The website "Żydowski Instytut Historyczny" (Jewish Historical Institute) introduces the activities and the holdings of this institution dedicated to the history and culture of Polish Jews, which is based in Warsaw, Poland. The website presents the history of the institute; one learns for example that the Underground Archives of the Warsaw ghetto (the Ringelblum Archives) are now deposited there. The guide to collections includes overviews of the institute archives; of the library with an online catalogue; of the institute's museum; and of the section dedicated to monuments. In the latter photographs of historical Jewish towns, synagogues, quarters, streets in Poland can be seen. The site also presents in great detail the exhibitions held at the institute, permanent and temporary. Permanent exhibits include the Jewish art gallery and the Warsaw ghetto exhibition, all illustrated with photographs. A third section on the site covers the research and education activities carried out by the institute, of which details can be found on the site. The "Jewish History Quarterly" published by the Institute is introduced on the site with tables of contents for the latest issues, but the full texts can be read via the CEEOL. Further sections of the site are not present on the main page but appear as one navigates through the site. The institute runs a Genealogical Project, has a document preservation laboratory and started creating a large database with the Jewish communities in Poland before WWII. Online shopping for books, other publications, films and other memorabilia is available. The site also informs about entry fees, opening hours and access.
This online anthology of several papers given by Robert Kraft on copies of Greek Jewish scriptures contains, apart from actual texts, a number of images of fragments of the Septuagint and a short bibliography. The main scope of Kraft's site is the extent of continuity or discontinuity between Jewish scribal culture and early Christian practices at the beginning of the Christian era. 'Textual Mechanics' also lists a number of links to related sites, document lists, and bibliographic information. 'Textual Mechanics' is not the most user-friendly site you may encounter: its layout could be much improved. However, it is worth making an effort to read through this resource, as its content fully compensates for its lack in form.
A History of Pentecostalism in Canada is a website created and maintained by Professor Tom Robinson of the Religious Studies Department at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. It focuses on the historical dimension of the Pentecostal movement in Canada, and aims to collect and provide access to materials relevant to this aspect of study. Some sections have yet to be completed and the site itself does not seem to have been updated since 2005. Nevertheless, it does offer several useful resources for those researching in this area and others who are interested in comparative work. These include: a small number of articles; annotated and unannotated links to the homepages of several Pentecostal denominations in Canada; links to the homepages of relevant journals; bibliographies of print-based work; and annotated links to online resources on Christian Studies and Pentecostal Studies.
The 'African Traditional Religion' web pages maintained by Chidi Denis Isizoh are a general collection of resources on indigenous African cultures and beliefs, as well as their development both in Africa and in the African Diaspora. Through a series of articles, students and others with a general interest in African society are introduced to a number of social and religious issues including: women's role in religious rites; an examination of certain creation myths; and the function of marriage. There is also an interesting collection of papers tracking the interaction of native African religions with Christianity and Islam. For those writing papers of their own or furthering their research, a number of superior resources may be found here, including a bibliography of traditional African religion, and statistical information on religious adherence. The section on traditional religion in the African diaspora includes links to online resources on: voodou (voodoo); Orisha; Ifa; and Candoble. An extensive series of links to a wide variety of related topics (many from academic sources) will also assist research into any aspect of African culture.
Al-Islam is a highly informative website which is maintained by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Da'wah and Guidance. It not only provides information on a wide range of issues on Islam (e.g. faith; knowledge; moral and manners; jihad; food and drink; acts of worship; rulings and judgements; and crimes), visitors are shown the relevant verses of the Quran and the Hadith where these are derived from. There are also sections on Quranic stories; the Hajj and Umrah; Islamic History; Sacred Mosques; and the Zakah. There are, in addition, a picture gallery; videos and links to other online resources. The site, which holds a search engine, can be accessed in Arabic, English, French, German, Indonesian, Malay and Turkish. It should be an interesting resource for those seeking to learn about Islam and is suitable for undergraduate use.
'Alkhazina' is an intelligent, well-balanced and therefore much-needed database on Islamic culture in the Middle East. Developed as a teaching resource by Princeton University, it concentrates on Islamic civilisation from the 8th till the 14th centuries but does not ignore more contemporary Muslim issues either. It contains the full-text of the Qur'an in Arabic as well as in English translation, and various links to sites enabling searches on words or phrases from the Qur'an and other works central to Islamic tradition. It has sections dedicated to Sufism and the Hajj, and to maps of the Arabic world from the Middle Ages till the present. You will also find an Islamic timeline, a chapter on medieval Islamic scholars and a resources page. Finally it provides a link to an informative and politically balanced discussion on Islam in the context of the attacks of 11/09/2001 and America's 'War Against Terrorism'.
The American Colonist's Library is a gateway to American and European historical, literary, legal and philosophical primary source documents, which shaped the development of society and thought of early American colonists. Assembled by Richard Gardiner, the page offers briefly annotated links to over five hundred texts (all hosted off-site) that are believed to have affected the colonists' approach to the new world. Organised by date of composition with works ranging from classical Greek poetry to treaty acts with First Nations peoples, the breadth of resources presented makes this site of use to anyone looking for primary texts on almost any topic from this time period. There are a number of entries specific to religion and spiritual development, as well as records of town settlement, military action, acts of parliament, and the writings of many major eighteenth century American fathers such as Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and George Washington. Users may find the lack of a categorised index somewhat frustrating, unless they are looking for a specific resource. Although the annotations unfortunately do not explain the impact of each work, the site remains a valuable starting point for accessing the important works relevant to the era.
'The American Colony in Jerusalem', which is made available by the US Library of Congress, presents an online exhibition of material from the American Colony-Vester Collection. This is a collection of original source material relating to the American Colony, a Christian utopian society that undertook philanthropic work in Jerusalem during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, most particularly during the First World War. The Colony was founded by Horatio and Anna Spafford of Chicago in 1881, in the aftermath of a family tragedy. Its members practiced charity without regard to the religion of the recipients. This exhibition describes and illustrates the history of the Colony, covering many aspects, including: the religious beliefs of its members; the locust storm in 1916; the lives of the Spafford family members; the legacy of the Colony; and its charitable activities during World War I, including the establishment of an embroidery workshop for the support of poor women. During the War, members of the Colony were permitted to photograph behind Turkish lines, and some of their photographs are reproduced in this exhibition. The material made available through this website provides an interesting insight into a little-known aspect of the history of Jerusalem and of utopian communities, and will be of use to all those with an interest in these subjects. The site is simple to use. It is divided into sections. In each section, images of the documents from the exhibition are presented together with explanatory text. Documents include: correspondence and telegrams; newspaper and magazine articles; family pictures; images produced by American Colony photographers; and artefacts. Some letters are reproduced in full.
This is the website of the American Society of Church History, founded in 1888 as an organisation dedicated to encouraging scholarly research into both church history specifically and the relationship between religion and society more broadly. The Society convenes twice annually, in January and Spring. The principal scholarly outlet of the Society is the quarterly journal entitled, 'Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture.' Tables of contents and abstracts are available for recent issues. The Society also promotes historical research by awarding five prizes for outstanding historical research, three of which are on an annual basis. Details of the various prizes are made readily available. The site is well presented and accessible.
Felix Just's resource provides a succinct overview of the different periods of Israelite, Jewish, and early Christian history, ranging from 3000 BCE to the Edict of Milan in 313 CE (plus a very brief summary of the major phases of the history of Israel up to the present day). Several additional charts open up specific periods and events into greater detail. Containing Biblical genealogy as well as historical chronology, this site is intended for beginners in the field and people wanting basic information on the periodisation of Biblical history.
'Ancient Egyptian Religion' is a website that serves as a gateway to a short but useful and well-maintained collection of links relating to the religious beliefs of ancient Egyptians. The list, compiled by Andrew Bayuk, is lightly annotated. The materials chosen cover items such as: deities; beliefs; practices; culture; mythology; priesthood; history; philosophy; symbols; death; funeral; embalming; and tombs. The site forms part of the 'Guardian's Egypt' website, which features various other aspects of Egypt and Egyptology. Accessible and informative, this resource is suitable for undergraduate use.
Ancient Japan is intended as a student introduction to the history, culture, and beliefs of the Japanese up to the end of the Heian period (1192 AD). Beginning with the earliest pre-historic settlers, the historical section of the site narrates the developments, events, and waves of immigration that had an impact upon the islands. The site describes the Yayoi and Jomon cultures, the Yamoto State, the origins and beliefs of Shinto, and the classical age of Japanese history covering Nara Japan and the Heian period. The website also includes a section on Japanese Buddhism, and discusses a number of aspects of ancient culture. There are pages on the language and writing; sections on literature, music, and the visual arts; and an introduction to women's communities and women's role in ancient Japan. Other resources include an historical timeline and maps, a picture gallery, and a glossary of terms. Several excerpts from primary texts are available at the site, including Shinto creation stories, the Taika reform edicts of 645 AD, and the story of Jimmu Tenno.
There is also a substantial list of links; unfortunately, however, this does not seem to have been updated recently, and consequently a high proportion of the links are broken. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's World Civilizations project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates. The Ancient Japan site is one of the most detailed and extensive units in the project.
On the Ancient Jewish accounts of Jesus Web page, Alan Humm has gathered a number of ancient sources approaching the figure of Jesus from a non-Christian perspective. This collection includes passages from Josephus, Celsus, the Babylonian Gemara, the Baraitha and more. Humm provides translations of the respective texts with an introduction, explanatory notes, and a short bibliography of sources, but has sadly left out the passages in their original languages. This site offers a useful introduction to some of the traditional Jewish responses to the Christ story.
'Arab-Islamic history' is a website that provides links to a range of online materials on Islamic history. Included are the works of scholars like Philip Hitti, Montgomery Watt, Ibn Ishaq, Abdul Wahid Hamid, Richard Hooker, Maxime Rodinson and Muhammad Hamidullah. Coverage spans from pre-Islamic times to the early twentieth century. The intervening period is covered under the following headings: the birth of Islam; Islamic expansion; the early Caliphate; the Umayyads and the Abbasids; Islam in Europe; the Crusades; the Fatimids and the Mamluks; and the Turks and the Ottoman Empire. Students of Islam will find this a useful and interesting resource for further exploration of the subject. 'Arab-Islamic history' is part of the Al-Bab website, and is the work of Brian Whitaker, Middle East editor of the newspaper 'The Guardian' - though the site has no official connection to the paper.
The Archive of Papers and Watermarks in Greek Manuscripts is an online resource produced by Robert W. Allison, Associate Professor of Religion at Bates College, Maine, U.S.A. It is a prototype database developed from the Philoteou Monastery Catalog Project, which is part of the Mount Athos Greek Manuscripts Catalog Project (Catalogi Codicum Graecorum Montis Athonis) of the Patriarchal Institute for Patristic Studies, Thessaloniki, Greece. The Archive's main purpose as a research tool for scholars of Greek manuscripts is to enable watermark comparisons, and to offer a vehicle for publication of paper descriptions and watermarks discovered in these manuscripts. It contains: a database of watermark images; a database of related paper descriptions; a bibliographical database (not yet searchable); a news page on developments related to the history of paper; help and tools for searching the Archive; online forms for submitting new watermarks and paper descriptions to the Archive; a guide to paper description, imaging techniques and other background information. The Archive contains mainly Western European watermarked papers from the 13th Century onwards, although there are examples of early unmarked papers of Arabic manufacture. Unfortunately, some information on the site is not current, and the site does not appear to be updated very frequently.
This is the website of the Association for the Sociology of Religion, formed in 1938 as an international association dedicated to furthering scholarly research and theory in the sociology of religion. The Association encourages a wide variety of approaches to the study of religion, including comparative, theoretical and historical. Information for those interested in membership is readily available. The Association periodically publishes a newsletter containing news on recent activities and upcoming events, a copy of which appears on the site, along with additional relevant news items, including details of conferences, research grants, and study programmes. There are also links to other sites that may be of interest. The Association meets annually in conjunction with the American Sociological Association, and its principal scholarly outlet is the quarterly journal, 'Sociology of Religion,' which is the only publication in the English language dedicated solely to the sociology of religion. Topics addressed in the journal include: spirituality and community; religion in multicultural societies; and religion and democracy in churches and states. A link is provided to the journal's website.
Atoms and Ancestors is an introductory text on African religions by Fred Welbourn. Published in 1968, it was written primarily for students sitting for the A level examinations. However, its entertaining and engaging style of writing renders it accessible to anyone interested in exploring African religious traditions. It is also suitable for undergraduate use. The full-text of all twelve chapters of the book are freely available from this website.
For those searching for primary resources on Zoroastrianism, the Avesta Zoroastrian Archives are an excellent starting point. Zoroastrianism was a major world religion from the 6th century BC to the 7th century AD, and still has several hundred thousands adherents in India, Iran and North America. The site includes the whole of the Avesta (ancient scriptures of Zoroastrianism) in both English and Avestan (though the latter is provided in Latin script), an assortment of the middle-Persian/Pahlavi texts, and a selection of modern works. Introductory discussions on Zoroastrianism and the Avestan language are also offered. The linguistic section contains a helpful dictionary and descriptions of the language, but caution should be exercised with some of the other Zoroastrian resources, as not all information presented here reflects the best of scholarly opinion. Nevertheless, they do offer an intriguing view into modern expressions of the faith.
Barbara von Schlegell's home page offers a selection of material for those studying Islam. The resource guide provides a valuable collection of links to varied and high quality sites, ranging from pages on Arabic language and Islamic religious texts to material on social issues within Islam, resources for research, maps and images, and newspapers online. Most of the material linked to is elsewhere on the Web, but a small proportion is hosted on-site. Among these are a collection of maps from historical atlases of Islam, and a handful of electronic texts (also accessible via the Online Texts section of the site), including an Islamic catechism and an Islamic perspective on free will and determinism. Also available is information about various university courses taught by Schlegell, which may be helpful to those seeking reading suggestions or to other teachers looking for inspiration.
'Beyond the Pale' is a bilingual online exhibition in English and Russian, which gives an overview of the history of the Jews who lived in the Pale of Settlement, the western borderland of Czarist Russia where Jews were legally allowed to live. The site summarizes anti-Semitic attitudes against Jews in Russia from the 18th to 20th centuries. Additional sections include Jews in the Soviet Union; Nazism and the Holocaust; and Democracy and Minority Rights. There is also a basic background history of the Jewish people prior to their history in Russia. This site is a good starting point for students interested in Jewish social history in this region. This resource contains a number of useful pictures and maps, as well as links to related sites, but no bibliographical material.
This truly superior online collection of citations and bibliographic material has been compiled by Barend J. ter Haar at the University of Leiden. The main introductory page of his Bibliographies on Chinese History and Culture leads to eight different extensive (and usually annotated) bibliographical resources on Chinese society. While this includes references for literacy and education, violence, and protest and dissent, many categories are specifically devoted to religious themes including the Yao religion, Shamanism, and the Falun Gong movement, as well as more general collections on twentieth century religious life and culture in mainland China. The bibliographies are organised in a series of logical sub-divisions, and include details of electronic resources. However, a basic search engine to retrieve references by author or exact subject would be a welcome addition to the site. In any case, undergraduates and academics at all levels who wish to enlarge their knowledge of Chinese secondary sources will find these lists useful, whether they are searching for books or material on the Web. New lecturers may also wish to avail themselves of the Teaching Aids section, which takes the form of an extended annotated exploration of Internet, encyclopaedic and print resources.
