1492: An Ongoing Voyage is an online exhibition from the Library of Congress providing basic information on America before and after the 1492 voyage by Christopher Columbus. The exhibition examines the first sustained contacts between American people and European explorers, conquerors and settlers from 1492 to 1600 and looks at both pre- and post-contact America, as well as the Mediterranean world at the same time. The online exhibition arose out of an exhibition at the Library of Congress which took place in 1992-1993. The site has six main sections: What came to be called 'America'; Mediterranean World; Christopher Columbus; Inventing America; Europe claims America; and Epilogue. Objects include: Venetian Sailing Directions, in Stolfo, 1499; World Map, in Germanus, 1482; and an extract from Columbus' Book of Privileges. The site is well illustrated throughout and has a short bibliography of suggested reading material.
Established to support the International Polar Year 2007-2008, this series AHRC of AHRC funded workshops and related research project aims to uncover the hitherto hidden histories of the IPY Field Stations. The project sees the international field station as a crucial and under researched ‘nexus’ in the organisation of science, which nevertheless has tended to become the focus of competing social and geopolitical tensions. With this perspective, the project aims to understand the impact of the ‘archipelago’ of international field stations on the surrounding territories and on the science produced, both from a cultural and historical perspective and as a way of furthering the aims and acceptance of future science. As well as abstracts of papers presented at the first workshop, the website includes biographies of researchers involved in the project and its relationship to the International Polar Year 2007-2008.
This site is a diary of a two and a half year journey and visit to the British base (Base T, Adelaide Island) at Antarctica, from 1963-1966. Written from personal experience, there is a narrative of the trip accompanied by an extensive collection of photographs. The site also contains information and a timeline of Antarctic exploration, facts about the region and some maps of the area.
This site provides a brief overview of Antarctic exploration during the early 20th century (1903 - 1911). Links in the text provide access to biographical information on the key explorers from this period: Captain Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912), Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) and Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (1874-1922). These giants of the great heroic age of Antarctic exploration are described here, along with the men who competed or worked with them, in short, illustrated introductory essays with some bibliographic material that will prove useful for teachers and undergraduate students. There are a few links to external sites, although some were broken at the time of review.
This website presents a variety of images of antique maps printed from the mid-16th century until 1800, showing the changes brought about by western exploration. It is divided into three categories: Pacific Ocean, Pacific Ocean Islands, and California as an Island. There is a facility to search the site and links to other websites, mostly of antique map dealers.
The website Australia's Maritime World contains articles contributed by enthusiasts and academics, including the Manuscripts Curator of the State Library of New South Wales, on the unique nature of Australia's and New Zealand's maritime history and experience. The website contains information on wooden, sailing ships, on navigation aids and charts, on cruising, yachting and boating, on lighthouses, on maritime museums and much more. Each entry has a short essay, and a picture, presenting information on the topic. The website presents a great deal of information on this interesting and lively topic - Australia, being the world's largest island/smallest continent has a varied and interesting maritime history, and this website aims to explore that.
This site is a digital archive of materials from J.B. Tyrrell's 1893-1900 expeditions for the geological survey of Canada. The site includes maps, photographs, notebook entries, autobiographical accounts and official reports.A fully searchable database allows easy access to the digitised materials. But those with less knowledge of Tyrrell's expeditions can explore the archive either through interactive chronologies or maps of the 1893 and 1894 expeditions. The detailed chronologies provide representative documents from notable dates during the trips; the maps enable users to look at representative documents pertaining to a region the expedition covered.Biographical information about Tyrrell and an overview of his work is also available.
This BBC History website recounts Captain Cook's historic voyages aboard the Endeavour. In 1768, James Cook undertook the first of three voyages to the Pacific, surveying New Zealand, modern Australia (where he named Botany Bay), Tahiti, and Hawaii. His second voyage (1773) made him the first Britain to chart Antarctica, and his third (1778/9) led him to discover and name island groups in the South Pacific, such as the Sandwich Islands. On 14 February 1779, Cook was killed on Hawaii. The website includes in-depth articles about Cook, his voyages, and about his scientific exploration. Of general interest are multimedia features such as a VRML virtual tour of the Endeavour, as well as timelines and short biographies of James Cook and Joseph Banks.
Beyond the Map: The Northwest Passage is a website developed by the Maritime Museum of British Columbia, Canada. With virtual exhibitions based on the Museum's collections, the site describes the history of the Pacific North Western region of North America from the period of settlement by indigenous peoples through initial European exploration in the 18th century. The site is divided into nine extensive subsections, each of which provides a substantial amount of information in the form of videos and scanned images within essays entitled: Why Explore?; Northwest Passage; Sea-going Capitalism; the Explorers; Ships and Technology; Historical Climate; Who Writes History; Daily Expedition Life; and First Nations and New Arrivals. From the origins of exploration in the Pacific Northwest to the European desire to find an alternate trading route to Asia besides the Silk Road, all information is well presented and aimed at an upper primary-secondary level. There are also excellent teaching tools here, including: a pictorial interactive timeline; a teacher's section with teaching materials and charts for a range of primary and secondary levels; and an online game with a sign-in function. A bibliography is provided. The site is also available in French.
The Biblioteca Digital Hispanica offers digital access to collections in Spanish from the national library of Spain, including: manuscripts; books; maps; and photos from the fifteenth century onwards. Collections of interest comprise the exhibition on the War of Independence in 1808 as well as the Colección Hispanoamérica. The map collection also includes several British printed early maps of the Caribbean, North and South America. The digitised material is eclectic; the War of Independence exhibition includes maps, images, musical scores as well as manuscripts while the Hispanic Collection provides access to official documents and reports of the time. Each exhibition provides bibliographic information for each record as well as a thumbnail image and JPEGs which are available to download. It is also possible to save and email records, and to create a personal workspace on the site. This is an incredible resource for anyone looking for Spanish primary sources from the 19th century, particularly those interested in the relationship between Spain and Latin America. It would also be useful for researchers of the 18th century as the collection of early maps is equally strong.
'Botanical and Cultural Images of Eastern Asia, 1907-1927' is a free online exhibition offered by the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. It contains photographs and biographical details of the plant collecting expeditions of the early 20th century. The website has details of the collectors: John George Jack (1861–1949); Ernest Henry Wilson (1876-1930); Frank Nicholas Meyer (1875-1918); William Purdom (1880–1921); Joseph Hers (1884–1965); and Joseph Rock (1884–1962). The British collector Wilson, alone, has 2,488 of his images accessible via this website, which interfaces with the Visual Information Access archive at Harvard. This website provides a comprehensive search form, leading to VIA thumbnail images of original photographs, and extensive annotations, all without any online registration. There are short illustrated biographical essays on each of the plant hunters. There are also four themed "What They Saw" photography galleries, titled: 'Magnificent Trees'; 'Buildings and Bridges'; 'Daily Life'; and 'Landscapes'. Images within these galleries are clear and crisp, and usually at a large 770-pixels on the longest side. Images are presented using Flash, without watermarks. Some images are in colour.
This National Maritime Museum Fact File on the Yorkshire-born navigator James Cook describes his contributions to navigation and his achievements in mapping the Pacific Ocean, New Zealand, and Australia. It touches on Cook's career in the Navy and on the background to the British Admiralty's organisation of expeditions to find the southern continent. It describes the preparation of the Whitby collier Endeavour in Deptford Royal Dockyard, and a link from the page provides more information on both the original ship and the replica. The main points from each of Cook's voyages are included: the first voyage from Plymouth, around Cape Horn to Tahiti, and on to New Zealand, Tasmania and Jakarta; the second, during which Cook tested a chronometer designed by John Harrison, to New Zealand and Tahiti, entering the Antarctic Circle; and the final voyage to find the North-west passage which led to Cook's death at the hands of the Hawaii islanders.
'Captain Cook: voyages of discovery' is a website about the three expeditions of the explorer Captain James Cook (1728-1779). The site forms part of the Hunterian Museum of the University of Glasgow, and the accounts of Cook's journeys are accompanied by images of some of the artefacts that he collected, which are now on display in the Museum. Cook's first voyage, on the 'Endeavour' lasted from 1768-1771, his second, on the 'Resolution', from 1772 to 1775, and his final voyage, again on the Resolution, left Plymouth in 1776 but was curtailed by Cook's demise at the hands of irate Hawaiians. His travels took in the Islands of Australia, New Zealand, Tonga, the Cook Islands, Tahiti, Hawaii, the New Hebrides, and New Caledonia. Each of the voyages has its own web page with an interactive map of the route taken. Clicking on an island brings up a short account of Cook's discoveries and reception there. These in turn link to images of artefacts held in the museum's collections. There are also a few web pages that describe eighteenth-century navigation, and the kinds of danger that Cook and his men faced. This is a nicely presented website that gives a good sense of Cook's undertaking and provides a clear, if simple, introduction to his voyages. Hopefully, more artefacts will be added to the site in the future.
Located in Whitby, in the building where James Cook (1728-1779) lodged as an apprentice seaman, the Captain Cook Memorial Museum houses a collection of exhibits about Cook's Whitby years and his later achievements. This site is based on the museum's holdings and exhibitions. It provides biographical information about the early life of Captain James Cook, including his charting of Canadian waters during the Seven Years' War (1756-1763). Notable paintings, etchings and documents posted here include exhibits relating to Cook's activities in London and materials from his three voyages of discovery. The three voyages, which involved the circumnavigation of the globe in two directions as well as the third voyage of exploration of the Pacific Ocean, contributed directly to the founding of New Zealand and Australia as two modern nations. Further online samples feature materials from private papers of Cook's associates, such as Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820), who sailed with Cook on the Endeavour and John Webber (1751-1793), official artist on Cook's third and final voyage. Researchers should note such museum sources as Captain John Walker's copy of Cook's account of 'A Voyage Towards the South Pole' (1777). The museum has a collection of original letters between Cook and Captains Walker and Hammond, and between Joseph Banks, J. R. Forster and Elizabeth Cook with the First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Sandwich. The museum also has a collection of antiquarian travel books collected by Sir Robert Clark. There is additional information on the site about the town of Whitby. Visitor information and contact details are provided. The museum is open from March until October.
The Captain Cook Society website introduces this association which is open to anyone interested in the life and times of the British explorer Captain James Cook (1728-1779), whether professionally or as a hobby. The site contains information about Cook's voyages and subjects related to his discoveries, including botany, zoology, and navigation. The Society publishes a quarterly journal, 'Cook's Log', several of the articles from which may be read for free at the site. Recent sample issues may also be downloaded for free. Many of the engravings made during Cook's voyages are reproduced, along with some paintings by William Hodges. There is information about the ships in which Cook sailed, and a selected bibliography of secondary works. Cook's will, along with the wills of several of his crewmen are also provided.
