This website publishes the online version of the exhibition "Ancient Treasures and the Dead Sea Scrolls" held at the Canadian Museum of Civilization between 2003 and 2004. Through a series of short and illustrated articles, on all main topics related to the material culture in Israel during the First and Second Temple periods (ca. 1000 to 500 BC), the website presents the cultural context of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and not just the scrolls themselves. The menu activates itself by hovering the mouse over the table of contents, but the actual menu may appear anywhere in the page. The index appears a more practical way of navigating this website. Some audio commentaries and even entire lectures (for example check out "Women in the Dead Sea Scrolls" by Dr Eileen Schuller) are available in Real Media format. A useful bibliography is also available. This website may be useful especially to undergraduate students.
The website "Bibbie Atlantiche" [Giant Bibles] represents an electronic updated version of the catalogue of an exhibition on Italian Giant Bibles organized by the University of Cassino in 2000-2001. The website outlines the history of the Giant Bibles - so-called due to their oversize dimensions - which reached their peak during the period of the Gregorian Reform. Bibles are described in great detail and a selection of electronic reproductions, available in different sizes, can be viewed online. A database allows users to access comprehensive bibliographic descriptions of some the Giant Bibles part of the exhibition, each accompanied by in-depth explanatory texts. Additionally available are both a bibliography - which can be searched or browsed - and various articles being the introduction essays published in the exhibition catalogues and other studies on the Bibbie Atlantiche. Articles are downloadable as PDF files. A section of the site is dedicated to the Tuscan Bibles. Initially manufactured in the Rome region, in the spirit of the Reform movement promoted by Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085), the production centre of Giant Bibles subsequently shifted to the Tuscany region. A different section focuses on the earliest examples of Bibbie Atlantiche, including the so-called Bible of Henry the Fourth, datable to 1060-1070. A link page presents and briefly describes other related websites. Bibbie Atlantiche - available in Italian only - represents a valuable resource for the study of this specific type of manuscript and the early productions of the Bible.
Biblia Sacra : Bibles printed in the Netherlands and Belgium is a website resulting from a combined research project associated with the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Amsterdam and the Faculty of Theology at the University of Louvain. The site offers access to an extensive bibliographical database comprising texts and digital reproductions of Bibles printed in the Netherlands and Belgium in the period from 1477 to 1600. Reproductions of typographical and iconographical material are present in addition to detailed descriptions and information related to both editions and individual copies, such as collation, provenance and binding. Bibliographical information given covers: illustrations, printing types, printers, translators. The material featuring on the site originates mainly from Dutch and Belgian libraries, but Bibles preserved in the British Library and the Cambridge University Library are also included. A dedicated section provides an excursus through some highlights of the online collection which are arranged under four headings: Contents; Bibles as physical objects; Illustrations; Previous owners. The editions included within the resources available can be browsed through according to different criteria. A guide provides assistance for carrying out searches. The database - which includes over seven hundred editions - is an outstanding resource for researchers with an interest in early printing history and the early production of printed Bibles.
The Book of Deer is a digital reproduction of the original manuscript (MS. Ii.6.32) held by Cambridge University Library. The manuscript is an illustrated 10th century gospel book, generally thought to be the earliest surviving manuscript from Scotland. Later additions, including a communion service for the sick, were made to the manuscript in Gaelic in the 11th and 12th centuries. It is thought that the manuscript was at the Abbey of Deer, in Aberdeenshire when the additions were made. The manuscript consists of 86 folios. There are two images for each folio, front and verso, and each folio is accompanied by a brief description. There is also a more general description of the entire manuscript, and a short bibliography. The resource as a whole is part of Cambridge University Library's impressive Digital Images Collection, which contains digitised versions of wight important manuscripts, including: a collection documenting Sir Issaac Newton's life and ideas; the Gutenberg Bible (the first book in Europe printed using moveable metal type); and digital images from Pascal's Thesis on the Arithmetic Triangle.