The Book of the Dead is part of the Internet Sacred Text Archive, run by amateur John B. Hare as a free, non-profit archive of e-texts on religion and mythology. The site does not promote the views of John Hare or any other individual but simply presents sacred texts from original scans and printed anthologies. A bibliography of these texts and a code of standards in scanning is provided on the site. Mainly, the texts are given in English translation although a few texts are accessible in their original language. The Internet Sacred Texts Archive is a partner of Distributed Proofreading for Project Gutenberg in developing e-text projects. The page on the Egyptian Book of the Dead provides free access to E.A. Wallace Budge's 1895 translation of this sacred text. Texts are grouped under the Plate format of the Book, while Budge's extensive introductory material is reproduced in full. All material on the site is available free of charge, although Sacred texts also offer its archive on CD-ROM in order to fund the running of the site. An excellent resource.
The British Association for Jewish Studies (BAJS) is a non-profit organisation which aims to promote the scholarly study of Jewish culture and history within higher education (HE) in the UK. It was set up in 1975 and at the time of cataloguing, the association is presided over by Dr Seth Kunin of the University of Durham. This website contains information about: the conferences they organise; job vacancies in HE relating to Judaism and Jewish Studies; BAJS' publications; recent news and events; the course contents of undergraduate and postgraduate Jewish Studies programmes offered at a number of British universities; and the prizes, bursaries and grants offered by BAJS to students. The site holds a search engine and provides links to the homepages of relevant organisations.
Richard Hooker's Buddhism website provides a historical introduction to this religious tradition. Beginning with the birth of Siddhartha Gautama in the 6th century B.C., the site describes the founding of the religion and its major concepts and beliefs. There are sections describing the origins and differences of Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism, and a page on the development of Tantric ideas. The site also examines the reasons behind the decline of Buddhism in India, and looks at the growth and development of the various schools of Buddhism in Japan, including Zen. A proposed section on Chinese Buddhism has unfortunately not been completed, and work on the site seems to have stopped. The site includes extracts from the Dhammapada ('The Path of Dharma'), the most important collection of the sayings of the Buddha. There is also a list of links to other websites, although this does not appear to have been maintained, and consequently few of the links still function. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university, and first year undergraduates.
'Buddhism in Europe : an Annotated Bibliography' is an online resource by noted Buddhist scholar, Professor Martin Baumann. The current edition is the third since 1996 and includes around ninety new titles, making it a useful current resource for researchers in religion, history and related areas at all levels. The bibliography is divided into four sections: General overviews and surveys; Geographical Studies; Added titles since January 1988; Table of estimated numbers of Buddhists in European countries in 2000. The material included is focused on scholarly studies considering the development of Buddhism and Buddhist-activities from both a historical and contemporary perspective. Academic books and articles, theses and journals by national Buddhist organisations of individual countries are covered. As this is a developing resource, suggestions for additions are welcomed. A large proportion of the entries have a short review by Martin Baumann, Ian Harris, Russell Web, Alioune Kone or Lionel Obadia. The bibliography is accessed as a simple scroll-down page and, aside from being rather long for this presentation, is very straightforward to use.
Buddhist-Christian Studies is a scholarly journal (ISSN: 1527-9472) published by the University of Hawaii Press. It features articles, conference reports and book reviews on Buddhism and Christianity, and on the historical and contemporary interrelationships between the two religions. This homepage contains information about the editorial board and the journal's submission policy. It also allows visitors to view the table of contents of all volumes published since 1999, but the full contents are only available to subscribers. The site nevertheless gives free access to one sample issue. The journal is edited by Father Francis Tiso.
The Institute for Antiquity and Christianity (IAC) is part of the Claremont Graduate School and is a research centre which focuses on the origins of western civilisation; its bulletin is made available online by the Claremont Colleges Digital Library. Volumes available here date from 1970 to 1997. The user may browse contents lists for each volume and then access each volume page-by-page in PDF format. Of particular academic interest are the texts of IAC public lectures, and a wide range of topics is covered by these, including: archaeology relating to Biblical sites; the writing of the New Testament; ancient Roman education; Judaism and Christianity; Alexandrian poetry; ancient magic; the synagogue; and papyrology.
The website "Byzantium: Byzantine studies on the Internet" is a resource gateway listing Byzantine-related material available on the World Wide Web. The site is provided by Fordham University, and is edited by Paul Halsall. Included in the introductory page is a useful brief history of Byzantium. The links are annotated, and the list is divided into sections, including: news; academic and teaching resources; and texts, images, and sounds. For quick reference, there is also a small selection of non-annotated key links at the top of the front page. The resources cover: palaeography; hagiography; music; book reviews and research articles. This site is both well presented and easy to use. Links are not updated very regularly and some of them were broken at the time of review.
'The Calligraphic State: Textual Domination and History in a Muslim Society' was written by Brinkley Messick, Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Michigan. The book studies the changing relation between writing and authority in a Muslim society from the late nineteenth century onwards. Organised into four parts and twelve chapters, this online edition of the work is freely available to the public. Also included are the book's bibliography; index; biographical guide; and glossary of terms. Its contents should appeal to postgraduates and postdoctorate researchers of Islam. The print edition, which was published in 1993, can be ordered from this website.
Edited by Christopher B. Siren, 'Canaanite/Ugaritic mythology FAQ' is a website devoted to the culture and beliefs of the biblical nation that occupied what is now known as Syria. Aside from biblical accounts, little was known about the Canaanites - who thrived from about 3800-3000 BC - until the discovery of the city of Ugarit in 1928. Since then, writings and objects have been unearthed that have opened this enigmatic culture to modern scholars. Siren's site makes available to general readers the basic structure of Canaanite myth. When possible, comparisons with more familiar mythological systems are made. Details of source materials and suggestions for further reading are included.
With chapels closed at a rapid rate in Wales, Capel (or The Chapels Heritage Society) seeks to ensure that those facing closure have their records preserved and that the buildings themselves are used sympathetically. The homepage of this voluntary society contains: a list of chapels recently closed and those under the threat of closure; information about projects to record chapels; details of relevant news and events; downloable publications like leaflets and newsletters; and links to relevant websites. Visitors can also find information about how to join Capel and are treated to the photographs of several Welsh chapels, complete with brief notes of their history. This would be an interesting resource for anyone seeking a better understanding of the history of religion in Wales.
'Manuscripts of the Bible' is the electronic version of the entry in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia written by Walter Drum. The text provides a simple introduction to biblical manuscripts, listing the different types of manuscripts of the Bible according to type (papyrus, vellum, palimpsest); language (Hebrew, Syriac, Greek, Latin etc); age; and content. This site proves a useful starting point for beginners in the field, and benefits from a bibliography. However, the fact that a number of manuscripts vital to our knowledge of the transmission of the Bible, such as the Dead Sea Scrolls, have been found after this text was published, makes this resource rather outdated and incomplete.
The website "Catholic encyclopaedia: demonology" is part of the New Advent site, which provides information on religious and theological topics. This entry focuses on demonology, defined on the site as "the science or doctrine concerning demons". It provides a good basic introduction to the subject for those studying witchcraft, the history of religious ideas or theology. Links to other entries in the encyclopaedia are embedded in the text, which is also very useful. Since the site is published by a Roman Catholic organisation, the site-user must bear this in mind. The article briefly discusses a variety of demonologies including: Assyrian and Akkadian; Iranian; Jewish; Early Christian; Medieval and Modern. It provides good background reading for the subject, but is evidently dated, published as it was, in the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1908.
This website, published by the University of Pennsylvania's Penn Libraries, features a set of online exhibitions relating to Jewish history from 600BCE to the twentieth century. The exhibitions have been produced by the Centre for Advanced Judaic Studies, a post-doctoral college at the University, and cover a range of topics in Jewish history. These include Jewish history and culture in Eastern Europe; Jewish biblical interpretation; modern Jewry and the arts; Christian Hebraism; and Jewish traditions. The exhibitions all follow the same format, featuring an introduction, digitised exhibits with explanatory notes, and suggested further reading. They should be of particular interest to graduate and post-graduate students.
This is the website of the Center for Jewish history, an organization which unites five pre-existing organizations: the American Jewish Historical Society; the American Sephardi Federation; the Leo Baeck Institute; the Yishiva University Museum; and the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. Its combined holdings include approximately 100 million archival documents, 500,000 books, and thousands of photographs and cultural objects. The Center website states that this collection is the largest repository of sources on the history of Judaism and Jewish culture outside of Israel. It also has holdings pertaining to the Holocaust (prior to and during the Second World War) and to Jewish genealogy. The Center's main website is new, and reflects its comprehensive focus. It includes a virtual tour of the Center's facilities, and an online overview of the center in PDF format which the user can download. It is easy to navigate with clear, quick search options which generally cover all component sites. The search options address the user's immediate concern (professional academic, teacher, student, archivist) and type of historical focus (geneology, archival). Subpages within the site provide information on: Facilities; Academic Research (including a general overview of the library and archival collections); Resources for Educators and Teachers; Family History; Archives and Libraries; Supporting the Center; and Film, Music, Art and History. There is also a calendar of events. For more detailed information, the independent pages of the Center's component organizations can be called up from the main home page. These appear on multiple overlapping new screens which make navigation more cumbersome. Each of these sites is comprehensive in its own right, with extensive details on the history and resources of each organization. Of particular academic note is the Leo Baeck Institute for the Historical Study of German-speaking Jewry, and the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research on East European Jewry and the Yiddish language. The Leo Baeck Institute has put its master catalogue online.
This is the homepage of the Center for Judaic Studies at the University of Denver. The centre was established to promote understanding of Jewish history, thought and culture. It offers an interdisciplinary programme of study that explores Jewish history, literature, philosophy and religion since biblical times. This website provides information about their academic and public programmes, and on how to join their mailing list. It also gives a description of the videos which their Media Center holds on themes like Jewish Experience; Religion and Identity; The Holocaust; and International Jewry. Access is given to their newsletter; press releases; calendar of events; and links to relevant websites. The centre is directed by Sarah Pessin, Associate Professor in Philosophy and the Emil and Eva Hecht Chair in Judaic Studies at the University of Denver.
This Web page, 'Classical documents for Christian research', features a series of links to English translations of ancient texts (originating from Greece, Rome, and Egypt) which may be of use to those undertaking research into parallels between Biblical texts and stories featured in classical literature. As the full-text of many of the works is included, these may also be of interest to anyone seeking online translations of the featured authors. Works which appear here are: Aristophanes' 'Peace', 'Clouds' and 'Ecclesiazusae'; Euripides' 'Bacchae'; Hesiod's 'Theogony' and 'Works and Days'; the Homeric Hymns; selected works of Plato; Herodotus' Histories; and extracts from Catullus, Pausanias, Aristotle and Athenaeus, as well as a number of Egyptian texts.
'Dead Sea Scrolls and Qumran' offers a treasure of information about the Dead Sea Scrolls themselves and the context in which they were written. Mitchell Hoselton has created a site which combines his own knowledge and material on the field with that of other electronic resources, which make these pages a gateway to other sites as well as a very useful secondary source in its own right. Among the most interesting contents are the inventory of caves; the timelines; ancient and modern profiles (short biographies); the glossary; and the bibliography. His links include images, bibliographies, and URLs of major academic departments and centres studying the Scrolls, although unfortunately the list does not appear to have been updated recently, resulting in some broken links.
'Dibaajimowinan idash Aadizookaanag' is a site devoted to disseminating the culture, history and narratives of Native Americans. Available on the site are stories translated from a number of Native American languages. These include Dibaajimowinan (Native narratives, true stories), Aadizookaanag (traditional stories, myths and legends) and Mazinaajim (picture stories). There are also features on the difficulties of collecting and authenticating Native American tales such as these, comparisons between American and European myths, articles on 19th-century revisionism, and information about Native American languages. Of both anthropological and literary interest, this site is a valuable addition to folk-tale resources on the Internet.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Digest of Welsh Historical Statistics: Religion, 1669-1974' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to download as a compressed (zip) file. This is a machine-readable version of part of John Williams' ‘Digest of Welsh Historical and is intended to provide a service for those working on the history of modern Wales. The main tables are: Church of England. Number of incumbents, by diocese, 1832, 1879-1890; Church in Wales (before 1920 Church of England). Number of incumbents, baptisms, Easter communicants and Sunday scholars, by diocese, 1885-1974; Church in Wales. Number of churches, by diocese, 1832-1973; Nonconformist congregations, by county, 1672, 1716 and 1742; Baptists. Number of churches, members and Sunday scholars, by association, 1839-1865; Baptists. a) Members, 1669-1860; b) number of churches, chapels, pastors, members, Sunday school scholars and baptisms, by county, 1861-1972; Calvinistic Methodists. Number of chapels, churches, ministers, lay preachers, communicants, Sabbath scholars and adherents, by county, 1860, 1885-1973; Methodists. Number of members, by districts, 1767-1968; Congregationalists and Welsh Independents. Number of churches, ministers, members and Sabbath scholars, by county, 1861-1891 and 1897-1975; Roman Catholics. Number of clergy and churches (from 1838), schools, Catholics, baptisms, marriages and conversions (from 1911), by diocese, 1838-1974; Religious Census of 1851, summary table for Wales; Communicants, by county and denomination, 1905; Marriages, by type of rite, quinquennially, 1839-1972.
The website 'Jewish History Resource Center' is an online project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The website is a selective gateway for Jewish history, with links to over 4,500 sites. All have been checked by the Center's staff, and deemed relevant to the subject. Brief descriptions of the resources are provided. The sites listed cover Jewish history from biblical times until the 20th century, including a section devoted to the Holocaust. There are also sections on online texts and documents; relevant institutions (libraries, archives, and museums, for example); study and research resources (such as details of academic programmes, bibliographies, and journals); plus thematic sections on archaeology, genealogy, Jerusalem, and gender studies. The index of sites is searchable, or can be browsed by keywords. Also provided is information about the Dinur Center, including details of recent publications online and in print. A well-maintained and valuable resource for all those working in this area.
'Discovery and Reformation' is a history website introducing students to the period between the discovery of the New World and the end of the Thirty Years War. The site focuses on the impact of the discovery of the Americas, and the Reformation and its consequences. It forms part of an online course called 'World Civilizations', run by the Washington State University, and aimed at first-year university undergraduates. The site is divided according to various headings such as 'the Spanish Empire', 'John Calvin', or 'Religious Wars'. Each section consists of a basic narration of the key events and ideas, sometimes including links to glossary entries or other resources. There are extracts from Calvin's 'Institutes' about civil government, and from Martin Luther's 'The Freedom of the Christian'. The site is attractive and clearly laid out. It should provide a useful introduction to this period of European history for those previously unacquainted with it.