This impressive website on Captain Cook is published by the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum, with funding and scanned images from the British Library. The site provides an excellently presented history of Captain James Cook's life and explorations, using superb digitised primary sources and background narration. This material has been taken from a number of museums and archives, and includes maps, paintings, drawings, photographs, manuscripts and newspaper extracts. The contents are easy to navigate, and include an interactive timeline of Cook's whole life, information about his years in the North East of England, a family tree, and a short video synopsis of his life. More in depth information about particular experiences and aspects of his life can be found in the gallery and theme sections, where elements such as ships, crew, wildlife, people, voyages to Canada, the Antarctic and Pacific, and Omai are explored.
The research guide, produced by the National Maritime Museum, is part of a series intended to help people who wish to carry out their own research. It provides a brief biography of the life and achievements of Captain Cook, and details resources available at the National Maritime Museum and elsewhere. Information for visitors to the Library is included.
The National Maritime Museum's fact files relate to the Museum's collections and the UK's National Curriculum. This document focuses on Captain Scott's two expeditions to Antarctica in 1901 - 1904, and 1910 - 1912. The document examines the purposes of the expeditions, the problems encountered, and how the explorers survived in Antarctica. The second expedition was planned with the intention of reaching the South Pole. The subsequent race to the Pole between the British and the Norwegian expedition, led by Roald Amundsen is described.
The Champlain Society Digital Collection is published by the University of Toronto Libraries, as part of their digital collections programme. The Champlain Society is an organisation dedicated to Canadian history, and this digital collection makes seventy four of the Society's volumes available online. These deal mainly with the discovery and exploration of Canada, and includes accounts of Samuel de Champlain's voyages in New France as well as the diary from Sir John Franklin's first Arctic land expedition, 1819-22. The database is easy to use, and can either by searched by keyword, or browsed by author, title, or subject. The Society also lists its publications, the most recent of which deal with twentieth century Canadian history. Future publications and recent news from the Society are listed. The site is available in English and French.
This site contains information on an exhibition tracing the history and development of navigation. The original exhibition was held at the Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, University of Southern Maine, April 200 to Jan 2001.
The website of the Cheltenham Art Gallery and Museum contains information on exhibits of international, national and local interest including an exhibit about Edward Wilson, Cheltenham's Antarctic explorer. The site provides information about the Museum's location, contact and admission details, current exhibitions, access and additional services. There is also a facility to search the Museum's collections.
This National Maritime Museum Fact File describes Columbus' attempts with Spain's support, at sailing west to find a new route to the Far East, to India, China, Japan, and the Spice Islands. The three ships - the Nina, Pinta, and the Santa Maria - that took Columbus to the Bahamas and Cuba, plus his rewards, failures and death are all described.
In this article, the author has written about Christopher Columbus's two voyages to the New World, concentrating on descriptions of food the Spanish sailors ate, methods of cooking and serving, and food storage. The author also describes what Columbus found when he reached his destination and the influences his voyages had on the Aztec, Maya and Inca civilizations especially in relation to agriculture. This page is part of the Castello Banfi website which provides information about wine, food and travel in Montalcino, Italy.
The article 'Colonizing America' appears on the National Maritime Museum website, and focuses on Sir Humphrey Gilbert's unsuccessful attempts to colonize North America and Walter Ralegh's later projects in establishing English settlements in the same region. This publication is part of a biography of Queen Elizabeth I.
Created in 1989 as part of the 500th Anniversary of The Encounter of Two Worlds, the Computerized Information Retrieval System (CIRS) on 'Columbus and the age of discovery' is a valuable website for information regarding Christopher Columbus and the discovery of America. An accessible database of over 1100 full-text articles on the encounters between Europe and Central and South America from 1492 onwards, the CIRS is searchable by subject or keyword, and contains text from diverse sources including journals, newspapers and official speeches. Including articles on relevant aspects of Spanish, Pre-Columbian, and Mesoamerican culture, the CIRS particularly focuses on Christopher Columbus and his exploration in the Atlantic and Caribbean worlds. Awarded the status of an "Official Project" by the U.S. Christopher Columbus Quincentenary Jubilee Commission and the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, this website has also received a number of deserved awards for humanities and educational web design.The CIRS should be a first port of call for any researcher into Christopher Columbus or the encounter between the Old World and the New.
Compiled by an enthusiast, this website lists the locations of over 200 monuments erected all over the world to honour Christopher Columbus and/or his 1492 voyage to America. They are arranged alphabetically by country and then by town, and also chronologically. Information provided includes artist and year the monument was erected. There are links to some other sites about Columbus.
In 1774, the first Polynesian to visit London travelled to England with the crew of Captain Cook's second Pacific voyage and became an overnight sensation. This website, tracing the impact of Polynesian culture on England of the 18th Century, has been developed by the National Library of Australia in association with the Humanities Research Centre of the Australian National University. The site includes the following information: the Truest Picture of an Arcadia; detailing the arrival of the English in Tahiti: A Noble Savage in London: the deaths of Cook and Omai: and an Epilogue. The site also contains thumbnail images of contemporary paintings. A text only version of the site is available, as well as a version using Flash Plug-in. To navigate the site, it is necessary to click onto the convolvulus designs.
This website grew out of an exhibition of the collection, held by the University of Göttingen, which showcased some 300 Pacific island artefacts collected by James Cook on his famous voyages in the 1700s. The site, which is very easy to navigate and use, also has research essays, an extensive bibliography and links to other online resources on James Cook. There are three options to search for resources: users can browse by 'place' (i.e. where the artefacts came from); by 'category' (i.e. what the artefacts are - such as combs or clothing) or browse all, which simply lists the artefacts. Each artefact has an image and details relating to its construction, materials, origins and so on. The Web page is highly valuable to historians of the Pacific Islands in the eighteenth century, and is of very significant general interest.
Coordinates is a full-text online e-journal on the history of maps and mapping, published by the Map and Geography Round Table of the American Library Association. Two series are available, each with its own ISSN, in addition to a Letters to the Editor section on the website. At May 2009, Series A contains seven issues, each containing one original peer-reviewed essay. Series B contains 10 issues, each containing one essay or project report. Among the titles available are: Recent Trends in the History of Cartography: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography to the English-Language Literature; Mapping under the Third Reich: Nazi Restrictions on Map Content and Distribution; and Ptolemy's Revenge: A Critique of Historical Cartography, among others. The website has details of the editors and editorial board. This may be a useful e-journal for those researching the history of maps and mapping.
'Darwin Country' is a website describing the landscape and places that are associated with the famous scientist Charles Darwin, in and around the rural town of Shrewsbury in the British Isles. The website was created by the Shrewsbury Museums Service with support from The Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries, and the West Midlands Regional Museums Council, among others. It contains a wealth of images, paintings, maps, and texts. Some articles are also linked to selected digitised materials from museum collections. Users of the website can 'collect' such items into a personal 'discovery folder'. By visiting the 'Images' pages, the user can also browse 1294 photographs, paintings, drawings, and some maps. Despite its general lack of design values or navigational elegance, this substantial website is a useful and impressive addition to the online resources for the study of Darwin in the context of the northern Midlands and the Welsh Marches.
'DIO: The International Journal of Scientific History' is a full-text ejournal, edited from Florida State University. The editors are inclined to accept articles by... "astrononomers, physicists, mathematicians, & classicists - not historians". Published three times a year, at June 2009 the journal has 27 issues online. Issues usually offer between two and six articles, freely available as PDF files. Example article titles include: 'The Babylonian Theory of the Planets'; 'The Southern Limit of the Ancient Star Catalog'; 'The Instuments Used by Hipparchos'; and 'Columbus's Landfall at Plana Keys', among others. The journal occasionaly collaborates with the The Journal for Hysterical Astronomy on special issues and articles on historical scientific hoaxes. The journal appears to have a special interest in papers on Hipparchos, ancient planetary observations, the maps of Ptolemy, and the early exploration of the polar regions. Three $1000 prizes are offered by the journal.
Contained here is a large and extensive number of links to information about voyages of discovery and exploration. Arrangement is either by time periods beginning with ancient times up until the 19th century, or by region. There are also extensive biographies of explorers, many of them written by the site's maintainer who is an enthusiast.
'Discovery and Reformation' is a history website introducing students to the period between the discovery of the New World and the end of the Thirty Years War. The site focuses on the impact of the discovery of the Americas, and the Reformation and its consequences. It forms part of an online course called 'World Civilizations', run by the Washington State University, and aimed at first-year university undergraduates. The site is divided according to various headings such as 'the Spanish Empire', 'John Calvin', or 'Religious Wars'. Each section consists of a basic narration of the key events and ideas, sometimes including links to glossary entries or other resources. There are extracts from Calvin's 'Institutes' about civil government, and from Martin Luther's 'The Freedom of the Christian'. The site is attractive and clearly laid out. It should provide a useful introduction to this period of European history for those previously unacquainted with it.
The website of the Duyfken 1606 Replica Foundation records the story of the first documented voyage to Australia. The Foundation has built a full-scale replica of the VOC ship at the Duyfken Village Shipyard in the grounds of the Maritime Museum of Western Australia, Fremantle. Users can access a history of the original Duyfken's voyage, including a map, and two timelines that illustrate the discovery of Australia. Other topics covered include early navigation methods, the importance of spices and the political background against which the Duyfken sailed. The second half of the website is concerned with the building of the replica, and the 2000 and 2002 Duyfken Expeditions. These include Captain's logs, photo galleries, a QTVR Gallery of the 2000 voyage (requiring QuickTime Virtual Reality plugin), and video microdocs of the 2000 voyage, containing videos, stills, crew journals, and the chance to e-mail the crew. Users can download a cut-out plan and instructions for making a model of the Duyfken and the site contains three MPG videos of the launch of replica.
Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin were the leaders of two separate expeditions, one English, the other French, sent by their governments to chart the unknown southern coast of Australia and to determine whether or not Australia was one continent or two very large islands. This site has been produced by the library of the Royal Geographical Society of South Australia and includes information on the voyages of both Flinders and Baudin, such as biographies, maps, contemporaneous accounts, and ships; the meeting between the two captains; a timeline; links to sites of further information; and teaching resources.
Published by the National Library of Australia, the 'Endeavour: Captain Cook's Journal 1768-71' website provides excerpts from the journal of Captain James Cook, which was written aboard HMS Endeavour during his epic sea voyage when he, and the English naturalist and botanist, Sir Joseph Banks, circumnavigated the world and discovered Australia. The site is advertising a CD-ROM, Endeavour: Captain Cook's Journal 1768-71, published by the library and designed with teachers and school students in mind. The site offers a sample of the material available on the CD-ROM, with an except from the journal (covering 10-13 June 1770, when the Endeavour crashed onto the Great Barrier Reef), which can be viewed as a facsimile image, or read as a transcript. In the 'Voyage' section of the website, it is possible to click on a month and see a map and a brief description of the route travelled during that time.
