presents a detailed biography of Saint Francis (1182-1226), including excerpts from the work of Thomas of Celano, the biographer who met the Saint during his lifetime. A section is dedicated to the celebrated hymn "Cantico delle Creature", written by the Saint. Further sections refer to Saint Chiara of Assisi (1194-1253) and to the 1223 celebration of the Nativity, thought to be the first such, which took place in the Franciscan hermitage at Greccio, in the Lazio region. Additionally, the site gives a description of the Basilica, the Holy Convent, the Museum, the Library and the Musical Chapel. Each description is accompanied by a selection of images allowing users to appreciate, for example, some of the frescos decorating the interior of the Basilica. An additional section is dedicated to the Franciscan Sanctuary of Rivotoroto, where the "Holy Hovel", the original humble dwelling-place of the Saint, is located. The site, being created by the Franciscan Order, also includes liturgy of some prayers and supplications to the Saint. Past and forthcoming events are listed and contact details provided.
The Missionaries is a BBC Religion Web page offering access to a series of half-hour BBC Radio 4 programmes on Christian missionaries in various countries, presented by Edward Stourton. The programmes cover: Ghana; Guatemala; Japan; and America. There is also a discussion of proselytism and mission more generally. The programmes place missionary activity in the countries covered within the overall historical narrative of Christianity: for example, the programme on Japan begins with Francis Xavier in the 15th century and moves through to the present day, interspersing interviews with experts with the presenter's experiences of Japanese culture today.
Bede Net, developed by Stephen J. Harris (Department of English, University of Massachusetts), provides access to a selection of academic resources for the study of the Venerable Saint Bede (673-735). Probably the most useful resource is an extensive bibliography which details works by and about Bede published before 1995. The bibliography is divided into the following sections: primary sources; translations; Bede scholarship; Historia Ecclesiastica [Ecclesiastical History of the English People]; homilies and commentaries; and hagiographies. The site also contains a short overview of Bede's life, and an address book of scholars specialising in Bede and Anglo-Saxon studies. (There are also pages for information about conferences and events relating to Bede studies and a list of briefly annotated links, but unfortunately these do not appear to be updated very frequently.) This site would be of use to researchers and students studying Bede or medieval theology.
Biographical Sketches of Memorable Christians of the Past is a collection of almost 300 brief biographies of saints, martyrs, theologians, and other notable figures in Christian history from apostolic times until the 20th century. Where applicable, information is also given about the person's key writings. The full list can be viewed alphabetically, chronologically, or by the date on which each figure is traditionally commemorated, and the relevant Anglican collects (brief prayers appropriate to a particular day) are also included. Although the individual biographies are quite short, and hence are chiefly suitable as a brief introduction to the figures covered, the number of biographies offered makes this a useful resource for those seeking an overview of church history. Most of the biographies were written by James Kiefer, and have been assembled and made available by the Society of Archbishop Justus. The material is also available in a slightly different format via the home page of Darren Provine.
The Book of Common Prayer website offers an impressive collection of editions of the eponymous prayer book, dating from 1544 through to the present day, along with introductory notes giving the history and context of each edition. The texts are arranged by country of origin, and the two largest sections cover versions of the prayer book from the US Episcopal Church and from the Church of England, but liturgy from a wide variety of churches in the Anglican communion is included. While most of the material is in English, the site also features the text of or links to full or partial translations into over a dozen other languages. The site also features a selection of works on the history of the Book of Common Prayer.
The British Academy's John Foxe Project had as its chief aim the production of a definitive edition of Foxe's 'Acts and Monuments of the English Martyrs', also known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs. The project website offers further details about the aims of the project, project news, details of staff, and perhaps most importantly, a link to the online version of the edition of Foxe's work (one of the most important texts for the study of early English Protestantism) that was the fruit of the project's labours. The project, which began in 1993, was originally funded by the British Academy, and subsequently supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB), now the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
This is the free and full-text online version of the Bulletin d'histoire ecclesiastique et d'archéologie religieuse des diocèses de Valence, Gap, Grenoble et Viviers, a French journal that published several notices and reports of early archaeological excavations. The past issues have been scanned for electronic publication. As is the case for all older publications, readers need to watch out for outdated information. The records and reports of old excavations, however, are irreplaceable and may be useful to both advanced students and researchers. The interface of the website makes easy searching through the journal, and it is possible with a free registration to add this and many other similar journal and older monographs to a private virtual space for easy retrieval. It is an excellent resource since the printed publication is now available only at a few libraries.
This is the free and full-text online version of the Bulletin d'histoire et d'archéologie religieuses ["puis" d'histoire, de littérature et d'art religieux] du Diocèse de Dijon, a French journal that published several notices and reports of early archaeological excavations. The past issues have been scanned for electronic publication. As is the case for all older publications, readers need to watch out for outdated information. The records and reports of old excavations, however, are irreplaceable and may be useful to both advanced students and researchers. The interface of the website makes easy searching through the journal, and it is possible with a free registration to add this and many other similar journal and older monographs to a private virtual space for easy retrieval. It is an excellent resource since the printed publication is now available only at a few libraries.
The Burnet Psalter is an illuminated manuscript created in the 15th century and bequeathed to Marischal College, Aberdeen by Gilbert Burnet (1643-1715), Bishop of Salisbury: historian, theological writer, and adviser to William III. This is an online resource providing full-page colour images of the text and illustrations from a 15th century manuscript (AUL MS 25). The term 'psalter' refers to a book containing the Book of Psalms (or a particular version of, musical setting for, or selection from it) used in liturgical as well as private devotional contexts. The Burnet Psalter was composed in the first half of the fifteenth century and contains: a calendar; prayers and hymns for personal use; the Book of Psalms; and liturgies for personal use. The site contains an introduction to the manuscript, lists of contents compiled in 1932 and 1995 and digitised images of each page of the manuscript. There are also enlargements of each of the illuminated letters with commentaries. The site also has full transcriptions of the Latin and an English summary of the prayers and hymns, as well as commentaries on the writing, an editorial, and a bibliography. Pages describing the manuscript are reproduced from M. R. James, 'A Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the University Library Aberdeen' (Cambridge, 1993). A full transcription of the Latin and summaries in English of the prayers and hymns also accompany the text. This project is one of the University of Aberdeen Special Libraries and Archives' NFF projects. Intended for a wide audience, this resource is a useful teaching and research tool for undergraduate and postgraduate study.
Edited by John Thomas and Angela Constantinides Hero, and housed within the Dumbarton Oaks online research library and collection, 'Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents' is the electronic version of an academic publication of the same name offering details and translations of Byzantine 'Typika' (the technical term for these foundation documents) from the 7th to the 15th centuries. Byzantine Typika essentially outline the customs and regulations of a monastic community of a given Orthodox Church while delineating their legal and economic status. However unlike the Rules of the Latin west, they could also be highly personal and not strictly focused on the foundations or structure of a monastic institution. This electronic text contains over 50 distinct documents from the Orthodox Church making this resource, according to the editors, the only collection of Typika ever assembled for academic study. Chapters are organised by century and then listed either by author or by the community to which they are attached. For those unfamiliar with this topic, each section, and the entire book itself, is prefaced by a brief historical introduction that will assist the uninitiated in orientating themselves. Thus, as all of these texts are available in English translation, this resource will be of interest to both students and researchers focussed on monastic communities, regulations or simply generally curious about the Byzantine Middle Ages. At the end of the almost 2,000 pages of this publication, there is a substantial bibliography covering not only monastic traditions, but also a wide variety of Byzantine cultural topics.
The website "Byzantium: Byzantine studies on the Internet" is a resource gateway listing Byzantine-related material available on the World Wide Web. The site is provided by Fordham University, and is edited by Paul Halsall. Included in the introductory page is a useful brief history of Byzantium. The links are annotated, and the list is divided into sections, including: news; academic and teaching resources; and texts, images, and sounds. For quick reference, there is also a small selection of non-annotated key links at the top of the front page. The resources cover: palaeography; hagiography; music; book reviews and research articles. This site is both well presented and easy to use. Links are not updated very regularly and some of them were broken at the time of review.
This is the website of the Calvin Studies Society, an organisation dedicated to researching all aspects of the life, thought, and times of the reformer, John Calvin. The Society holds a colloquium every two years, and periodically publishes a collection of papers delivered at the colloquia. Titles of past collections include: 'The Legacy of John Calvin'; 'Calvin and the Church'; 'Calvin and his Contemporaries'; and 'Calvin and Spirituality'. Information for those wishing to order copies is made available on the site. The Society also publishes a newsletter, older editions of which are freely available and can be read online. Membership in the Society is open to all for a small annual fee. The site is very well presented, and highly accessible.
This is the website of the Canadian Society of Church History, founded in 1960 as a non-denominational organisation dedicated to encouraging research into the history of Christianity in Canada, as well as the history of Christianity more broadly. The Society holds an annual conference and publishes the papers delivered at each conference in its annual journal, 'Historical Papers: Canadian Society of Church History'. The tables of contents of past issues of 'Historical Papers' are made freely available on the site. In addition, information for those wishing to subscribe to the journal, order back issues, and/or become members of the Society is readily available. English and French versions of the site's text appear alongside one another. Unfortunately, some users may find that the chosen combination of colours makes the site a little difficult to read.
This section of the official website of Canterbury Cathedral provides information about their archives. Canterbury Cathedral Archives are the historic archive of the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. The earliest records date from 742. The records of the Archbishops of Canterbury are held at Lambeth Palace Library. The website provides practical information for the potential researcher. There are contact details, information on opening hours, facilities and location, as well as an online guide on planning a visit. The website has some basic information on their collections - there are outline of their holdings listed by subject and type.
The Canterbury Cathedral Library website is part of the official website of Canterbury Cathedral and provides visitor and holdings information. The library currently contains approximately 30,000 books and pamphlets produced prior to 1900 and 20,000 printed after that date. The library, which is reference only, will accept any reader who has a legitimate interest in the collections. The site provides information about accessing the collections and opening hours. Details of catalogues are provided, as well as a link to the University of Kent's Web catalogue where the Cathedral Library's holdings are catalogued. The site also provides: brief descriptions of the main collections held by the library; a history of the library; and details of forthcoming events. This site would be of use to scholars and researchers.
The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church is a digital resource created and published by Salvador Miranda of Florida International University. The site provides biographies of the cardinals from the sixteenth to the twenty-first century and of the events and documents concerning the origin of the Roman cardinalate and its historical evolution. Users will also find on site a picture gallery of late nineteenth and twentieth century cardinals, a guide to events and documents from 76-2003, a bibliography, and a general list of cardinals from 112-2003.
Those searching for introductory information on medieval Christian heresies and fluent in French may wish to visit the website "Catharisme, hérésies médiévales et inédits". Created by one of the most widely recognized authorities on Catharism, Jean Duvernoy (Toulouse), the site offers brief background discussions on some of the most widely known heretical groups of the Middle Ages. Details and references for Cathars / Bogomils and Beguins, who flourished in western Europe during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and were ultimately suppressed by Christian authorities on the basis of their supposed questionable sexual activity and dualistic belief in the relationship between body and soul. The site is an impressive collection of transcribed archival documents (registers, inquisition protocols) by following the links to the three main sections on the site: medieval heresies; primary sources; and unpublished texts. Those requiring further information can scroll through Jean Duvernoy’s weighty bibliography of his own publications. The site has not been updated since 2003 but the patient reader will find a wealth of sources for medieval heresies.
The New Advent website offers a complete online version of the Catholic Encyclopedia. The Encyclopedia, originally published between 1907 and 1914, attempts to cover all aspects of Roman Catholic faith and history that may be of public interest: biographies are given for figures from Church history; historical events are explained; demographic information is provided; doctrinal points are discussed and justified; and Catholic literature, art, and science are covered. The Encyclopedia takes a moderately scholarly approach when discussing other faiths and the particular challenges sometimes presented by philosophy, explaining the background and nature of the proposed belief, and how it sits with Catholicism. Unsurprisingly, the Encyclopedia displays a bias towards the received doctrines of Roman Catholicism, but the reasons given for the faith's superiority are interesting and may also prove challenging. The sources used for each entry, and suggested further reading materials, are included at the base of the page. The site claims that the Catholic Encyclopedia only differs from a general encyclopaedia in 'omitting facts and information which have no relation to the Church'. A search engine is included with the site, which is useful as browsing may only be conducted alphabetically, and not by topic or category of entry.
While the Catholic Information Network (CIN) website is first and foremost a tool for the promotion of the Catholic faith, it contains such a large amount of information that it will be useful to anyone researching Christian, and specifically Roman Catholic, development and history. From this site, many church documents are accessible, including papal encyclicals from 20th century popes and documents from the Second Vatican Council. There is extensive information on Mary and the Catholic liturgical cycle, but perhaps the most useful reference tool is the epic guide to Saints, Martyrs and Other Holy Persons. This alphabetical index to saints’ lives offers quick historical and bibliographical information to virtually every canonised figure in Church history. Of course there is no need to restrict oneself to historical documentation, for CIN itself is an excellent starting point in exploring the use of the Internet by religious communities, and a chance to see how church bodies try to promote themselves through this new medium.
The Chartres: Cathedral of Notre-Dame image collection website provides access to a collection of over 3,000 high-resolution images (photographs, diagrams, and maps) of, or connected to, Chartres Cathedral - one of the best-preserved French gothic cathedrals in France, dating (predominantly) from the thirteenth century. Of particular note are its sculpture and stained glass. Each item is accompanied by descriptive information, including subject keywords that allow the collection to be searched easily and effectively. For more structured browsing, a link is provided to the relevant page of the MEDART website, where interactive diagrams providing access to themed subsets of the images are available. Users can zoom in on pictures to examine details of the Cathedral's architecture (which is in the high gothic style), including the stained glass windows, sculpture, and wall paintings. Images of two illuminated medieval manuscripts are also available. This attractive and well-presented resource is a joint project between the University of Pittsburgh's Digital Research Library and Professor of History of Art and Architecture Alison Stones. The digital images in the collection are often of a very high resolution and permission is granted for their educational use, provided due acknowledgment is given.
The website of Christ Church Cathedral Dublin's library and archives provides an overview of the material available to be consulted there and in related collections. The contents of the archives themselves are not available online. Brief information is given about the documents housed in the Cathedral, which include a rich collection of printed music and and secondary works on the Cathedral's history, plus microfilm versions or photocopies of material held in other repositories. A more detailed catalogue is given of Cathedral material held by the nearby Representative Church Body Library, which includes: volumes; deeds; maps; plans and drawings; loose papers; and printed materials. Access to the archives is by arrangement: for those interested in visiting, the Cathedral website's home page provides links to visitor information (including how to find the Cathedral) and a contacts page.
Christian + Feminist is a small but interesting resource gateway providing access to a number of articles, book reviews, and even two full-text books on the role of women in Christianity. The site offers a mixture of locally hosted material and briefly annotated links to other sites. Most works included date from before 1997, so users should note that the most recent discussion will not be included. However, the site does list some fascinating material, such as the pamphlet 'Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women' by the 16th-century reformer John Knox, plus sites on women in Byzantium, on the Beguines (a medieval women's religious movement), and on the different stances taken on the ordination of women in the Christian church.