Divining America: Religion and the National Culture, is part of the TeacherServe project, a curriculum enrichment service based at the National Humanities Center dedicated to assisting teachers in planning and presenting their subject matter. The site contains a number of concise and helpful essays, all written by reputable scholars, offering overviews and bibliographies of many key aspects of religion in America. The essays are divided, for easy accessibility, into three categories. These are: 17th and 18th century; 19th century; and 20th century. Essay titles available include, for example: African American Religion in the 19th Century; Evangelicalism as a Social Movement; Religion and the American Revolution; Mormonism and the American Mainstream; and several others. The site is well presented and will be of considerable use to all those engaged in teaching the complexities of religion in America.
The Religious Aspects page is part of the Duke Papyrus Archive website, and offers over a hundred enlargable images of papyri which relate to religion in some way. The list is divided into categories for ease of use. The most substantial sections cover manuscripts related to paganism and early Christianity, but there are also works referring to magical practices, astrology, Hinduism, and Islam. Each papyrus is accompanied by brief notes on its type, size, script, date, provenance, and content. Most of the texts are in Greek or Coptic, with a few in Arabic or other languages.
The Earthlore Explorations website is devoted to cultural legacies including history; myth; poetry; and more. Resources at the Earthlore site are arranged into sections. Gothic Dreams includes: photographs and artwork depicting the architecture, sculpture, arts, and crafts of the Medieval period; a glossary of various aspects of gothic cathedrals and churches; and an in-depth historical overview of Notre Dame de Paris, comprehensively hyperlinked throughout to relevant resources within Earthlore Explorations. Ireland includes history and mythology, and gives an article on the poems of W. B. Yeats. Additional countries that may be featured with their own sections include Brazil; China; and Egypt. The Mystery of Lost and Forgotten Histories examines: the relevance of a historical or legendary King Arthur (including an in-depth historical overview of the Holy Grail); and the decline of ancient Peruvian civilization. The Lore of Astrology examines the history and evolution of the world's astrological sciences. Additional subjects that may be featured in the future include symbolism; music; literature; and Arthurian lore. Earthlore Explorations, online since 1995, was originally the work of New York based photographer Rhey Cedron. Cedron now works with a number of other investigators and researchers, all of whom are cited on this resource.
The website of The Ecole Initiative : The Eleusinian Mysteries is dedicated to the ancient Greek festival held annually in honour of Demeter and Persephone. The Eleusinian Mysteries were the most sacred and revered of all the ritual celebrations of ancient Greece. The website has been compiled by Edward Beach of the University of Wisconsin. The site offers an account of what little is known about the Mysteries, and some of this is necessarily speculative. This includes discussion of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. The site also offers images of Demeter, Persephone and Eleusis. There is also a bibliography. The resource would primarily be of interest to ancient historians working on Greek religion.
This interesting website informs visitors about the research activities currently undertaken in the School of Divinity at the University of Edinburgh. These include the work of its three research centres namely the Centre for the Study of Christianity in the Non-Western World (CSCNWW); the Centre for Theology and Public Issues (CTPI); and the Centre for the Study of Christian Origins (CSCO). The site contains information about the Visiting Lecture Series and Seminars which the school organises. It also links visitors to the homepages of specific projects undertaken by members of staff at the school e.g The Media and Theology Project; The Collection of Scottish Letters; The African Christianity Project; The Mundus Project; and the Methodist Missionary Society History Project. In addition to background information about the projects, visitors are also given access to several downloadable materials. There are also links, annotated and unannotated, to the homepages of relevant organisations and to other online resources.
The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature is based at the University of Oxford. It contains nearly 400 literary works composed in the Sumerian language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) during the late third and early second millennia BCE. The materials available include a variety of historical, mythological, and literary texts from a number of different Sumerian city-states including Ur, Babylon and Nippur. All resources are available in non-ASCII character transliterations and are accompanied by a typically brief, but essential bibliography. As the vast majority of texts are also available in English, this resource is open to researchers at all levels, whether they are student or professional. The texts are grouped thematically, and may be browsed by category or number, or searched via a customised search engine. The editors of the site plan to introduce English labels to further facilitate searching the Sumerian transliterations. The list of bibliographic references is impressive, and those both new and familiar with this field may wish to spend some time browsing the references. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme. This corpus can also be ordered via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)), on completion of a request access form.
The eMuseum website provides highly detailed images and brief descriptions of national treasures and important cultural properties held by the museums of Tokyo, Kyoto and Nara. A large number of Japanese artefacts together with earlier Chinese paintings and documents are presented. All the information on the site is available in five languages: Japanese, Chinese, Korean, English and French. Although the home page is only in Japanese, clicking on any of the icons for the different categories leads to an easy-to-use graphical interface in all five languages. Images are organised into the following categories: Japanese painting (11th-13th centuries and 15th-19th centuries); Chinese paintings (Song and Yuan dynasties); Swords and Blades; Others (includes Buddhist statues, votive and ritual objects and vessels); Buddhist sutras and Chinese classics; Japanese Classic and Historical documents; Japanese and Chinese calligraphy; Textiles. Once a category is selected the user is presented with a list of all objects within that section, which leads through to a more detailed record for each object. This contains a thumbnail image, information of an object's date, period, material and provenance and a brief description. Navigation buttons also allow the user to browse an entire section without returning to the initial list. The thumbnail image provides access to a larger version image of the object that can in turn be enlarged further and viewed in detailed segments. Certain objects on the website also have the option to view them from different angles using the 'Image Browser' option. The eMuseum website is easy to use (but also includes a multilingual 'how to use' section) and provides easy access to very high quality images of a large number of important objects.
This website publishes a single referenced article on the Christian Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt. It contains links to several colour images and a few additional texts focusing on the Coptic alphabet (which ends the hieroglyphic tradition); the art (frescoes and icons); music (with audio samples); and the architecture (churches and monasteries). It is a useful and concise introduction for students of arts, archaeology and religious studies to a subject often overlooked.
The history of the Coptic Church dates back to origins of Christianity and still maintains traditions lost by other currents of Christianity. The Coptic culture originated by the religious tradition has blown into a full and original culture that has manifested itself in a variety of forms. This website only allows for a taste of this culture since it is concerned on all its aspects and not just the strictly religious ones. A Polish version is available as Word document.
'Ephemera' is an extensive website providing primary and secondary sources relating to spiritualism. The author is himself sceptical of spiritualist claims, and takes a neutral, historical view of the phenomena that forms his subject. Looking at the growth of spiritualism in the second half of the century, and the controversies it encountered, he has digitised a number of the 'fading records' of the movement and written several essays exploring its various facets. Spiritualism is seen in the context of the progressive or radical intellectual, political, cultural, and artistic movements of the time. The site also features a bibliography and hyperlinks to other relevant resources. This is an excellent resource that is likely to prove rewarding to scholars researching American religious and social history.
ETANA is a cooperative project between ten scholarly institutions and organizations, funded by the Mellon Foundation, with the aim of enabling wider access to Abzu (the Internet gateway for Ancient Near East studies) and the digitization of core texts in the field. At the time of review, there were over 350 digitized texts, covering topics including ancient Egyptian and Babylonian history, biblical archaeology, and the religion of the Semites. There are also over 180 digitized cuneiform texts. Texts include an electronic version of the 'Pantheon Babylonicum: Nomina Deorum e Textibus Cuneiformibus Excerpta et Ordine Alphabetico Distributa' by Deimel, Panara, Patsch and Schneider. The site also offers a short list of links to archaeological projects and organizations affiliated with ETANA. The ETANA core texts collection can be browsed alphabetically, or keyword searches can be performed using the Abzu interface. Abzu also offers details of a vast array of websites, online journals, and ebooks relevant to academics and students working in this area.
This blog supports the AHRC-funded research project ‘Evangelicalism and Fundamentalism in Britain’. Although the blog is currently under utilised (the project had only recently begun at the time of writing), it does include a description of the project, which aims to explore the relationship between evangelicalism and fundamentalism through bringing together historians, theologians and sociologists, while encouraging evangelicals in churches and theological colleges to examine their relationship with fundamentalism.
This website (which is published by the Wesley Center for Applied Theology) contains the complete works of Flavius Josephus, including the 'Antiquities' (an history of the Jewish people), the 'Jewish War' (an historical account of the revolt against Rome from AD 66-70), Josephus's 'Autobiography', the 'Discourse on Hades' and, 'Against Apion' (an apology of the Jewish people and customs). All the translations are those of William Whiston (who translated them in the seventeenth/eighteenth century). The book version of Whiston's translation was updated in 1906 and more recently in 1988. The version which appears here is based upon the 1906 edition. The translation into English is therefore somewhat archaic, but elegant and eminently readable. There is, however, no commentary on the text, nor even the smallest background detail on any of the works, Josephus, or Whiston. Josephus was born in AD 37 to a priestly Jewish family, and as such was destined for the priesthood himself. At the age of sixteen Josephus spent several months studying with the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes before deciding to become a Pharisee. During the Jewish Revolt against Rome (AD 66-70), Josephus was appointed commander of the region around Galilee. The Romans captured Josephus in AD 67, and he remained a prisoner of Vespasian (the military commander and future emperor) until AD 69, when Josephus was given his freedom for prophesying Vespasian's rise to the purple. Josephus remained in Rome after the revolt was put down, and retained close connections with the imperial family (with both Vespasian and Vespasian's sons Titus and Domitian when they also became emperor). Although Josephus became a Roman citizen, he retained his Jewish religion - choosing to remarry a Jewess in AD 73/4. The date of Josephus' death is unknown, but is conjectured to have been around AD 92/3. Josephus's works are clearly set out and the individual chapters (or books) are labelled so that one can click on to a particular book without having to wade through the entire opus. There is no search engine, however. One can also download the complete works as a Zip file from this site.
The Flavius Josephus Home Page, edited by G. J. Goldberg, is a well-maintained resource giving a solid overview of the life and works of the 1st century scholar, soldier and priest. The works themselves (including The Jewish War and Antiquities of the Jews) can be downloaded as ZIP files, or accessed via the links provided to other online sources. A number of thematic sections provide guides to specific aspects of Josephus's writings, for example: the war against Rome; Jewish holidays; women; and parallels with the New Testament. The site also gives details of recent scholarship on Josephus.
The Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture (FASSAC) aims to preserve and promote the ancient culture of the Sephardic communities of Turkey, Greece, the Balkans, Europe and the United States. The first of two core resources on the website is a section devoted to Sephardic heritage, featuring: a historical overview of Sephardic communities; family genealogy; a collection of academic papers and other articles; and FASSAC's digital archives of Sephardica. The latter include, for example, the Amsterdam Haggadah from 1695; the Abarbanel Commentary on Prophet Daniel; and the Tehillim (Psalms) from 15th Century Spain. The second pillar of the site is a series of resources relating to Ladino, the Judeo-Spanish language which originated after the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492. The site also features further details of the Foundation and its publications, and general background information pertaining to Sephardic studies.
The g-Megillot email list is an electronic forum devoted to scholarly discussion of the Dead Sea Scrolls and allied subjects. The list is vigorously moderated to ensure the relevance and quality of posts: subscription to the list is limited to specialists in the field - typically those with a higher degree in a relevant subject and a knowledge of the appropriate languages (Hebrew and Aramaic). However, some content is available to all: although the list's main archive is only accessible by list members, there is also a back-up archive which is publicly viewable. Posts may be in English, Hebrew, German, or French, though in practice the majority of the material posted to the list is in English. A valuable resource for advanced scholars working in this area.
The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise a huge number of manuscripts found in caves near Qumran and dating from the intertestamental period (circa 250 BCE to 70 CE). Published by the Gnostic Society Library, this Dead Sea Scrolls Collection website offers an introductory guide to resources on the Qumran documents available both in print and online. It offers information on: the story of the Scrolls; texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls; a timetable of Dead Sea Scroll scholarship; as well as recommended books and online resources for further study. Most usefully for the beginner, the site also provides access to a large range of English translations of selected texts from the scrolls.
'A Great Assemblage: An Exhibit of Judaica', which is hosted by Yale University Library, takes the form of an online museum and brings together the highlights of the university's many collections related to Judaica. Contributions are here from the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library; the Judaica Collection of the Sterling Memorial Library; Yale's Babylonian Collection; Yale's Map Collection; Yale's Manuscripts and Archives; and Yale's Art and Architecture Library. It enables visitors to view manucripts, rare books and prints in Hebrew and Yiddish, as well as artefacts ranging from Babylonian times to the 1930s. Each image can be enlarged and is accompanied by a brief description. This site contains remarkable images of Babylonian art, 16th-18th-century Jewish marriage contracts, early 20th-century religious prints from Palestine, and more.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Great Britain Historical Database : Census Data : Religion Statistics, 1851' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as tab delimited files, UK higher education users may also download the data through the CHCC (Historical Census Collection) system. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation.To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. The data is taken from the 1851 Census of Religious Worship for Great Britain.
The Greek Bible in the Graeco-Roman World website provides information about an AHRB-funded joint project between the Universities of Southampton and Reading. The project's aim was to provide a re-evaluation of the Greek Bible (Septuagint or LXX) as a source for Jewish interpretation of the hellenistic world - in particular the political, social, and intellectual elements thereof. This involves an assessment of the existing criteria used to date and suggest the context of the translation of the books of the Septuagint, and where possible, to develop new criteria for deducing this information from the text. One major result of the project is the Demetrios database of Septuagint Greek, containing political, legal, and administrative words. The database is still being expanded, but the current version is available online via the project site (although at time of writing only project members had access to the full search capabilities). However, although new material is still being added to the database, users should note that the main project pages are no longer being updated. For those interested in exploring the subject further, a useful links section is provided.
The Hajj website was set up to accompany 'Hajj - The Greatest Trip on Earth', a documentary first shown on Channel 4 between the 8th and 15th of February, 2003. It features slideshows and video recordings of the pilgrimage, and invites users to embark on a virtual Hajj. It also contains information on the historical, theoretical and practical aspects of Hajj. It further provides links to related websites, a list of recommended readings, maps and a glossary of terms. Informative and engaging, this resource is suitable for anyone who wishes to learn more about the Hajj or Islam in general.
This site provides an attractively illustrated introduction to the coins and measures of Judaea from early times until the crusader period with historical background and a useful basic bibliography. Before the adoption of Greek and, later, Persian coins (or 'darics') in the 7th-4th centuries BC, a sophisticated system of inscribed weights, based on the unit of the Shekel, was used in Jewish areas. The first Judaean issues proper were not struck until the 4th century BC under Persian and Seleucid licence and were based on the widely used Athenian owls or Persian modes. The Seleucid Antiochus VII also struck hybrid Syrian-Jewish issues in the later 2nd century. The first properly 'Jewish' coins, with Hebrew inscriptions and lacking the portrait heads of earlier issues for religious reasons, did not appear until the time of John Hyrcanus (135-104 BC) and his successors when Judaea became fully independent. The series of coins from the reign of the Herodian dynasty and the Roman conquest down to the Late Empire and Byzantine period provide a fascinating potted history of Judaea as well as important insights on economic and iconographic matters. There is also a short section on the revival of coins of Israel in the 20th century, both in the Mandate period and after independence in 1948. The resource is part of the Jewish History Ring published by Amuseum.org (The Jewish Museum in Cyberspace) and associated with the American Jewish Historical Society. It is a useful complementary source for students of ancient history and archaeology working in the East Mediterranean or those studying general numismatics as well as an attractive introduction for the interested amateur.