Created by the Natural History Museum in London, this website presents most of the botanical drawings and engravings prepared by artist Sydney Parkinson on the first voyage of HMS Endeavour (1768-1771), plus drawings by other artists in England, produced from Parkinson's initial sketches. Parkinson died on board the Endeavour shortly after leaving Java and had, prior to embarking on that journey, worked for a year at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The images on the site have all been taken from the illustrations made by Sydney Parkinson, John Frederick Miller, and Frederick Polydore Nodder in the period during and after the Endeavour's circumnavigation of the world, between 1773 and 1784. The illustrations are of plants found in a range of countries, with botanical specimens from Australia, Java, Brazil, Madeira, New Zealand, Tierra Del Fuego and the Society Islands included. In addition to these prints, the text explains the publication history of the illustrations, from their ownership by Joseph Banks to their place in the Natural History Museum collections. The site offers a clickable map of the Endeavour's journey, linking through to the images of botanical specimens from each location. The images can also be searched by keyword. Historical information about the Endeavour, the illustrations, the publication of the voyage results and the people involved is also provided.
"The Endurance, Shackletons Legendary Antarctic Expedition" is an online exhibition from the American Museum of Natural History. It accompanied an exhibition at the Museum from 1999, which examined Sir Ernest Shackleton's ill-fated expedition to traverse the Antarctic, 1914, and the remarkable feat of survival after their ship "The Endurance" became trapped in ice. The exhibition was primarily an exhibition of photographs and film footage, (including 150 taken by expedition's photographer Frank Hurley). There was also the life-boat "James Caird", used by Shackleton to seek aid. The maps, illustrations and other images can be enlarged, including a few of Hurley's amazing record of the expedition.
This is part of the Kodak website and features the photographs taken by Frank Hurley aboard the Endurance during the 22 month unsuccessful 'Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition' to reach the South Pole. The website is based on a past exhibition at the American Museum of Natural History. The Expedition section features on one side of the screen photographs taken by Hurley of the expedition in chronological order, and the other side a map of the route taken with each location pinpointed as the photograph is viewed. A textual commentary is also provided. The final part of the website contains: biographical material about Frank Hurley and Sir Ernest Shackleton; a timeline of the expedition; information on the Royal Geographical Society who contributed financially to the expedition; a bibliography; and desktop pictures to download.
European Voyages of Exploration is a multimedia tutorial from the Applied History Research Group at the University of Calgary. Concentrating on Spanish and Portuguese exploration and colonisation of the Americas in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the site examines the background and motives of the Iberian nations and looks at their impact on the various regions of the New World. The authors regard the Reconquista of Moorish Spain as an important model for later expansion. There are also sections on the exploration (and exploitation) of Africa, and on Chinese exploration in the Far East and relations with the European powers. This is a good site that provides an introduction to the historical events of the period it covers, whilst also raising issues for further study. It is intended for use as courseware, but does not come with much in the way of teacher guidelines or interactive exercises. The site has not been updated since 2001 but is still a valuable resource for teaching and study purposes.
Everest online is a website created by the American Public Broadcasting Service to support a series of programmes shown on their channels in the United States. The site has several sections, each of which relates to a programme in the TV series. These investigate the fate of Mallory and Irvine in their 1924 expedition, which includes footage of the finding of Mallory's body in 1999, the effects of high altitudes on the human body, the various routes up the mountain, the history of climbing on Everest and the geography and geographical history of the mountain range. These sections include several interactive features, audio and video streams and Quicktime virtual reality features. The site is informative, which will attract some scholars, but is of more general than academic interest.
Expeditions and discoveries is a series of online collections of materials from expeditions between 1626 and 1953 that have been housed at Harvard University. Encompassing digital reproductions of: maps; photographs; published materials; field notes; letters, and manuscript materials the collections cover expeditions from the Arctic; Antarctic; Americas; Africa; Asia; the Middle East; and more. Nine major expeditions are particularly featured. Each expedition provides access to the full text documents that Harvard holds, as well as links to other, related collections, such as photograph collections, and a bibliography. Researchers may also search or browse material by discipline, region or notable people. This is a clear and very complete website with a wide range of historical documents and primary sources. Materials would be of interest to researchers from a wide range of fields, including anthropology; archaeology; astronomy; botany; geography; geology; medicine; oceanography; and zoology.
'The Fate of Franklin' is a Web site about the British Royal Navy officer and arctic explorer, Sir John Franklin (1786-1847). One of resources on the website is called 'Franklin in the Public Eye, 1818-1859,' which consists of images from panoramas, the illustrated press, popular engravings, daguerreotypes and documents illuminating the British and American obsession with Franklin's fate. The resources here are collected and maintained by Russell A. Potter, professor of English at Rhode Island College. Researchers, teachers, students and members of the public alike will find the care that Potter has taken in presentation of scanned images from contemporary sources to be unusually detailed and historically valuable. Beyond scanned news items and illustrated reports, there are also songs and ballads as well as literary accounts about Franklin's fateful expedition. This site would make an excellent starting point for research or study and especially conveys the public perception of exploration in imperial Victorian Britain, alongside the shock to that same consciousness which was inflicted by this failed effort. The site additionally contains information on Potter's publications and interviews on the subject; book reviews in this field; a links list; an online Franklin bibliography; and contemporary and recent reports on searches for the remains of Franklin's ships, the Erebus and the Terror. The site provides complete crew lists for both vessels.
The National Maritime Museum's fact files relate to the Museum's collections and the UK's National Curriculum. This document examines the discovery of a passage through South America to the Pacific, now named the Magellan Straits after the explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who had left Spain in 1519 in an attempt to find a passage through to the East for trading purposes.
The Flinders Papers website is part of the National Maritime Museum's web pages and makes available transcripts of 150 documents relating to the life and work of the chartmaker and navigator Matthew Flinders (1774-1814). The documents cover the major events in Flinders' travels, including the years in which Flinders was engaged in surveying the Australian coastline in the ship The Investigator (1801-3), and his subsequent imprisonment in Mauritius by the French government (1803-10). The material includes: letters; journal entries; legal and naval papers; receipts; and inscriptions. The letters relate to figures such as Sir Joseph Banks, Sir John Franklin and Vice-Admiral Wlliam Bligh, but the majority of the correspondence is between Flinders and his wife, Ann. Some of the documents are written in French, but in these cases rough translations are provided. These papers would be an important resource for researchers interested in: Flinders; in the history of navigation; in naval and social history; or Australasian studies. The transcripts may be searched or browsed by type, year, author or recipient. Each transcript is presented with a list of links to glossary entries containing background material on: people; places; vessels; and words and phrases. There are also links to related documents according to year, writer or recipient, and a page giving: background information on Flinders, his work and his era; an essay on "Flinders and the Voyage of the Investigator"; and images of original documents and objects related to Flinders. This latter section also has a list of suggested further reading. The site is well-designed and is easy to navigate, and the images are of a good quality.
This Web page is part of the National Library of Australia's online exhibition, 'Treasures from the World's Great Libraries.' The site focuses on Matthew Flinders (1774-1814), who first circumnavigated Australia, then called New Holland, from 1801 to 1803. This page posts a scanned copy of a letter from August 1904, written by Flinders to Sir Joseph Banks, the President of the Royal Society, while Flinders was waylaid and imprisoned in Mauritius. The letter accompanied a map which Flinders had drawn of the coastline of 'Terra Australis or Australia'. The site explains that Flinders was key in advocating the name 'Australia' for the continent and country; the name was not officially accepted until 1830.
Teachers and students will find this Web page to be valuable for teaching an introductory session on this important chapter on the history of Australian exploration. It is possible to zoom in on the letter and to read the text.
This is the full-text of a narrative of Sir Francis Drake's voyage around the world, beginning on 15 November 1577, written by Francis Pretty, one of Drake's Gentlemen at arms. The narrative traces the route of the voyage beginning at Plymouth and travelling to the Barbary Coast, Cape Blanco, the islands of Cape Verde, the Cape of Good Hope, the Strait of Magellan, Lima and a new country that they named Nova Albion, among other places. The account includes details about weather conditions, rifling of goods from Spanish ships, descriptions of lands visited and encounters with different peoples.
'Freeze Frame: Historic Polar Images, 1845-1982 from the Scott Polar Research Institute' is a free website and online exhibition produced by the Scott Polar Research Institute at the University of Cambridge. This collection of some 20,000 pictures covers Arctic and Antarctic expeditions, and all items have a detailed description. Images are presented at a small but acceptable size, and with copyright information laid over the picture. There are full search facilities, including the ability to search by date, expedition or photographer. In the 'Resources' section there are scholarly essays such as 'History of Photography in the Polar Regions'; 'Changing Britain and the Heroic Age'; and 'Northern Peoples', among others. This website is part of the JISC Digitisation Project which also includes elements such as the major book 'Face to Face: Polar Portraits', and the sale of archival quality prints of pictures. The website also offers the ability to 'collect' a personal selection of the images.
The website "French Ontario in the 17th and 18th Centuries" is an online exhibit published by the Archives of Ontario. The site explores the early history of New France and French exploration into the pays d'en haut, as the Great Lakes region was then known. Users will find a good range of digitised primary sources, including maps, paintings, documents and photographs. These are used to illustrate the chapters, which cover: explorations; making contact (with First Nations); resources and trade; war and defence; Detroit; and transitions. There are also biographies of important figures, information on the key places and a chronology of events, as well as a bibliography, suggested web links and information on related archive material. The pop-up windows with definitions of terms or short biographies were, at the time of review, empty.
This website, from the State Library of New South Wales, Australia, provides a history of the first discovery and exploration of Australia. Beginning with the biggest naval expedition into Pacific Waters, from Britain, in 1787, and known as the First Fleet, this attractively designed, easy to navigate, and simple to use website provides a wealth of information on the exploration, and discovery, of Australia. The website provides - with the use of Flash - a number of images and charts taken from the original voyages along with information on the images and material presented. Furthermore, there are links throughout to the State Library's catalogue to further enhance the user's research in this area. The information is split thematically, and includes: the First Fleet; Charting the Land; Letters Home; Mutiny!; Flinder's Journey; Upon a Painted Ocean; and Voyages of the Rattlesnake. There are also links to more information. This is a highly useful, and user-friendly, website which will prove to be of great value to anyone interested in first contact with, and the exploration of, the Australian continent.
Frozen Ocean: Search for the North-West Passage is an online exhibition of materials from the special collections of Toronto Public Library relating to Arctic exploration. The sources, which cover the years 1578 to 1907, illustrate the history of Arctic exploration, from Frobisher to Amundsen. The website consists of five sections, each containing a wide selection of images relating to early expeditions, Hudson Bay, the nineteenth century, the search for Franklin, and explorations of the farthest North in the late nineteenth century. Each section is introduced by a text outlining its historical context, the tone of which seems aimed at the general public rather than an academic audience. The images themselves include: maps; charts; photographs; title-pages; letters; and contemporary sketches and illustrations. They cover many aspects of Arctic exploration, including Inuit life, wildlife, and conditions for the explorers. Some of these are most dramatic and memorable, in particular those depicting ships caught in pack ice. Many of the larger maps may be viewed using a zoom function which allows the user to navigate around the image, but other images are available in one size only. The images seem likely to be of most use in a secondary school, but could be of value to anyone interested in the subject.