Designed as both an educational tool for students and an online guide for those unable to make the journey to Rome, the brief but engaging "Christian Catacombs of Rome" written by the Istituto Salesiano S. Callisto describes the series of catacombs bordering the consular roads of the Appian Way and constructed between the second and fifth centuries AD. The site begins with a general introduction to the social importance and archaeological history of the catacombs while describing some of the more prominent symbols and structural features of the tombs in light of the Church's early spiritual role and status at the time. This history is accompanied by a series of studies that detail the often-difficult life of these early worshippers and a solid bibliography on the Catacombs of Saint Callixtus. Though overall somewhat basic in its presentation, the site will serve as a helpful introduction to students undertaking preliminary research in early Christian funerary rights and rituals, or those simply interested in Christian life during the decline of the Roman Empire. Th website also publishes a useful and updated bibliography.
Christian Hagiography is the website of the Société des Bollandistes, a group devoted to hagiography and in particular continuing the work of John Bollandus, the seventeenth-century hagiographer and author of the Acta Sanctorum. The site contains contact details of hagiography societies worldwide, and abstracts of their journals. It also provides bibliographical details of resources, both electronic and traditional, that may be of interest to those studying hagiography or the lives of saints.
The Church History Timeline is an online chronology of important dates in the history of Christianity, from apostolic times to the end of the 20th century. Broken into 12 sections for ease of navigation, the timeline lists key events, births, deaths, and theological works. As an aid to further study, links are provided to relevant material elsewhere online. The timeline was originally compiled by Clay McKinney as a project for a course at the Presbyterian Covenant Theological Seminary, and the site also offers MP3 recordings of a series of 37 lectures on church history, given by Dr David Calhoun of the same institution. The links provided to PDF transcripts of the lectures were unfortunately not working at time of review, but the transcripts can be accessed by following the links to Covenant Theological Seminary's own course Web pages. This is a helpful resource for those seeking an overview of ecclesiastical history.
Part of the larger series presented by the University of North Carolina, Documenting the American South, The Church in the Southern Black Community offers a detailed look at the introduction and development of Protestant Christianity in African American communities. Through electronic reproductions of original texts and documents such as slave narratives, sermons and monographs, users are introduced to the history of African American religious conversion, and the subsequent transformation of the churches into evangelical and empowering voices against oppression and slavery. This collection is already very substantial (over a hundred and fifty digitised and encoded works at time of review), and new texts are still being added. All interested in or researching the relationship between Christianity and the African American community at the time of the American Revolution will find this collection an invaluable resource. In addition to the numerous articles, which can be quickly located through a variety of search utilities, the site's creators have also provided an introductory essay on Southern Black Christianity. Users will also find that the other electronic initiatives that make up this series on the American South serve as an excellent complement to each other, and are encouraged to consult them for allied information.
The Ecclesiological Society website provides information on the Society, which is devoted to the study and celebration of the: arts; architecture; and liturgy of the Christian Church. The Ecclesiological Society, founded in the 19th century, takes an interest in many different aspects of the structure and upkeep of church buildings, and provides images of the month and short essays by members on topics such as: 'Late medieval dooms and the mouth of hell' and 'Post-Reformation communion arrangements'. There is also a section of links to related websites, although these are in need of updating as some were broken at the time of writing. The Society runs conferences and events, which are also advertised on the website, as well as publishing its own journal, 'Ecclesiology Today', which can be downloaded from the site (free to members). The site is relatively old-fashioned in design, but is informative and would be of use to those interested in church architecture, as well as interested readers. Details on how to join are also provided.
The Cistercians in Yorkshire website is a comprehensive and well-presented source of information on Cistercian history and practice in Britain. The Cistercian Order (or White Monks) arrived in the twelfth century, and was present in Britain until the dissolution of the Monasteries in the sixteenth. The site includes multimedia features and the intelligent use of hyperlinks to navigate the site. The central focus of the website is on the five major Cistercian abbeys in Yorkshire: Byland; Fountains; Kirkstall; Rievaulx; and Roche. For each of these abbeys there are web pages about their location, history, buildings, lands, and people. A full A-Z directory of other British and Irish Cistercian abbeys is also provided, giving brief histories and summary information for each abbey, such as whether the ruins are accessible to the public. The website also provides extensive information about Cistercian life (divided into topic areas) and a general history of the order. A glossary of terms is included, as is a list of prominent people with short biographies. Multimedia features include three-dimensional reconstructions of buildings and video clips of architecture and architectural features. Articles and essays are clear and succinct, and accompanied by full scholarly footnotes. The Cistercians in Yorkshire project is funded by the UK Lottery 'New Opportunities Fund'. The site does not give any indication of its date of creation or last update. A text only version is available.
The City and the Book website makes available the proceedings of a series of congresses which began in 2001. Papers from the first three conferences are online: a fourth conference appears to be scheduled, but at time of writing little information was available about this. The first conference, titled 'The Alphabet, the Bible', surveys the spread of the alphabet and Bible in Europe. The second, 'The Manuscript, the Miniature' covers a range of topics connected to the study of manuscripts and their illustrations, including Dante, contemplative women, and Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts. The proceedings of the third conference, 'Marble Silence, Words on Stone: Florence's "English Cemetery"' include an alphabetical register of the tombs in the Protestant Cemetery of Florence, and a number of related essays. Most papers are provided in both English and Italian, with a handful only in one of these, or in other languages. The site ought to be easy to navigate: a list of links to the major sections is provided at the top of most pages. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of these internal links appear to be corrupt, though it is usually possible to reach the page one is looking for by backtracking until one finds a working link to it. The parallel translation format (that is, alternating paragraphs of English and Italian) also makes the pages less easy to read than they could be. However, this remains a site with a lot to offer those with an interest in literary and manuscript studies or Florentine history.
The Clergy of the Church of England Database is an online relational database containing records of the careers of all clergymen of the Church of England between 1540 and 1835. The database provides an extensive research tool for historical researchers who wish to find biographical information about individual clergymen in early modern times, making it possible for the user to trace individuals across parishes, chronological and geographical patronage, and more structural investigations of the Church of England. The database contains records from all 27 dioceses of England and Wales which are held at 51 diocesan repositories and other archives and libraries. The primary records listed from the diocesan collections include registers, subscription books, licensing books, and liber cleri or call books. Where these records are fragmentary, other types of records have been consulted, including bishops' transcripts of parish registers, wills, taxation records, and surveys of clergy. The website also features a list of people involved in the project, and an explanation of the database. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) within the Research Grants scheme.
Codex Gigas is a website hosting a digitisation of a 13th-century Bible, known as the 'Devil's Bible'. The Bible was made in medieval Bohemia, and is said to be the largest extant medieval Bible. The Bible is now owned by the Kungliga biblioteket (National Library in Stockholm), which created this resource. High quality images of all folios of the codex are available, each of which can be magnified in order to see detail or read the text. The images can be browsed by folio number, or highlights can be viewed by type of content (for example: names; Old Testament; New Testament; or Calendar). In addition to the images, the site provides: a history of the manuscript; a description of the codex; and a discussion of the content size and purpose of this Bible. Also helpful are the: bibliography; biographies; and glossary of manuscript terms. The site is well designed and easy to use, and would be of interest to anyone studying medieval manuscripts, or medieval theology. The site is also provided in Swedish and Czech.
The website of the Conference on Faith and History provides information about this organisation, which is composed of Christian historians and scholars dedicated to considering the relationship between faith and historical studies. The Conference aims to provide a forum for discussing recent historical scholarship and to foster scholarship in the general area of faith and history. The Conference meets once every two years, and publishes a journal entitled 'Fides et Historia' twice a year. The site makes available the tables of contents of a number of past issues of the journal, while the book reviews can be downloaded in full in PDF. The Conference also publishes a newsletter periodically containing news of recent activities and events, and this can be viewed on the site in PDF format. The Conference is affiliated with the American Historical Association. Information for those wishing to become members of the Conference or subscribe to the journal is available.
Confession and Catechisms is a Web page published by the North American Orthodox Presbyterian Church. It gives the complete text of the Westminster Confession of Faith, and of the Larger and Shorter Catechisms. These documents, known collectively as the Westminster Standards, were originally written in the 1640s, in the aftermath of the English Civil War, and since then have been adopted by many Protestant churches (particularly those in the Reformed or Calvinist traditions) as formal statements of their beliefs. In addition to the texts themselves, the site offers a helpful preface which outlines the history of the Standards and details the minor modifications to them which have been made over the centuries. Also is available is a PDF version of the texts, with extensive footnotes indicating the biblical passages on which the Standards are based, plus a modern English paraphrase of the Confession.
The Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi (CVMA) collection is hosted by the Visual Arts Data Service (VADS), and this Web page provides introductory information and access to the searchable collection through the VADS interface or the CVMA's own website. The CVMA was founded in 1949 and has committees in twelve countries. In Britain it is a British Academy Research Project whose activities include the creation of this picture archive. The image collection contains over 18,000 images, most provided by the National Monuments Record, with others from sources such as the Centre for Medieval Studies, York, and several private collections.
This website, which is hosted by the Centre for Medieval Studies at the University of York and maintained by King's College London, provides access to digitised images of stained glass in England taken from the collections of the Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi (CVMA). As well as giving details of the project's activities, including publications, over 13,000 images are made available, most of which have been provided by the National Monuments Record, part of English Heritage. The images show glass from the mid-twelfth century onwards, including Renaissance and some later glass. The glass windows form a record of the visual culture of the medieval and Renaissance church and its congregations, including not only religious scenes but also heraldic and memorial glass, and the images made available through this site are a valuable source for historians studying the artistic legacy of the medieval Church, as well as medieval religious and social history. The website can be browsed using the county index for general viewing, or the alphabetical location index for specific places. The county map allows users to view the distribution of locations within an area. The search function employs a wide variety of search categories, although it is recommended that broad terms should be employed for initial searches. Full record details can be viewed for each image. These include information on: the location; the window itself; its date, subject and provenance; the photograph; and drawings, diagrams and other media. Over two hundred church plans are included to supplement this information. In addition, the website provides: details of CMVA publications; a list of secondary works not published by CVMA; a page of relevant Web links; and the 2004 version of Guidelines for the Conservation and Restoration of Stained Glass. Additionally, the Corpus has been added to the collection of Visual Arts Data Service (VADS), and can be searched from their website.
Creeds of Christendom is an extensive online collection of creeds and other statements of religious belief from the Christian tradition. It offers the text of, and in many cases notes on, creeds from ancient times through to the present day. The Ancient Symbols section begins with credal statements from the Bible, and includes the Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian and other significant creeds from the first eight centuries BCE. There are also notes on the filioque clause controversy, the text of the Definition of Chalcedon (on the nature of Christ), and the Canons of the Council of Orange. Later statements of belief (including both those of historical importance, such as the Heidelberg Catechism, and contemporary ones) are given for some fourteen denominations. Most of the material is hosted locally, though some texts are provided via links to outside sites; there are a few broken links, but on the whole the site seems well maintained. Although simply presented, it is easily navigable, with a limited search function. The bulk of material on the site in in English; some creeds, however, also have versions in Latin, Greek or other languages.
Conceived and developed by Dr. E. L. Skip Knox at Boise State University, 'The Crusades' is an online undergraduate course that covers these wars. The course is taught for credit via the university, but Knox has made the vast majority of his site accessible to anyone interested in the subject. Each unit of the module comprises a series of recommended readings, of which the majority can be accessed via links to external sites. Knox has also written and posted a substantial quantity of lecture notes on each of the crusades, and includes map of the relevant geographical areas, plus a timeline of the period. All are openly available and together they offer a thorough and complete introduction to this turbulent and frequently bloody period, suitable for the undergraduate level. Though obviously designed for students new to the subject, this site may also be of considerable interest to more advanced academics, as a model for constructing an effective Internet-based learning environment.
Cynthia's Medieval Section is a Web page which makes available the research of Cynthia Whiddon Green on 6th century bishop and apostle St Kentigern (also known as St Mungo). Two resources are offered: Whiddon Green's MA thesis (including footnotes) on the life of St Kentigern, presented to the University of Houston in 1998, and her modern English translation, from the Latin, of the prologue and 45 chapters of 'The life of Kentigern', written by a 12th century monk named Jocelyn. Whiddon Green now combines teaching at Houston Community College and Lee College in Baytown with a singing career, and this Web page is hosted on the site of the group to which she belongs. The design of the site is basic, but functional, and the material may be of interest to those researching the life of this saint, or hagiography more generally.
This is an exhaustive and well-researched study of the "Dance of Death" murals found across medieval Northern Europe. It focuses on the mural from Lübeck (destroyed during the Second World War) but also includes murals in Tallinn, Berlin, London and Paris. The site has plenty of pictures and a careful walk-through of the Lübeck mural which correlates the text - dialogues between the various dancers and Death - with each scene. This sets the framework for the author's discussion of other murals. Where ever possible, he offers the original text (as well as a translation) to go along with each mural, and in several cases offers scanned images from printed books. There are also several essays contextualizing the Dance of Death in terms of the Black Death, attitudes to the church and the Reformation, and a good discussion of how the Dance of the Dead shifts as the Reformation spreads. There is no reference to wider cults of the dead or the pre-Christian background to such beliefs. One section is dedicated to Holbein's work, which marks the end of the development of the Dance of the Dead. The author is scrupulous about including the original texts, in a number of medieval European languages, but his English translations are good. The entire site is available in Danish as well.
This Web page, part of LUDOS - the University of Leeds' library of digital objects - is a prosopographical database of Melrose Abbey charters to the end of 14th century, resulting from the AHRC-funded project 'Survival and Success on Medieval Borders: Cistercian Houses in Medieval Scotland and Pomerania'. The database, based on the Bannatyne Club edition of Melrose Abbey charters (Liber de Melros, ed. C. Innes, vol 1-2, 1837) consists of four related tables: Charter; Location; Names; Persons, which may be downloaded as .csv files. A fuller description of these tables is provided.
For those looking for a basic introduction to the formation and selection of the New Testament texts, a useful introduction to this sometimes surprisingly complex issue can be found at 'The Development of the Canon of the New Testament'. Constructed by Glenn Davis, a self-proclaimed amateur who freely admits his heavy reliance upon the works of Bruce Metzger and Wilhelm Schneemelcher, the site contains a brief history of the Christian biblical canon and ample facts concerning the major individuals who shape the books. The site will be of greatest use to students new to the subject who will find within its pages a variety of helpful lists and tools. These include: short biographies of the major figures involved; background on, and links to, major apocryphal texts; and a table matching early church authorities with their opinions on books that were included in the Canon, as well as books that were not.
Die Handschriften des Klosters Weissenburg (The Manuscripts of the Monastery of Weissenburg, Alsace) is the German-language Web page of an exhibition held at the Herzog August Bibliothek in 2002. The exhibits are selected to give an insight into a typical monastic library of the early and high Middle Ages. Sample pages from 26 manuscripts are reproduced, including Bible texts, commentaries, and a copy of the Benedictine Rule. Many texts date from the 9th century (though the exhibition also features both earlier and later works), and the most prevalent languages are Latin and Old High German. A brief description (aimed at a general rather than a scholarly audience) is given of the content and significance of each manuscript.