This is the homepage of the Harvard Divinity Bulletin, a magazine edited by Brin Stevens and Wendy S. McDowell. It is published four times a year by the Harvard Divinity School and features articles, reviews and opinion pieces on religion and contemporary life; religion and the arts; and the history and study of religion. This homepage allows access to a selection of materials from issues published in 2002 to the latest issue. Papers featured include: 'Love as a physical force to loosen the grip of war'; 'Does God matter? A social-science critique'; 'Private belief, public scholarship'; 'Reflections on Islam in a time of global uncertainty'; and 'Learning to present religion in the schoolroom'. The website contains the submission guidelines for the bulletin and information on how the print version of past and present issues could be obtained. A search engine is available.
'The Hebrews: A Learning Module' provides an excellent introduction to the history of the Hebrew peoples from the Age of the Patriarchs (beginning c. 1950 BC) to the Diaspora of the Jews in the first century AD. Based largely on the testimony of the Torah and the rest of the Old Testament, the account provided here also introduces corresponding evidence where available. The history is divided into separate chronological web pages, covering periods such as: Egypt and the wanderings; the occupation of Canaan; the Monarchy (with accounts of Saul, David, and Solomon); the two kingdoms (of Israel and Judah); the exile; and the Greeks and the Jews. The site includes a separate section on the Hebrew religion. This looks at the evolution of Jewish scripture and beliefs from the pre-Mosaic period, to monotheism and the prophetic books, to the post-exile reforms. There is a page on the Torah and a glossary of Hebrew terms and concepts. An anthology of Hebrew readings includes extracts from Genesis, Exodus, and Judges. The site also includes a map of ancient Israel, and a list of links to other sites (although a few of these were not in operation at the time this record was reviewed). This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
The website "Heritage: Civilization and the Jews" is a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) site, which is designed to accompany a series of broadcasts that are also available on video and DVD-ROM. This site accompanies a nine-part course, with lesson plans, discussion questions, and research projects. The history of the Jewish people is described using texts, images and a rather selective timeline. The website is easy to navigate and nicely presented, and of great use to teachers and those wishing to gain a basic knowledge of Jewish history. The course covers the period from 3800 BC to the present day and was written by Professor William Hallo, a Professor at Yale University. The course follows a broad chronological path, but is also themed, presenting links to modern issues and points for reflection and discussion. Each episode of the programme is accompanied by an index, an atlas, documents, and a real player visual clip.
This is the homepage of the Hindu Council UK (charity number 1067682). The organisation was founded in 1994 to represent the voice of various Hindu denominations in Britain and to contribute towards the promotion of inter-faith dialogue in this country. This interesting and well-organised website provides information on the activities they engage in. It also features news reports on matters connected to Hindus and Hinduism both in the UK and abroad. The site contains a search engine and allows visitors to access other resources such as articles; circulars; reports; discussion papers; an online discussion forum; and a list of FAQs. There are also scholarly articles and a selection of other highly accessible papers on Hinduism that cover topics like history; scriptures; festivals; prayers and Yoga. The resource would therefore be useful to those wishing to deepen their understanding of the Hindu faith as well as to those new to the subject.
This is the homepage of the Historical Society of Jews from Egypt, a committee-run organization which serves Egyptian-born Jews everywhere, but especially in the United States. The Society received a charter from the New York State Museum in 1996 and devotes itself to the history of the community as it existed in Egypt and subsequently via institutions of education, arts, good will organizations and religious establishments. Through a great range of posted letters, reminiscences and samples of private ephemera, the site describes key events and details of this very old and still extant community; it particularly notes departures during the defining 'second Exodus' in the 1950s and 1960s, when Jews were expelled and the recent rise of anti-Semitism in Egypt. Navigation is haphazard, but scholars will find a wealth of photographs, biographical information and starting points for deeper research on this interesting site. There is also a lot of news on current matters related to Jewish history and the protection of Jewish historical documents and artifacts in Egypt. Researchers will note that the site conveys an émigré perspective.
'History of the Sikhs' is an informative website maintained by Sandeep Singh Bajwa. Featured are links to published articles on Sikh History. This extensive list is organised into six categories: Sikh Gurus and Early Gursikhs; Sikh Martyrs; Sikh Warriors; Historical Events; Modern Sikh Personalities; and Sikh Institutes. A discussion forum, links to relevant sites, an education section and search engines are also provided. This would be a useful resource for those seeking to further their undertanding of Sikhism and its rich heritage.
This is a simple website explaining the Hittite and Hurrian deities, their forms, roles, and relations. The information is divided into sections on the following topics: 'Who were the Hittites?'; 'What deities did they worship?'; and 'Cosmology and the structure of the universe'. There is also a short annotated bibliography of relevant sourc material. Within the explanatory text of each section the descriptions for each god or goddess contain hyperlinks to other deities, allowing for easy navigation around this single-page website.
The Holy Land Photos website provides good quality, free images of Holy Land sites and artefacts. The database contains well over two thousand images, and continues to grow. Coverage includes Israel, Greece, Turkey, and Jordan, with special attention paid to sites and cities mentioned in the Bible. The images are categorised for easy browsing, and accompanied by text explaining what the image contains and brief information about its significance. The image categories are: daily life and artefacts (including plants, houses, climate, transportation, and shepherding); people; and regions. The site also features a keyword search engine and an email update service that alerts users to new additions to the database. There is a short bibliography of recommended reading. This is a slick and easy to use website that contains quality photographic images. It is intended to be useful for schools and universities, Bible study, and presentations, but it is likely to be of interest to anyone requiring images of archaeological sites in the Near East or depictions of aspects of life relatively unchanged since antiquity. Information is provided about permitted usage of the images.
Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies (ISSN 1097-3702) is an electronic publication devoted to the study of the Syriac tradition. Published twice yearly by Beth Mardutho: The Syriac Institute, all contents from January 1998 are freely available online. Apart from details about its submission policy, transliteration scheme and email group, the home page provides links to other online resources and journals that are useful for Syriac Studies. A search engine is also made available. This website is hosted by The Catholic University of America.
Images of Archaeological Sites in Israel is an online gallery of photos of areas of archaeological interest (chiefly Iron Age sites) that relate to the Old Testament period. Pictures are included of: Arad; Beersheva (sometimes spelt Beersheba); Carmel; Gezer; Hazor; Lachish; and Megiddo. For each location, a brief introduction is given (you may need to scroll down to see this), and explanatory and descriptive comments accompany the full-sized versions of the individual photos. This is a useful resource for anyone wanting to find out more about life in ancient Israel, or looking for images to illustrate presentations. The photos are made available under a Creative Commons licence, so may be used freely for non-commercial purposes.
'Images of St Augustine' is a website maintained by John Immerwahr, Professor of Philosophy at Villanova University, USA. It provides a brief narrative of the life of Saint Augustine of Hippo (354-430). The materials are offered in two sections. The first presents a selection of images, which are accompanied by narration, of the frescoes painted by Benozzo Gozzoli in the Church of Saint Augustine in San Gimignano, Italy. The scenes are on the following themes: School, College, Mother of Tears; Rome; The Teacher; To Milan; Arrival in Milan; St Ambrose; Conversion; Baptism; Seashell; Death of Monica (his mother); and (St Augustine's) Funeral. The second section contains a number of images from the stained glass windows in the St Thomas of Villanova Church on the campus of Villanova University. The scenes here are on the following themes: Conversion; Baptism; Vision; Death; Writing Confessions; Pelagianism; Sea Shell (an ancient symbol of baptism); and Giving the Rule. This is an interesting and engaging resource for those seeking an introduction to the life and teachings of St Augustine.
This website is the online version of a wide ranging, lavishly illustrated and extensively referenced online art history course by Dr. Chris Witcombe of Sweet Briar College, Virginia. The course focuses on the social, political and religious interpretations of artistic representation of women in six broad areas or periods: Egypt; the Aegean basin; Palestine; Greece; the early prehistoric period; and barbarian Europe. Each section is organised around a series of case studies or essays which are accompanied by discussion topics and questions, extensive bibliographic lists, and collections of relevant Web links. Particular pieces of art from each culture or period are examined: the site describes each art piece, looks at how they have been interpreted, and examines the role of women in ancient cultures. Essays and online lectures by other academics and students are also featured. Textual sources from the relevant Greek, Hebrew and Egyptian contexts are extensively used throughout. A hypertext medium with frames is employed which sometimes can be clumsy to use, though it allows you to have several parts of the course on screen at once. Some of the in-text links are inaccessible to off-campus browsers. This resource will be valuable both to college students taking courses in ancient art, archaeology, ancient history, and gender studies, and also for those interested in cross-cultural and multi-period approaches to art and gender and in comparative religion.
'Incunabula, Hebraica and Judaica' is a website maintained by the National Library of Canada. It contains an online exhibition of five centuries of Hebraica and Judaica, rare Bibles, and Hebrew incunables from the Jacob M. Lowy Collection at the library. The materials are organised under 18 headings, namely: Incunabula Hebraica: The Beginning of Hebrew Printing; Bibles; Commentaries; Renaissance Humanism and Christian Hebraism; Josephus; Talmud; Codes and Responsa; Philosophy; Mathematics and the Sciences; Mysticism; Liturgy; The Passover Haggadah; History, Geography and Travel; Philology, Poetry and Belles-Lettres; The Sephardic World; Jewish Languages; The Spread of Hebrew Printing and the Fate of the Hebrew Book; and Hebraic Manuscripts. The site is accessible is English and French.
The Inscriptions of Israel/Palestine website aims to publish an electronic version of all inscriptions found in Israel dating from the Hellenistic period (ca. 330 BCE) to the Islamic Conquest (640 CE). A search engine allows users to access some 15,000 inscriptions, with searches possible for individual inscriptions or words, including proper names, occurring in one or more inscriptions. There is, however, no browse function, which makes general access to the site difficult without prior knowledge of sources. Ultimately users should be able to access detailed maps of every single archaeological site that contains inscriptions of the period concerned, as well as photographs of every inscription with a translation. The site also provides a bibliographic database and lists related links; links to some scholarly essays on epigraphy were broken at the time of last review.
This is the website of the Institut des Traditions Textuelles. The institute conducts interdisciplinary research in philosophy, history, history of religion, and history of science in many languages, including Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Arabic, Coptic, Ethiopian, and Syriac. It was created in 1996 by bringing together four research units of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS): Histoire des doctrines de la fin de l'Antiquité et du Haut Moyen Âge; Centre d'études des religions du livre; Centre d'histoire des sciences et des philosophies Arabes et Médiévales; Laboratoire de médiévistique occidentale de Paris. The website provides only basic details for access to the institute and its library. A separate Web page is dedicated to the collection entitled 'Textes et traditions' published by Librairie philosophique J. Vrin. There is a list of titles already published, which leads through hyperlinks to each book's title page (including a scanned image), a brief abstract and / or the table of contents.
This is the homepage of the Aga Khan University Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations (AKU-ISMC) based in London. It was established to promote scholarly work on the heritage of Muslim societies and to enhance the standard of teaching on the subject. This website contains information about: the academic programmes and short courses on offer; news and events; research activities undertaken by its staff; the institute's publications; conferences, seminars and workshops organised by the institute; and job vacancies. The site offers a search engine.
The International Association for the History of Religions (IAHR), founded as an organization in 1950, is dedicated to promoting the academic study of the history of religions through international collaboration between scholars. The association holds a major congress every five years, and holds regional and special conferences annually. The principal scholarly outlet of the association is its official journal, 'Numen: International Review for the History of Religions.' In addition, the Association publishes the 'Numen Book Series,' which now comprises over eighty volumes. Further information on publications of the IAHR, as well as information regarding membership is readily available on the site.
This is the homepage of the International Museum of Muslim Cultures (IMMC) based in Jackson, Mississippi. Founded by Emad Al-Turk and Okolo Rashid in 2001, the museum conducts research and engages in the collection, preservation, exhibition and interpretation of artifacts relating to Islamic history and culture, and Muslims' contribution to world civilisation. Through these activities, it aims to enhance the public's understanding of Muslim cultures as well as to promote interfaith dialogue and religious tolerance. In addition to information about its history and vision; this website offers an overview of and images from the museum's current exhibitions. There are also interviews with the museum's founders and news items relating to the museum. Information on how to subscribe to their newsletter and on how to become a member are likewise available.
The Ancient History Sourcebook, created by Paul Halsall, forms part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project Series. This site concentrates on bringing together primary source material relating to the Ancient World in a structured manner. The main subject areas covered are: human origins; Mesopotamia; Egypt; Persia; Israel; Greece; Hellenistic World; Rome; late Antiquity and Christian origins. These categories are all further subdivided. The material on the site is a mixture of links to other websites and documents prepared as part of the sourcebook project. The Ancient History Sourcebook is straight forward to navigate as it is easy to browse and it is possible to search the site.
The website 'Internet History Sourcebooks Project', created by Paul Halsall at Fordham University, provides access to online primary source material for a number of branches of history. The project offers a combination of locally hosted material and links (often annotated) to documents on other sites. The three main sourcebooks cover ancient, medieval, and modern history; in addition to these, there are subsidiary sourcebooks, which take a thematic approach. There are, for example, sourcebooks on: Jewish history; Islamic history; East Asian history; history of science; and women's history. The material within the sourcebooks is well organised into categories, and is searchable. The home page provides general information about the sourcebooks project, including details of updates (maintaining a resource of this scope is a considerable task, and consequently some broken links are almost inevitable). Overall, this is a very valuable site, as the sources offered have the potential to be of immense use to historians; however, the user does need patience to browse what can be rather eclectic collections of sources. Also, the editor warns that the site had last been updated in 2006.
The Internet Indian History Sourcebook consists of an annotated gateway to primary resources relating to Indian history from the ancient period to post-independence. Many of the resources are hosted locally, with those marked Web being external sites. The sourcebook has been compiled from the ancient history, medieval, and modern history sourcebooks compiled by Paul Halsall at Fordham University. The guide is conveniently divided into sections covering particular periods and themes. Texts and images hosted locally include: The Laws of Manu; The Bhagavad-Gita; King Bhartrihari's One Law There Is; sources on the Buddha's life and death; The Arthashastra; The Rock Edicts; Strabo's geography of India; the Indian section of Pliny's Natural History; sources concerning European contacts and colonialism; Robert Clive's The Battle of Plassey; Edmund Burke's Speech in Commons on India; Thomas Babington Macaulay's On Empire and Education; Monier Monier-Williams' Camp Life in India; Dadabhai Naoroji's The Benefits of British Rule; Elisa Greathed's Account of the Opening of the Indian Mutiny at Meerut; Robert Traill Spence Lowell's The Relief of Lucknow; Bal Gangadhar Tilak's address to the Indian national congress; Jawaharlal Nehru's Marxism, Capitalism and Non-Alignment; British Government statements; and the 1966 Declaration of Pakistan and India on Jammu and Kashmir. There is also a section on gender and sexuality. This is an extensive site that should be of use to students and scholars studying the history of South Asia and the Indian subcontinent. At the time of review (2010) the site hadn't been updated since 2007.