The George Back Collection is a record of expeditions to the Arctic, 1818 until 1837, housed in the National Archives of Canada. Back's sketches, drawings and writing document the extraordinary Arctic landscape and topography, its people, flora and fauna. Back's career was intertwined with John Franklin's with whom he served on two expeditions, first from 1819 to 1822 and again from 1825 to 1827. The Collection is divided into Ontario, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Alberta, Northwest Territories, Yukon, and the Sea, with images of the H.M.S. Brig Trent in the Arctic. The site is available in French and English.
This website, published by the National Library of Australia, showcases the digitised papers of George Raper, an eighteenth-century midshipman. The collection is made up of the personal papers of Raper, who sailed with the HMS Sirius of the First Fleet on its voyage to circumnavigate the earth. George Raper's papers include three types of documents that were essential to the training of sailors, coastal profiles, maps and navigation calculations. These have been scanned and digitised from the originals, and are accompanied by explanatory text and extracts from Roper's diary. As well as this primary material there is also a timeline of Raper's life, and a biography that mainly covers his voyage on the Sirius to Australia and experiences in places like Port Jackson, Botany Bay and Norfolk Island.
Berthed on the River Thames, the Golden Hinde is a fully operational reconstruction of the vessel aboard which Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe. The site gives visitor information and details of educational visits, Tudor workshops and opportunities for experiencing what life was like for sixteenth century seafarers.
This is the website of the Hakluyt Society, a registered charity inspired by and named after Richard Hakluyt (ca.1552-1616), an English geographer whose interest in the history of discovery led him to collect and publish narratives of voyages and travels. Website information includes: the Society and its history, a list of recent publications with some illustrations, a complete bibliography, links to other exploration and navigation websites, and details of Society members and membership. Included in the interests of the Society are the lives and expeditions of many famous explorers including: Columbus; Cook; Drake; da Gama; Battuta; de Leon; and Cabot.
Compiled by an enthusiast this is a collection of data about the life and voyages of English explorer, mariner and adventurer, Henry Hudson, with a chronology and maps, as well as some additional notes on his times, contemporaries and his crew. Arrangement of the site is by voyage, he sailed three times for the English (1607, 1608, 1610-11) and once for the Dutch (1609), during which time he tried to discover a short route from Europe to Asia through the Arctic Ocean. The site includes maps of voyages, the Hudson family tree, and links to other sites about Henry Hudson.
This short Web page describes the AHRC-funded research project ‘Hidden Histories of Exploration: Exhibiting Geographical Collections’ which is re-examining the collections of the Royal Geographical Society and the Institute of British Geographers (RGS-IBG), to shifting the conventional, marginalised representation of indigenous people in encounters with British explorers. The project will result in an exhibition at the RGS-IBG in 2009, as well as associated web resources and events.
This excellent website, the Historical Atlas of the Mediterranean, provides access to a number of historical maps of the Mediterranean and the surrounding areas. Making use of the abilities available in newer geographical mapping systems, the website is able to present a number of interesting and important pieces of information on the sea and the various civilisations that developed and grew around its shores. The website is attractively designed and simple to navigate.
This is the website for the Department of Historical Papers based at the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa. The department holds over 2,400 collections relating to four hundred years of South African history. Amongst the subjects represented in the holdings are exploration in Africa, slavery, colonialism, missionaries, gold and diamond mining, Frontier wars, the Zulu War, the Anglo-Boer War, and both the First and Second World War. On the website there is information about a selection of the personal papers held at the department, including individuals like A.N.G. Champion, Dr. Xuma, J. H. Hofmeyr and Robert Sobukwe. There is also a list of some of the organisations and institutions whose archival collections are deposited at the Department of Historical Papers. Also available on the site are contact details for this archive, so researchers can find out more about the materials held there.
This is the website of a major international research and publishing project. The History of Cartography Project uses an interdisciplinary approach to examine maps in the context of the societies that made and used them. The project aims to publish a six-volume History of Cartography book series. As of March 2008, five books are available - Volume One, Volume Two (Books 1, 2, and 3), and Volume Three - all published by the University of Chicago Press. The website contains full details of the project, its members, and the David Woodward Memorial Fellowship. There are around 25 project newsletters for free download. The website also contains scans of 16 fine letterpress broadsheets in a series titled 'Literary Selections of Cartography', with scholarly commentaries. There is an online exhibition, 'Windows on the World: A Selection of Historical Maps'. There is also the full text in PDF format of a journal special-issue titled 'Exploratory Essays: History of Cartography in the Twentieth Century', which includes essays on: "The Politics of the Map in the Early Twentieth Century"; "Cognitive Map-Design Research in the Twentieth Century: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches"; and "Allied Military Model Making during World War II", among others.
The Web page is part of the Ordnance Survey website, and it gives free access to two full-text ebooks on the history of the Ordnance Survey. The first is the 400-page 'A History of the Ordnance Survey' (1980) edited by W.A. Seymour and J.H. Andrews - a book that in print form currently sells for £200 on Amazon UK. The second is the 288-page 'Ordnance Survey: Map Makers to Britain since 1791' (1992) by Tim Owen and Elaine Pilbeam. The books are presented for reading online using Flash flip-book software, but those loading this software in their Web browser will find that it also offers a menu icon for downloading each book as a PDF file. These free books will be of interest to those interested in the history of map-making, map design, mapping technologies, the publishing industry, the role of maps in the history of British tourism, the intertwining of landscape and history in visual form, the British development of infographics and spatial concepts, and much more. The Web page also contains a concise 1,600-word overview of the history of the Ordnance Survey.
The website "HMB Endeavour replica" hosted by the Australian National Maritime Museum gives the latest news and information about the 'Endeavour', a replica of the ship in which Captain James Cook made his first voyage to Oceania. The ship has been described by the National Maritime Museum, Greenwic, as the world's best replica of an 18th century ship. She has sailed from Australia to Britain in several voyages and is very much a functioning vessel as well as a floating tourist attraction. The Captain's and crewmembers' reports may be read at the site, along with the charts of recent voyages. Information about refits and repairs is also included. There is also a section of the site devoted to the history of the project, and information for those who wish to sail the Endeavour, or assist with her maintenance. The history of the original ship, its specifications, the aim of its voyaged to the South Seas and more resources on Captain Cook's missions are also offered on the site.
These pages examine George S. Nare's Arctic expedition of 1875. His mission was to discover how far north land existed and to test the possibilities of attaining the North Pole over the ice of the polar seas. The site has details and crew lists of the two ships involved, the HMS Discovery and HMS Alert. There are also images of contemporary painted slides illustrating the journey.
This website focuses on a project to follow the route of HMS 'Endurance', a Royal Naval Patrol Ship, that travels annually from Portsmouth to Antarctica. Research is carried out in several regions throughout the journey and factfiles compiled about ecosystems, timezones and wildlife. The aims of the surveys are to increase knowledge of the environment as a whole, provide further understanding about how scientific natural history evolves and promote the related work of museums, the Royal Navy and the British Antarctic Survey Team through educational resources. There are several organisations involved in the project including the Royal Navy and their Hydrographic Office; the British Antarctic Survey Team; the Natural History Museum; Museum Victoria in Australia; the Albany Museum in South Africa; the Falklands Tourist Board and several schools in Britain. The website for the project contains information such as frequently asked questions about Antarctica; the current track of the journey of the 'Endurance' (which includes maps); information about the locations visited on route; diaries and weather reports. There are also factfiles about the construction of the 'Endurance', and Ernest Shackleton's voyage to Antarctica; as well as information on such subjects as the British Antarctic Survey, longitude and latitude, ecosystems, and food in Antarctica. The site also includes an interactive zone that contains quizzes and a section with links to further information, as well as educational, childrens' and museum resources.
The Ice: Victorian Romance website was published by the Linda Hall Library in Kansas City, Missouri, to accompany an exhibition, held from 1 May to 13 September, 2008, of rare books and journals that commemorated the British "infatuation with the Arctic". The exploration of the Arctic began in the early 19th century with small naval expeditions. Illustrated journals and books were produced by the naval officers, some of whom were accomplished artists, which showed images of icebergs, Inuit seal-hunters, harbours in the winter, snow houses, walruses, and maps (as the new territories were explored and mapped). By 1860, a deeper understanding of the prehistoric past, glaciers, and the Ice Age had been arrived at, the route of the Northwest Passage had been discovered, and the remainder of the Arctic coast and much of the archipelago had been explored and mapped. The website features a large number of explorers' accounts, under the headings of: initial encounters; private ventures; voyages to Antarctica; glacial theory; the search for John Franklin; and the ice age. Enlargeable images from the publications that were shown in the exhibition, and a bibliography of exhibition exhibits, are also included.
The website "In the footsteps of Marco Polo" was produced by the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), in conjunction with an exhibition held at the Museum in 2002-2003. An interactive map shows the route Marco Polo (1254-1323?) took, having departed Venice in 1271. Users can retrace the journey, which lasted twenty-four years and took the Venetian merchant to China, which he called Cathay, and to the Court of Khubilai Khan. Some places visited by Marco Polo are described in detail - taking in their history and culture - and linking them to relevant artefacts and other art works held at the Museum of Art. Additionally, it is possible to read excerpts from Marco Polo's memoirs (the option of listening to recordings of the same excerpts would appear to be inactive). A separate section describes the journey Marco Polo underwent following the so-called Silk Road, giving an overview of the Mongol Empire which, at the time, had reached its peak under the rule of Khubilai Khan (1215-1294), grandson of Genghis Khan. A final section presents additional educational material, including a list of works written by renowned travellers of the 13th and 14th centuries and suggestions for further reading. This well-presented site would be of value as a starting point to access basic and general information about the great Venetian merchant and traveller.
This National Maritime Museum Fact File looks at the Italians John and Sebastian Cabot, who led English ships on voyages of discovery in Tudor times and claimed joint credit for discovering Newfoundland. Brief biographical information on father and son is provided. Facts covered in this document include the reason why John Cabot came to England and why Henry VII agreed to help to pay for Cabot's expedition; as well as what Cabot found on his voyage and how he died. The Fact File then turns to his son, Sebastian, and his expeditions for Spain and England. He founded a company of Merchant Adventurers who went in search of the North-East passage.
The John Muir Exhibit forms part of the Sierra Club website and offers material of interest across a range of disciplines, including: English; History; North American Studies; Ecology; and Conservation. Scottish born John Muir (1838 - 1914) moved to America with his family as a boy. He became one of the first conservationists and dedicated his life to preserving the natural environment of his new homeland. Muir founded the Sierra Club in 1892, and helped to inspire the innovative conservation programme of President Theodore Roosevelt. This online exhibit on the Club's founder is a comprehensive resource, including a number of biographies available in a range of languages. Also included are pages dedicated to Muir's writing with full-texts of his prolific output of books, articles and letters, with detailed bibliographies of primary and secondary sources. There are also links to the wider interests of the Sierra Club aimed at a broad audience. The resource offers an insight into the importance and influence of Muir and his writing on current debate, and the site is uncompromising in its attitude towards the need for conservation. The site is generally easy to navigate, although a reasonable amount of time is needed to explore all its various features.