Die Litauische Postille (1573): Dokumente der Litauischen Reformation' (The Lithuanian Postilla: Documents of the Lithuanian Reformation) is the German-language Web page of an exhibition held at the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel in 2003. It is part of a project of this library to publish a critical edition of the Lithuanian postilla (collection of sermons) of 1573, also known as the Wolfenbütteler postilla, a manuscript that is considered one of the most precious documents in the Lithuanian language. Apart from the postilla itself, the exhibition displays other valuable manuscripts connected to it, such as older German and Latin postillae that would have served as a reference, the first translations of the Bible into Lithuanian, and documents about the history of the postilla. Also exhibited are some general Lithuanica, including a very rare Lithuanian grammar from the 17th century or the first separate map of the Great Duchy of Lithuania, drawn by Gerhard Mercator.
The Digital Quaker Collection at the Earlham School of Religion is an online digital library containing the full text and page images of over 500 individual Quaker works from the 17th and 18th centuries. The site's organisers write: "The theological and organizational biases of Quakers have historically inhibited the production of systematic presentations on theological topics. As a result, the great wealth of Quaker thinking is contained in primary materials such as journals, epistles, and monographs." As a result, many of the volumes held by the School of Religion and available via this digitised project are rare and/or hard to locate. All of these texts are freely accessible via this excellent website; a fairly comprehensive bibliography and a page of links to related resources are also included. Made possible by a large grant from the Arthur Vinings Davis Foundations, the site is well-presented and easy to navigate.
'Discovery and Reformation' is a history website introducing students to the period between the discovery of the New World and the end of the Thirty Years War. The site focuses on the impact of the discovery of the Americas, and the Reformation and its consequences. It forms part of an online course called 'World Civilizations', run by the Washington State University, and aimed at first-year university undergraduates. The site is divided according to various headings such as 'the Spanish Empire', 'John Calvin', or 'Religious Wars'. Each section consists of a basic narration of the key events and ideas, sometimes including links to glossary entries or other resources. There are extracts from Calvin's 'Institutes' about civil government, and from Martin Luther's 'The Freedom of the Christian'. The site is attractive and clearly laid out. It should provide a useful introduction to this period of European history for those previously unacquainted with it.
This website describes AHRC-funded work on a multi-authored print publication (with online supporting materials) ‘A History of the Dissenting Academies in the British Isles, 1660-1860’. Established after the Act of Uniformity in 1662, Dissenting Academies provided higher education and preparation for the ministry to Protestant students excluded from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, for some 200 years. The project aims to provide the first modern study of the academies in thirty years, and will include online databases “with relevant details of academies, tutors, and students, and a bibliography of source materials”.
Divining America: Religion and the National Culture, is part of the TeacherServe project, a curriculum enrichment service based at the National Humanities Center dedicated to assisting teachers in planning and presenting their subject matter. The site contains a number of concise and helpful essays, all written by reputable scholars, offering overviews and bibliographies of many key aspects of religion in America. The essays are divided, for easy accessibility, into three categories. These are: 17th and 18th century; 19th century; and 20th century. Essay titles available include, for example: African American Religion in the 19th Century; Evangelicalism as a Social Movement; Religion and the American Revolution; Mormonism and the American Mainstream; and several others. The site is well presented and will be of considerable use to all those engaged in teaching the complexities of religion in America.
Maintained by the 'Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina' (Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina), 'Documentos para el Estudio de la Historia de la Iglesia' (Documents for the study of the history of the Church) offers a wide selection of Spanish-only primary resource texts from the Catholic Church. Material is available from periods spanning the entire breadth of Christian history: ancient; medieval; modern; and contemporary. However, not surprisingly, resources originating from Spain or Latin America are especially well represented; and besides a section on the history of the Catholic Church in Latin America, at the time of review, an additional section on the history of the Church in Argentina was under preparation. Directed towards students of Church history, texts are organised chronologically, and are easily read by selecting the appropriate link. A simple search facility also allows users to rapidly hunt through the either entire collection or a specific period for a given key word or term.
This interesting website seeks to provide information on church buildings in Dorset, England. Over 200 churches are featured on the site and these are listed in alphabetical order. The level and kinds of information provided for each church are not uniform. Whilst many are accompanied by photographs of the building, brief descriptions of the church itself, web-links and suggested print-based resources for further information; others only contained a number of recommended readings. The site also suggests many general resources about Dorset churches; history; and church bells in Dorset. These include published works and online resources.
The Dumbarton Oaks Hagiography Database assembles a considerable amount of reference material on hagiographic texts concerned with the lives of Byzantine saints and their activities between the eighth and tenth centuries. Inside the database, a record has been created for each saint's 'vita' detailing the name, location, date of death, and author of the 'vita', as well as the approximate date of composition. The structure of the database is quite sophisticated. One can either consult the general name lists of saints and/or hagiographers, or use the search features to isolate specific thematic categories or even exact phrases that appear in the text of the vita. The result offers brief bibliographic information on each saint and, most importantly, details of full-text publications. All users of this database should consult the introduction, accessible through a PDF-file: in addition to helpful background information, this section includes ninety pages of biographical material, listing virtually every saint from this period. Each of these entries briefly summarises their lives and recent academic studies and resources about them.
The early Church website covers the history of the Church from its foundation until c.600 CE. This site is a bibliographic guide listing primary and secondary sources by topic. Topics include: the Bible; councils; heresies and sects; famous individuals within the Church (listed alphabetically); ecclesiastical history; philosophy (Aristotle, Plato, Neo-Platonism, Cynicism, Epicurianism and Stoicism); and study aids. The inclusion of non-Christian philosophy means that the coverage period actually dates back to the fifth century BCE, and thus provides a useful bibliography for students of (Classical) philosophy as well as those studying early Christianity. There, are, however, no accompanying descriptions of the books, but given the extensiveness of the lists, this is understandable.The site is maintained by Robert Bradshaw, who has a Cambridge diploma in religious studies from Mattersey Hall (Assemblies of God Bible College).
The Earthlore Explorations website is devoted to cultural legacies including history; myth; poetry; and more. Resources at the Earthlore site are arranged into sections. Gothic Dreams includes: photographs and artwork depicting the architecture, sculpture, arts, and crafts of the Medieval period; a glossary of various aspects of gothic cathedrals and churches; and an in-depth historical overview of Notre Dame de Paris, comprehensively hyperlinked throughout to relevant resources within Earthlore Explorations. Ireland includes history and mythology, and gives an article on the poems of W. B. Yeats. Additional countries that may be featured with their own sections include Brazil; China; and Egypt. The Mystery of Lost and Forgotten Histories examines: the relevance of a historical or legendary King Arthur (including an in-depth historical overview of the Holy Grail); and the decline of ancient Peruvian civilization. The Lore of Astrology examines the history and evolution of the world's astrological sciences. Additional subjects that may be featured in the future include symbolism; music; literature; and Arthurian lore. Earthlore Explorations, online since 1995, was originally the work of New York based photographer Rhey Cedron. Cedron now works with a number of other investigators and researchers, all of whom are cited on this resource.
The Ecole (Early Church On-Line Encyclopedia) Initiative is a reference resource about the Christian church during its first 1,500 years. The site offers three main tools: first, a glossary which contains hundreds of brief descriptions on major figures within the early church. Secondly, a collection of longer articles covers major topics in medieval and classical Christianity. Thirdly, a chronology gives brief details of significant events in ecclesiastical and secular history from 55 BCE to the end of the 15th century. Hyperlinks between the sections are provided where relevant. The site also offers a bibliography and a list of links to related resources; however, the site is unfortunately no longer being maintained, and remains online chiefly for archival purposes. Consequently users should note that the bibliography will not include the most recent works, and it is likely that the external links will decay over time. Nevertheless, the locally hosted material offers a useful introduction to early church history.
Edward Payson Sermons is a website devoted to the work of the American Congregationalist preacher of that name. Payson was the pastor of a Congregationalist church in Portland, Maine from 1807 until his death in 1827. The titles and subjects of almost a hundred sermons are listed here, and the full text of over 70 of them is available. A substantial proportion of the sermons are calls to repentance, with titles such as 'The Guilt of Indifference to Divine Threatenings'; 'Sins Estimated by the Light of Heaven'; and 'Christ Rejects None Who Come to Him'; other topics include the person and work of Christ, the teaching of children, and eschatology (that is, the theology of the end of the world). Although rather basic in format (for example, there does not appear to be a search function), this site provides a useful body of primary source material for those interested in learning more about this little known American preacher.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'English Episcopal Acta, 1064-1305' dataset now hosted by ESDS and formerly hosted by the History Data Service (HDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as tab delimited files. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. The Episcopal Acta Project collects and edits the surviving charters issued by English bishops from the Norman Conquest to the start of bishops' registers in each diocese. It aims to provide information about the English Church from the eleventh to thirteenth centuries. The Episcopal Acta Database was designed in 1995-6 in conjunction with the British Academy Computing officer. In 2002 a searchable front end was developed. Each individual manuscript of a document edited in the English Episcopal Acta Series has a record entry within the database, recording provenance, dates, sealing and measurements for documents surviving as original charters, a description of contents, notes on the charter as contained in the series, and details of previous printings of the documents again as contained in the printed series. There is also a link to a full transcript of the charter as edited in the printed series.
The University of California Press has made available online 'Erasmus of the Low Countries' by James D. Tracy, first published in print in 1997. The work is a biography of Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469-1536) which focusses on Erasmus' ideal of a Christian republic brought about by teaching and scholarship. The list of chapter headings is as follows: The Burgundian-Habsburg Low Countries; Erasmus Against the Barbarians; The Ideal of Christian Civility; Between Wisdom and Folly; Reformers of Doctrina; The Name of Erasmus Will Never Perish; The Most Corrupt Generation There Has Ever Been; The Philosophy of Christ; In Defense of Bonae Literae; Christian Liberty in the Catholic Church; A Reformation Gone Wrong; The Parable of the Tares; Circumspect Reformer; Erasmus and His Readers. The online version includes the full-text and notes. The work also provides a chronology of Erasmus' life; a list of works discussed and a bibliography of works cited.
The ExLibris website provides detailed discussion on religious dissenters prior to, during, and just after the English Civil Wars and Interregnum. The website also provides an extensive list of English music's greatest works (and, where available, the composers) from 1385 to 1714. The discussion of the dissenters is divided by religious grouping (so, for example, there is a section on Baptists and a section on Muggletonians) and each area provides details on the group's aims, goals, achievements and influential leaders. There is a considerable bibliography which, although missing a few details on some publications, is of very wide scope and highly beneficial to any student or researcher in English religious, social or political history. The English 'musick' section is split into chronological order, with seven separate areas, and also has a very detailed and lengthy bibliography.
Fire and Ice is a fairly impressive collection of puritan and reformed writings. Some writings are available in PDF format, and some in html only. Moreover, some writings are excerpted from larger works, and some are complete. The writings are divided according to author, and featured authors include: Richard Baxter; Jonathan Edwards; Charles Spurgeon; Samuel Rutherford; Thomas Manton; A.A. Hodge, Ebenezer Erskine; John Calvin; and several others. Also available on the site is a collection of poetry and an historical and biographical listing. A highly useful resource for anyone interested in the subject.
FiveSolas.com is a website dedicated to theology in the Reformed Calvinist tradition. Named after the five Latin phrases that emerged during the Reformation as an expression of the Reformers' theological beliefs, the site offers access to a collection of articles and longer works on a range of topics including: eschatology; baptism; salvation; the Sabbath; and prayer. Although the site is unabashedly rooted in the Reformed tradition, pieces offering contrasting viewpoints are also included for comparison. In addition, there is a brief glossary, and a section on creeds, confessions, and related documents. The site offers a good selection of works by Protestant theologians and preachers of the 17th and 18th century, including: Augustus Toplady; John Owen; Jonathan Edwards; and an entire section devoted to the works of the Puritan preacher Thomas Watson. Pieces by contemporary writers are also included, although users should note that many of these are not primarily intended for an academic audience, but were instead written for church use (as sermons, for example) or as inspirational literature. The resources listed are a mixture of works hosted on-site, and lightly annotated (and generally well maintained) links to material elsewhere.
The Franciscan Archive is an all-in-one gateway for information about Franciscan life and history as well as the order's major thinkers and figures. Maintained by Brother Alexis Bugnolo, the layout of the home page is reminiscent of a newspaper with articles divided up into a variety of sections that include theology, liturgy, documents and history. When selected, the user discovers that each section is constructed out of external links and transcriptions from original spiritual texts that are available in English, Latin and occasionally Spanish. Not surprisingly there is a massive amount of information available on St. Francis of Assisi and the establishment of the Franciscan order including biographies, medieval hagiographies, legends and the Saint's writings. However the site goes on much further by offering brief histories of other Christian saints associated with the Franciscan movements. Students at all levels will find this resource easy to use and appreciate the depth and variety of material collected. Scholars too will welcome the ongoing addition of electronic texts from and about medieval Franciscan figures.
This website is the home page of the project "From suppression to restoration: the educational work of the English ex-Jesuits in continental Europe and Britain, 1773-1814", which is directed by Professor Maurice Whitehead of the University of Wales, Swansea, and supported by the Spencer Foundation. The project aims to examine how the English ex-Jesuits continued to practise their educational work during the period of prohibition of the Society of Jesus. This was initiated by Pope Clement XIV in 1773 and lasted until 1814. English Jesuits were unusual in that they were able to retain a focus for their educational activities, first at Liege, until 1794, and then at Stonyhurst, Lancashire. They were also able to spread their activities as far as Georgetown in the United States. In addition to publishing information on the aims of the project, this website includes: a gallery of images of the buildings of the English Jesuits; a list of the principal archival collections that will be used in the research, and links to them where appropriate; and a list of links to useful Jesuit history sites elsewhere online. There is also a section giving some historical background, which comprises lists of: colleges and houses of the English Jesuits in the Low Countries; rectors, presidents and headmasters of the English Jesuit College of St Omers, Bruges, Liege and Stonyhurst since 1593; a chronology covering the period 1593 to 1829; the Provincial Superiors of the English Province, 1623-1773; and a list of deceased professors and alumni for whom information exists online, from 1593 onwards. The description of the aims of the project is available in Dutch and French. The historical resources provided on this website are likely to be useful for all researchers with an interest in the history of the English Jesuits. Scholars will also find the information about the project itself to be of interest.
The Grace Online Library is a collection of several hundred articles, sermons, biographies, and other writings, predominantly in the Puritan, Reformed, and Calvinist theological traditions. Although at first glance this site might seem to be geared more towards the spiritual seeker than the scholar, there is much here to interest the academic theologian. Works by distinguished authors such as Jonathan Edwards, J. C. Ryle, Charles Spurgeon, John Calvin and many others are included, alongside the writings of more recent theologians. The articles are grouped by subject matter, but unfortunately there does not seem to be a systematic listing of authors or titles. A drawback of this site is the sparsity of biographical or other details about the writers whose work is featured; though brief notes are sometimes given, there is often nothing to indicate whether a particular article was written centuries ago or in the last few years. However, the sheer volume of material available means this is nevertheless a valuable resource.