The Internet Islamic history source book is an extensive online reader to texts relevant for the study of Islamic history from its foundations through to the period post-1945. The overall aim of the sourcebook is to give ready access to primary texts, many of which may be difficult to find from other sources. The broad sections of the guide include: The pre-Islamic Arab world; Muhammad and foundations (to 632 CE); Islamic faith and theology; Islamic expansion and empire; the Caliphate; the Persians, the Turks and the Ottomans; interaction with the West and the Western intrusion; Islamic nationalism; Islamic world since 1945; maps and further resources. Texts available are relevant to history, theology, culture, and politics. Other sourcebooks exist for ancient, medieval, and modern histories.
The Internet Jewish History Sourcebook, part of Paul Halsall's sourcebook project, is a rich source of primary texts for the study of Jewish history and culture. A significant number of the texts have been digitised by the author, whilst others link to a variety of sites elsewhere on the Web. Major sections in the sourcebook include: the people of Israel; the emergence of Judaism; Jewish middle ages; and life since the enlightenment. Amongst the many sub-topics are: the Jews in the diaspora; Jewish communities in Christendom; Jewish intellectual life; the history of the Ashkenazi in Eastern Europe; modern anti-semitism; the Holocaust (prior to and during the Second World War); and the state of Israel.
The Internet modern history sourcebook has been developed by Paul Halsall at Fordham University. This site forms part of a series of Internet sourcebooks covering different historical periods and themes. This sourcebook covers a wide range of topics from the Reformation up to the present and provides an extensive amount of information. The material provided is a mixture of documents hosted on the site and links to other sites. Brief annotations are available for some of the documents and introductions have been added to many of the sources hosted by the site. The emphasis of the site is the provision of primary sources; there is an interesting section on the study of history and the use of primary sources. The site is relatively easy to navigate with documents divided into sixty different categories which are further subdivided. Although a search engine specifically for the sourcebook is not available, fairly effective searches can be carried out using the Fordham University search engine.
'Introduction to Sikhism' is the electronic version of an article by S. Gobind Singh Mansukhani, first published in 1977. It defines and explains the pillars of Sikhism, often with Hinduism and Islam as a point of reference, thereby setting out the essential differences between Sikhism and these two other religions. Consisting of seven chapters, it gives an overview of Sikh history, Sikh worship and Sacred Literature. Its last section is devoted to Sikhism in relationship to 'modern' problems such as divorce, family planning and euthanasia. Although this site outlines basic ideas central to Sikhism, it remains very general and often vague, particularly in its comparisons between Sikhism and other religions. As it is written entirely from a Sikh perspective, its statements should sometimes be approached with this in mind.
This website describes Islam and its historical origins. Some of the central qualities and assumptions of the religion are outlined, generally accompanied by comparisons with Christianity. The historical part of the site begins with pre-Islamic Arabic culture. It then introduces the prophet Muhammad, the Qur'an (or Koran), and goes on to describe the Caliphate under Abu Bakr, the Civil war and Umayyad Dynasty, the Shi'a schism, and finally the Abassid Dynasty. A separate section on the Arabic language emphasises its centrality to the Islamic faith. An 'Islam reader' consists of sections of the Qur'an translated into English. There is also a glossary of terms and a list of links to other sites. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates. The site is a decade old, seems to be archived.
Adrift in a sea of polemics and postulation, the wonderful 'Islam and Islamic studies resources' website is a truly welcome presence on the Internet for its commitment to collecting and evaluating useful Internet resources on the Islamic faith. Maintained by Dr Alan Godlas at the University of Georgia, these pages seek to provide a scholarly overview of Islam, and Islam related issues, with the site divided into a series of categories that introduce the reader to an array of historical and contemporary discussions, but which are detailed enough to entice the most discerning of users. By combining introductory summary material with links to additional external sites, the author provides not only a brief tutorial in Islam but simultaneously identifies and critiques the best Islamic resources on the net. Categories include everything from the basic divisions in Islam, to mysticism, science, women's issues, history and art. Most sections offer additional bibliographic material, and new students will find the collection of bibliographic links and glossary of terms especially helpful. Those who wish to learn about Islam through electronic resources while remaining confident of the quality of material would do well to begin here.
'Islam and Tibet: Cultural Interactions (8th - 17th centuries)' is a research project funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). It is based at the Warburg Institute of the University of London and is headed by Charles Burnett, Professor of History of Islamic Influences in Europe. The project aims to study the cultural interactions between the Islamic and Tibetan cultures, and examines how religious ideas of the two cultures developed. This website contains: background information about the project and the people behind it; details of past and forthcoming events connected to the project (e.g. presentations; lectures; seminar training; conferences; and workshops); a thematic bibliography of print-based works on Islam and Tibet; images; and links to relevant websites. This resource should be of interest to those researching on the interactions between the Buddhist and Islamic traditions in Tibet, as well as to those with a general interest in inter-faith work. The website will be continuously updated as the project develops.
This is the homepage of the Islamic Legal Studies Program (ILSP) at Harvard Law School. Established in 1991, the program seeks to enhance understanding of Islamic law and to facilitate research into all aspects of Islamic legal studies, both classical and contemporary. This website informs visitors about their range of activities (e.g. Visiting Scholars program; film series; conferences; workshops and projects) and resources. There is information about the books published in their monograph series (the Harvard Series in Islamic Law). Visitors can access ILSP's newsletter and annual reports from here. They can also view articles from the program's Occasional Publications series. These are presented in PDF but Adobe Acrobat Reader can be downloaded from the site. Links are provided to the homepages of relevant organizations.
This interesting website displays the digitised version of 32 Islamic manuscripts from the Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library and the Library of Cheick Zayni Baye of Boujheba in Mali. They cover a wide range of topics (e.g. Islamic Law; Muslims and Non-Muslims; Living with Christians; Early Years of Islam; and Islamic Manuscripts) and were written in various styles of the Arabic script as developed in Mali and its surrounding regions. The manuscripts can be browsed by Keyword; Titles and Subjects. The site, which is maintained by the African and Middle Eastern Division of the US Library of Congress, also displays maps, photographs and other information about the Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library. It contains background information about the collection itself and a brief description of how the manuscripts were digitised. This should be a useful resourse for those researching on Islamic history in general and the history of Islam in Africa in particular.
The Islamic World to 1600 website provides readers with a solid introduction to development of Muslim society from its origins through to the Mughal Empire. These attractive pages could be easily incorporated into introductory teaching material; however, the site is likely to be of greatest benefit to undergraduate students of religion who desire a quick and trustworthy introduction to Islamic history. Structured around historical and dynastic themes, the pages cover a number of different issues, including the formation of Islamic belief, and its major political eras such as: the early Caliphates; the Abbasid Dynasty; the Mongol Invasions; and lastly the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires. The final chapter offers an examination of the artistic and scientific advancements of Islamic civilisation. For students seeking reading suggestions, a bibliography is provided at the end of the tutorial.
This website, edited by Yashwant K. Malaiyais, is devoted to the history of the Jain religion. Emerging in 8th century BC India, Jainism has a long history. As a result, it is part of the purpose of the site to separate myth and tradition from truth. To this end, a detailed time-line is provided that traces the development of Jainism from its origins to the present. Many names or events on the time-line are linked to further information and articles. However, the site also contains a separate, and very large, index of Jain resources, including texts, images and organisations.
The emergence of new Jewish communities in Britain following their readmission in the 1650s resulted in the creation of a rich and unique heritage of religious building types such as synagogues, cemeteries and ritual bathhouses, but also social spaces such as schools, soup kitchens and hospitals. The decline in the size of the Jewish population and changes in the economic status of congregations since WWII has placed many Jewish buildings of considerable social and architectural importance under threat. This website describes the attempts of a project organised by the Jewish Memorial Council (JMC) and substantially funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund to survey, photograph and archive some 350 surviving examples of Jewish buildings constructed up to the Second World War. The resource includes a map of survey sites in the British Isles, a list of listed synagogues and other Jewish buildings, an outline of sites under risk (or lost, including the last major synagogue in Dublin demolished in 1999) and details of plans for publication and preservation of surviving monuments. Many of the structures under threat are characterised by lavish 19th and 20th century architectural or decorative features and fine craftsmanship, often combing contemporary styles with specifically Jewish features. The resource also provides practical advice for individuals and groups, both members of synagogue communities or the general public, to record any part of the Jewish built heritage which is under threat. This site will interest in particular architectural and social historians and heritage professionals but will also broaden public awareness of this important aspect of the built environment in the British Isles.
The Jewish Roman World of Jesus is a high-quality introductory site describing the surrounding political and social conditions during the life of Jesus and the first few centuries of Christian development. The pages open with two substantial introductory essays on the Roman and Jewish environments into which Christianity springs and will provide a useful historical introduction for anyone unfamiliar with this period. The remainder of this resource contains a series of brief sociological sketches on topics ranging from religion, to archaeological discoveries, to New Testament origins, all complemented by historical quotations that illuminate the opinions and quality of life of early Christians.This web guide will be most useful as summary for undergraduates beginning New Testament or Early Christian History studies. While some limited bibliographic material may be derived from the internal articles, unfortunately a comprehensive bibliography of secondary source material is lacking.
Jewish Roots of Eastern Christian Mysticism is the website of an on-going interdisciplinary research seminar organised by graduate students at the Department of Theology, Marquette University. The seminar is organised into over twenty-five themes, and the website presents articles and discussion relating to each theme. Texts are available in HTML or PDF, many of which are exclusive to the seminar's website. The resources normally include previously published and unpublished scholarly articles, electronic publications, lectures, reviews, and sometimes critical responses to these materials. In addition, there are links to numerous bibliographies relating to hellenistic Judaism and Eastern spirituality.
The website is the online version of the Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906 in 12 volumes in English. This encyclopaedia is a major source for information on Jewish history, culture, and religion up until the 19th century. The website is overseen by a distinguished panel of scholarly advisers and offers scans of the original pages of the encyclopaedia, including pictures, graphs, and tables. Additionally, the text of the entries has been digitised, and thus the website can be searched easily. Some articles also include hyperlinked cross-references for easy navigation. This electronic resource was created by the Kopelman Foundation, and it is useful for scholars, students of any level, and laymen alike. Unfortunately, the site seems to suffer from intermittent server problems: while often quick to load, on some occasions it can be painfully slow. The site usually does appear eventually, though some browsers may time out first. If problems are experienced, it may be worth trying again at a later point, or using an alternative browser.
The Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies (ISSN 1583-0039) is a freely-available peer reviewed electronic journal published by the Seminar for the Interdisciplinary Research of Religions and Ideologies (Babes-Bolyai University, Romania) and the Academic Society for the Research of Religions and Ideologies (Romania). The journal publishes articles and reviews relating to inter-religious dialogue; philosophy of religion; history of religion; political philosophy; ethics; and related areas within religious studies. Themes of recent issues have included: religion; art; politics; problems of religious toleration - religious minorities in Romania; and religion and politics in the contemporany world. Recent authors and topics have included: Richard Rorty (anti-clericalism and atheism); Mihaela Mudure (Gypsies and African Americans); Joseph Favazza (reconciliation); Mester Béla (Unitarian thought and early modern political philosophy); Leonard Swidler (freedom of religion); Kathleen Tobin (Catholic birth control debate in Latin America); Sandu Frunza (Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas). Articles are available in both HTML and PDF. The journal is published quarterly. Information is also available about the editorial and advisory boards; and on how to submit articles for publication.
The Journal of Religion and Communication is a full-text ejournal, published by the U.S. scholarly Religious Communication Association. At May 2009 there are about 40 issues freely available online, dating from 1978 to 2001. Articles are presented using the DJVU format, for which a free Web browser plugin is required. The focus of the ejournal appears to be on theological communications, with occasional articles on television, and a few on the history of ideas. Example article titles include: 'The Effects of Digital Environments on Religious Television Stations'; 'The Priming of Religion in Political Attitudes: The Role of Religious Programming'; 'Francis Bacon's Advancement of Learning and the Biblical Origins of Scientific Ethos'; and 'The Depiction of Women in Religious Television', among many others. This archive is hosted by the Communication Institute for Online Scholarship, and their link to the Religious Communication Association website gives a "404 not found" message, so it is possible that the journal is no longer published.
This web page attempts to collate the bibliographic details of all journals devoted to eighteenth-century studies extant in the world. In practice, this amounts to over twenty publications in various languages covering most humanities disciplines. For each journal, the following information is given where available: the date of the journal's inception; the address at which it may be contacted; its current editors; its size, scope, and price; the frequency of its publication; the number of subscribers; the countries where it is distributed; the language(s) in which it is written; whether or not the journal includes book reviews; and an email and web page address. The website is written in both French and English, and is of obvious value to anyone wishing to publish an article on an eighteenth-century subject, or find a relevant journal in a particular field.
K C Hanson's website may be a chaotic montage of loosely connected resources, but within this eclectic host of sub-directories, there are several topics worth exploring by those interested in history, culture or religion. Dr. Hanson's primary interest seems to lie with the interactions between various ancient and classical communities spanning from the apogee of the Egyptian to the Roman Empire (in particular the relationship between the later and the early Christian communities). He has assembled a series of dynastic chronologies for both Israel and Rome, along with a selection of texts relevant to this period. With a little searching one can find ancient documents from Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Greek civilizations, along with a selection from Semitic cultures. These texts, all translated, tend to cluster between the eighth century BCE and the third century CE but there are a number which predate these.
Part of the site provides useful support resources for the textbook 'Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts', which Dr Hanson co-authored with Douglas E. Oakman. Those wishing to delve further into a particular topic may also wish to consult Hanson's robust series of web links to the ancient world and/or his bibliographic collections on rituals on ancient Greco-Roman society; Hellenic, Semitic and Anatolia Cultures; and The Old Testament. An attractive collection of images from many of these cultures has been compiled.
This small, but well-formed website covers the history of the Kalmyk (Kalmuck) community in Belgrade to 1944, when, as a result of the Soviet presence, the Kalmyks of Belgrade went through a further diaspora. The Kalmyks are sometimes called the first European Buddhists. During the Russian Revolution, a number of Kalmyks sought refuge and settled in Serbia, and by 1934 they had built a temple. The author has carefully researched his topic and provides numerous images, culled and restored from old newspapers, of people, plans, and events. While the exact relationship of Kalmyk Buddhism to Mongolian, Buryat, or Tibetan is not covered, there is a page of information on distinctively Kalmyk rituals performed at the temple. There is also ample bibliographic material allowing the curious to go further.
Keston Digital Collection is a searchable selection of digitised primary sources on the Soviet repression of religion from the Keston archive, now based at Baylor University’s Keston Center for Religion, Politics and Society. Materials chosen from amongst the archive’s 4,000 plus items include: Soviet anti-religious posters; samizdat texts, such as a record of a trial handwritten on cloth; newspaper reports; photos. Users may browse various categories of source (photos; documents; posters; prints) or the entire collection. The site also offers the user sophisticated search and select options, with customised display of favourites, and plans to make audiovisual materials available in addition to high quality reproductions of texts and images. This resource will be of most use to those teaching or researching Church-State relations or religion under Communism.