The website 'John Robson's homepage' is dedicated to the explorations of Captain James Cook in the Pacific and around Australia, the American northwest coast exploration, over the period of the 16th to 18th Centuries, as well as the 18th Century French explorers, Jean-Francois de Galaup de Laperouse and Louis-Antoine de Bougainville. The site includes a short biography of George Vancouver, who led a Royal Navy expedition to the Pacific Ocean and Northwest Coast of North America. Information is also provided on Vancouver's apprenticeship with Captain Cook. The website has been created by a private individual, and the aim is to document the surveying and charting of these regions. Information is provided in the form of links to subjects that include American fur traders, as well as original articles, biographies and bibliographies.
The Joshua Slocum Society International was founded in 1955 by sailing enthusiast Richard Gordon McCloskv to record, encourage, and support long distance passages in small boats. It is a non profit cooperation, inaugurated in 1972. The society has three main goals which are; reporting and recording the adventures of small boat sailors; recognizing significant voyages and acts of heroism at sea; and keeping sea history alive, especially the memory and legacy of Captain Joshua Slocum. Members include sailors, circumnavigators, yachtsmen, boat builders, and small boat sailors as well as arm chair sailors and historians. The site includes; membership details; information about the society's newsletter Spray, Ahoy! and the annual journal, The Spray; details of international contacts; information about the Slocum Award; details of books, videos, models and other gifts available from the Society; a table of solo circumnavigators, starting with Joshua Slocum; a timeline of Joshua Slocum's life and travels; and links to other sources of information about Joshua Slocum.
Produced by the National Maritime Museum, the Journal for Maritime Research (JMR) is a fully-refereed electronic journal devoted to the multi-disciplinary study of maritime history. Recent articles are highlighted on the homepage, and testify to the breadth of topics in this interesting publication, with strong offerings related to maritime identity, slavery, seafaring cultures, the Royal Navy, exploration, mapping and topography, Lord Nelson and Trafalgar, and legends and studies of sea life and maritime mammals. Abstracts of current and archived periodical articles running back to 1999, along with academic works in progress, and conference reports are available to read online but users need to subscribe to read the full text. Users can also purchase articles individually and view a number of previous articles without any subscription. The journal also includes book reviews and extracts. Users need to be subscribers to read the full book reviews but bibliographic details of each publication and a brief review are freely available. Information on how to subscribe and submit articles is provided, as is the editorial from the latest edition and a list of the journal's editorial board members.
The Journals of James Cook's First Pacific Voyage, 1768-1771 is part of the South Seas Project website. It contains extracts from Captain James Cook's 'Daily Entries in His Journal of Remarkable Occurences aboard His Majesty's Bark Endeavour, 1768-1771'; the Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks; Sydney Parkinson's 'Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas, in His Majesty's Ship, The Endeavour; and John Hawkesworth's 'Account of the Voyages ... in the Southern Hemisphere'.
Through the website "King George III Topographical Collection", which is part of its Online Exhibitions, British Library makes available images taken from the King George III Topographical Collection. The collection includes over 50,000 items, of which 2,680 are represented here. They cover the period 1635 to 1873, and include topographical images of Britain and her colonial possessions at the time of imperial expansion. They also include images from many other parts of the world, in particular the European countries of the Grand Tour route: Italy; Germany; France; and the Netherlands. The documents include: manuscript and printed maps; topographical drawings; building plans and elevations; watercolours; prints; and ephemeral items such as advertisements and broadsides. They depict all manner of locations and buildings, and include works by famous architects and topographical artists such as: Nicholas Hawksmoor; Paul Sandby; and Samuel Hieronymus Grimm. The collection is a fascinating and rich resource for anyone interested in the ways in which eighteenth-century Britons viewed their country and the world around it. It will also be valuable for local historians and all scholars with an interest in architecture and the cultural history of landscape. The collection of images can be viewed as a full list with thumbnails, or searched using a simple keyword search. Each item can be clicked to access the full object page, which includes large and zoomable versions of the image - essential for viewing details. These are accompanied by bibliographic information and a brief text providing background information on the image and the document. The collection is also accompanied by a useful introduction.
This website describes the Foyle Special Collections Library at Kings College London. Built up over centuries, the library contains some 150,000 items and is particularly strong in the fields of the history of science and medicine, travel and exploration, the history of Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean, the British Empire and 20th century German and Jewish studies. The website describes the collection in detail, and provides 'canned searches' of items within the university's library catalogue.
Part of the Library of Congress's Global gateway, the Kraus Collection of Sir Francis Drake is a Web resource composed of important contemporary material relating to Drake and his voyages in the Americas during his circumnavigation of the globe, 1577-80. This is a fascinating website offering a great amount of rare and valuable material. Freely available via the site are digital images of 11 manuscripts, 29 books, 8 maps and views and 7 medals and portraits, spanning the years 1579-1765. Each item is available in full, and the collection may be searched by keyword, and browsed by author, title, and subject. The images are easy to browse and will be of immense interest and value for undergraduates, graduates and researchers. This is especially true of some of the rare materials, such as a letter from Mercator to Ortelius, and the only known copy of Nicholas Breton's 1581 account of Drake's voyage. The images are of high quality and are available in several resolutions and formats, though the majority of these are viewable in a Web browser. The documents are presented in their original language, without translations. This website also makes available the catalogue of the collection, first published in 1970 as part of Hans P. Kraus's 'Sir Francis Drake: a Pictorial Biography'. The catalogue entries link to the digitised versions of the items. In addition, the catalogue entries give bibliographical information and useful accounts of the documents in their historical context. The site also includes Kraus's 'Pictorial Biography' and an informative 'Historical Introduction' by David Waters and Richard Boulind. The site includes a timeline and a selection of images illustrating 'The Actors and Their Stage', which may help to make the collection more accessible as it shows portraits of the principal figures mentioned in the catalogue, and maps of the places covered by the collection. There is also an account of the genesis and building of the collection, and a page linking to related resources on the Library of Congress website.
Listed here are bibliographies of books and articles about a wide range of nautical and naval subjects, including sea shanties, ships (specific ships and classes of ship), naval architecture, rigging, seamanship and dictionaries. This page is part of the maritime history virtual archives website maintained by an enthusiast.
This is an online exhibition of maps and navigational instruments developed by the University of Virginia, exploring how the American continent has been portrayed. There are links to sites of further information.
Showcasing the Antarctica collections held by the State Library of New South Wales, Australia, Lines on the Ice is the website that accompanied a 2002 exhibition of the same name. Focusing on the Australasian Antarctic Expedition of 1910 to 1915, this evocative resource is beautifully illustrated with two thousand digitised photographs, maps, illustrations and artifacts such as diaries. It includes photographs taken by Frank Hurley. Not all images relate to Antartica - there are several illustrations from Captain James Cook's second voyage to Australia. The images are set in context through text and an interactive timeline, which details the history of Antarctic expeditions from 1772. An advanced search facility is available. The site is now archived on Pandora, Australia's web archive. The site also contains an Antarctica timeline with information on the history of exploration to the continent, as well as links to further information.
This Website reproduces 'Looks Are deceiving: the portraits of Christopher Columbus,' an article originally published in Visual Anthropology (vol. 5 (1993), pp. 211-227). The author, Paul Martin Lester, a professor at California State University Fullerton, examines the different visual portrayals of Columbus that have developed over several centuries, since no portrait was made of him in his lifetime. There are links (some broken) to external websites with information on Columbus's contemporaries and on painters who tried to imagine his likeness. The website contains links to these portraits and presents a composite version of them to show how Columbus may have looked. Lester also describes the scholarly analyses and theoretical approaches required not only to develop this composite, but to understand the succession of portraits over centuries in terms of "an exercise in cultural relativism." The website also posts bibliographical information which will contribute to the website's value for students and scholars.
This website explores the legend that Madoc, a son of King Owain of Gwynedd, not only discovered America in 1170, but also formed a tribe on the upper Missouri, whose descendents might have integrated with the Mandan native American indians. The evidence is gathered here including excerpts from the earliest known printed account of the Madoc story from Dr David Powel's 'The Historie of Cambria' published in 1584. Users will find an online article on sources of evidence for Madoc's story; a short biography of Madoc himself; and biographical information on the author of the site. Still under construction are sections on: the Caernarfonshire (Caernarvonshire) explorer John Evans of the late eighteenth century, including expert's lectures examining Evans as a source of accurate history; a discussion board; the history surrounding Madoc's expedition; and information about the Mandan tribe.
This is the main website for 'MapHist: e-mail discussion group on the history of cartography'. The list concentrates on... "historical maps, atlases, globes and other cartographic documents", and membership is open to all interested parties. The website hosts an 'Illustration page' and a 'Discussion papers' page, where members deposit scholarly items for the list to discuss. These pages are open to non-members. There is also a 'History of Maphist' page, and external links to old (pre-2002) archives of the mailing-list. There is a short page about dragons and other monsters that appear on early maps, containing some details of the history of such maps, and a partial list of known early examples. MapHist is not to be confused with Maphist Article Manager, an annotation software tool for historical maps.
This website, which is made available by the Newberry Library, presents an online exhibition of maps detailing the territories of the French empire in the North American continent. The maps included cover the period between 1562 and 1825, and show French cartographers charting the new lands claimed by their state. The selection provides an insight into developments in cartography, as well as into the history of the French presence in North America. The images cover the area from Port-au-Prince to Labrador. In addition to maps they include: plans of fortifications; views, such as that of Louisbourg; plans of towns such as Montréal; and illustrations. They cover the period from early explorations and imperial ventures to the conflicts of the mid eighteenth century, and illustrate the course of France's imperial ambitions in North America. This site will be of interest to all those studying the history of French involvement in the continent, as well as scholars of cartography. The exhibition is divided into four main sections: Exploration and early European cartography, 1634-1710; The Maritimes and the Saint Lawrence River Valley; The Great Lakes and the Upper Mississippi Valley; and The Caribbean and the Lower Mississippi Valley. Each section includes an introductory paragraph. This is then followed by black and white map images, each of which is accompanied by text providing historical and cartographic information. The images are available in larger versions. However, no zoom function is provided, which renders the images less useful for research purposes. The site also includes a useful bibliography of secondary works.
'Maps: finding our place in the world' is an innovative interactive recreation of an exhibition of historical maps that was held as part of The Festival of Maps (Chicago, 2007-2008). The exhibition included fictional maps, such as those by J.R.R. Tolkien, and Bernard Sleigh's 'Anciente Mappe of Fairyland'. Clicking on exhibits brings up a pop-up box with an image and text about that exhibit. The exhibition was supported by the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities. This website may be of interest not only to historians and map collectors, but also to those examining new ways to present and archive gallery exhibitions online. A printed book version of the exhibition was published as 'What is a Map? A collection of unusual maps from Maps: Finding Our Place in the World' (University of Chicago Press, 2007).