The Gradual from Maundy Thursday to the Vigil of Pentecost (Denison Library, Perkins 4. Gradual. s. XVI, Scripps College) Web pages provide a digitised version of this entire 16th-century manuscript (including the binding). The gradual (a choir book) contains the Latin text and plainsong music sung during masses over the period between Easter and Pentecost. The text is illuminated, often with large historiated initials and intricate borders, and is annotated with liturgical information and descriptions of the illuminations. The images are of a high quality and enable the user to zoom in significantly on individual details. The site gives a good general description of the whole manuscript, its binding and probable use, as well as descriptions of each folio to accompany the individual images. The manuscript is searchable by: title; description; day of the Church Year; illuminations; and transcriptions among other fields, with some hyperlinking between fields from within individual descriptions. This site would be of interest to students and researchers in the fields of: manuscript studies; religious studies; and history, and, as the publishers hope in future to include musical transcriptions and sound files of the music being played, music historians.
This website, part funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, explores the history and buildings of the Great Hospital, Norwich. Founded in 1249 the hospital still retains many of its original buildings and unique archives, giving a valuable picture of the life of the unwell poor over seven centuries. The website narrates the institution’s history, from its beginnings in the spiritual care of the poor to its modern day existence as sheltered housing for the elderly. The website uses high quality digitised images of key documents, photographs and three dimensional architectural illustrations to chart the evolution of the hospital as an institution.
In the Gregorian Chant Home Page, Peter Jeffery has brought together a selection of links to online text documents and audio files on Gregorian chant, ranging from sites about medieval musical theory and resource guides to medieval chant performance, to pages on liturgy and Gregorian chant workshops. The website is simply presented and hence easy to navigate, with the links (many of which are annotated) divided into categories for ease of reference. This resource refers to American as well as European societies and institutions, but is primarily aimed at American musicology students. The site also offers a small selection of Princeton University course materials related to Gregorian chant.
This is an online bibliography for the study of medieval Church history, consisting of sections covering: primary sources; guides to using primary sources, divided geographically and by subject; guides to Latin (including dictionaries and specialised vocabularies, plus works on abbreviations, place names, and palaeography); guides to prosopography (information about individual people), topography, and chronology; general handbooks on Church history; and specialised encyclopaedias. The list is extensive and is equally useful to the beginner and to the more advanced researcher in the field. It is arranged on a single webpage, which allows for easy browsing. At time of review, the bibliography did not include works published after the mid 1990s. The list was compiled by Thomas Head at the Hunter College, City University of New York.
Published by the Lower Saxony State and University Library in 2000 to mark the 600th anniversary of the birth of Johann Gutenberg, the inventor of movable type and letterpress printing, this website provides a digital version of the two-volume vellum Bible, which was printed in 1454 and is now held in Göttingen library. The website also includes other examples of early printed books: the Göttingen Model Book (c. 1450), and Helmasperger's Notarial Instrument. There is also a section devoted to illumination, where it is possible to compare images from the Model Book and the Bible. The facsimile images are supported by a number of essays on the impact of Johann Gutenberg and letterpress printing, including: a brief biography of Gutenberg; an introduction to the copying of manuscripts; and a detailed description of the Göttingen B42 Bible. Access to the site is via acceptance of conditions for use and reproduction: essentially, the materials offered on the site are for private study only. The website, which is hosted by the Göttingen State and University Library, is available in English and German.
The Hall of Church History is an extensive guide to church history resources on the Internet. It covers most major schools of thought within Christianity from the church fathers through to 20th century figures, including sections on heretics and cults as well as the more orthodox. There is also a page of historically important creeds, confessions and catechisms. The site is attractively presented: one navigates by clicking on various 'rooms' in a map of the site (though a text-only version is also available). Each room gives a brief description of the area covered therein, and then a list of annotated links. There are a few broken links, but the proportion is reasonably small. The structure of the site and the descriptions of some resources indicate a distinct bias towards the author's own theological views, which lie in the Reformed Baptist/Calvinist tradition, but, as good coverage is given even to those groups with whom he disagrees, this is still a useful and interesting resource.
The website 'Hanover Historical Texts Projects' is an ongoing entreprisce of the Hanover College (USA) Department of History.Since 1995 they have been making electronic texts freely available for student and staff use in the study and teaching of history courses. The chronology ranges from ancient Greece and Rome through to the Russian Revolution. Geographic regions include Europe, United States, the Americas (outside the United States), Africa, and East Asia. The collection also includes works of philosophical and theological significance, including sections relating to the Crusades and the Reformation. Each text contains information about its source and who was responsible for scanning it. Texts are supplied as ASCII (presented in HTML) rather than page images. Many of the texts are quite lengthy and divided into sections (e.g. the full-text of the canons and decrees of the Council of Trent). Although the site is fairly regularly updated, some links are broken.
Heinrich Bullinger's Original Publications is a subscription only etext project funded by IDC Publishers. Bullinger (1504-1575), an influential Protestant Reformer, wrote many theological treatises in Latin which are now rare, fragile, and often difficult to locate. To commemorate Bullinger's 500th birthday in 2003, IDC have newly revised and catalogued their collection of Bullinger's theological works. The publisher has made these texts available online, by subscription only, to institutional customers. Most of these titles have also been reprinted by IDC in hard-copy format. The publishers suggest that these reprints might be more affordable for individual researchers and institutions interested only in topping-up an existing collection of Reformation texts. Details of how to purchase these reprints are also available via a searchable inventory of titles included in the site.
'Holy Women of Byzantium' is the electronic version of the first volume of a series of Byzantine saints' lives in English translation. The resource begins with an introduction on the genre of the 'vita' (the life of a saint) in general, and on the lives of female Byzantine saints in particular. Chapters on the lives on ten saints then follow. The saints chosen are from a variety of backgrounds and ways of life: there are sections on nuns disguised as monks, on solitaries, cenobitics (members of religious communities), married women saints, and one on Empress Theodora. This solid and scholarly resource, edited by Alice-Mary Talbot, provides full reference details.
Hortulus is an online medieval studies journal, published annually since 2005 by graduate students, for a graduate student audience. The journal is peer-reviewed, and claims an "international board of graduate students", although the staff and contributors listed appear to come mainly from North America. The published articles are of a high standard and cover a broad spectrum of subjects, including among other things: "Power and the Subversive Body in Chaucer's Wife of Bath"; "The Music of Dante's 'Purgatorio'"; "Astrology of the Arabic World and Albertus Magnus"; and "Seeing the World with the Eyes of God: the Vision Implied by the Medieval Icon". Hortulus is accompanied by a smaller magazine section entitled "Lighter Fare", which attempts to entertain and educate in tandem with the more serious scholarly tone of the main journal. "Lighter Fare" includes: interviews with medieval scholars and other professionals; light-hearted articles on anything from Gregorian chant to the production of manuscripts; book reviews; and reports on conferences and events of interest to medievalists. The website is easy to navigate, and allows readers to respond to articles directly. However, the site's reliance on images and tables may present access problems for some users.
Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies (ISSN 1097-3702) is an electronic publication devoted to the study of the Syriac tradition. Published twice yearly by Beth Mardutho: The Syriac Institute, all contents from January 1998 are freely available online. Apart from details about its submission policy, transliteration scheme and email group, the home page provides links to other online resources and journals that are useful for Syriac Studies. A search engine is also made available. This website is hosted by The Catholic University of America.
One of the better quick reference websites available for Christian and church history is the Index of Saints. Created by Katherine Rabenstein for St Patrick's Catholic Church, Washington DC, the index presently contains over 11,000 entries on Christian saints or 'beati' from Patristic to modern times. Many of the entries offer brief historical and biographical sketches, and on occasion users may also find excerpts from some of the more literary of these blessed figures. Navigation of the site is not difficult, but may take a little getting used to: because the content is designed to be viewed as part of the site's 'Saint of the Day' feature, clicking on a name in the index takes the user to a list of those saints who share the same feast day, so it may be necessary to scroll down to find the relevant entry. Obviously, the material contained within these pages will be of use to anyone who needs brief introductory information on a particular Christian figure. However, those embarking on further research may wish to consult the rather extensive bibliography on saints and saints' lives contained in the source references section, accessible via a link at the bottom of the page.
The website "Index Verborum : Martin Luther's German Writings 1516-1525" is an excellent project based at Boston College. Begun by Heinz Bluhm, and continued by Keith Moorehouse and Agnes Farkas, the project has placed online a reference guide to over 323 of Luther's works in German. It is exceptionally useful for theologians, historians and Germanists, as the works can be searched by word, and number of instances is provided. Textual and linguistic analyses can be more easily carried out. Several examples of the range of meaning a word was assigned within Luther's work are provided here. There is also a helpful list of 'unessential' words not included in the index, and indices of the works are provided. An excellent tool for all those working on the Reformation, Germanic Studies and Theology.
The International Association for the History of Religions (IAHR), founded as an organization in 1950, is dedicated to promoting the academic study of the history of religions through international collaboration between scholars. The association holds a major congress every five years, and holds regional and special conferences annually. The principal scholarly outlet of the association is its official journal, 'Numen: International Review for the History of Religions.' In addition, the Association publishes the 'Numen Book Series,' which now comprises over eighty volumes. Further information on publications of the IAHR, as well as information regarding membership is readily available on the site.
The Ancient History Sourcebook, created by Paul Halsall, forms part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project Series. This site concentrates on bringing together primary source material relating to the Ancient World in a structured manner. The main subject areas covered are: human origins; Mesopotamia; Egypt; Persia; Israel; Greece; Hellenistic World; Rome; late Antiquity and Christian origins. These categories are all further subdivided. The material on the site is a mixture of links to other websites and documents prepared as part of the sourcebook project. The Ancient History Sourcebook is straight forward to navigate as it is easy to browse and it is possible to search the site.
The website 'Internet History Sourcebooks Project', created by Paul Halsall at Fordham University, provides access to online primary source material for a number of branches of history. The project offers a combination of locally hosted material and links (often annotated) to documents on other sites. The three main sourcebooks cover ancient, medieval, and modern history; in addition to these, there are subsidiary sourcebooks, which take a thematic approach. There are, for example, sourcebooks on: Jewish history; Islamic history; East Asian history; history of science; and women's history. The material within the sourcebooks is well organised into categories, and is searchable. The home page provides general information about the sourcebooks project, including details of updates (maintaining a resource of this scope is a considerable task, and consequently some broken links are almost inevitable). Overall, this is a very valuable site, as the sources offered have the potential to be of immense use to historians; however, the user does need patience to browse what can be rather eclectic collections of sources. Also, the editor warns that the site had last been updated in 2006.
This website was founded in 1996 as an online source of medieval texts. Content scope is broad, covering a wide range of medieval studies. The majority of the sources are organized into one of three major categories: selected sources; full-text sources; and saints' lives. Additional categories include selected secondary resources, medieval legal history, and maps and images. The selected sources section offers an index to facilitate finding texts for particular periods or topics, and deals with material dating from the end of the classical world through to the reformation and renaissance. Topics listed include: economic life; the crusades; church history; intellectual life; Jewish life; and sex and gender. The full-text resources are arranged by document type, including: church councils; historiographical works; literary texts; spiritual writings; and legal documents. The saints' lives are presented in broadly chronological order, beginning with the apostolic era and going through to the post-medieval period. Saints of Byzantine, Western European, and Celtic origin are included. The site is part of the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies project (ORB), developed by Paul Halsall, the ORB sources editor, and located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.
The Internet modern history sourcebook has been developed by Paul Halsall at Fordham University. This site forms part of a series of Internet sourcebooks covering different historical periods and themes. This sourcebook covers a wide range of topics from the Reformation up to the present and provides an extensive amount of information. The material provided is a mixture of documents hosted on the site and links to other sites. Brief annotations are available for some of the documents and introductions have been added to many of the sources hosted by the site. The emphasis of the site is the provision of primary sources; there is an interesting section on the study of history and the use of primary sources. The site is relatively easy to navigate with documents divided into sixty different categories which are further subdivided. Although a search engine specifically for the sourcebook is not available, fairly effective searches can be carried out using the Fordham University search engine.
'Into His Own' focuses on the historical study of Jesus and the New Testament. It consists of a number of primary texts in translation, including extracts from the works of Josephus and Tacitus, and from the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Talmud, and the Mishna, on the political, social and religious situation in 1st-century Palestine. In addition to the primary material, these pages offer information (including maps) on the historical sites and sources on which this study is based. Thorough and scholarly, but still aimed at an audience of non-experts, this resource is an excellent teaching and introductory research tool. The site also features a blog and a short list of related links.
This is the website of Istituto Pio Paschini [Pio Paschini Institute], an organisation based in Udine, Italy, that aims to conserve and organise ecclesiastical archives and libraries in Friuli. Established in 1982, it promotes research in the history of the church in Friuli. This web resource makes available articles on the church, local history, and manuscripts. Newspaper articles on the Institute's work are also made available, some in PDF. Details of the Institute's publications are included, alongside a description of contents. A diary advertises events and activities organised by the Institute. Users can listen to radio discussions and presentations via RealPlayer, and can read the results of members' research in various archives. The Institute is run by academics and archdeacons, whose details are included on the site. This resource is of use to anyone studying ecclesiastical history or the region of Friuli, as a starting point for further research.
The Iter project offers a series of online bibliographic databases pertaining to the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (400-1700). Access to the databases is available only to members of subscribing institutions and individual subscribers: subscription information is available from the site. The main Iter database contains more than a million bibliographic records for books, journal articles, reviews, and other scholarly material, and is updated daily. Lists of journals and essay collections indexed are provided. Other resources accessible via the Iter interface include a John Milton bibliography; Iter Italicum, a catalogue of Renaissance humanistic manuscripts; Baptisteria Sacra, which offers descriptions of fonts from the early Christian period to the 17th century; and the International Directory of Scholars. A number of journals can also be accessed through the site.
The Jasna Góra website provides an illustrated guide to the most revered Roman Catholic shrine in Poland. The Shrine of the Most Holy Virgin Mary of Jasna Góra near Cracow is home to a much venerated icon, also known as the Black Madonna of Częstochowa, and the site also offers information about the painting and its history. The Pauline Monastery which houses the icon was built in the late 14th century. According to tradition, the icon was painted by St Luke the Evangelist on a table top belonging to the Holy Family; art critics, however, date the work to between the 6th and 9th centuries. The site provides an overview of the history of the painting and of the Pauline monastery that shelters it. The text of the site is available in a variety of languages: Czech; Slovak; English; Spanish; German; Hungarian; and Italian although the original Polish is the most extensive of all.
Made available over the Internet by Raymond Bucko (Creighton University) and Thom Mentrak, 'Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, 1610-1791' is an electronic version of the seventy-volume collection of reflections and reports by Jesuit missionaries active during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in what is now Ontario and Quebec (previously Upper and Lower Canada, and prior to that, New France). One of the most important ethnographic tools available to historians and other academics of this period, the Jesuit relations have not only proved to be an invaluable research resource on the religions and cultures of communities with which the Jesuits interacted, but also offer a fascinating insight to the interaction between Christianity and the New World. The electronic text is the English translation made by William Lonc and George Topp. The site will undoubtedly prove to be a vital resource to both students and teachers - particularly for those who have struggled to work through the seventy-volume original.