This Web page, part of the website of economics consultancy Volterra, describes the AHRC-funded knowledge transfer partnership between Volterra economist Paul Ormerod and Glasgow University academic Dr Andrew Roach. The partnership is applying network theory to the choices people made about religious allegiance in history. Outcomes to date have included published work on the medieval inquistition and forthcoming work on martyrs and English Protestantism in the 16th Century. The Web page links to Roach’s academic profile which includes further information about his research.
'Lilith' is a website compiled by Alan Humm. According to Jewish lore, Lilith was Adam's first wife who rebelled against God and transformed herself into a demon. The content of this resource is quite miscellaneous: it provides links to a variety of sites whose focus ranges from the study of pre-medieval texts in which Lilith is mentioned to interpretations of the Lilith figure in modern feminist thought. Most of it is not scholarly in the strict sense of the word but it is still a useful starting point for anyone interested in the continuity of middle eastern mythology into contemporary Judaism. It contains an extensive bibliography and a list of passages quoted.
'Luthers Werke im WWW' is an institution-only subscription site which allows access to the complete works (both in German and English) of Protestant Reformer Martin Luther (1483-1546). Containing over 117 quarto volumes, Luther's Werke represents one of the largest editions of any individual author ever to have been created. This online version of the Weimar Edition, published in electronic form by ProQuest Information and Learning, is an excellent historical-critical tool for theologians, historians, linguists and literary critics carrying out research into Luther's life and work. The website offers information on subscription; the German and English versions; and a free trial to interested institutions.
Making of America is a digital library of primary documents relating to American social history. The primary documents include full-text books and journal articles from 1800-1925, although the majority of the material is from 1850-1877. The subjects covered include education, psychology, sociology and religion. Over 10,000 books and 50,000 journal articles are included in the database, which is fully browsable and searchable. The documents are presented as facsimiles of the originals; electronic text versions of the documents are also available, although the process of proof-reading and correcting these is ongoing. This is a fascinating collection of 19th century books and articles which are both well presented and easy to access.
This site provides listings of magical manuscripts and early printed books from the classical, medieval and early modern periods. The material has been gathered by Frank Klassaan of the University of Saskatchewan and is a work in progress. The listings are divided in to four themed areas: 'Ars notaria' and 'Liber visionum'; Necromantic and other ritual magic manuscripts; 'mage magic, Arabic image magic, and other Arabic magic; and the 'Sworn Book of Honorius' or 'Liber sacer'. Records are listed alphabetically by place of repository. There are also list of manuscripts by author (where known) and an index of incipits (first lines). This site will interest historians of magic, of science, of religion and theology.
The 'Marginalia' journal website is part of a larger site also called 'Marginalia', which is the home of the Medieval Reading Group at Cambridge University. This peer-reviewed journal is published and edited by postgraduate students of medieval studies, with the assistance of an advisory board of established academics. The editors invite submissions of long papers and shorter notices on any aspect of the Middle Ages in England within the broad period from 500 CE to 1500 CE. All articles are based on original research. The publication also includes book reviews. This journal showcases new work being undertaken by young researchers, and will be of interest to students and scholars of medieval studies in all disciplines. The first edition of the journal, with the theme of 'Margins', appeared in 2005. Published papers available on the site include: 'The marginalization of John Lydgate'; 'The participation of women in the fourteenth-century manor court of Sutton-in-the-Hole'; 'A previously unidentified fragment of 'Pearce the Black Monke upon the Elixir' in MS. Mellon 43'; 'The hem of whose garment? Intertextual allusion in Osbern of Canterbury's Miracles of St Dunstan'; and 'Museums and medieval material culture'. The contents of the journal are presented as simple Web pages, with hypertext links to footnotes. The site also includes notes for contributors and links to other online journals.
This unique online resource, Graeco-Roman Marriage Papyri, compiled by David Instone-Brewer, collates every Greek, Roman and Jewish text relating to marriage and divorce from the fourth century BC to the fourth century AD. The texts are accessible here in their original languages, whether Greek, Latin, Aramaic or Hebrew; links are given to the documents on the websites of the Perseus Digital Library, the Tyndale Archive and the Advanced Papyrological Information System (APIS). References to the texts in which the documents can be found are also given (these are shown in pop-up windows, so to make use of this resource the user must disable any pop-up blockers). The papyri are organised in chronological order, and the catalogue listing for each item is accompanied by references to relevant secondary material and English translations, where possible. Also featured are: a full bibliography; a checklist of editions of papyri; links to other works on divorce, remarriage and the New Testament written by the site's author; and link to downladable Greek and Hebrew fonts.
This website is a major corpus of artifactual and historical material relating to the people of Canaan/Israel and surrounding areas in the Middle and Late Bronze Age and Iron Age I-II periods, c2200-550 B.C. This resource is aimed at both undergraduate students and researchers in archaeology and ancient or biblical history. It will also be of interest to those interested in ancient Near Eastern religions and the origins of Judaism. The site uses a Hypertext medium to interpret Canaanite material culture in the context of the historical and literary record which is provided through extensive quotations from J.B. Pritchard's seminal Ancient Near Eastern Texts (ANET). The material in this resource can be accessed in three main ways: a period by period account provides a chronological and cultural framework based on contemporary historical sources, biblical accounts and excavation reports; a topical index based on important aspects of culture such as burial customs, dress and personal adornment, warfare and architectural; a Hyperlink general index with links to over 90 key topics of Canaanite, Israelite and Phoenician culture.There are many photographs and drawings of artifacts, architecture and archaeological contexts from all over the region while bibliographic references accompany all of the major entries. Quicktime Plug-in 4.1 or later is required for some of the interactive features. The lack of a word-search index is frustrating given the considerable quantity of material in the resource and the historical sources are not explicitly indexed. Nonetheless the quantity and range of the material is impressive and the website will be of widespread interest.
This is the home page of the Material History of American Religion Project based at the Divinity School of Vanderbilt University. Carried out between 1995 and 2001, the project examined the material and economic dimensions of American religious life from a historical perspective. This website makes available details of the monographs that carry the results of its findings; and images and documents that potrayed the role played by material objects in religious life. It also features an electronic journal and a biannual newsletter and provides links to relevant sites. The project was directed by James Hudnut-Beumler, Dean and Ann Potter Wilson Professor of American Religious History at the Divinity School of Vanderbilt University. It was funded by the Lilly Endowment, Incorporated.
'Medica: the Society for the Study of Healing in the Middle Ages' is an academic association designed to explore the relationship between medicine and other scientific disciplines during the middle ages, while providing a forum for those interested in this topic to share their views and research. The site offers two main resources that may interest a wide array of students and scholars. The first is the Medica mailing list, which may be joined by contacting its operator. The second is a helpful bibliography of medieval medicine, divided into primary and secondary sources, and organized alphabetically by author. The site also features listings of upcoming events and calls for papers (although unfortunately these are not always up to date), a list of links to online medieval medicine resources, and PDF or MS Word versions of past editions of the Medica newsletter.
The Medieval-religion website houses the archives of the online discussion forum on medieval religion, and subjects that relate to religious life and thought in Europe from late antiquity to the early modern period. Hosted by JISCmail, the National Academic Mailing List Service, it allows access to all postings to the site since April 1996. These are organised chronologically on a monthly basis but users can also search the archives according to Author and Topic. The site provides information about how to post to the list; and how to join and leave the list.
This is the website of the Megiddo Expedition of Tel Aviv University. The archaeological site of Megiddo in Israel, the Armageddon of the Book of Revelation, was occupied continuously from ca. 7000-500 B.C. and features prominently in Near Eastern and biblical history in the second and first millennia B.C., particularly in the period of the United Monarchy when it was one of King Solomon's regional capitals. This attractively presented website provides a useful introduction to the history and archaeology of the settlement and surrounding region as well as providing information on a wide range of topics connected with digging in Israel and biblical archaeology. Apart from providing reports on the renewed excavations at the site by Tel Aviv University and a history of previous campaigns at Megiddo, this website describes a number of ancillary projects connected with Megiddo including the landscape survey of the surrounding countryside, the magnetometer survey of the city itself, the petrographic analysis of the pottery discovered during excavations and a guide to the controversy surrounding the dating of archaeological sites of the United Monarchy. Also featured is "Revelations from Megiddo" the newsletter of the expedition which has numerous articles on issues related to the archaeology and history of Megiddo and the Jezreel Valley.The text is accompanied by numerous attractive images including a 3D virtual tour of the highlights of the archaeology. VISCAPE is required for this presentation. The website also provides detailed information for volunteers wishing to take part in the archaeological excavations.This site will mainly appeal to the interested amateur and to undergraduates but also provides a useful overview for a more specialist audience, particularly the extensive bibliography and the up-to-date chronological information.
This small website, written by Alison B. Griffith, is a hypertext introduction to Mithraism, the ancient Roman mystery cult of the god Mithras. Roman worship of Mithras began sometime during the early Roman empire, perhaps during the late first century CE, and flourished from the second through the fourth centuries CE. The resource gives details on the following topics: the deity Mithras; possible origins of the Roman cult; structure and liturgy of the cult; iconography; and the popularity of Mithraism geographically, socially and chronologically. There is also a short bibliography of scholarly works.
This online resource contains an illustrated essay by David Ulansey on the meaning of some of the symbolism connected to the ancient mystery religion of Mithraism, which flourished across the Roman empire from the end of the first century CE until the eventual triumph of Christianity in the fifth century. Mithraism has left no scriptural evidence of the beliefs or cultic practices of its intiates, so Ulansey attempts here to penetrate some of its mysteries by studying the material artefacts and iconography that remain. The central thesis of this essay is that the cosmic symbolism of the Mithraic cult, with its zodiacal 'grades' of initiation and bull-slaying imagery, is connected to astronomical and astrological observation of the path of the sun through the constellations. Although the arguments become quite abstruse, they are clearly presented and illustrated with some useful diagrams. Ulansey's argument is an alternative to the accepted wisdom that Mithraism originated in Iran. This essay does not focus on the historical, archaeological, or sociological aspects of the worship of Mithras so much as on the basis for the worshippers' beliefs and the iconography. For those interested in the subject it offers a useful angle of approach through the study of the heavens.
This website publishes a database of pictures and transcriptions of ancient manuscripts (originating in the first centuries AD) conserved in northeastern Italy and coming from the archives of Aquileia, an important Roman colony and later Christian patriarchate. The ancient musical format of the "monodia" (chanted lament) resisted later influences in the area and became typical of the Christian tradition of the area. The manuscripts that have been made available are all Late Antiquity / Early Medieval volumes with Christian texts and music used for liturgical celebrations. The website is in Italian, and at the time of review it was largely incomplete and being updated. However, the pictures of some full manuscripts are already available and researchers interested in these manuscripts may find them useful, along with bibliographic references and some texts. In particular, some miniatures, liturgical texts and musical notations may be useful to researchers in the fields of history of music; art and religious studies.
This is currently one of the best internet resources in English on the great Andalusian mystic and philosopher Ibn ‘Arabi (1165-1240), also known as the Greatest of Spiritual Masters (Shaykh al-Akbar). The subjects covered include Ibn ‘Arabi’s works, theological and philosophical discussion of themes in his writings, later commentators, and the spread of his teachings. The Muhyiddin Ibn ‘Arabi Society was founded in 1977, and is based in Oxford, with a branch in the United States, and has organised numerous events and publications relating the Ibn ‘Arabi not only addressed to an academic audience, but also a wider group of Ibn ‘Arabi enthusiasts and admirers of his teachings. Information about related events and publications are found here, as well as free podcasts of lectures. Many of the contributors to the website are Ibn ‘Arabi scholars well known in the West, such as Michel Chodkiewicz, William Chittick, Claude Addas and James Morris. These authors and others have contributed original essays and articles for this website, but reproductions of articles from books and journals can also be found here in very readable format. Unfortunately, there are hardly any articles that provide information on his background and historical context, as well as the negative reaction his teachings provoked in some quarters of the Muslim world. Also, works by Ibn ‘Arabi and his commentators are found only in translation, and not in their original languages.
The Muslim Scientists and Islamic Civilization web page attempts to redress the perceived imbalance in Western education that promotes European science and invention whilst ignoring the contributions and achievements of Islamic scholars. It contains accounts of Muslim scientists, scientific references in the Qur'an, quotations from historians of science, and a section called 'putting the record straight', which takes scientific accreditations in works such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica and places them alongside earlier Muslim thinkers and inventors who made the same discovery. The site contains more than simply articles on the history of science. There are also accounts of Islamic civilisation by geographic area, a section about the Qur'an, a group of essays about Western perceptions of the Prophet Muhammad, and a miscellaneous group of writings, many of which concern conflicts between Christianity and Islam. Islamic thinkers listed on the site include: Ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi (Alkindus, 800-873); Al-Farabi (Al-Pharabius, 870-950); Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037); Al-Ghazali (Algazel, 1058-1111); Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya (Ibn Bajjah, 1106-1138); Ibn Rushd (Averroes, 1128-1198); Ibn Khaldun (1332-1395). Whilst this is in many ways a fascinating site, it should be noted that some of the accounts are rather more controversial than the site flags (such as the account of the Gospel of St. Barnabas to name but one).
The Neopaganism in Central-Eastern Europe website is based on papers previously published in Spoleczenstwo otwarte in 1995, and presented at the Fifth World Congress of Central and Eastern European Studies in Warsaw and at the conference New Religious Phenomena in Central and Eastern Europe after the Fall of Communism, Cracow in the same year - which was, the site claims, the founding conference of International Study of Religion in Eastern and Central Europe Association. The site provides an extended explanatory essay on the background and current state of pagan movements in Central and Eastern Europe. Within its historical overview, the site acknowledges implicitly that the endurance of apparently pre-medieval traditions was grounded heavily in 19th century mysticism, which in turn may have gained currency in connection with nationalist political movements. The site then focuses on the present revival of neo-pagan movements in Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Poland; former Prussia; and the Ukraine. Essays on the site, written by different authors, are illustrated with unreferenced images taken from early and current sources. Again, the site is interesting mainly for its awareness of the post-Soviet context and associated new era of nation building. But its recognition of that background remains contained within spiritualist rhetoric on the one hand, and a sociological catalogue of current groups on the other. Various links to external sites punctuate the text, including one on western neo-Paganism, but there are several broken links. Content in general on this site draws a fine line between what is relevant for researchers of modern religion and spiritualism, and what is relevant for enthusiasts.
The New Jerusalem Mosaic is an online project hosted by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. It gives an overview of the history of Jerusalem from the First Temple Period (1006-586 BCE) to 1967. Users can browse by historical period, or by a number of thematic headings: costumes; water systems; food; people; and sightseeing. This resource is informative on aspects of daily life in Jerusalem during each period, but not very extensive on the political or economic background. The reader should also be aware that it glosses over some of the more problematic issues surrounding the history of the city, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
The North American Association for the Study of Religion, formed in 1985, is dedicated to encouraging the historical, comparative and theoretical approach to the study of religion. The Association aims to foster collaboration among scholars in North America as well as internationally. The Association holds an annual conference in conjunction with the American Academy of Religion and the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion. It also publishes a quarterly journal entitled, Method and Theory in the Study of Religion as well as the book series, Key Thinkers in the Study of Religion. The table of contents and abstracts from the four most recent issues of the journal are freely available online. For those interested, membership information is also available. The site is well presented, and easily accessible.