This site contains information on the collection highlights of the Mariners' Museum, located in Virginia, United States of America. Collections covered are those of ephemera, figureheads, fine and decorative arts, ship models, photography, and scientific instruments.
The website "Mariners' Museum Online Exhibitions" showcases the resources available online from this museum based in Virginia. Themes include; Exploration through the Ages; USS 'Monitor', History and Legacy; Captive Passage, the Transatlantic Slave Trade and the Making of the Americas; Battle of the Atlantic, Allied Naval Intelligence in World War II; Birth of the United States' Navy, and Women and the Sea. Each exhibition has its own site, with manifold information. This website is a good resource for the maritime history, world trade and naval history.
This is the website of the Mariners' Museum, Newport News, Virginia, USA. This museum is the National maritime museum and on the website you can see highlights of the collections and exhibitions including: the USS Monitor artefacts (from the ironclad battleship of the American Civil War); the Chris-Craft collection; Captive Passage - The Transatlantic Slave Trade and the Making of the Americas; and the USS Monitor Center. There are extensive online resources for educators from the museum's programmes that include: the Birth of the US Navy; the Battle of the Atlantic, (Allied Naval Intelligence in the Second World War); Women and the Sea; The Age of Exploration (includes Christopher Columbus); and Waters of Despair, Waters of Hope - African-Americans; and the Chesapeake Bay: Our History and Our Future. There is detailed information and finding aids for the collections. You may search the catalogues of the collections of the library and research archives, and review visiting and research information, including brief descriptions of material comprising the photography collection; and the Elwin M. Eldredge Collection database which contains records for 352 American steamship companies. .
The Matthew is a replica ship based in Bristol harbour. The original ship was used by John Cabot and his crew for their voyage of exploration to North America in 1497. There are details of the 1997 re-enactment of the original voyage from England to Newfoundland, and the 2001 channel voyages. Other topics include the history of John Cabot's original voyage and the age of exploration including life on board ship; navigation methods; a glossary of marine exploration terms; statistics relating to the ship; and the opportunity to serve as a crew member on future voyages. There is also information about the Matthew Society.
This is the official website of the British Ministry of Defence art collection, a collection containing art relevant to the experience and history of the British Armed Forces. The main page contains a concise 500-word profile of the collection and the MOD Art Collection team who maintain... "over fifteen hundred items of fine art and antiques, including paintings, drawings, engravings, photographs, clocks and furniture". There is also a short article on conservation efforts, and details of the collection of architectural drawings. There are also image galleries such as 12 images of works by war artists (accompanied by short scholarly texts), and similar annotated galleries for: Portraits; Battles; Exploration; Clocks; Engravings; and Miscellaneous. The website has contact and location details. There are also external Web links to those with similar military collections, such as the Imperial War Museum, Royal Naval Museum, National Army Museum, and the Royal Air Force Museum.
The 'Missing and Stolen Maps Database' is an online website provided by the International Antiquarian Mapsellers Association (IAMA). Launched in Spring 2008, it aims to have an international scope and is the product of... "advanced cooperation and collaboration between dealers, collectors, librarians and curators". The website is free and searchable via a variety of methods. There is a standard report form (free online registration is required to use this feature) to report missing or stolen maps. The 'Acknowledgements' page has full details of the contributors and project partners.
The Institute for Exploration (IFE) (part of the Sea Research Foundation) is a non-profit organisation specialising in deep-sea research and ocean exploration. The aim of the Institute is to pioneer the emerging discipline of deep-sea archaeology, which combines archaeological, oceanographic and ocean engineering research and methods. As well as information on IFE, the site includes information on IFE expeditions in deep sea archaeology; in marine archaeology to understand ancient trade patterns and learn about human history by studying ancient ships and their cargoes; marine geoscience, and maritime history. There is also information on the Institutes's Challenge of the Deep exhibition centre which presents interactive displays, artefacts and findings from IFE's most recent expeditions off the continental shelf of the Eastern United States, in the Mediterranean, in the Black Sea... The site also contains press releases and publications, and is part of the commercial venture "Mystic Aquarium".
Part of a wider website about the human and cartographic history of the Galapagos, this site contains Chapter XXI of Captain Robert Fitzroy's narrative of the voyages of the HMS 'Beagle'. The chapter relates to the survey of the Galapagos islands, during the second voyage, with Charles Darwin on board. This is linked, by dates, to Excerpts from HMS 'Beagle' Logs.
The collections of the National Library of Australia underpin Australian cultural life and intellectual pursuits. The Library also contains collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as Asian and Pacific collections. The site includes recent News, Pathways to information: Research and information Services, links to national and international libraries, publications, indexes and databases (some by subject listing); Our Catalogue; and information on the Library, the Collections, Services, and Initiatives (including the Digital Libraries Initiatives).
The website of the National Library of Australia's manuscript collection, one of the largest collections in Australia (consisting of about 1700 major collections and more than 26 million individual items), provides details on the collection and links to the Library's digitised manuscripts. The site allows users to search the collection, which holds mainly records relating to the history of Australia and its territories but also includes: a small number of European medieval manuscripts; some British papers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; and a number of important collections relating to New Zealand, the Pacific Islands and South-east Asia. There are also several manuscripts relating to the European discovery and settlement of Australia. Close to 9000 items have been digitised and can be viewed freely online, including: Captain Cook's journal of the HMS Endeavour; 16th-century books of hours; collections of Australian plays and poems; photographs; and musical manuscripts. Information for visitors to the library is provided and there are links to collections in other institutions. This resource would interest those studying English and Australian history, as well as those working on english and Australian literature.
The website "Voyages of Discovery" is an online exhibition published by the Natural History Museum, which looks at a handful of landmark exploratory voyages in British history. The site presents the voyage of Sir Hans Sloane to Jamaica in 1687, Charles Darwin's expedition to South America on The H.M.S. Beagle in 1831, Wallace's 1848 exploration of South America and Malay, and the 1872 voyage of The Challenger to investigate the deep oceans, under the direction of Charles Wycliffe-Thomson and John Murray. The information about each voyage is not particularly in depth, but it does provide useful background information, and each section is well illustrated with facsimile images of drawings and specimens gathered on these naval expeditions.
The Naval Review (1913-1997) is a free online archive of the Royal Navy's independent professional journal. The Review is independent of the Ministry of Defence. Issues are freely available for download in PDF format, and issues can be up to 10Mb in size. The website also offers some additional archive material, and "an index with full search facilities". Example articles from a randomly-chosen issue from 1953 include: 'Air Strategy in 1954'; 'Prince Rupert and de Ruyter, 1673'; and 'N.A.T.O. and the command of the Baltic', along with a student analysis of the Dardanelles during the First World War, and other articles. It seems that the Review mixed articles of contemporary strategic and policy analysis with those of historical scholarship, alongside shorter notices of current policy news, and a great many book reviews and book notices. The PDFs contain searchable OCR texts, and text can be copied and pasted from them. The quality of the OCR scanning process seems to have been professional.
This article examines the question, when did Europeans first reach North America? It covers the period from earliest times up until 1497 when John Cabot reached America from Bristol. A bibliography of related books and articles is included. This page is part of the Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web.
The website National Maritime Museum's Collections Online is an online database providing access to over 5,000 catalogue records and more than 6,000 images from selected maritime history collections held at the Museum. The contents of the database can be searched, or browsed by category. Currently the following of the museum's collections are available: astronomical and navigation instruments; charts and maps; ceramics; coins and commemorative medals; decorative and fine art; flags; ship models; timekeeping; uniforms; and weapons. Other features on the site are the online exhibitions: Art for the Nation; Atlantic Words; Beside the Seaside; Freeze Frame; Nelson; Turmoil and Tranquility. The online collections can also be browsed by topic: Atlantic Neptune Charts; Bedford Lemere Photographs; Franklin relics; Telescopes online gallery and others. Viewing the items in the collections is possible by different subcategories: type; maker; or century. The My Collections facility allows users create their own archive of collection objects.
OCEANIC: Research ship schedules and information maintains a searchable database of cruise schedules, research ship specifications and contact information for research vessels around the world. The Web site includes search facilities by cruise schedule and ship specifications as well as simple searches by vessel name or country of affiliation. The site also offers links to events pages and sites with further relevant information on research vessels. In the 'what's new' section, users will particularly note the emphasis on arctic seaborne labs and polar exploration generally. Older news items are archived and searchable by country name. Cruise data holdings go back to 1991; however, at the time of review, the site posted a statement that in recent years, fewer updates have been added due to funding cuts. Since 2005, the College of Marine and Earth Studies at the University of Delaware has absorbed the most basic costs of keeping the site active. While not a particularly attractive site, data here will doubtlessly be helpful for those who require a sea vessel to conduct their research and site navigation is more or less straightforward.
Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program (BPRCAP) is a collaborative effort between the Byrd Polar Research Center and the Ohio State University Archives. The mission is to collect, preserve, and provide access to historical documents concerned with polar regions. Specific collections include the papers of: Richard E. Byrd who flew over the North and South Poles and was a pivotal figure in the modern exploration of Antarctica; Sir George Hubert Wilkins, the first to fly an airplane in Antarctica, to fly across the Arctic Circle, and to take a submarine under polar ice; Dr. Frederick A. Cook, a hero of the Belgica Expedition (1897-99) to Antarctica and one of the first claimants to the North Pole; the records of the American Polar Society; and other collections of papers, photographs and historical documentation of polar explorers and researchers. The website includes location and visitor details, staff contacts, and news.
The website "Old World contacts" has been published and compiled by the Applied History Research Group, at the University of Calgary. A caveat is issued that the site is functional but not yet complete. It is part of a series of online tutorials. This tutorial takes as its focus travellers between 330 BCE and 1500 CE. Through the writings and records of merchants, military men, missionaries, and others, it examines the ideas of cross-cultural contacts, the concepts of the 'foreign'. The impact of these ideas and exploration on the Old World is discussed on this site. There is a good bibliography arranged according to themes, such as: Alexander the Great; travel and exploration; Arab medicine; the Huns; and the Crusades. The tutorials can be navigated by time period or by theme, which allows the user to proceed with flexibility. The themes explored in cross-cultural contact include: armies; colonists; merchants and traders; missionaries and pilgrims; diplomats and travellers; and modes of transport. A good site for undergraduate students and for their teachers.
This website, available in both French and English, contains a vast amount of Canadian historical sources and is searchable either by keyword or browsable in alphabetical order. The site provides access to many interesting and varied aspects to Canadian history, from the initial settlements, through the American invasions in the War for Independence, and Canadian abolition sentiments, through to the erection of the Sackville telephone exchange. The website is both massive in scope and easy to browse, and it benefits from the collaboration from many Canadian libraries, archives and universities. The website will be of great value to historians of North America, and Canada in particular.
