Accents of English from around the world is a webpage that allows the user to compare the pronunciation of words between different dialects and varieties of English and some other Germanic languages. Equipped with a sound plug-in the user may listen to words in the many different forms available. Hovering over the IPA transcription of the word (or clicking it) returns the sound of the word in that particular variety. The site can be browsed by region, or by word, thus allowing different kinds of comparisons. The project is hosted the University of Edinburgh and is funded by Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). This is a valuable resource for anyone interested in the dialects of English and comparison to other Germanic languages.
The Acquisition of English by Spanish Students is an academic dissertation by Marta Balcells-Marcť of the University of Barcelona. It can be downloaded as a ZIP file from the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) website.
'Barcelona English Language and Literature Studies' (BELLS) is an annual full-text ejournal published in English by the Department of English and German at the University of Barcelona, Spain. Some articles are in Spanish - but there is also much here in English that will interest scholars in literature and film, and linguistics. Issue 15 was themed 'Contemporary Theatres in English', issue 16 was on the teaching of language, and the forthcoming issue 17 (2008) will be themed 'Film Studies Now'. Example literature-related article titles are: 'Was the Classical Tradition Betrayed by J. Ivoryís Adaptation of E.M. Forsterís Maurice?'; 'Satire on Learning and the Type of the Pedant in Eighteenth-Century Literature'; and 'From Crusoe to the English Patient, or the Transition from the Western Humanist Enlightenment Subject to the White Male Colonialist', among others. There are also tables of contents for the journal's first and second series, although full-text copies of these articles are not available. The website is in English and has full details of the Editors, Editorial Board, and a Style Sheet.
The BBC Voices website records the findings of journalists who undertook the largest ever popular survey of regional English in the UK and provides a valuable resource for language and cultural studies at all levels. There are 300 hundred recorded conversations, involving over 1,200 people discussing accent; dialogue; vocabulary; and attitudes towards spoken language. The website includes a background to the project, as well as an accent map of the British Isles, which can be used as a search vehicle for the recordings. Some of the clips contain offensive language, but these are clearly marked. Much of the site is aimed at the general public, with features involving testing the ear for accent recognition and audience feedback to the project. However, this material in itself may be of as much interest to language researchers as the recordings. There are also journalist features and debates about language change, dedicated explorations of languages such as Manx and Esperanto and downloads from the Open University on language study. The site is presented in a newspaper format and is straightforward to use.
The BLLDB online presents an online version of the key publication Bibliography of Linguistic Literature (BLL), which is published annually by the University Library, Frankfurt am Main. It is a valuable source for linguistics in general, and for English, German and Romance (Italian and Spanish) linguistics in particular. The bibliography includes: journal articles; articles of conference proceedings; monographs; dissertations; and Festschrifts. The BLLDB digitalizes all volumes of the BLL dating back to 1971, thereby making available some 354,000 citations. The database is updated quarterly and around 10,000 citations are added per year. Detailed instructions on how to use and search the database and a history of the project are given. Users can browse an index of journals and publications by type, for example: research projects; newsletters; linguistic institutions; history of linguistics; and countries/regions. The site is in English and German. This resource is extremely useful for scholars of linguistics as a means of locating secondary sources.
The BYU Corpus of American English is a very large collection of texts which is being made freely available online via a dedicated search interface. The interface allows the user to search the corpus for words and phrases and display the search result as a concordance with limited context. In addition to searching for exact words or phrases, users can exploit wildcards in their searches, search for lemma and part-of-speech information, look for collocates, and make semantically-based queries, amongst other things. The corpus initially consists of around 360 million words, equal amounts from each year from 1990 to 2007. New material will added at least twice a year. The texts are drawn from a variety of sources and are divided into five genres of equal size: spoken; fiction; popular magazines; newspapers; and academic journals. The search interface is simple to use, and offers functions that are not generally found in corpus search tools, such as the ability to find synonyms and compare similar words. A help file is available and information about how to use this very powerful tool is also provided in the form of a five minute guided tour. The BYU Corpus of American English is a valuable resource for anyone interested in looking at how English, especially American English, is used today. The composition of the corpus makes it particularly suitable for comparisons across time period or genre.
The Corpus of Early English Correspondence Sampler (CEECS) is an electronic resource which can be downloaded from the Oxford Text Archive website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)). The 0.45 million word Corpus of Early English Correspondence Sampler was created from the larger Corpus of Early English Correspondence. CEECS covers the years 1418-1680, and consists of 1,147 letters written by 194 writers. The selection criteria were arbitrary, as only 23 editions which were no longer in copyright could be included, but CEECS is nevertheless a fairly representative sample of the full corpus. COCOA markup references are used. Access to this resource is restricted, and hence users are requested to complete a short online form to apply for a copy.