The North Star is an biannual online journal devoted to the history of African-American religion. The two main aims of the journal are firstly, to provide information on resources for African American religious history including details of new publications, research collections and events, and secondly, to present peer reviewed articles which explore African-American religious culture. The primary geographical focus of the journal is the United States but articles covering other relevant areas will be considered. The journal welcomes contributions from both academics and research students; details on how to submit contributions are available from the site. The journal can be browsed by volume or searched as whole.
Old Testament Life and Literature is an online edition of a book by Gerald A. Larue, originally published in 1968. The work provides a basic introduction to the history contained within the pages of the Hebrew Bible. The electronic version has not been updated and contains a few textual errors. It does, however, include all the maps and images that were in the printed edition. Chapters include the major periods of Israelite biblical history and some discussion of the formation of the Hebrew canon. It is assumed that the reader will have a Bible to hand to refer to where the text indicates, as the text is not hyperlinked to an online Bible.
The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha Website is a resource created to accompany a course taught at the School of Divinity of the University of St Andrews. The pseudepigrapha explored in the course are a loose collection of writings attributed to biblical characters and/or set in the Old Testament period: although quasi-biblical in character, they are not part of the official canon of either Judaism or Christianity. The most valuable part of this site is the sizeable collection of lecture notes (ranging from abstracts and summaries to complete texts), which together provide a useful introduction to this subject. Suggestions for further reading are also given. Unfortunately, a reorganisation of the university's website has resulted in some broken internal links, but there is still sufficient information here to make this a helpful resource.
Part of the British Library's website, 'Turning the Pages' presents digitised texts of books, missals, psalters, atlases and other important documents that are held at the British Library. Based on the award-winning interactive display system used within the library itself to provide virtual public access to these rare texts which include: Leonardo Da Vinci's notebook; the Lindisfarne Gospels; the Sherbourne Missal; and Sultan Baybars' Qur'an. To view the books that are listed, a Macromedia Shockwave plug-in is required - although there are alternative versions for some of the texts. The Shockwave versions provides interactive animation that allows the user to turn the pages digitally, and also use zoom features to look at sections in detail. An introduction is provided for each book, along with audio descriptions of each page, which requires the use of a Real Audio player. Also of interest is a "highlights" tour of the texts, and a showcase of other manuscripts housed at the British Library.
An even more sophisticted version of Turning the Pages is available online now on the british Library website, for users who have fast broadband and Windows Vista.
The Online Jewish Missions History Project offers a collection of 90 documents relating to Christian missionary activity among Jewish people in North America and the UK in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The documents include newspaper articles (in particular, a large number of pieces from the New York Times) and reports and other publications issued by churches and missionary organisations. The majority are American in origin, with a few from Scotland or London. A significant number of documents relate to the rather turbulent career of Hermann Warszawiak, a Jewish convert to Christianity who himself became a missionary in America. While most of the works accessible through the site are texts (mostly available in both HTML and Word formats), a few images are also included. The documents can be browsed in a number of different ways (by title, creator, date, format, and so forth), and there is a sophisticated search function. This resource is hosted on the website of the Lausanne Consultation on Jewish Evangelism.
The website Organised pagan cult in Kievan Rus. The invention of foreign elite or evolution of local tradition? is an extensive piece by Roman Zaroff. The work discusses the pagan Slavonic pantheon, beginning with a quote from the Laurentian version of the Russian Primary Chronicle, describing the setting up of the idols Perun, Dazhbog, Stribog and others, by Vladimir (Volodymyr). In a wide-ranging work, that discusses the much-debated topic of the origin of the Slavs and their religions, Zaroff adopts a tripartite approach to the question of pre-migration Slavonic religion. He traces the evolution of selected deities and confusions between other popular and sustained myths about the pantheon. Perun, Weles (Veles), Stribog, and Svarozhits are all discussed here, as is the anthropomorphisation and personification of the deities. The piece brilliantly places the subject in an international and European comparative context, as well as focusing on Eastern Slavonic aspects. It has an excellent bibliography and is extremely useful for those interested in the early or religious history of the Slavs or Kievan Rus, and its inhabitants. Unfortunately the Polish characters have not converted.
'The Origins and Emergence of West-Semitic Alphabet Scripts' is dedicated to the ground-breaking work of two scholars, James Harris and Dann Hone, in deciphering a number of inscriptions found in the desert between the borders of Egypt, Israel and the Jordan. This resource traces earlier theories on and interpretations of this particular alphabet and provides images of a number of inscriptions with their transliteration in Hebrew. A third section of this site deals with the religious and cultural background of the texts, focusing on the rendering of the divine name in this script. Unfortunately, a bibliography on the subject is lacking in this resource.
This resource is the home page of the international Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, based at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. The main aim of this site is to inform the reader on the Center's research and teaching programmes, its bibliographic resources and the state of its scholarship. Apart from programme outlines and calendars of papers and publications, this page provides an excellent and frequently updated bibliography on the Dead Sea Scrolls, including works in more than ten languages. A separate list of suggested introductory reading is provided in the beginner's guide to the Scrolls. The site also offers a 'tour' of one of the caves at Qumran, complete with aerial photographs and pictures and descriptions of some of the manuscript finds. Finally, it provides details of a discussion list (g-Megillot), and has a page with links to related sites.
Other Women's Voices is a website offering information about, excerpts from, and links to the work of well over a hundred women writers, dating from ca. 2200 BCE to the end of the 17th century. The majority of the works covered, though not all, have a religious theme; the writers are as diverse as Sappho, Eloise, Lady Nijo, Teresa of Avila, and Elisabeth, Princess Palatine. For each writer, the site includes brief biographical information, links to online editions of the works, bibliographical details of texts not available online, selected quotations (often substantial), and information about secondary sources. The links to online resources are carefully chosen and well annotated. Both chronological and alphabetical indexes are available. This well-maintained site (remarkably few broken links for so extensive a project) is the work of retired college teacher Dorothy Disse.
An Overview of New Testament Geography is an online resource compiled by Felix Just, giving a brief outline of the locations where the main events described in the four gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and the epistles took place. Maps of Palestine in Christ's time, the Roman Empire, and key places in Paul's ministry are provided, and a link is also given to the larger collection of maps at the New Testament gateway website. This resource is intended for students beginning study of the field.
PaleoJudaica.com is the blog of James R. Davila, Lecturer in Early Jewish Studies at the University of St. Andrews. It aims to chronicle and comment on current developments (mainly as recorded in Internet sources) in the academic field of ancient Judaism and its historical and literary context. Material on related subject areas such as early Christianity, Roman history, or archaeology is also sometimes included if it has some bearing on ancient Judaism. Posts include notifications of recent publications in the field, relevant news items, including information about conferences, and responses to articles published online or elsewhere. Davila also maintains a list of links to useful websites, including online texts, course syllabi, and other blogs that may be of interest. A valuable resource for those who wish to keep up to date with developments in this area.
Perperikon is an important archaeological site in Bulgaria, in the eastern Rhodope range (Rodopi Planina); it was used as religious centre since the end of the 5th millennium BC (Chalcolithic figurines). This website written by Nikolay Ovcharov, the archaeologist who discovered and excavated it, summarises the research carried out so far. The website is available in Bulgarian or English and there is a Flash multimedia version and an HTML version; the HTML is the most complete version. The website contains several sections: "news"; "general Info and road map" where archaeological drawings of the architectural structures are available; "legend and history", which focuses on the main subjects of cult at Perperikon (Orpheus, Dionysus, and the Christian Holy Cross); the archaeological excavations ("Perperikon unearthed"); the surrounding monuments ("Perperikon and the eastern Rhodope"); a gallery of pictures ("virtual tour"); and others.
The long history of Perperikon is summarised in a chronological table in section "legend and history"; it spans from the 6th millennium BC (first traces of human occupation of the area) to its destruction in the 14th century AD. The Thracians worshipped the sun and extracted gold and silver from mines in the area. The cult of Dionysus became particularly important and an impressive temple dedicated to this divinity was built on the acropolis; historical sources report of an oracle. The Byzantines established an important ecclesiastical centre at Perperikon and a 9th or 10th century reliquary in the shape of a cross containing wood (one of three found in Bulgaria) may contain parts of the cross carried by Jesus. Among the monuments outside the settlement are a cave shaped as a womb (Rock Womb at Nenkovo); Thracian megaliths; the tomb of a 13th or 14th century bishop; and others.
The 'Philo Judaeus: On Ascetics' website contains a copy of the first four chapters of the aforementioned text (based on a translation which appeared in an edition by O. Thatcher in 1907 and which has been adapted by Professor Arkenberg). This is one of many texts which appears in the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. There is a brief introduction, taken from Thatcher's edition, which explains who Philo was and when he wrote (an Alexandrian Jew of the first century CE). This text was composed c.30 CE and focuses on the customs of the Essenes - a particular set of Jews who had an especially rigid modus vivendi (hence the title 'On Ascetics').
The 'Philo Judaeus: The Creation of the World' site is part of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook and contains an English translation (of the first eleven chapters only) of the aforementioned work. Philo was an Alexandrian (Hellenised) Jew of the first century AD, whose most famous work is arguably 'The Embassy to Gaius'. Philo, however, also wrote many works (all in Greek) on the Jewish religion, of which this is one. Professor Arkenberg of Fordham University has modified Thatcher's (1907) edition. This appears to be the standard translation of Philo, by C. Yonge (who is not credited on the site), which first appeared in 1854-5, and which has since been published in much more recent and more accessible editions than Thatcher's. The site, unfortunately, indicates none of this rather essential and elementary information. There is a very brief introduction to the text, taken directly from Thatcher's book, but there is no commentary, and the format of the text is plain and unadorned.
The Studia Philonica Annual is a scholarly journal devoted to the study of Hellenistic Judaism, and in particular the writings of Philo, an Alexandrian Jew who lived in the 1st century CE. The journal's website offers tables of contents and indexes of articles from 1989 onwards, but the articles themselves are not currently available online. Subscription details are available from the site, as is information on ordering back copies. The Studia Philonica Annual is published annually by Brown Judaic Studies under the aegis of SBL (Society of Biblical Literature) publications. The journal has an international advisory board, consisting of academics from America, France, the United Kingdom and Norway.
For anyone who has an interest in the religious development of the youngest of the Canadian provinces, Hans Rollman’s website Religion, Society and Culture in Newfoundland and Labrador is one the best electronic resources currently available about religion on The Rock. Hosted by Memorial University, the site brings together historical articles on religious groups that helped to shape the character of religious expression in Newfoundland and Labrador, from native traditions such as Beothuk to contemporary Christianity. A significant amount of material is hosted on-site, but there are also links to information elsewhere on the Web (including, unfortunately, some broken links). Where possible, transcriptions of original texts and letters from early religious leaders on the island are made available, including material for all Christian denominations with a significant presence in the region during the 18th and 19th centuries. There are also links to modern religious associations and some limited demographic information on religious practice. A good starting point for any student or academic researching the earliest Christian presence in Canada and the New World.
This is the website of the Religious History Society, formed by Bruce Mansfield of the University of Sydney in 1998, and dedicated to promoting scholarship in all areas of religious history, with particular attention given to Australasian religious history. The Society convenes every two years in conjunction with the Australian Historical Association. The principal scholarly outlet of the Society is the Journal of Religious History, published three times a year. Information for those wishing to subscribe to the journal and/or order back issues is provided. Additionally, information pertaining to membership in the Society and upcoming conferences is readily available. The site is well presented and accessible.
This is the homepage of the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) based in Istanbul, Turkey. This international institution researches and publishes in the following areas: the history of Muslim nations; the history of arts and sciences in Islam; and Islamic culture and civilisation. This website contains information about the organisation itself; the research projects they undertake; news of upcoming events; details about the calligraphy, architectural and photography competitions they organise; a list and the abstracts of the work they publish; and details of their award program. Visitors are linked to the website of their library and the homepages of relevant organisations. They may also download the latest copy of the centre's newsletter. A search engine is provided. The centre is directed by Dr Halit Eren.
'Return of the Buddha: The Qingzhou Discoveries' is an online exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution's Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. It displays the images of some of the most significant findings from the chance discovery made in 1996 in Qingzhou, a northeastern province of Shandong. There, workers levelling a school sports field came across a pit loaded with over 400 Buddhist statues dated between 525 and 577. The findings not only revised understanding of medieval Buddhist practices, their significance have even been equated with that of the Terracotta Army. Apart from the close-up images of some of the limestone statues found, this attractive and well-presented website provides an overview of: the discovery; the significance of colour in Buddha sculptures; and the characteristics of the Buddha and stylistic changes.
'Sacred places' is a website examining the nature of the sacred. It aims to explore both why certain sites come to be regarded as sacred, and how that sacredness is embodied through art and architecture. After a brief general introduction, there is a discussion of a variety of types of natural phenomena that have frequently been imbued with sacredness: these include caves, mountains, trees, and water. Secondly, a wide range of specific sacred sites from all over the world are considered. To name just a few, Stongehenge, the Holy Sepulchre in Israel, the Athenian Acropolis, and Lourdes are covered. Illustrative images are provided, and many of the sections contain suggestions for further reading and links to related websites. A general bibliography is also given. Easy navigation is facilitated by two sidebars which provide internal links to the major sections. This attractive, informative site is the work of Christopher Witcombe of Sweet Briar College in Virginia.
Scrolls from the Dead Sea is an online exhibit based on the Dead Sea Scroll exhibition held at the Library of Congress, Washington DC in 1993. In spite of its rather primitive layout and sometimes outdated bibliographical references (users should note that the dominant scholarly opinion has shifted since the site was written), it provides valuable information not just about the Scrolls themselves, but also about the Qumran community, about archaeological finds in the area and about the Scrolls' impact on contemporary Jewish and Christian thought. The site includes images of Scroll fragments accompanied by translations of the text, a map of the region, a glossary, resources for teachers and a bibliography.
The Scrolls from the Dead Sea website, prepared by the Library of Congress, takes the form of an online exhibition. The exhibition provides an overview of the historical context of the scrolls and the Qumran community. An account of the discovery of the scrolls in 1947 is also provided, as is an outline of the controversy that surrounds the them. The website was also created with the aim of encouraging a better understanding of the challenges and complexities connected with the researching the scrolls. Images of fragments of the scrolls and photographs of artifacts from the Qumran site, including a scroll jar and its fastenings, are also available.
Evolving out of his own doctoral dissertation, Donald Binder's Second Temple Synagogues website offers a high-quality introduction to synagogues and their function within Jewish society before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 A.D. The author has brought together a wide variety of textual material for the general reader, beginning with a literary archive offering quotations and references about the synagogues from ancient sources. There is a brief but helpful FAQ, clarifying some of the more basic issues pertaining to social function, and a dozen detailed overviews of ancient synagogues are available, each discussing its history and prominent features, and usually including detailed archaeological cross-sections and beautiful colour photographs. The site also offers a substantial collection of links to other Judeo-Christian resources online, although this section does not appear to have been updated for some time.