The 'John Foxe's Book of Martyrs' website provides searchable online texts of the four editions of Foxe's 'Acts and Monuments of the English Martyrs' published during the author's lifetime, in 1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583. In this work, Foxe (1516-1587) sought to represent the Protestant Reformation as 'a transforming experience in the religious history of England and Europe'. The various editions may be displayed side-by-side to enable easy comparison, and the online texts are accompanied by editorial commentaries and critical apparatus, including hypertext annotations, plus a searchable bibliography. The project originally received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board and is supported by the Humanities Research Institute at the University of Sheffield. This material can also be downloaded from the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS), although registration is required to access the HDS version.
John Wesley (1703-1791): Life, Legend, and Legacy is an online exhibition that documents the life and career of the founder of the Methodist movement, and examines his lasting influence. It is made available by the John Rylands Library, University of Manchester, and is based on a physical exhibition held there in 2003. The site takes a broadly chronological approach, and is divided into the following sections: Early Life; Georgia and the Search for Salvation; The Rise of Methodism; John Wesley's Beliefs; Wesley the Man; Leader and Patriarch; Death and Apotheosis; and The Wesleyan Legacy. These sections illustrate the main events of Wesley's life with images of documents from the collections of the John Rylands Library. A rich variety of material has been used, including: correspondence of the Wesley family; Wesley's personal notes and sermons; printed works; accounts of Wesley's preaching; and watercolour illustrations, prints and engravings. The material also documents aspects of the life of Wesley's younger brother, the clergyman and hymn writer Charles Wesley. Each image is accompanied by a short text that puts the material into context. In some cases, the thumbnails link to larger images. However, the documents are not fully transcribed (though short excerpts are often included in the accompanying text), and the images are generally of just a single page. Nevertheless, this website presents a good deal of interesting material, and will be of use to those with a general interest in Wesley or Methodism.
The website of the Jonathan Edwards Center at Yale University provides information about the Center's work to promote inquiry into the life and writings of the 18th century American theologian and preacher, who was a key figure in the Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s. The site also hosts one of the Center's key projects: an online critical edition of Edwards' works, comprising some 100,000 pages of sermons, notebooks, letters, and treatises, including some works never published in print format. In addition to the writings themselves, the site offers biographical information about Edwards, answers to frequently asked questions, and a set of educational resources, including multimedia material. This is a valuable resource for anyone researching Edwards' work.
The website of the Journal of Religion offers tables of contents of past issues of the journal, beginning with January 1996, free of charge to all users. Subscribers can also view the full text of articles in issues from 2004 onwards. Published by the University of Chicago Press four times a year, the journal is dedicated to scholarly inquiry into the meaning and importance of religion. It is broad in scope and its articles are wide ranging in scholarly approach. Information for those wishing to subscribe to the journal and/or order back issues or individual articles is available. Guidelines for those interested in submitting articles are also offered. The site is well presented and accessible.
The Keio Gutenberg Bible website makes available a digital facsimile of the first volume of the Gutenberg Bible acquired by Keio University in 1996. Also offered is information about the provenance of the copy, details and images of the book's external appearance, illumination and text style, and the paper on which it is printed, plus a select bibliography. Additionally, users can compare pages of the Keio Gutenberg Bible with that owned by Cambridge University Library. There are, however, no transcripts of the Bibles. The site is, by its very nature, image heavy, and hence may be slow to load for some users; the interface can also sometimes be a little cumbersome to use. The text of the site is available in English and Japanese. A valuable site for anyone with an interest in the Gutenberg Bible, or indeed in incunabula (early printed books) more generally.
L'édit de Nantes et ses antécédents (1562-1598) is one of the subsites of ELEC; the online publications page of the National School of Charters at the Sorbonne. This site provides a scholarly critical edition of four different versions of the Edict of Nantes; the royal decree of 1598 which protected the religious rights of French Protestants. It also posts 11 earlier historical edicts and other relevant primary source documents related to efforts to pacify upheavals during the religious wars of 16th century France. A lengthy introduction by the director, Bernard Barbiche, explains the rationale, methods, and scholarly background of the project, as well as the history of the Edict of Nantes itself. Students at the school participated in the production of this website, under the guidance of their professors. The site has a number of online tools to aid thematic research: an alphabetical index; a search engine; and a glossary. It should be of special interest for professional academics, postgraduates and undergraduates working in various branches of 16th and 17th century French History, Religious Studies, and French Studies.
"La Mort dans l'Art" is an attractively illustrated website providing a survey of representations of death from the Middle Ages to the present day as featured in a number of media such as murals, illuminated manuscripts, engravings and paintings on canvas. Many of the basic attitudes to death and the afterlife in the Middle Ages are reflected by the French legend of the three living and the three dead (whose punchline is the title of the site) which first appears in manuscripts in the 13th century and which was widely represented in art until the 16th century. The wealth and status of this world are contrasted with the rotting corpses of the dead, prompting the message of humility and moral awareness in the face of inevitable mortality. This gloomy message had an extraordinary impact on the mediaeval mind and on the artists who provided devotional and decorative images for use by churchman and laity alike and provide an fascinating insight into popular perceptions of eschatalogical themes. Other featured iconographic themes include the 'dance of Death' (which includes depictions from Scandinavia, Eastern Europe and the former Yugoslavia and a useful chronological survey), 'Death and the maiden' and the 'triumph of Death' as well as some miscellaneous representations. A short bibliography is also included. This resource, which is available in English and French, will interest in particular students and researchers of mediaeval history and religion, art and archaeology.
The Latin Library website houses a large collection of Latin texts, available for viewing online. Authors and works present include: the younger and elder Plinys; the oratorical, philosophical, and epistolary works of Cicero; Catullus; Martial; Seneca; Suetonius; Horace; Vitruvius; and about 50 others. As well as works of classical literature, the site offers legal and religious texts, along with a selection of medieval works. The texts are divided by book, chapter, and paragraph, so navigating to the right part of the required work is fairly straightforward. No translations, commentary, apparatus or vocabulary help are provided, but the range of texts is so broad that the site is still a very valuable resource. The texts come from a variety of sources, either scanned in by the site's compiler from public domain sources, or submitted by other online Latinists around the world. The compiler gives a list of links to the providers of the texts, and is careful to point out that his collection is not a substitute for published critical editions.
'Le Cartulaire blanc de Saint-Denis' is one of the subsites of ELEC, the online publications site of the National School of Charters at the Sorbonne. This resource features an impressive selection of explanatory historical essays, primary source transcriptions, maps, genealogical tables and current photographs. All documents support the site's central focus on the most important cartulary of the medieval French abbey of St. Denis; the White Cartulary of the 13th century. There are explanatory notes on scholarly principles that inform both the transcription of the Cartulary and the organisation of the site. A table of contents subpage lists the chapters of two volumes of the Cartulary. Actual material from the Cartulary can be accessed via a table of documents (Tableau des actes du chapitre "Tremblay" du Cartulaire blanc), and via a chronological table of documents online (Table chronologique des actes en ligne). The site is a work in progress, with scholarly editorial footnotes still being added to primary source samples. These excerpts provide a good starting point for research on monastic concerns and medieval business at this abbey, situated not far north of Paris. The site has its own search engine and an alphabetical cross-linked index. It is a valuable resource for those working in medieval French history or religious studies. The main language of the site is French.
One of the most beautiful medieval manuscripts ever created, Les Trí Ã‚Â¨s Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, is currently available in electronic form through the WebMuseum Network. Each of the twelve pages of this celebrated Book of Hours that depict the seasonal and agricultural cycle of medieval life has been digitized and may be viewed in exquisite detail. This site would make an excellent teaching tool, either on the book itself or as a demonstration of apex of medieval illumination techniques. Students unfamiliar with the manuscript itself may explore the accompanying brief documentation, which provides a short introduction to the pages and their creators. Users will also find a glossary of specialist terms used inside the resource.
The Lindisfarne Gospels site provides a general introduction to the contents of the Lindisfarne Gospels manuscript (British Library, MS Cotton Nero D.iv) and its cultural and historical context. Written by Michelle Brown, Curator of Illuminated Manuscripts at the British Library, it is divided in four sections, or "seminars", on the following topics: The Lindisfarne Gospels and the Early Christian World; Eadfrith and the Making of the Lindisfarne Gospels; The Lindisfarne Gospels in Use; and A Display Opening of the Lindisfarne Gospels. Designed for the non-specialist and assuming no prior knowledge, the site gives a lively introduction to Anglo-Saxon England and early Christian Europe to place the codex in its religious and cultural setting. It is illustrated with a selection of images from the manuscript which, although not as clear as they might be, provide the reader with a valuable accompaniment.
The Lindisfarne Gospels website is the work of the British Library, and gives a brief introduction to the Gospels manuscript. The manuscript was created between 715 and 720 on the island monastery of Lindisfarne, and is written in Latin but also includes the oldest surviving translation of the Gospels into Old English. The site gives a brief overview of the Gospels and their history, and some contextual historical information. There is also a link to the British Library's 'Turning the Pages' Web pages, where users can access high quality images of some pages from the Gospels. This last involves the use of Shockwave, and knowledge of connection speed in order to work effectively. This resource would be of interest to beginners studying medieval manuscripts, or the more general reader.
This is the website of the Living Spring Journal (LSJ), a peer-reviewed electronic journal for the study of all aspects of holy wells and waterlore, edited by Richard Pederick of the University of Bath. Although only two issues of the LSJ appeared (in May 2000 and November 2002), the journal was widely acclaimed and contributed to by the community of local history and academic researchers it served. The value of the LSJ to its community can be seen by consulting the archives of the Wells-and-Spas JISCMAIL list ("Water talk, the email discussion list for springs and spas enthusiasts"). The full text of both issues is accessible from this website. The scope of the journal is stated as a forum for the study of wells and their place in the community, their history, construction, architecture, archaeology, sociology, hagiography, religious significance, folklore, and ritual. It also gives a broad picture of the study of water-sources, so that holy and healing wells may be set in the wider context of water in the community. However, LSJ is not a forum for the study of industrial or commercial wells and boreholes, although some spa wells are featured.
The Lollard Society website provides information about this academic association dedicated to the study of Lollardy. The site is presented in blog format, and offers relevant news and announcements, including calls for papers and conference details. Available elsewhere on the site are society membership information, and perhaps most usefully for the serious scholar, a series of bibliographies, covering both primary and secondary texts. Where the texts listed are out of copyright, a PDF version of the full work is sometimes provided. Also known as Wycliffism (because its member followed the teachings of John Wycliffe) Lollardy was a religious and political movement which flourished in England between the mid 14th century and the Reformation, and which was characterised by criticism of the western church.
The Lost Gospel of Judas is a website from National Geographic Society, focusing on the Coptic manuscript discovered in the 1970s and eventually restored and translated in 2006. The Gospel of Judas is believed to have been written before 180 A.D. by an unknown gnostic writer, possibly in Egypt, and was regarded as heretical both for its gnostic content and its favourable treatment of the eponymous disciple, traditionally held to have betrayed Jesus. This site offers background information about the manuscript, its discovery, and the work to conserve it, along with images of the pages of the codex, plus a complete transcription of the Coptic text and an English translation. This is a useful resource for those wishing to learn more about this important discovery.
The beautifully crafted and highly useful 'Luminarium' website, created and edited by Anniina Jokinen, is an excellent resource for all students of early English literature and literary history, as well as the allied subjects of: history; religious studies; and philosophy. The site offers four different collections of literary works and resources relating to the period from the later middle ages to the Restoration. The first section, an anthology of Middle English literature (1350 – 1485), includes links to the writings of: Chaucer; Margery Kempe; and Julian of Norwich; as well as an assortment of plays and lyrical works. The second grouping is of resources relating to Renaissance literature (1485-1603) and contains links to the works of such recognizable authors as: More; Spenser; Hooker; Marlowe; Gascoigne; and, of course, Shakespeare. The third series covers the early 17th Century until 1660, and once again offers a substantial number of resources and links relating to: Bacon; Donne; Lovelace; and Cowley, just to name a few. The final section covers the Restoration period, including authors such as: Pepys; Dryden; Pope and Jonathan Swift. This site is an excellent starting point for the study of early English literature, particularly for the undergraduate user, as the compiler has spent considerable effort in gathering and posting articles, citations and essays (both student and professional) for each of the seventy-plus authors. The images and striking web-design that accompany these secondary resources make this site not only a literary feast, but also a visual one.
This is a website of the Stiftung Luthergedenkstätten in Sachsen Anhalt (Luther Memorials Foundation in Saxony Anhalt), an organisation dedicated to the study of the religious reformer Martin Luther (1483-1546). It makes available various digital libraries of images of medals and coins featuring Luther; printed works; and handwritten documents relating to the theologian. It also presents several permanent online exhibitions, including: Luther in Wittenberg 1508-1546; Predigt-Propaganda-Polemik (Preaching-Propaganda-Polemics); Schatzkammer (Treasury); and Luthers Bild und Lutherbilder (Luther's picture and pictures of Luther). Users can view information on the Foundation's holdings in each of these areas. Many of the entries have corresponding images of pages from the works. Sub-categories within these exhibitions look at: Luther's role in the Reformation; Humanism; Lutheran celebrations; and Luther's relationships with the Pope, Jews, Erasmus, and the Turks. These catalogues and exhibitions are published online by the University of Cologne. This is an excellent source of primary information for researchers of Martin Luther and the Reformation in general.
Mapping Margery Kempe is an online digital library of resources relating to the contextual study of Margery's and her spiritual biography (known as the 'Book of Margery Kempe'). The site is based at the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachussets, USA, and provides various resources, including an online, original-spelling edition of the Book of Margery Kempe itself. The text of the book has been formatted so that users can locate particular sections and chapters quickly and easily, and is supported by an online glossary and bibliographical resources. The website also offers an excellent range of contextual material including biographies of some of Margery Kempe's most significant influences and contemporaries, and material relating to: medieval piety; pilgrimage; saints' lives; and church history. There are also detailed photographic resources relating to the church in Norfolk that Margery Kempe attended. Mapping Margery Kempe would be of interest not only to literary scholars but social and cultural historians of the medieval period. It is an ideal resource for those interested in contexual approaches to Margery Kempe's writing.
The 'Marginalia' journal website is part of a larger site also called 'Marginalia', which is the home of the Medieval Reading Group at Cambridge University. This peer-reviewed journal is published and edited by postgraduate students of medieval studies, with the assistance of an advisory board of established academics. The editors invite submissions of long papers and shorter notices on any aspect of the Middle Ages in England within the broad period from 500 CE to 1500 CE. All articles are based on original research. The publication also includes book reviews. This journal showcases new work being undertaken by young researchers, and will be of interest to students and scholars of medieval studies in all disciplines. The first edition of the journal, with the theme of 'Margins', appeared in 2005. Published papers available on the site include: 'The marginalization of John Lydgate'; 'The participation of women in the fourteenth-century manor court of Sutton-in-the-Hole'; 'A previously unidentified fragment of 'Pearce the Black Monke upon the Elixir' in MS. Mellon 43'; 'The hem of whose garment? Intertextual allusion in Osbern of Canterbury's Miracles of St Dunstan'; and 'Museums and medieval material culture'. The contents of the journal are presented as simple Web pages, with hypertext links to footnotes. The site also includes notes for contributors and links to other online journals.