This Web site provides a digitised version of a rare, three-volume history of English exploration and seafaring in the 16th century, written by Richard Hakluyt (1552 or 1553-1616) and published between 1598 and 1600. The book is held in the Kraus Collection of Sir Francis Drake at the Library of Congress.
The volumes deal with England's naval exploits against Spain and America, particularly the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588; the victory at Cadiz in 1596; and two voyages in which Sir Francis Drake and M. Thomas Candish circumnavigated the earth. Historians and students will appreciate the online accessibility of this source, which was important in promoting the settlement of North America. There are links to each volume, although the links are not easily visible on the main page with the book's bibliographic information. Access to the site is available through a search from more than one host site, and so annoyingly does not provide a stable home URL address, which makes it difficult to bookmark.
This website reproduces digitally ten eighteenth-century maps of the Welsh counties. It is part of the National Library of Wales' Digital Mirror. The maps were printed in 1718 by Thomas Taylor (fl. 1670-1730), a book, print and map seller based in London. Taylor's maps appear to be the first published atlas wholly devoted to Wales; they also appear to have been newly prepared in the early eighteenth century. They are drawn to a scale of about one inch to seven miles or 1:443520. Monmouthshire does not appear on any of the maps, as it was at the time considered to be part of England.
This Web site, part of Project Gutenberg of Australia, contains links to several eBooks concerning Australian explorers. As such, this site is an extremely valuable resource for researchers, teachers, and students, as well as interested members of the public. It provides biographical information on explorers, an exploration timeline (1606 - 1896), and a full text virtual library of explorers' travel journals. There are primary source biographies on Captain James Cook and Matthew Flinders. A primary source collection, edited by Sir Ernest Scott, entitled 'Australian Discovery,' can be downloaded. It contains further extracts from journals of such explorers as Tasman, Dampier, Cook, Flinders, Blaxland, Sturt, Giles and Leichhardt. Similar sources here, such as 'Early Australian Voyages' by John Pinkerton, covering the voyages of Pelsart (1628-1629), Tasman (1642-1643) and Dampier (1699-1700), can also be viewed. Also linked to the site are full text excerpts from the Dictionary of Australian Biography and maps and charts.
This National Maritime Museum Fact File on Queen Elizabeth I includes articles on her reign and maritime history during the sixteenth century, such as Sir Francis Drake's voyage around the World, completed in 1580; Drake's role as a privateer is also investigated, and the effects on Anglo-Spanish relations are also briefly described.
Quinto centenario was a publication from the Facultad de Geografía e Historia in the Departamento de Historia de América at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Published termly, it ran from 1981-1989. Although the publication has ceased publication, all the articles remain online and are available for downloading as a PDF. It is possible to browse or search by author, title or journal issue; articles have included topics as diverse as sixteenth century Mexican demographics, Hispanic American literature, an entire issue dedicated to Ortega y Gasset and the Philippines. MOst articles are written in SPanish and focus on the history of early Spanish American exploration and conquest
This account of Richard Henry Dana Jr's return voyage from Boston to California between 1834 and 1836, as a sailor on board the brig Pilgrim and returning on board the Alert, which led to the voyage narrative Two Years Before the Mast, appears on the website of an enthusiast. It includes a discussion of the book's importance as an account of the common sailor's wretched treatment at sea and an accurate picture of the life of seamen of that time. There is a description of the Pilgrim and biographical details of the author's life. There are also images and photographs along with quotes from the book and other sources. A list of links to further information on Richard Henry Dana Jr is also provided.
In this article, the author explores music and its relationship to the history of cross-cultural contact. There are sections about music and the marines, musical expression in seafaring as a whole and musician-Marines on Cook's Second Voyage. This is followed by sections about encounter music that arose out of the exchange of music and the confluence of two cultural systems, interpreting encounter music and a concluding notes about music as a universal language. There are links to related articles and external websites, including for example, the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum, the Historical Maritime Society and a Bibliography of sea chanteys and sailors' songs. There are also links to six related subject areas within the Journal of Maritime Research including for example, 'James Cook', 'Anthropolgy' and 'Music'. This publication is from the National Maritime Museum's Journal for Maritime Research (May 2001).
Part of the Scott Polar Research Institute at the University of Cambridge, "Virtual Shackleton" is an online exhibition of Shackleton-related resources from the Institute's archive and museum, covering the 'Discovery', 'Nimrod', 'Endurance', 'Aurora', and 'Quest' Antarctic expeditions. These resources include digitised images of primary sources such as: excerpts from Schackleton's diaries and decklogs; letters; and maps. They can be approached according to: expeditions; authors; and articles.
This article focuses on the concept of the sea being under-represented in Australia's public history. The author examines how the sea might be more fully incorporated by tracing its importance in Australian social history, and 19th Century images of Australian ports. The article is from the National Maritime Museum's Journal for Maritime Research, and requires a subscription to the journal for full viewing.
Forming part of the British Library's online Americas collections, the website 'The Search for a Northwest Passage' is an introduction to the subject that includes images and brief historical accounts related to the centuries-long search for the Northwest Passage between the North Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. The site is divided into four main sections: 'Early approaches'; 'Voyages of delusion'; 'The Admiralty takes over'; and 'The search for Franklin and the discovery of the passage'. The text begins with the late 15th century voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot and includes brief accounts of the expeditions of Captain Cook and Sir John Franklin. Other explorers covered include Frobisher, Henry Hudson, Samuel Hearne, John Ross and Robert McClure. The text concludes with the crossing of the Northwest Passage by Roald Amundsen, completed in 1906. Each section is accompanied by a set of images taken from the British Library's collection; these are mainly portraits, maps and illustrations, some of which are most striking. The images may be viewed in a larger form, and have explanatory captions which give further information about the people and events they represent. The site also provides a list of useful external websites, and a thorough bibliography of relevant materials in the British Library's collections. This bibliography, probably the section of the site of most interest to researchers, is available as a PDF.
This site details the exploits of Sedna IV, a three-masted steel-hulled sailing vessel, on a scientific voyage through the Arctic's North-West Passage that took place between July and August 2002. Available in both English and French, the site contains two sections. One follows Sedna's journey and comprises video clips (available through Media Player), almost 800 photos of the expedition, maps, a virtual tour of the boat and entries from Sedna's logbook. There is also a range of articles on Arctic wildlife and a series of educational resources in the form of online activities dealing with subjects such as global warming. The other section is in the form of a "cyber-documentary", which addresses some of the major issues raised in the five documentaries that were made about the voyage.
This history trail serves as a reference for the exhibits and collections of organisations, museums and art galleries in the United Kingdom which represent Cook and his voyages of discovery. The tour begins by referring to the BBC series which recreated the voyage of the Endeavour with volunteers, historians and scientists. The tour continues with examples and images of artefacts of Cook's voyages from exhibitions and collections of various museums and galleries belonging to the National Maritime Museum, the University of Cambridge, the Pitt Rivers Museum, and the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum. The site also includes information and links to further information relating to Cook, such as museums, ships, places of interest, and transcripts of Cook's journals. The trail ends with the full contact details and visiting times of all the organisations included in the virtual tour.
Ships of Discovery is an underwater archaeology research institute based in Corpus Christi, Texas. Here archaeologists research ships of exploration and discovery that were lost in the New World between 1492 and 1521. The website provides information on these shipwrecks, marine archaeology activities, archival research, experimental archaeology, 16th Century shipbuilding techniques, artefact conservation, and other aspects of ships of discovery research.
This website, designed by students from a school in Tasmania in conjunction with the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service, is aimed at school children and teachers. It contains journal stories of shipwrecks and Antarctic exploration, which can be accessed using Adobe Acrobat. There is also information about Macquarie Island, a database of shipwrecks that occurred in the area and a bibliography of texts on the subject of Antarctic exploration and shipwrecks around Macquarie Island. Included on the site are puzzles, games and suggestions for classroom activities.
The National Maritime Museum's fact files relate to the Museum's collections and the UK's National Curriculum. This document focuses on Sir Ernest Shackleton's attempt to reach the South Pole in 1914. The document examines the apparent failure of the expedition after the Endurance was crushed, and how Shackleton successfully brought all his men safely home.
This National Maritime Museum Fact File examines the tragic final exploration of Sir John Franklin in his attempts to discover the North-West Passage. It describes the location of the North-West passage and the reasons for searching for it, together with Franklin's preparations for his final expedition and his modifications of the Erebus and the Terror. The first search party was led by Leopold McClintock, and the Fact File describes what he discovered about Franklin's expedition, and what was discovered by later search parties. It ends with the use of the North-West Passage today.
This site, created by the State Library of New South Wales in Sydney Australia, provides access to papers of Sir Joseph Banks. Joseph Banks was an independent botanist who sailed with Cook on the Endeavour (1768-1761). This was to be his only journey to the area although he was heavily involved with pacific exploration, botany and early Australian colonial life. This site offers access to Sir Joseph Bank’s papers which are held in the Mitchell and Dixson collection at the State Library of New South Wales. Approximately 10,000 manuscript pages which include correspondence, reports, invoices and accounts, as well as a small number of maps, watercolours and charts are available from the site. The correspondence on the site includes letters from and concerning many notable figures in early pacific exploration such as James Cook, William Bligh and Lachlan Macquarie. The online collection is presented as facsimile copies and have been extensively indexed. The site has been divided into sections which make it straightforward to browse. It is possible to search the site by author, date, subject, notes and transcript.
This National Maritime Museum Fact File begins with an account of how Walter Ralegh become a courtier through his ambition and exploits. It looks at his involvement in the fight against the Spanish Armada, his expeditions, and what happened in the colony in North Carolina. It outlines Ralegh's loss of favour at court, his imprisonments in the Tower and how he spent his time, ending with his execution for treason.
This online document is a transcript of Sir Walter Raleigh's account of his South American voyage and his discoveries in Guiana in 1595. Reference to the source of the material is provided. This page is part of the Internet Modern History Sourcebook, a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts for introductory level classes in modern European and World history, produced by the History Department of Fordham University, New York.
The Smithsonian Institution devised this online exhibition, 150 Years of Smithsonian Research in Latin America, and it is concerned with the scientists and explorers from the United States who conducted expeditions to Central and Latin America during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The site is split into two main sections, Expeditions and People. The first section, Expeditions, looks at a variety of U.S. sponsored scientific and natural history expeditions, covering trips to South America, Central America and the Caribbean. Particular attention is paid to the relationships forged between research communities across the Americas. Meanwhile People looks at individual explorers and researchers, providing biographies of their lives and work. This is an interesting site, and it has been well designed, apart from having to navigate through four pages before you reach the content. It also requires shockwave to view it, but there is another version without it that can be accessed.
This website on Latino History and Culture is published by the Smithsonian Institution as part of its Explore and Learn web pages. Latino History and Culture offers a mixture of online resources, including web exhibitions, essays, and images on a diverse range of topics concerning Latino immigrants to the United States, and Central American history. These include general histories, scientific expeditions, business, agriculture, identity and community, research, biographies, migrations, cultural encounters, international relations, and relevant publications and programmes. Amongst the countries covered are the United States, Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico.