'The Septuagint online' is an extensive guide to Internet resources about the Septuagint or LXX, the 3rd century BCE Greek translation of the Old Testament. The author (Joel Kalvesmaki, an editor at Dunbarton Oaks and a PhD student at the Catholic University of America) provides a useful introduction for those new to the subject, but the chief resource the site offers is the well-maintained, annotated lists of links to texts, translations, and studies and other secondary literature. Information is also given about research in progress, upcoming conferences, and scholars specialising in the field. Those who would like to make contact with others working in this area may wish to subscribe to the email discussion list. The site is easy to navigate, and will be a valuable resource to anyone working in Septuagint studies.
The Shi'a Islam website provides a basic introduction to the differences between the Shi'a and Sunni religions, and describes the origins and subsequent history of the Shi'ite Muslims. There are pages on 'Ali, Muhammad's cousin and the foundational figure in Shi'a history; Husayn, the third Imam; the Imamate; Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth Imam known as the 'hidden Imam'; medieval Shi'a; and the Safavids. This history extends to modern Iran and the Iranian revolution. A page on Islamic republicanism attempts to explain the principles behind 'rule by jurisprudence' and Islamic fundamentalism. However, at time of review this resource had not been updated in several years, and users should note that this means there is no coverage of more recent events and developments in the Islamic world.
In addition to the overview of Shi'ism, there are images of some of the key holy sites of Shi'a Islam; a glossary of Shi'a terms and concepts; and a glossary of more general Islamic terms. There is also a list of links, but unfortunately this has suffered through a lack of maintenance. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
The Sikh Cyber Museum is an online educational project focusing on Anglo-Sikh history. In total, the website offers over 2,500 pages of information, divided into four main sections. The History section features: information on key events in Anglo-Sikh history from the 17th century to the present day; early European accounts of encounters with Sikhs; information about Sikhs in the British armed forces; and a useful timeline. The People section offers over 700 brief biographies of important figures in Anglo-Sikh history. The Places section provides information about museums and other locations in the UK which may be of interest. Finally, the Gallery section offers around a thousand images, including photographs, paintings, and pictures of artefacts. The Sikh Cyber Museum is managed by the Council of Sikh Gurdwaras in Birmingham, and seeks to promote interest in Anglo-Sikh heritage. This is a valuable resource for anyone wishing to learn more about this area.
This is the website of the Society for Libyan Studies, founded in 1969 with support from the British Academy. The Society aims to encourage and coordinate the activities of researchers working on Libya in Britain and elsewhere. The Society is interested in a broad range of research including: archaeology; history; linguistics; natural sciences; and religion. The site is a valuable resource for information on current academic activities and potential sources of support for researchers. The Society provides some grants and scholarships and organises fieldwork trips. It also publishes the Journal of Libyan Studies, and the site provides tables of contacts for the volumes for 1983-1999, plus abstracts for some of these volumes. Details of forthcoming lectures and meetings concerning Libya are given, plus details of relevant collections in British libraries and archives. The site links to: archaeological sites in Libya; Libyan and British institutes; and other relevant sites.
The website of the temple of the sacred tooth relic in Kandy provides users with access to the full programme of religious events and festivals held at the temple. It also, however, has a large collection of photographs detailing these events in past years as well as a number of pages detailing the history of the temple and its founding, the significance it holds for Sri Lankan buddhists and the stories of the various deities associated with it. Most interestingly, the website also presents a selection of articles investigating the role of religion in society and in particular the future of religious ceremony and tradition.
This Web page provides a description of the pantheon and cosmology of the Sumerians, who lived in what is now southern Iraq between 5000 BC and 2000 BC. Aspects of Sumerian culture are touched upon, as are parallels with Biblical stories. Information is provided for each major deity and legendary figure, and each entry contains hyperlinks to associated entries. A full and annotated bibliography of sources is provided. This is a clearly presented online resource which serves as a good introduction to ancient Sumerian mythology.
'Synagoga Judaica' is the title of an early modern tractate by the Swiss man of letters and professor of Hebrew Johannes Buxdorf (1564-1629). This resource gives you the full annotated translation of the work with an introduction.In 'Synagoga Judaica' Buxdorf describes how he sees the origin and history of the Jewish people, as well as what he knew about their practice and liturgy. The author of this web resource has set the text in its wider historical context, discussing issues such as anti-semitism and the relations between Jews and non-Jews in Switzerland and the rest of Europe at the time. This site has a functional and straightforward layout and allows you to download the original German text as well.
The TASC website is the project home page of the Transnational Database and Atlas of Saints' Cults, hosted by the University of Leicester and created by Graham R. Jones. The site provides information about the project, and also allows access to some of the datasets that have been produced. The datasets contain information regarding church dedications in parishes across Britain and parts of Europe, which can be used to map the distribution and density of Christian saints' cults in particular areas at particular times. Included in the European datasets are: Munster, Uberstift; West Frisia; Karelia; Novgorod; Catalunya; and the Former Yugoslavia (Kosovo). British pre-reformation data includes the dioceses of: Lincoln; Worcester; Bath and Wells; and London. The data (organised by location within the aformentioned regions) would be useful primarily to researchers working in the fields of religious and cult history, but may also be of interest to local historians and general readers. The project's main page includes information on the development and methodology of the project, in addition to details of various colloquia and publications organised and produced by the TASC project. Users can view the datasets online, or download them for further use. The site gives helpful information on: the structure of the data, including a glossary of terms; tips for searching and sorting; and methods of accessing the data. Despite the usefulness of the data provided here, accessibility is limited by the fact that most of the datasets are only available online via Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.01 and above or, as in some cases, for download as Microsoft Excel files. The site has last been updated in 2005, therefore does not reflect recent developments in this field.
The website of the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit provides information about the Unit's manuscript collection and research. Based in Cambridge University Library, the Unit holds 140,000 fragments of Hebrew documents from the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo. Much of the material dates from the 11th to the 13th centuries. The main scholarly resource accessible from the site is the Genizah Online Database, which offers cataloguing and bibliographic information, together with images of selected fragments. The database has particular strengths for the study of Targumic and medical manuscripts, for which high resolution images are available. A brief bibliography is also provided, together with an online newsletter, and details of the research interests of the Unit's staff.
'Teaching Islamic Civilization with Information Technology' is an article written by Dr Corinne Blake of Rowan University, USA. Published by the Journal for MultiMedia History, the paper discusses the deployment of information technology in the delivery of academic courses in Islam and Islamic history. This is carried out in two parts. The first considers primary source materials that are available online like English translations of the Quran, Hadith, Fiqh (jurisprudence) and Islamic literature, as well as materials on Shi'ism, Sufism and Islamic arts and architecture. From here, the author highlights the different ways in which the materials described in the first part could be assimilated into courses. The work is aimed at those who are involved in the development of undergraduate programs of study in these subject areas. Note that several of the links made available on the site were not in operation at the time this record was reviewed.
This resource provides a large collection of links to material on the historical, archeological and political background of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The quality of the sites is uneven and many of them contain a mixture of fact and religious propaganda. However, you will still find here a number of solid articles on the history of Jerusalem and the excavations on the Temple Mount to date, as well as good photographs, timelines and maps.
The website 'Tradition and its Discontents: Jewish History and Culture in Eastern Europe' is an online exhibition from the Center for Advanced Judaic Studies at the University of Pennsylvania. The exhibition is based on the specific history of Eastern Europe as the main centre for modern Jewish civilisation over the past three hundred years. Expanding studies are now being pursued in this field, based on new access to archives in the former Soviet bloc. Exhibited images are scanned from primary sources going back to the sixteenth century. However, the majority of images and sources concern the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. They take in religious, communal and political themes of Jewish life in the region; they also highlight key figures. Some foci of interest treated here from this latter period include: immigration from the Russian Pale of Settlement and its consequences in Central Europe; pogroms; development of the newspaper press; ritual murder; Jewish scholarship and history; election campaigns in Austria-Hungary; Yiddish and the development of an Eastern European Jewish aesthetic; the founding of the Yidisher visnshaftlekher institut (YIVO -- Yiddish Scientific Institute) in 1925. Explanations of each image are supported by hypertext links to appropriate recommended reading in a good bibliography. There is also a list of contributors, which includes their university affiliations.
Created by the University of Michigan Library, Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity offers a good visual and descriptive introduction to magical practices, devices and ornamentation from the pre-Christian period. Developed around the University's own extensive collection of papyri texts, each section begins with the description of a specific type of magical object, ranging from a early magic recipe books to a protective amulet. This description is followed by a series of related images that detail the features, significance and functionality of these apparatuses. The objects described come predominantly from the Mesopotamian and Egyptian regions, between the first and fifth centuries C.E. The site will be of appeal to anyone who has an interest in early magical rituals and practices during the height and decline of the Roman Empire. Those new to the subject may also wish to explore the brief, but helpful, bibliography at the end of the exhibit.
This website from Telegraph.co.uk aims to help readers gain a better understanding of Islam. It contains an introductory message from Prince Charles, and over 10 articles which dealt with Islam's history, culture and central tenets. These are written by authors like David Waines; Malise Ruthven; Carole Hillenbrand; Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood; John Casey; Sophie Gilliat-Ray and David Abulafia. Topics include: What is Islam?; The Unshakeable Five Pillars; The Koran; Sharia; Art and Architecture; The Veiling of Women; Muslims in Britain; Sunnis and Shi'ites; and Crusade v Jihad. Also provided is an A-Z of Islam.
The website of the Muslim Student Association of the University at Buffalo (the State University of New York) is aimed at students and individuals at an early stage of exploration into the issues and texts affecting Muslim communities. It provides a substantial guide to electronic resources on Islam and, to a lesser degree, Islamic history. While the initial pages provide some limited discussion on its principles of belief, the site’s most useful facility is the compilation of sacred scriptures and prophetic texts. From here, one can access copies of the Qur’an (Koran) in a variety of translations as well as electronically stored Hadith and other writings on Islamic law and tradition. Students writing essays on some aspect of Islamic religion or history may also find the annotated bibliography especially helpful.
Yiddish Prints is an extraordinary online collection of more than eight hundred complete scans of Yiddish books held in the University Library in Frankfurt am Main (Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main). The scanned texts (the originals of which were printed in major Hebrew printing centres in Europe between the 16th century and the early 20th century) can be viewed in varying sizes and percentages of zoom focus. The website thus represents an online library, covering the major genres (including liturgy, practical guidebooks, legends, and fiction) and the most important writings from all periods of Yiddish literature. The collection is also a major bibliographic tool, searchable by author, title, date of publication, place of publication, and other categories. This excellent resource is intended for researchers of Yiddish literature and culture.
The West Semitic Research Project at the University of Southern California's School of Religion, directed by Bruce Zuckerman, aims to facilitate the study of ancient texts by developing a database system using advanced photographic and computer imaging techniques. The project's website is intended for students, teachers and researchers and features both educational and scholarly sections. The educational section provides images and notes relating to non-biblical inscriptions and documents which assist in understanding the Bible; biblical manuscripts, represented by the Leningrad Codex; the Dead Sea Scrolls; and photographs and images from other collections and historic sites. The scholarly site is intended to make available high resolution images from the West Semitic Research project, particularly in the languages and scripts of Northwest Semitic. At the time of writing the database did not contain images, though catalogue records describing the language, script, type of object were available (and images may be obtained by application to the project). A related project, InscriptiFact, is building a database of high resolution images. Information (mainly lists) about other holdings is also available, with subjects including: Assyriological texts; Elephantine papyri; Syrus Siniaticus. Of particular interest to scholars working with digital images will be the Adobe Photoshop Scholar's Manual for working with digital inscriptions. Users must register with the site in order gain access to some of its resources.
Compiled by Bruce Janz of the University of Central Florida, 'Who's Who in the History of Western Mysticism' is an online guide to a wide variety of reference resources from all over the Internet, assembled in chronological lists. The bulk of the material deals with Christian mystics (divided into three sections: the early church; medieval Catholic and Orthodox mystics; and non-Catholic Christian mystics of the 16th-18th centuries), but there are also brief sections on pre-Christian mystics and on the Jewish and Islamic traditions. The site provides brief descriptive paragraphs about the mystics listed and about some key concepts, along with links to more detailed information available elsewhere (in, for example, resources such as the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Medieval Sourcebook, and various university websites). While the majority of these sources are still available, the site does not seem to be updated particularly frequently, and consequently there are some broken links. There is also a reasonably thorough bibliography of secondary sources on mysticism, although this does not include any material published after 1998.
Directed and primarily authored by Richard Hooker at Washington State University, the 'World Civilizations' website is a superior example of the integration of electronic materials and resources into a teaching or classroom setting. Designed as a series of survey courses, the pages broadly track the development and influence of major world cultures from around the world, while highlighting key philosophical, religious and textual themes. There are a number of ways to navigate these pages, but familiarisation with the layout does take a little while.
To begin, it is recommended that users first enter the 'contents' section and select the learning modules. From here one can browse a variety of cultural traditions in detail, and gain a better insight into what this resource has to offer. The learning modules themselves are directed specifically towards undergraduates at the beginning of their university studies. Information is provided on: early traditions (including Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Israel); Africa; China; European traditions; Islam; India; Japan; and Native North Americans. Each is laid out as a series of introductory electronic lectures complemented by selections of primary texts and a glossary of key terms. Many also come complete with a helpful introductory bibliography and a selection of additional external Internet resources. As a teaching resource, the scope of the site is so comprehensive that it can stand independently or easily complement any introductory class on world religions and culture. For students, the rapid access to pre-selected primary resources coupled with lectures and reference materials makes it an invaluable learning tool that will both illuminate and enhance any study environment. This is an archived site.
The World Prayers Project is a large collection of prayers - both ancient and modern. The aim of the site is to build a spiritual resource that transcends nation and creed in order to encourage the peaceful coexistence of peoples and faiths. The main sections of the site include meditations, invocations, adorations and celebrations. The database may be searched or browsed, and all the prayers are available in English. A useful resource for those studying prayer in a global context, the site has an attractive and simple design, and navigation is intuitive.
Yale University Library's Judaica Collection page offers online versions of a number of exhibitions of material relating to Jewish history and culture. The exhibits featured include: 'You Shall Tell Your Children': the Passover Haggadah (that is, the text traditionally read during the Passover meal) in the Yale University Collections; Yale and the Ancient Holy Lands; an Exhibit on Maimonides, the 12th century rabbi and philosopher; Issachar Ryback's Portrayal of Shtetl Life (shtetls were typically small towns with substantial Jewish populations, in pre-Holocaust central and eastern Europe); Yiddish Sheet Music; Jewish Workers' Life in America; plus a number of more general Judaica exhibits. For each exhibition, a selection of images is provided, accompanied by descriptive and explanatory text. This is a useful site for those wishing to gain a flavour of Yale's holdings in this area, or those with an interest in learning more about these aspects of Jewish history.