This website is about the Codex Sinaiticus, one of the most important extant, handwritten copies of the Christian Bible in Greek, and the Codex Sinaiticus Project, which is a partnership made up of the British Library, Leipzig University Library, St Catherine's Monastery and the National Library of Russia in St Petersburg. The four institutions hold over 400 leaves between them of the Codex Sinaiticus. Found in Sinai in 1844, and written well over 1,600 years ago, the manuscript includes the oldest complete copy of the New Testament, and the aim of the project is undertake archival research, preserve the leaves, digitise all of them from the four locations, and establish a website that will feature images and aligned transcriptions of all extant leaves by July 2009. The website provides detailed information about the Codex Sinaiticus, its significance, history, content, and production, as well as information about the work of the project, including details about how the leaves are to be conserved, photographed and presented on the website. The 'see the manuscript' area allows you to view actual leaves from the Codex, with transcriptions along side it, with the aim of including translations as well. The project is partially supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
Die Handschriften des Klosters Weissenburg (The Manuscripts of the Monastery of Weissenburg, Alsace) is the German-language Web page of an exhibition held at the Herzog August Bibliothek in 2002. The exhibits are selected to give an insight into a typical monastic library of the early and high Middle Ages. Sample pages from 26 manuscripts are reproduced, including Bible texts, commentaries, and a copy of the Benedictine Rule. Many texts date from the 9th century (though the exhibition also features both earlier and later works), and the most prevalent languages are Latin and Old High German. A brief description (aimed at a general rather than a scholarly audience) is given of the content and significance of each manuscript.
Die Litauische Postille (1573): Dokumente der Litauischen Reformation' (The Lithuanian Postilla: Documents of the Lithuanian Reformation) is the German-language Web page of an exhibition held at the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel in 2003. It is part of a project of this library to publish a critical edition of the Lithuanian postilla (collection of sermons) of 1573, also known as the Wolfenbütteler postilla, a manuscript that is considered one of the most precious documents in the Lithuanian language. Apart from the postilla itself, the exhibition displays other valuable manuscripts connected to it, such as older German and Latin postillae that would have served as a reference, the first translations of the Bible into Lithuanian, and documents about the history of the postilla. Also exhibited are some general Lithuanica, including a very rare Lithuanian grammar from the 17th century or the first separate map of the Great Duchy of Lithuania, drawn by Gerhard Mercator.
Early Greek Bible Manuscripts is a research project under the auspices of the Institute for the Study of Early Christianity in its Greco-Roman Setting based at Tyndale House (Cambridge). The searchable online catalogue available on this website gives access only to the published materials on the subject but the project's main aim is to add descriptions of all the library's holdings of facsimiles, photographs and microfilms of the early Greek Bible manuscripts. The project also plans to provide a range of web-based resources for the scholarly study of the subject. There is no project information on the website, but details can be obtained directly from the Project Director.
Published by the Lower Saxony State and University Library in 2000 to mark the 600th anniversary of the birth of Johann Gutenberg, the inventor of movable type and letterpress printing, this website provides a digital version of the two-volume vellum Bible, which was printed in 1454 and is now held in Göttingen library. The website also includes other examples of early printed books: the Göttingen Model Book (c. 1450), and Helmasperger's Notarial Instrument. There is also a section devoted to illumination, where it is possible to compare images from the Model Book and the Bible. The facsimile images are supported by a number of essays on the impact of Johann Gutenberg and letterpress printing, including: a brief biography of Gutenberg; an introduction to the copying of manuscripts; and a detailed description of the Göttingen B42 Bible. Access to the site is via acceptance of conditions for use and reproduction: essentially, the materials offered on the site are for private study only. The website, which is hosted by the Göttingen State and University Library, is available in English and German.
The Lindisfarne Gospels website is the work of the British Library, and gives a brief introduction to the Gospels manuscript. The manuscript was created between 715 and 720 on the island monastery of Lindisfarne, and is written in Latin but also includes the oldest surviving translation of the Gospels into Old English. The site gives a brief overview of the Gospels and their history, and some contextual historical information. There is also a link to the British Library's 'Turning the Pages' Web pages, where users can access high quality images of some pages from the Gospels. This last involves the use of Shockwave, and knowledge of connection speed in order to work effectively. This resource would be of interest to beginners studying medieval manuscripts, or the more general reader.
This website publishes a database of pictures and transcriptions of ancient manuscripts (originating in the first centuries AD) conserved in northeastern Italy and coming from the archives of Aquileia, an important Roman colony and later Christian patriarchate. The ancient musical format of the "monodia" (chanted lament) resisted later influences in the area and became typical of the Christian tradition of the area. The manuscripts that have been made available are all Late Antiquity / Early Medieval volumes with Christian texts and music used for liturgical celebrations. The website is in Italian, and at the time of review it was largely incomplete and being updated. However, the pictures of some full manuscripts are already available and researchers interested in these manuscripts may find them useful, along with bibliographic references and some texts. In particular, some miniatures, liturgical texts and musical notations may be useful to researchers in the fields of history of music; art and religious studies.