Designed by history students of Kenyon College (Gambier, Ohio), the Marginality and Community in Medieval Europe website offers a good introduction to a selection of medieval communities who found themselves socially isolated because of physical infirmities or what was regarded as deviant behaviour by medieval society. After a brief introduction to the topic and a survey of the methodologies used, the site is divided into five major categories, covering: sexuality (including homosexuality and prostitution); medieval heresy; leprosy; Jews; and witchcraft. Each sub-section offers some limited historical background about the relevant group's status and, in the case of heretics, briefly explains the philosophies of such groups as Lollards, Waldensians, Beguines, and Cathars. Selected bibliographies of introductory texts are provided, and for some sections there are also extracts from relevant primary source texts. Finally, there are lists of external links to primary and secondary sources, though unfortunately the site has not been updated for some time, resulting in a number of broken links. Nevertheless, these pages are both a valuable resource for students needing preparatory information on medieval heresy and social marginality, and a good example of integration of electronic media into curriculum and teaching goals.
This is the home page of the Material History of American Religion Project based at the Divinity School of Vanderbilt University. Carried out between 1995 and 2001, the project examined the material and economic dimensions of American religious life from a historical perspective. This website makes available details of the monographs that carry the results of its findings; and images and documents that potrayed the role played by material objects in religious life. It also features an electronic journal and a biannual newsletter and provides links to relevant sites. The project was directed by James Hudnut-Beumler, Dean and Ann Potter Wilson Professor of American Religious History at the Divinity School of Vanderbilt University. It was funded by the Lilly Endowment, Incorporated.
The Matrologia Latina page is part of the website of the Peregrina Publishing House. The site specialises in material by or about women and relating to the mystical and spiritual traditions of western Christianity. Two essays by the site's creator, Margot H. King, provide a survey of the 'Desert Mothers' - female religious hermits of the patristic and medieval periods. Additionally, several Latin texts are offered: Books 1 and 2 of Gertrud of Helfta's 'The Herald of Divine Grace', plus three 'vitae' (lives) of three other medieval holy women: Christina Mirabilis; Lutgard of Aywières; and Marie d'Oignies. The lack of English translations means this site is not as accessible as it might be, but for those for whom this is not a bar, this remains a useful resource on medieval spirituality.
The website 'Medieval and Modern Thought Text Digitization Project' is the homepage of this database run by Stanford University Libraries and Academic Information Resources. This ongoing project makes available digital versions of texts from the collections of Stanford Library and its partners. The main areas included at the time of review are: the medieval Church and its law and organisation; language, grammar and linguistics; reference works; and philosophy. Subjects covered range from Ambiguity and Anaphora to Theology and Trees. Many of the texts are lecture notes published in collaboration with Stanford University's Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI). Others are editions of early works on the Church, and secondary works covering its development. Notable items include Matthew Paris' 'English History', in both English and Latin, and Roger Bacon's works in Latin. The expansion of the collection is likely to be governed by local research needs. The resource will be most useful for scholars and students researching in all the areas it covers, and will increase in value as the collections continue to develop. The archive of texts may be searched using a simple or advanced query, and the site includes a page of search tips for researchers. The collection may also be browsed by author, title or subject. Each record includes brief bibliographical information. The texts are available in full as PDF files, and may be viewed or downloaded. They are digitised in their original languages, which include: Latin; French; German; and English.
The Medieval Calendar Calculator is a simple online tool which allows the reader to see a calendar page for any year or month between 500 and 1582. By entering the year and month in the navigation bar, and by selecting the type of calendar (with the choice between a generic; the Hereford; or the Nicholas of Lynn calendars), the site automatically produces the relevant calendar pages. Each page provides information on the major feast days (colour-coded according to their liturgical rank) prescribed by the different calendars, but omits the ordinary festa. The site's functions are limited, and it lacks any further information on the history of the separate calendars, the existence of possible controversies, or indeed any background at all. Unfortunately, it also lacks the option of requesting the date of a particular feast day in a particular year. Nevertheless, it serves its purpose as a quick reference site.
The website 'Medieval Manuscripts of Canon Law and Roman Law' provides access to a list of Canon law incipits compiled and maintained by Dr Giovanna Murano, and to a database of Canon law and Roman law manuscript shelfmarks developed by Gero Dolezalek at the University of Leipzig. The website aims to provide a comprehensive cumulative inventory of all manuscripts of Canon law and Roman law mentioned in catalogues or in legal-historical publications. It is designed as a tool for scholars in order to assist with the discovery of who published what, where and on which manuscript. In addition, the website also provides a gateway of annotated links to other web resources related to manuscripts of medieval Canon Law and Roman law and to some general medieval manuscripts sites. The Canon Law incipit list can be downloaded as a compressed file.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range, and availability of the dataset 'Medieval Marriage Sermons, 1200-1299', hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). From this Web page you may download PDF and HTML files giving introductory information about the study. The data itself is available to order from the HDS as an RTF or PDF file, though to make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS: further information is supplied giving instructions. The study offers a sample of model marriage sermons by Franciscans and Dominicans associated with 13th century Paris. The selection includes sermons by: Pierre de Reims; Hugh de Saint Cher; Jean de la Rochelle; Pierre de Saint Benoit; Gerard de Mailly; and Guibert de Tournai. To understand these texts properly it is recommended that they should be used with the supporting material in d'Avray, D. L., 'Medieval Marriage Sermons: Mass Communication in a Culture without Print', Oxford: OUP.
The website "A journey through the Jubilees" is a project promoted by the Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri and the Agenzia Romana per la preparazione del Giubileo and completed by the Consorzio BAICR (Library Archive and Cultural Institute Consortium of Rome). The site provides access to a rich database containing a wealth array of documents and historical information related to the Jubilees celebrated by the Catholic Church from the year 1300 - the first Jubilee proclaimed by the Pontiff Boniface VIII - to the year 1984. Documents of different typology are available: bibliographical; iconographic; archival records originating from several libraries and archives; brief historical accounts of events. Material included is presented in chronological order. In addition, the database can be explored by subject, comprising: art; clergy; custom and social life; health and hygiene; pilgrims; laws and rules. The database presents a hierarchical configuration and resources included are inter-linked to offer a structured pathway for exploration.
The Methodist Collections Web page provides information about the Methodist Archives and Research Centre (MARC), located in the John Rylands University Library at the University of Manchester. This site's chief function is to describe the library's extensive collection of papers and correspondence from the Wesley family and other prominent evangelists, which is focused primarily on the development of the Methodist movement in the United Kingdom during the 18th century. The contents of the archives are not themselves available online, although the site does offer some useful electronic resources, including an index of Methodist ministers, and a bibliographic index providing brief notes on some 1,300 significant figures. The Online Virtual Library section also offers a large collection of links to relevant material elsewhere on the Web.
The primary aim of the Military Martyrs website is to provide information about a selection of saints who were martyred whilst in military service during late antiquity and the early medieval period. The site offers entries for over 20 martyrs from Italy, Asia Minor, and North Africa. The entries include: English translations of martyrdom accounts; select bibliographies; links to related Web resources; information about the origin of the cults; and images (although not all of these are available for every martyr listed). The site also provides access to a selection of martyrologies and calendars, including the Calendar of Carthage; the Sinaite Calendar; and the Oxyrhynchite Calendar. A general bibliography on the history of Christian participation within the Roman army and the growth of the cult of the military martyrs is also available. The site is the work of David Woods of University College Cork.
This online essay discusses the legal philosophy of Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) from the perspective of the ethical precepts laid down in his theological works. The author seeks to determine whether Grotius should be considered as belonging to the naturalist, positivist, or eclectic, school of international legal theory or under 'an entirely separate category', the theonomist school. The essay also asks whether Grotius is of any relevance to legal theory today, concluding that his belief that a state is composed of individuals, rather than an abstract entity in itself, should be given greater attention. The essay's footnotes are a little intrusive, being regularly inserted into the body of the text, but the work appears scholarly enough.
MOnasteriuM.net is a project to develop a virtual archive of Central European monasteries and dioceses. At the time of writing, searchable archives were available of a diverse range of documents from medieval times from Germany, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia, and Austria. The documents, which have been provided by both national and ecclesiastical archives, include personal data (birth, wedding, and death certificates), land register records, and contracts. Through this project, a wealth of material which had previously been difficult to access has been brought into the public sphere. Information about the project is available in English and several other languages, but the archive browse interfaces are currently only in German. The site also includes a range of useful links to related online resources.
The award-winning website "The Monastic Matrix" presents online collaborative interdisciplinary research being carried out by scholars working on the subject of Christian women between 400 CE and 1600 CE. It is of interest to those working on the period from the perspective of history, religion, women's history, archaeology and history of art, among other subjects. The project is ongoing and also provides an excellent example for those interested in humanities computing. The aim is to "document the participation of Christian women in the religion and society of medieval Europe." The project makes the data widely available and drawing on a range of textual and non-textual sources, bases the project on "Monasticon" - a database of profiles of communities of religious women. The Monasticon may be searched by period, geography or name to reveal details about a community’s history, foundation, population and residents. The site is divided into the following sections: vitae (over 600 potted biographies); Cartularium (primary source documents); Bibliographia (a searchable database of titles); Vocabularium (glossary of Latin and specialist terms); Commentaria (an archive of articles); and Figurae (a visual library). The project allows the reader to examine issues such as the organisation of the religious communities, their relationships with the Church, the nobility, and each other. As the study of female religious orders and communities becomes more popular this source will be useful to an increasingly broader audience. For those working on communities in Western Europe, this is an excellent resource which can be used for teaching and research.
This website, Monastic Wales, presents a database of medieval monastic sites and related bibliographic and archival resources which can be used as both a research and a teaching tool. The project aims to make both scholars and the public aware of Welsh monastic history during the Medieval period, and to situate it truly within the wider European understanding. The website presents online access to a database of primary and secondary sources on Welsh monastic history and will prove to be invaluable to historians of this period.
Mormon Publications: 19th Century is an online collection of books, missionary tracts, doctrinal treatises, hymnals, and periodicals. Part of Brigham Young University's Digital Collections, the works offered relate to the history and doctrinal development of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints from 1830 until the end of the 19th century. PDF facsimiles of over 700 texts are available, including issues of the Deseret News, the Journal of Discourses, and the Millennial Star. The process of full digitisation is ongoing, but all the titles in the collection have been processed using optical character recognition software, so it is possible to search the full text of each publication. Alternatively, one can browse through the collection as a whole, or through one of the sub-sections accessible via a pull-down menu on the front page. Descriptions of the major items available are also given. A valuable resource for those working in this area of religious history.
Mundus is a Web-based guide to more than 400 collections of missionary materials in over 40 institutions in the United Kingdom. The key partners include: Angus Library, Regent's Park College, Oxford; University of Birmingham Library / Orchard Learning Resources Centre (Selly Oak); Cambridge University Library; Centre for the Study of Christianity in the Non-Western World, New College, Edinburgh; Edinburgh University Library; Rhodes House Library; School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), London; and the University of London Computer Centre. Aimed at the research community, the website is a database to these and other collections in the UK of overseas missionary materials, which comprise of archives and personal papers, photographs, drawings and engravings. The Web guide contains a description of each of the collections and can be interrogated by free-text searching, as well as searching by personal name, organisation, place-name or subject. The website contains information about the work undertaken, the searchable database of archive material, and an image gallery of digitised photographs of missionary activity. The search engine enables users to search a number of different fields, and catalogue entries are detailed and informative, including subject headings, personal and corporate names, and geographical regions. Researchers should find it straightforward to locate relevant material.The included collections span the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and the twentieth century up until 1970. Most of the collections relate to Protestant missionary activity; Roman Catholic records tend to be held on the continent. The Mundus Project received funding from the Research Support Libraries Programme (RSLP).
The Murthly Hours is a medieval book of hours probably produced in Paris in the thirteenth century for an English woman, and now held by the National Library of Scotland. As part of its digitisation programme, the National Library has made available online images of the 216 folios contained within the manuscript together with an introduction to the Murthly Hours. The work has two distinct sections: a set of full page illuminated miniatures; and the devotional text of the book of hours. The text also has a number of additions by early owners including a prayer in French and what are probably the second-oldest texts written in Gaelic (the manuscript was brought to Scotland by the fifteenth century). The website enables access to the digital images of the folios, which are divided into four groups. Where appropriate folios have been given titles reflecting their content. These include: the miniatures; the calendar of the book of hours (by month); the hours of the virgin (by office); the hours of the Holy Spirit; the penitential Psalms; the litany of the saints; collects; gradual psalms; and the office of the dead. Each folio is displayed on a single web page with brief notes and a link to a larger image. The electronic facsimile of the Murthly Hours is also available on CD-ROM.
Musei Vaticani is an online resource promoting the Vatican Museums. The site has no official connection with the Vatican Museums and is the work of Christus Rex, Inc. and Michael Olteanu. It has been online since 1994 and consists of over 500 digital images of artefacts contained within the collection of museums within the Vatican. The images, displayed initially as thumbnails, are listed by museum and generally indicate only title, artist and image size. The site also contains some basic information about the Museums and a site-wide search engine.
Nasledie protoiereiia Aleksandra Menia [the legacy of Father Aleksander Men] is a website devoted to the life and works of an influential Russian priest credited with bringing many of the Soviet intelligentsia to the Church. The site provides both online versions and downloadable files of Men's writings. A vast amount of biographical material is arranged on one page 'about Fr Aleksander Men'. The site is constructed around the following headings (arranged in a sidebar): Novaia Derevnia [where Fr Aleksander was parish priest]; the Church at Semkhoz [where he was murdered in 1990]; Home and office; video library; photos; books; conversations; lectures; interviews; sermons; letters; legacy; audio library [numerous recordings of Men reading or speaking]; about the Men foundation; conferences. Some materials on these pages are available in English, but most are Russian only. Many pages are well illustrated, and the site has a simple search engine. This resource will be of most use to researchers of late Soviet Russian Orthodoxy and contemporary Orthodox theology.
NetSERF is an annotated gateway to well over a thousand websites on the medieval period. The site is well maintained, and has a clear structure which makes it easy to navigate. Links are divided into eighteen main categories: Archaeology; Architecture; Art; Arthuriana; Civilizations; Culture; Drama; History; Law; Literature; Music; Paleography; People; Philosophy; Religion; Science and Technology; Women; and Research Center. The categories are further subdivided, and there is also an advanced search function. As well as providing a gateway to Web resources, NetSERF offers an online glossary of medieval terms, with almost 1500 entries.
Notes on Church History is an annotated timeline listing the events and people that have come to form the core of Christian history. Each century from the 1st to the 20th is given due attention, and a further section gives pre-Christian background. The information covers most denominations of the Christian church, although there is a particular focus on the Orthodox church. For ease of browsing, an index in the left-hand frame of the website lists the centuries and the key events/people represented. Also available at the bottom of this frame are several maps, and an extensive bibliographic page (although the author notes that this is not a full list of references). The timeline was compiled by R. Grant Jones. No further information is given about the author or his credentials, though the bibliography permits checking of the facts given.
The Old English Martyrology website contains an extensive annotated bibliography for use in the study of the 9th-century text of the same name. The site includes: indices for saints, feasts, and persons named in the manuscript; criticism on the dating and sources of composition for the text; and research on its language, style and historical importance in terms of earlier Anglo-Saxon hagiography. It was originally compiled as a guide to the extensive work on the sources of the Old English Martyrology by the late James E. Cross, of the University of Liverpool, but the bibliography now supersedes his work, covering publications on all aspects of the text. It should be noted however that the compiler of the bibliography suggests that it be used in conjunction with the 'Fontes Anglo-Saxonici' database, which gives more detail on specific saints. This resource would be of interest to students and scholars in the fields of Old English, manuscript studies and the history of religion.