Founded in 1960, the Society for the History of Discoveries aims to promote interest in teaching, research, and publishing the history of geographical exploration, as well as the discovery and mapping of the earth's land and sea surfaces. The society welcomes academics, archivists, independent scholars and laypeople with an interest in history. Subpages describe the accomplishments of the Society's fellows, who have distinguished themselves with their work. In addition to membership information, the site includes details of the Society's annual journal of research papers and book reviews, Terrae Incognitae; tables of contents, indices and alphabetical lists of authors are posted. It is possible to view issues from the year 2000 onward. The site also provides: details of annual meetings; links to related sites; PDF versions of the Society's newsletter; and information on an annual prize for an essay on the history of exploration, maritime history and geographical discovery. Among these subsites, researchers will find the reports on current and past annual meetings most informative. Paper abstracts from the current and most recent annual meetings are available. Users will also find links to the Festival of Maps, a 2007 general cartographic exhibition in Chicago, which is held with the support of the Society.
This site, South-pole.com, is devoted to the study of the exploration of Antarctica. Of particular interest for historians in this field is the Antarctic philatelic thrust of the site. The site's creator, Gary Pierson, is an avid stamp enthusiast, and he comes to the history of this topic from this viewpoint. But this perspective is an unusual one, and should therefore prove even more interesting for both researchers and teachers. Moreover, Pierson's discussion of letters and stamps is interwoven with purely historic commentary on expeditions going back to the 16th century. Site essays offer short biographies of explorers, and descriptions and maps of Antarctic islands and archipelagoes. A series of drop-down menus from the top of the site make navigation unusually clear and simple.
This web page, published by the University Libraries, the University of Washington and compiled by an academic, is a web gateway of online African history resources. Divided into five sections, General African Studies, East Africa, South Africa, West Africa and Organisations, the site provides resources for much of the continent, although it is by no means exhaustive. Many of the sites listed cover African history from the seventeenth century onwards, and are concerned with colonial history and European exploration of Africa. Amongst the countries included are Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Congo, Liberia, Nigeria, South Africa and Sierra Leone, and this site is a good place to start for online research of African history materials.
This website describes a series of volumes entitled Grand Voyages by Theodor De Bry, which were published at the end of the sixteenth century. They provide accounts of many of the earliest expeditions to the Americas. There are brief abstracts of the first eight volumes, together with some images taken from the original prints. This page is part of the website of the commercial company Philadelphia Print shop.
This is an online educational resource from the National Maritime Museum focusing on Tudor Exploration. Tudor Exploration is closely linked to the Key Stage 2 National Curriculum and the QCA scheme of work, Unit 19: What were the effects of Tudor exploration? A comprehensive set of teachers' notes is available on the site. Using the characters of Sir Walter Rowdant and Bilge to explore the theme of Tudor exploration, children can examine a timeline, plan a voyage of exploration, read information on the types of navigation available, look around a Tudor ship, and examine maps and charts from 1508, 1588, and 1592. There is also a glossary of terms and a database of Tudor objects that can be browsed by theme, object type, or all records. The Flash plug-in is recommended to view the site.
This excellent website, from the University of Wyoming, presents a number of collections of visual resources on American history. The attractively designed and easy-to-use website has, as of September 2009, eighteen collections with over 20,000 images available. Each collection can be browsed easily, and some limited information is presented on one or two of the collections. The images vary quite greatly from issues over racial segregation and protest in the latter 1960s to collections of images relating to the American frontier and rodeos. This is an interesting and highly useful website for those interested in all things American.
Unlocking the Archives is a site being developed by the Royal Geographical Society with support from the Heritage Lottery Fund. The site aims to provide full public access to the Society's heritage collections for the first time. The collection includes a vast amount of photographs; maps; books; objects; and documents concerning national heritage and history. The section of 'Themes' explores several places on the globe from a historical and cultural point of view. These themes are: Mount Everest; Encounters (on British explorers to Africa, namely David Livingstone and Mary Kingsley; Antarctica, the Carribean; Brazil Cityscape; Afghanistan; Kenya; China; and India. Each section has several chapters exploring the theme in depth: timeline, gallery, factsheets, introduction with historical and cultural background information, and online and downloadable activies. Text are available in either Microsoft Word or PDF formats. This site also informs about the access to the physical archive of the Society and encourages teachers and learners to give their feedback on the online resources. The teacher's area gives suggestion on how to use the material in the classroom and keystage, for each theme. A glossary of geographical and political terms can be consulted on the site.
This website, which forms part of the wider Victorian Web Web pages, provides a massive amount of information on British India in the Victorian era. The website is easy to navigate, being split into several thematic areas (for example, political history, social history, religion, individuals, painting, gender matters and so on). Within each of these broad categories there are links to the various aspects that fall under it. Clicking these links to information on the chosen topic, often-times along with pictures to highly points. Some of these sub-section links will, instead of linking to an essay regarding the topic, link to other sections on the Victorian Web. For example, John Stuart Mill (under the Individuals section) links to the section of the website which deals with Mill, providing information on his works, life and so on. This is an exceptionally well-crafted and useful resource, and it provides a wealth of information.
Vikinggate contains links to other sites about the Vikings including Viking-related events, groups, prehistoric villages, and links to Viking web resources, arranged alphabetically with a search engine. The website is hosted by the Fotevikens Museum.
This National Maritime Museum Fact File deals with the Viking Age, examining how we know about the Vikings, and their shipbuilding and sailing techniques, looking in turn at Viking longships, warships and cargo ships. It describes what life on board was like, how they navigated and where they went, concluding with the trade goods that Vikings ships carried.
This is an online exhibition from the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, focusing on the journey of the Vikings to North America. Information on site includes the route the Vikings would have taken to reach North America (which they called Vinland) and some of the places they stopped at on the way. Some modern science techniques used to learn more about early civilisations are explained. The Learning Center section includes a family guide to the exhibition, which can be downloaded in PDF format; a teacher guide; a vocabulary of some Viking words; runes (the Norse alphabet); a bibliography; weblinks; and details of Hnefatafl, an old Norse board game.
This Web site provides the full text of "Harvard Classics, Volume 33, Voyages and Travels: Ancient and Modern," and contains full text accounts of seven exploratory travels or sea voyages. These include records from Herodotus and Tacitus on Egypt and Germany, respectively; and reports on the great Elizabethan explorers, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh. The accounts include: "Sir Francis Drake's Famous Voyage Round the World," by Francis Pretty; "Drake's Great Armada," by Captain Walter Bigges; "Sir Humphrey Gilbert's Voyage to Newfoundland," by Edward Haies; and "The Discovery of Guiana," by Sir Walter Raleigh. These texts should prove useful for initial research and teaching and appear on the site Bartleby.com, which contains searchable online literature and verse. There is advertising on this site.
This online exhibition published by the Natural History Museum is an interactive exploration of the voyage of the Endeavour in the eighteenth century. Using Flash, Quicktime, or the Cosmo VRML viewer, the exhibition uses a range of multimedia to help users engage with the material, and the history of the Endeavour expedition. The exhibition features an introduction to Cook's voyage, noting the impact it had on astronomy, botany, geography, navigation and medicine, a plan of the ship, brief biographies of Captain Cook, Joseph Banks, Sydney Parkinson and Daniel Solander, and illustrations and specimens that were gathered from around the world during the voyage.
This website provides the electronic version of this Latin text and translation about Sir Francis Drake's expedition to the West Indies, 1585-1586. It was written by Walter Bigges, Captain of a company of infantry on the expedition. It is an account of the voyage but is little known due to the fact that it was published abroad. The better known account is A Summarie and True Discourse of Sir Frances Drakes West Indian Voyage, Where in were taken, the Townes of Saint Iago, Sancto Domingo, Cartagena & Saint Augustine, edited by Thomas Cates, and a background to both these texts is provided in an introduction. This appears on a website with other humanistic texts, which is maintained by an enthusiast.
This site contains an exhibition of fifty paintings created by the travel artist, Augustus Earle: The body of work he produced now comprises what is arguably a unique record documenting the effects of European contact and colonisation during the early nineteenth century. The exhibition contains work from his journeys in Brazil, Tristan da Cunha, New South Wales and New Zealand, and depicts cultural, ethnographic, and historical subjects, as well as seafaring life. The site includes the following information; a biographical Essay, a Bibiography, and the Exhibition, 'Augustus Earle's Travels around the World 1820 - 29.' This comprises of a Brief Chronology of Earle's life, and thumbnail images of his work, categorised as Shipboard Life; Tristan da Cunha; New Zealand; and Homeward Bound. The site is based on a touring exhibition held in 1994 in the National Libraries of Australia and New Zealand.
'The website What is a Map? A collection of unusual maps from Maps: Finding Our Place in the World' is a 2007 online exhibition from the University of Chicago Press. It features journey maps, maps of vice and virtue, slavery maps, imaginary maps, and 'handy' maps. Short scholarly texts accompany each map, and maps are presented in high-resolution in 'zoom-in' form. One of the maps is by British artist Bernard Sleigh ('Anciente Mappe of Fairyland', circa 1920).
Established in 1823, the displays of the Whitby Museum include fish fossils and ship models, with sections covering exploration, whaling and ethnography. The site includes: descriptions of the collections (such as pistols used at Trafalgar, Cook exhibits and the father and son whaling captains, the Scoresbys); visitor information; events; details of publications; and links to related Whitby websites.
This website focuses on the artist William Hodges, who accompanied Captain James Cook on his second voyage to the Pacific (1772-1775). The website gives a brief background on Hodges, and explores four of the pictures Hodges painted for the Lords of the Admiralty on his return to London. These large, ambitious paintings commemorated the achievements of Cook's voyage and ultimately influenced landscape painting in England. The website includes an animation of Cook's second voyage; information on the paintings and primary source accounts of the voyage; details of the crew of Cook's ship, the Resolution; and a map of the voyage. Teachers and students will find the subsite that allows deeper examination of the four Admiralty paintings to be most useful. This section includes, unusually, an analysis of the underlying geometric structure and symbolic meaning of the composition of each piece. Historians and art historians will appreciate these paintings as examples of an artist midway between the neo-classical and romantic ages. As the website describes it, Hodges' works present an "intriguing combination of naturalistic observation and the classical idealism. They present new kinds of ethnographic and geographic knowledge, filtered through the conventions of European landscape painting." There are also links to further information relating to Cook's voyages and the men involved. The website can be viewed in Flash or HTML.
This website offers a guide to the extensive special collections and archives at the University of Strathclyde. Despite their notable focus on Glasgow, these collections cover a wide spectrum of social, economic, political and military history, as well as literature, the built environment, notable Scottish institutions and individuals. Each collection is described, and titles in the catalogue are listed. Details are also provided about access arrangements.