The Old English Martyrology website contains an extensive annotated bibliography for use in the study of the 9th-century text of the same name. The site includes: indices for saints, feasts, and persons named in the manuscript; criticism on the dating and sources of composition for the text; and research on its language, style and historical importance in terms of earlier Anglo-Saxon hagiography. It was originally compiled as a guide to the extensive work on the sources of the Old English Martyrology by the late James E. Cross, of the University of Liverpool, but the bibliography now supersedes his work, covering publications on all aspects of the text. It should be noted however that the compiler of the bibliography suggests that it be used in conjunction with the 'Fontes Anglo-Saxonici' database, which gives more detail on specific saints. This resource would be of interest to students and scholars in the fields of Old English, manuscript studies and the history of religion.
The Paris Prose resource is an online electronic edition of the first fifty Latin psalms in the Paris Psalter (MS Bibliothèque Nationale fonds latin 8824) and their Old English translations, developed by Richard Stracke and published by Augusta State University. The Latin and Old English texts are shown side by side, with accompanying notes, in tabular and non-tabular form (non-tabular for older Web browsers). The edition also gives a detailed introduction to the manuscript and the texts of the psalms, including a section on the relationship of the text to the Gallican and Roman psalter traditions. Tables demonstrate where the Old English text prefers to follow the Roman, Paris or a variant psalter text. A detailed glossary of Old English words and names with links back to the text is also provided. This would be a useful resource for students of Old English language or literature.
Rukopisnye pamiatniki Drevnei Rusi is the website of a non-commercial organisation of the same name, created by the V. V. Vinogradov Institute of Russian Language (Russian Academy of Sciences) and the publisher Iazyki slavianskikh kul'tur'. A distinguished panel of academic advisors includes eminent scholars such as V. M. Zhivov and A. A. Turilov. The organisation aims to make early Russian manuscripts freely available on the internet, and is responsible for the creation of the excellent 'Drevnerusskie berestianye gramoty', catalogued separately. Other collections include 'a complete collection of Russian chronicles' (PSRL) and 'the manuscript book', which includes: an early Russian translation of Flavius Josephus' History of the Jewish Wars; a Psalter of 1683 translated by Avraam Firsov; The Ostromir Gospel 1056-1057; a Rule dating from the end of the eleventh or beginning of the twelfth century, edited by B.A. Uspenskii. These are currently accessible only with written permission, obtained by emailing the organisation as advised. There is also: a page of information about the organisation; a (limited) links page; a news page. This Russian language-only site will be of most use to researchers and teachers of early Russian culture, language and history.
This Uppsala University website is devoted to the Codex Argenteus, the "Silver Bible", which was written in silver and gold letters on purple vellum in Ravenna in about 520 CE. It contains fragments of the four gospels in the 4th century Gothic version of Bishop Ulfilas (Wulfila). The Web page for the Codex includes a digitisation of the 1927 photo facsimile edition. This includes supplementary images from other codices, plus the 'Alphabeta Gothica' (which compares the script alphabets of several different codices, including the Codex Argenteus), but is somewhat lacking in descriptive or explanatory material. The site also provides links to a small number of papers, and other research material relevant to the study of this Bible and its early medieval historical context. Navigation of the site is unfortunately not always intuitive: for example, a bibliography for the Codex Argenteus is listed under the heading 'Database of the Gothic language' in the Books and Links section.
"St. Mary of Egypt in BL ms Cotton Otho B. x" is a full-text online version of an MA thesis of the same title, submitted to the University of Kentucky by Linda Cantara in 2001 and supervised by Kevin Kiernan. The subject of the thesis is the anonymous Old English prose Life of St. Mary of Egypt, in particular the fragmentary text contained within the severely damaged Otho B. x. manuscript of the British Library's Cotton collection. Using high-resolution digital facsimiles (which in turn were created in conjunction with ultraviolet fluorescence) the author contends that Otho B. x. contains textual evidence not present in other versions of the work (e.g. BL MS Cotton Julius E. vii). The thesis examines the textual history and current scholarship of the text and, in part three, presents new textual evidence illustrated with excerpts from the digital images of the manuscript folios. A list of figures and works cited are also included. This is a fascinating piece of work, which should be of intererst to those studying Old-English literature and medieval manuscripts.
The British Library website's Treasures in Full feature offers two digitised copies of the Gutenberg Bible, the first major book printed in the West using movable metal type (ca. 1454-1455). The site offers images of each page of the British Library's two copies of the Gutenberg Bible - one on paper, the other on vellum - which can be compared side by side. Information on the history and background of Johann Gutenberg and the printing of the Bible is also available, along with further reading suggestions, and a small number of links to relevant external resources. The British Library has collaborated with researchers from Keio University in Japan to provide these electronic versions to improve access to scholars around the world. It is hoped that this will result in less wear and tear on the originals.