Maintained by the Order of Saint Benedict at Saint John's Abbey, Minnesota, the General Information and Monastic Topics website is a useful source of both historical and contemporary information about this Christian religious order. Relating to Saint Benedict himself, there is a brief biography, his Rule, and Book II of Gregory the Great's 'Dialogues', which chronicles Benedict's life. A collection of other resources covers various aspects of Benedictine life and practice, including details of Benedictine saints. For those wishing to explore the subject further, there is a list of biographies, and links to relevant resources elsewhere on the Web.
Papal Encyclicals Online is a highly useful resource for accessing encyclicals, bulls, briefs, and other papal writings from the Roman Catholic Church in electronic form. Documents are available from as early as Pope Honorious III (d. 1227), up to and including Benedict XVI. Unfortunately, not all encyclical communications are available (coverage is generally limited to only one or two documents per pope until the 18th century), but overall the site offers a reasonable cross-section of writings. Users should also note that many of the documents are available only in Latin. The number of documents and their availability in English improves as we move towards the 20th century. The site also offers a brief introduction to encyclicals and papal documents, records of church councils, and a small image gallery.
This site was created to mark the 500th anniversary of the birth in 1497 of the Protestant humanist and religious reformer Philipp Melanchthon. The site was originally created in German, and an English translation of the majority of the site is available. Biographical details of Melanchthon and the part that he played in the Reformation are included on the site. A more general historical background has also been written and this has details of the political situation and information about humanism. Melanchthon was also involved in education during much of his lifetime and was awarded the honorary title of "Praeceptor Germaniae" (Teacher of Germany). Brief details of his educational career are provided on the site. The German version of the site also offers a short links list.
Project Wittenberg, created under the direction of Reverend Bob Smith of Concordia Theological Seminary in Fort Wayne, Indiana, provides a gateway to Lutheran texts, texts by Luther, texts about Luther and works of other Lutherans. The end aim of the project is the production of an international electronic library of Lutheran texts. The site includes works by Reformation writers such as Luther, Melanchthon, Chemnitz and Eber as well as works by seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth century authors. Documents on the site include Luther's Ninety-five Theses, Luther's Catechisms, the Augsburg Confession and the 1580 Book of Concord. The site also includes biographies and hymnals. All the documents provide full bibliographic details of the original source of the text. The home page of the site provides links to selected resources. To access documents via a chronological author list select the 'Project Wittenberg's Electronic Lutheran Web' link from the home page. Although the site can initially be a little confusing to navigate it does provide online access to a large number of primary sources.
Created within the umbrella of TeacherServe, the website "Puritanism and Predestination" features an essay by Professor Christine Leigh Heyrman of the University of Delaware. The essay is accompanied by a slideshow of colonial Puritan ministers, the opportunity to pose questions to experts, and illustrations. The essay outlines the theological, social, and political background of the Puritans who arrived in America. The section on guiding student discussion provides sugestions for teaching the subject and tips for explaining concepts such as conversion, to students. Heyrman encourages the teacher to focus the debate around the role of the Calvinist concept of predestination, with all the inherent criticism that will flow. However this provides, in her opinion, the perfect opportunity to contrast this with the instabilities of the early modern period, to ground their empathy with those who espoused the theory. The most useful section here is that on historiographical debate. The site is useful for those teaching at school level.
The Quaker Archives Database from the University of Leeds Special Collections department is an online index of names from many of the older documents in the University Library's Carlton Hill archive. This archive relates mainly to Quaker records of West and North Yorkshire. Seventy minute books have been indexed; creating a total of almost 40,000 records. A list of the documents which have been indexed for inclusion in the database is available from the site. It is possible to limit searches to particular types of data, for example name, place or meeting. The results can be displayed by name or by meeting. The results provide references to the documents in the archive containing the search terms used. Online help on how to use the database is available from the site, as is a longer guide in PDF format.
The website of the Quaker Heritage Press offers a collection of electronic texts concerning the Quakers. Most notable among these is the four volume 'Works' of Isaac Penington (1616-1679). Other texts include: Essays by Job Scott (1751-1793); Thomas Lurting's 'The Fighting Sailor Turn'd Peaceable Christian'; writings by George Fox (1624-1691) not included in his 'Collected Works'; Margaret Fell's justification of 'Women's Speaking'; and several others. The texts themselves are in standard HTML format, with longer works divided into chapters for ease of navigation. A number of the texts offered are not readily obtainable in modern editions, making this resource of particular assistance to historians or theologians studying Quakerism. Additionally, the site provides a list of print works available from the Quaker Heritage Press, and a bibliographic catalogue of all historic Quaker writings known to the site's compilers that are currently in print or available online.
This website provides details of the rare books, manuscripts, maps and other special collections held at Queen's University Library in Belfast. Collections relate particularly to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, although some material dates back to the twelfth century. Particularly strong areas of coverage include Ulster and Ireland, History, Politics, Economics, Theology, Philosophy, and Language and Literature, with extensive collections of personal papers (including many of literary significance). All books are listed on the university library catalogue which can be searched from this website, whilst archives and other collections are inventoried separately on the site. Of particular note is an image gallery, drawn from the ongoing digitisation of various collections, including glass slides, photographs and manuscripts.
Directed from York University by Bill Sheils and Rosemary Hayes, the "Records of Central Government Taxation in England and Wales : Clerical Taxes 1173 - 1664" Web page describes AHRC-funded work that has used and added to the records in the E 179 database, which is hosted by The National Archives website. This project is the final installment of the E 179 project (also known as "Records of central government taxation in England and Wales 12th-17th centuries"), which has sought to create a database giving details of the records contained in the huge E 179 class in The National Archives, "King's Remembrancer, particulars of account and other records relating to lay and clerical taxation". E 179 holds some 7,500 items relating to the clergy from 1173 to 1664, when clergy ceased to be taxed separately, and the York project has just completed work on the Province of Canterbury.
This Internet resource provides information relating to the Reformation and some of its key figures: Martin Luther; Phillip Melanchthon; Calvin; and Zwingli. In relation to Luther, visitors to the site can access online versions of his selected works, including the Ninety Five Theses (in Latin and English) and his Letter to the Christian Nobility. In addition, the site contains electronic texts of Luther's hymns (in English and German), and a textlink to an online version of his famous German translation of the Bible. The site also offers a selection of hyperlinks to other Luther-related websites. The resource provides several electronic texts by and relating to the other figures listed above. Most notably, there are pages devoted to Phillip Melanchthon, which include electronic text versions of his 'A History of the Life and Actions of the Very Reverend Dr. Martin Luther,' and 'Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope.' A few links were broken at the time of review.
The Baptist History section of the website The Reformed Reader presents a collection of electronic versions of texts about the history of the Baptist denomination, chiefly in the UK and America. Many of the works (which include a number of complete books) date from the 19th or early 20th century, although there are some more modern pieces. Separate sections deal with the history of related groups and denominations, including: the Anabaptists; the Church of the Brethren; the Waldenses; the Winebrennerians; and so forth. Most of the material listed is hosted on-site, but a few links to external resources are also included. This resource is part of a wider website about the Baptist denomination, The Reformed Reader, and while much of the material in other sections is devotional or popular in focus, those researching the Baptists may also find the Documents section useful, as this includes a range of Baptist confessions, catechisms, and related material.
The website "Reformers of the 16th Century: An Online Study" is an interesting amateur site compiled by Barry McWilliams, an ordained Teaching Elder of the Presbyterian Church in America. He teaches a course on Protestant Reformers and this material is intended for his class. It provides a good and basic introduction to prominent Protestant figures of the Reformation such as: Luther; Melanchthon; Zwingli; Bucer; Calvin; and Oecolampadius. Readers must bear in mind that the author is a church elder and that religious bias is evident in his writing, however, this provides a good example of textual and critical analysis for students, to vary the usual sources studied for the Reformation. There are links to a variety of resources, some of which, at the time of cataloguing and reviewing, were not available.
Edited by George P. Landow, and part of the much larger Victorian Web project, the Religion in Victorian Britain Web page is a useful starting point for those who wish to gain an overview of 19th century British religious denominations, trends, and writers. The site's introductory Timeline of Religion and Philosophy, and its exhaustive list of categories (organised under headings including Denominations, Dissenters, and the Bible, Interpretation, and Religious Symbolism) offer sound introductory material for an undergraduate audience. There is a helpful bibliography, but unfortunately the accompanying list of links to primary literature has not been updated recently, and so includes a high proportion of broken links. Written by graduate students and scholars from the UK and USA, Religion in Victorian Britain is a well-designed site which may prove valuable to those teaching undergraduates in either religion or church history.
The Religious Society of Friends is a very simple website devoted to the Quaker movement. This resource is in essence a vast links page (although a small proportion of material is hosted on-site), with a view to forging contacts between Quakers all over the world, and raising the profile of the movement. However, there is also a considerable amount of Quaker-related material that may be of interest to those of with more academic interests, such as historical information and writings by influential members of the Society throughout its history. The site is deeply democratic, and that is, perhaps, its greatest strength. The site states that: "Everything on these pages should be considered representative of some but not all Quaker thought. Free web space is available on this server for any meeting-sponsored Quaker activity." The result is the inclusion of fascinating private documents, such as letters or unpublished memoirs, which amount to primary sources for the study of Quaker history. The Religious Society of Friends is, then, a deceptive site. Its simple production values, and it humble approach to its aims, make it a remarkable archive for important, and little understood, religious movement.
Répertoire des architectes diocésains du XIXe et du début du XXe siècle is one of the subsites of ELEC, the online publications page of the National School of Charters at the Sorbonne. This site, designed by Jean-Michel Leniaud, a Professor at the School, is based on one of his published works. The site offers a catalogue of French cathedral and church architects who were active during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Information is available on the architects in an alphabetised index of names (Accès par le nom des architectes). Each entry brings up a biography, professional history, and a short bibliography. A general bibliography for the entire site is also provided. Users can also search via place names. But there is an excellent comprehensive general index with places, buildings, architects and links to further information. A separate search engine is additionally available. Researchers in the French History of Art and Architecture and French Religious Studies should find this site to be a most informative and helpful resource, which is also clear and easy to use.
A Repertorium of Middle English Prose Sermons offers an online sample of the English language section of an international project designed to further the development of sermon studies. Its purpose is to introduce both the academic and general researcher to the sermon as a resource for the study of medieval history, literature, and culture. The site includes extracts from the hard copy published by Brepols in 2007, as well as images from the manuscripts. It also offers a database of almost 3500 quotations found in Middle English sermons: this feature is not included in the printed version, so represents a complement to the hard copy of the text. This part of the project is ongoing and fully searchable. Researchers may locate particular texts, quotations, or authors through a simple or advanced search, with full instructions for achieving the best results included on the site. Also available is a useful bibliography and links page. The website's production was enabled by an award from the AHRC's Supplementary Pilot Research Dissemination scheme.
The Resources Pages for Biblical Studies website is an extensive gateway, focusing on academic study of early Christian writings and their social world. Compiled by Torrey Seland, Professor of New Testament Studies at the School of Mission and Theology at Stavanger, Norway, the list of links is divided into four sections: Bible texts, translations and related texts; biblical studies; aspects of the mediterranean social world; and a page on Philo of Alexandria. All sections are strong, but it is perhaps the sociological material in the third section that makes this resource distinctive. The level of coverage is good, the links are accompanied by useful annotations, and the site is regularly updated. It is almost inevitable that a resource of this size will include a few broken links, but at time of review the proportion was low. The site is easy to navigate, the front page of the site providing a hyperlinked list of the sub-divisions within the four main sections. This is a very valuable resource for anyone studying or researching this area.
The Restoration Movement website was developed and compiled by Hans Rollman at Memorial University in Newfoundland, these pages hold a considerable amount of information including a photographic archive, bibliographies of recent publications and biographies of hundreds of figures associated with this movement. The volume of primary resources will make these pages a great boon for students and researchers at every level. Users will find links to contemporary restoration churches, as well as transcriptions of original sermons, writings from the movement’s founders, and a digital library. Inaugurated in the north-eastern United States by Barton W. Stone, Thomas Campbell and his son Alexander at the beginning of the 19th century, the movement advocated the restoration of the gospel and the church of the New Testament. The movement's ideas soon spread across North America and much of the English-speaking world, and some of the churches founded by the movement are still active to this day.
The Ricci Roundtable database, maintained by the Ricci Institute for Chinese-Western Cultural History at the University of San Francisco, provides a collection of electronic reference resources focused on the relationship and impact of Christianity and Christian missions in China during the past few centuries. The site contains an impressive guide to archival resources on this topic from all over the world, with each entry detailing the institution that houses the relevant archive and listing the documents in question. Users are able to search through the online database and isolate specific library holdings in China or the United States or locate a specific resource by employing the search and index utilities. The site itself is directed towards the larger academic community, including both students and scholars. Among the tools that will appeal to both groups is a strong collection of fully searchable bibliographic and biographic material. The biographies themselves are brief, but include helpful pointers to additional resources. In addition, for those at more advanced stages of research, there is are directories of both institutions and individuals interested in Chinese-Western cultural relations. Those with a serious interest in this field will also wish to explore the main site of the Ricci Institute, accessible through the link on the site's front page.
The Richard Hooker (1554-1600) Web page brings together a range of resources relating to the 16th century priest and theologian, whose magnum opus 'Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity' laid out what would become the theological and political basis for the structure of the Anglican church. The website provides a short but accurate biographical sketch, plus a collection of links to online copies of Hooker's major works, and essays and articles about him. A small proportion of the material can be found on-site, but the majority is hosted elsewhere on the Web, and unfortunately there are a few broken links. Additionally, some users may find the soundtrack which accompanies this resource a little irritating. This is, however, a useful site for those seeking an introduction to Hooker's life and work. It forms part of Anniina Jokinen's Luminarium website, which provides information about a wide range of authors from the medieval period onwards.
The website of the Roman Martyrs Project describes a research project based at the University of Manchester, which investigated the 'gesta martyrum', over a hundred anonymous martyr romances from 5th and 6th century Rome. The site is of interest to those studying or researching theology, the history of Rome, the medieval church, martyrology, or Latin literature. The website offers an annotated handlist of 150 martyr saints, in which material from modern and ancient sources is cross-referenced. For a selection of saints there is a 'hagiographical dossier' with more detailed profiles of the myths, legends, and sources connected with them: these are provided as samples of the dossiers compiled by the Roman Martyr Project, which are available to researchers on request. An online database offers an index to the texts examined (free registration is necessary to search the database). The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) and the Leverhulme Trust.
Saints.SQPN.com is primarily an extensive database of information about saints. Profiles of over 5,000 saints, beati (that is, those who have been beatified or declared blessed, often as a preliminary to canonisation) and venerables (those declared 'heroic in virtue') are given: each includes brief biographical information, plus further details such as alternative or variant names, saint's day, and patronages (that is, the people or things of which the saint is patron). Many entries are accompanied by images, and there is is also a separate image galleries section. The site can be searched, or the list of saints can be viewed alphabetically, via a calendar, or by patronage. This website also offers several additional resources, including an online version of the New Catholic Dictionary, a substantial collection of papal documents (with information about the popes responsible for them), and a selection of downloadable ebooks by or about saints.
The Department of History of Art at Glasgow University has provided this website with the intention of promoting knowledge and appreciation of churches from the medieval kingdom of Scotland. The site is divided into three main sections: Introductory; The development of the Gothic church; and The wars of independence and after. Text and images can be downloaded for private study but written permission is required for publication.
The Scottish Preachers Hall of Fame is a website providing extensive material relating to over 30 Scottish divines. Most of the figures covered were active in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries (although one or two are slightly earlier or later), and are from the Puritan, Presbyterian, and Calvinist traditions, including a number of ministers of the Free Church of Scotland, and members of the Covenanter movement (which sought to promote Presbyterianism as a form of church government). Among those covered are: Andrew Gray; Robert Smith Candlish; John Knox; William Guthrie; Thomas Chalmers; Andrew Bonar; Thomas Boston; and Robert Murray McCheyne. Some biographical information is provided for each preacher, along with the texts of sermons, letters, and other works where these are available. Details of print resources are also sometimes given. Most of the material is hosted on-site, although there are also links to a few external resources. Although perhaps a little basic in presentation, this site provides a considerable quantity of primary source material for those with an interest in this era of Scottish ecclesiastical history.
Created by Mike Harding, this website provides background information on the Green Man, an ancient wooden or stone carving of a human head found in medieval churches throughout Britain and in other areas of the world. The site includes a selection of colour photographs of the Green Man in various forms.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Segregation and Social Structure in Early 20th Century Belfast' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). To collect data which would facilitate the analysis of segregation and social structure in early twentieth century Belfast in relation to the main religious groups in the city - Catholics, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Methodists and other Protestant groups. The data is available to order from the HDS as a relational database (tab delimited text files). From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. The data consists of an eight per cent sample of households was drawn from the 1901 Census schedules (Public Record Office, Dublin) and all variables on the form recorded: age, sex, relationship to head,birthplace, religion, occupation, literacy, Irish language. Each sample household was also linked with valuation data from the special valuation of Belfast, 1900-1901, and also with the 'Belfast and Ulster directory' for 1896 and 1906, to discern whether the same family was at the address in those years.
Coptic is the name given to the latest stage of the ancient Egyptian language from the first century BC and written in an alphabet deriving from Greek and Demotic. The term is applied more generally to the distinct culture of Egyptian Christianity and its diaspora which still uses the Coptic language in its religious rituals. This website, produced by the St Shenouda the Archimandrite Coptic Society of Los Angeles, is part of an on-going project to preserve and promote Coptic culture by providing digital resources for Coptic language, literary, archaeological and artistic study. Projects include the Coptic Microfilm Library (CML) which aims to put all relevant Coptic and Arabic texts online and the Mapping of Coptic Monuments project, which will record all Egyptian Christian architectural and archaeological sites. The Manual of Coptic Studies (at the time of review almost completely empty and not updated since 1996) includes: the liturgy and texts of Coptic Christianity; a history of the language; a guide to Coptic writing; a directory of Coptic scholars. Other features include a useful slide show of frescoes from Coptic churches and monasteries. There is also a run of newsletters from the mid-1990s and downloadable software. The links page provides further information on websites of Coptic interest.
The website of the Survey of Dedications to Saints in Medieval Scotland presents the results of a three-year Arts and Humanities Research Council funded research project based at the University of Edinburgh. The chief aim of the project was the creation of a searchable database of Scottish dedications to saints, in churches and elsewhere, dating from before 1560. This database, which consists of almost 12,000 records, is freely available via the website. The search interface offers a broad range of options, permitting users to find dedications by name or type of saint, name or type of devotee, date, or location. An interactive map showing the distribution of dedications across the country is also available. Alternatively, the entire database may be downloaded for further analysis. However, the more advanced features of site (particularly the interactive map) are not always particularly intuitive, so users need to be prepared to spend a little time experimenting to get the most out of this resource.
This short Web page describes an AHRC-funded research project into Cistercian monastic houses in two medieval border areas - Scotland and Pomerania. These communities were adept at dealing with relationships on both sides of fluid medieval borders and the study of these sheds much light on the emergence of more rigid borders in the fourteenth century. The project will result in a book and a prosopographical database.
'Symeon the Holy Fool: Leontius's Life and the Late Antique City' is the electronic version of a translation by Derek Krueger (Assistant Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina) that was published by the University of California Press in 1996. This is the first English version of Leontius's book, and brings to life one of the most colourful of the early Christian saints. In addition to the translation itself, Krueger fleshes out a broad picture of the religious, intellectual, and social environment in which the Life was created, and opens a window on to the Christian religious imagination at the end of Late Antiquity. The online version is based on XML which can also be viewed. The full-text is available including notes and bibliography. Greek text has not always converted well to online presentation.
Theology on the Web is an online portal which serves as the entry point to a collection of interlinked websites providing bibliographic suggestions for students of Christian theology. The sites are primarily designed for those training for or in ministry, but are broad enough to also be of use to others. The main topics covered are: biblical studies; theological studies; the early church; the medieval church; and missiology (to be launched in 2010). Within each section the references are arranged thematically, with a wide range of sub-headings, including: applied theology; philosophy; Old Testament; New Testament; doctrine and practice; heresies and sects; and history. A significant quantity of material is hosted on the sites themselves; there are also links to works elsewhere on the Web, and details of print resources.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range, and availability of the dataset 'Trans-national Database and Atlas of Saints' Cults, c. 700-2000', hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). From this Web page you may download PDF and HTML files giving introductory information about the study. The data itself is available to order from the HDS as a set of tab delimited text files, though to make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS: further information is supplied giving instructions. The Trans-national Database and Atlas of Saints' Cults aims to establish a parish-by-parish, commune-by-commune inventory of religious devotion in Europe and beyond. Evidence of cults saintly, angelic, and divine is built up from documentation and other sources, and centres on the dedications of churches and chapels and of subsidiary foci of devotion such as side altars, images, and lights. The datasets form an inventory of evidence for both official and popular devotion to and commemoration of religious figures and concepts ('cults') at the most local level at all periods.
The Tyndale Society is dedicated to the biblical translator and Reformation theologian William Tyndale (1495?-1536). The Society's website provides information about the organisation's aims and events, especially the conferences, lectures and social activities which it organises. Helpfully for the historian and student of theology or religious studies, the site provides a search facility for the Tyndale Society and Reformation journals; and for the complete text of the Wycliffe Bible. This beautifully-designed site is divided into sections on: events; Tyndale's genealogy; links; membership details; publications; and an introduction to Tyndale's life and work. A distinguished panel of trustees and editors ensures the quality of material contained in the site.
Made available via the UK Web Archive, 'Quakers in Brief' or 'Quakerism Made Easy', by David Murray-Rust provides an online overview of the Quaker movement from 1650 to 1990. The body of the work is a six chapter history of Quakerism, each section broadly dealing with a single century. The appendix offers a short bibliography for those interested in exploring the subject further, although unfortunately the links that accompany this were not functioning at time of review. The site is fast and easy to navigate. This resource offers ample information to make this a resource to interest anyone looking for an introduction to this area of theology or church history, although as the author points out, it is intended only as an overview.
The United Church of Canada's Web page Archives and Record Keeping describes United Church archives across Canada, which the Church divides into regions, or conferences. All are connected in the national network to maintain cohesion, but each region has unique holdings and finding aids. Some distance research is supported. Rules for visiting and access are posted.
The division of the Church's Archives mirrors the history of the Church itself. Formed in 1925 from four Protestant Christian denominations, the Church's history varies according to the founding denominations in each region. Notably, Newfoundland boasts records Methodist records running back to 1794. The Maritime section has mainly Presbyterian documents. The Montreal and Ottawa section runs a heritage trust to protect historic churches along the St. Lawrence River; it additionally provides financial support for researchers working on its materials. The Manitoba and Northwestern Ontario section holds native congregation records, and the papers of Reverend Andrew Browning Baird (1855-1940), former president of the Manitoba Historical Society. Typical records include: baptisms; marriages; burials; membership rolls; communion rolls; church organisations' minutes (including women's groups); local annual reports; congregational newsletters; local church histories; correspondence; private papers; and photographs.
This web page lists the special collections held by the University of Huddersfield library. Each collection is described, and linked documents contain a wide variety of other information, varying from simple lists of items held in the collection, to searchable databases of the material. Key collections include: the extensive social and economic history library of statistician G.H. Wood; historical books on diet and nutrition donated by nutritionist John Yudkin; collections of Yorkshire parish histories, records, maps and theses; the Wesley Historical Society (Yorkshire Branch)’s nationally important collection of 12,000 printed items and manuscripts relating to the region’s Methodist history; a collection of twentieth century socialist and labour history. Other collections are mainly in the areas of architecture, social, health and education history, and radical and left-wing literature.
The 'University of St. Andrews Library : Special Collections : Manuscripts' website provides information about the university's collections of manuscripts, which are used in a supporting role in the research and teaching of the university. The collection ranges from Greek papyri to modern business records, and relates to individuals, families and institutions. The holdings are particularly strong on manuscripts relating to the former North-East Fife Burghs and the Kirk Session Records of the former Presbyteries of Cupar and St Andrews. There is also a good collection of material on the Roman Catholic Modernist Movement (especially relating to Wilfred Ward). An interesting resource for those researching on Christianity and church history. To access the Web pages relating to the individual collections, click on the terms directly underneath 'Manuscripts' in the left-hand side menu. The website uses frames.
Vidimus is a monthly online magazine about Medieval stained glass. The magazine contains news and reporting on exhibitions, events, books and websites, plus feature articles, across a range of subjects relating to stained glass windows and including windows, techniques, artists, patrons and collections. Each edition also features a detailed examination of a single panel of glass. The magazine is closely related to the British Corpus vitrearum medii aevi (CVMA) - the national survey of medieval stained glass - and promotes the work of the CVMA which includes a large online Picture Archive. The first issue of the magazine was published in November 2006 and is available freely on the Internet. The Vidimus website also provides some links to related and relevant web resources.
One of the treasures of the National Library of Wales, William Morgan's 1588 Welsh-language Bible has been made available online. This website explains the circumstances behind the translation and publication of the Bible, presents images of each page, and provides a biography of its translator, Bishop William Morgan (Prys Morgan). The Bible itself is a folio volume and includes the apocrypha. It was intended for church use rather than private study. The site includes an English translation of the dedication to the Bible. However, the images of the Bible are large and may take some time to load over a slow Internet connection. Furthermore, the Bible may be browsed by book and chapter, but is not searchable. Overall, this is a well-presented and informative resource that will be of interest to those studying the history of religion in Wales.
Celebrating Memory and Mission: John Wesley at 300 is an online exhibition of archival materials related to the life, work and influence of John Wesley (1703-1791) hosted by the E. J. Pratt Library, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The site begins by providing a biography of Wesley, including his conversion experience of 1738, which led him to refocus his high-church Anglican stance and found the Methodist movement. This biography is accompanied by a timeline and a biography of Wesley's brother, Charles Wesley (1707-1788). The site features a display of Wesleyana which typify the rise of Methodism: there are scanned images of handwritten letters by Wesley, books he edited, and his portrait. The exhibit also shows a collection of ceramic busts of notable Methodists crafted by Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795). All artefacts and printed materials depicted here are taken from the Special Collections of the E. J. Pratt Library. The site itself provides a fair amount of detail in this regard, including a section on the history of the collection. Researchers in social and cultural history, as well as Canadian, American and British History, will particularly appreciate this site's coverage of a notable religious leader.
Compiled by Bruce Janz of the University of Central Florida, 'Who's Who in the History of Western Mysticism' is an online guide to a wide variety of reference resources from all over the Internet, assembled in chronological lists. The bulk of the material deals with Christian mystics (divided into three sections: the early church; medieval Catholic and Orthodox mystics; and non-Catholic Christian mystics of the 16th-18th centuries), but there are also brief sections on pre-Christian mystics and on the Jewish and Islamic traditions. The site provides brief descriptive paragraphs about the mystics listed and about some key concepts, along with links to more detailed information available elsewhere (in, for example, resources such as the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Medieval Sourcebook, and various university websites). While the majority of these sources are still available, the site does not seem to be updated particularly frequently, and consequently there are some broken links. There is also a reasonably thorough bibliography of secondary sources on mysticism, although this does not include any material published after 1998.
The William Tyndale Home Page is a website devoted to the 16th century Protestant reformer and scholar who was responsible for one of the first translations of the Bible into English. The site offers an overview of the life and work of Tyndale, including his clashes with the religious establishment of the day (who did not favour a vernacular Bible translation), which eventually led to his death. There are also excerpts from various relevant primary source texts, including sections from Tyndale's own works, from Foxe's Book of Martyrs, and from J. C. Ryle's book Five English Reformers. A timeline helps set the events of Tyndale's life in context, although users should be wary of relying too heavily on this, as it contains one or two errors. The site provides a useful introduction to Tyndale, and is generally well-presented - though some users may prefer to mute the accompanying midi file.
The Worlds of Late Antiquity website is the home page for 'miscellaneous materials relating to the culture of the Mediterranean world', covering the period from 200 to 700 CE. Topics include the life and works of Saint Augustine, Cassiodorus' Variae, Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy, Pope Gregory the Great, Junillus/Junilius (quaestor under Justinian c.AD 541-9, who composed the Instituta regularia divinae legis in AD 542), Aelius Donatus (the mid 4th century grammarian who was the teacher of Jerome), and Cosmas Indicopleustes (a 6th century Alexandrian merchant who eventually became a monk, and who wrote the Christian Topography, based on his travels). All of the sections are composed by James O'Donnell of Georgetown University, primarily for a course he taught in 1995 (the exception to the above is the section on Cosmas, which is by Andrew Weisner also of the University of Pennsylvania). The site focuses on particular works by the aforementioned ancient writers, making the texts available on the net. For instance, Gregory the Great's 'Moralia in Iob' consists of the first five volumes of this book of which the first book is available in HTML format with clickable footnotes, while the remaining four are on ASCII format without footnotes. The Christian Topography of Comas is based upon McCrindles' (1887) translation, using Winstedt's (1909) edition of the Greek text. Generously, O'Donnell includes (a complete edition) of his own book on Cassiodorus, written in 1979, which is now out of print.
The Yorkshire Quaker Heritage Project aims to increase access to and awareness of collections of Quaker material relating to Yorkshire. The project's website offers two online databases: one provides descriptions of Yorkshire Quaker collections and their locations; the other is a name index. The website also provides some background information on the project and on Quakerism in general. Other features of the site include a news and events section, a guide to sources for those interested in researching Yorkshire Quaker history, and a list of links to other Quaker sites. The Yorkshire Quaker Heritage Project receives funding from the Research Support Libraries Programme (RSLP).
This website describes the special collections at Dundee University Library. Consisting of collections of books and papers loaned or donated to the University, the library special collections are particularly strong in art history, local and diocesan history, theology, the work of poet Allan Ramsay and Scottish philosophy of the 18th and 19th centuries. The website describes access arrangements.