The Corpus of English Dialogues (CED) is an electronic resource comprising dialogues from 1560 to 1760. It can be downloaded from the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) website: however, access to the material is restricted, and users are asked to complete a short Web form to apply for a copy. To give a picture of spoken interaction of the past, as mediated through written records, the CED contains 1.2 million words drawn from both texts which include constructed dialogue and those which purportedly record language from authentic speech situations. There are five main text types in the CED: drama comedy; didactic works (language manuals and other handbooks); fiction; trial proceedings; and witness depositions. The corpus texts have been coded to indicate features such as: foreign language; narration; compilers' comments; editorial comments and emendations; and font changes. The CED comprises 177 text files, and is distributed in plain text and XML formats, accompanied by a PDF guide to the corpus.
Cuadernos de Filologia Inglesa was a full-text ejournal published from 1985 to 2001. It would seem that the journal is no longer published. The journal mainly published articles on the subject of English linguistics, although a few historical and cultural articles were also published. The journal was published from the University of Murcia, Spain - but the majority of articles are available in English. At June 2009 the journal has 13 issues online, with articles freely available for download as PDF files. Example article titles include: 'The Dialect Vocabulary of Ulster'; 'Thinking Russian, Writing English'; 'Word Play in the Headlines of the British Press'; 'Bhaji on the Beach: a female journal toward a new identity'; and 'Un-official political theatre in Scotland', among many others.
This is the website of Lancaster University's Department of Linguistics and English Language. There is information on A level English studies, including a separate website. Here there are: answers from staff from the department to questions on language and linguistics; an annotated selection of links to websites and resources that are of use to A level English language students and teachers; and an annotated guide to A level English language book resources. The department's website also has information about undergraduate admissions to the department, courses available, a postgraduate prospectus, as well as lots of information about general linguistics including a list of Web links. In addition, the site contains links to the webpages of the department's research centres.
This is a downloadable resource available from the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website as a zipped .sav file. It is necessary to apply for approval from the OTA before download, and a link is provided to the terms and conditions of use, and a form to apply for permission. The digital resource contains three files of eye fixation data for three experiments investigating the influence of prior discourse context on focus identification during on-line sentence comprehension. In each experiment, participants read a series of short texts, each comprising two sentences. The first sentence was an interrogative sentence and the second sentence had a dative construction and contained the focus-sensitive particle only. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect that an interaction between the focusing properties of the context and this particle would have on sentence comprehension. It was assessed by examining fixation behaviour for different segments of the sentences. The three experiments differed in terms of the location of the focus-sensitive particle. Three experiments were conducted in which eye movements were analysed during reading to investigate skilled readers' understanding of sentences containing 'only'. The results demonstrated that skilled readers make rapid use of grammatical and contextual knowledge to select the appropriate meaning of a sentence, but that grammatical knowledge has the more important role. Although these findings are directly informative about skilled reading, they may also provide insights into problems that might be encountered by beginning readers or people with reading difficulty.
The website describing the project The English Noun Phrase: an Empirical Study provides an overview of the methodology of this research. There are downloadable documents detailing the project's aims and a final report outlining what was achieved. The project was run from the Department of English at University College, London (UCL) and was headed by Dr Evelien Keizer. The website is of interest to those studying or researching linguistics, and universal functions of the noun in particular. The aim of the project was to study the English noun phrase in the context of the British Component of the International Corpus of English (ICE-GB), a corpus of over one million words. There is a bibliography to the project, and an comprehensive methodological explanation, as well as examples of the usage of Fuzzy Tree Fragments. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
English Today (ET) is a quarterly journal covering all aspects of the English language: its history, literature and linguistics; international variations; uses and abuses; neologisms; the influence of the new communication technologies on English; academic models of the language; teaching of the international standard language. ET will be of interest to linguists, teachers of English, advanced language students, and professionals working with the English language (writers, broadcasters, journalists). A ten-year thematic index is published in ET vol.11, No 1, January 1995. The site offers a general overview of the printed journal, its editorial board, and instructions for contributors. Special discounts are available for members of certain professional organisations. Abstracts are available online, starting with volume 1, issue 01 (1985).
This website discusses the form of English widely spoken in and around London, so called Estuary English. It is a rich compilation of academic articles, monographs, abstracts, lecture handouts, bibliography and newspaper reports. The site is hosted by the Phonetics and Linguistics Department of University College London and relies on both academic and journalistic articles and materials. It also provides links to other similar sites. The information presented is authoritative, very reliable and exhaustive. The site is useful for all levels of teaching and research, and provides a wealth of information about modern developments of the English language within the UK. It is regularly updated and maintained, making it a very useful current resource.
FreeLing is a open source language analysis tool suite, that is freely provided under a GNU General Public License of the Free Software Foundation. The tools have been developed by the TALP Research Center at the Polytechnic University of Catalonia. The software is programmed in C++ and runs under Linux but instructions for porting to other platforms are provided. At the time of review the suit contains English, Spanish, Galician, Italian and Catalan dictionaries; a text tokenisation tool; a sentence splitting tool; a tool for morphological analysis; and a part of speech tagger to mention a few. There is an online analyser that allows analyses of smaller samples, as demonstration, and there is extensive online documentation and manuals. Registration is free and quick but is needed for some of the features on the site. The site provides clear and useful instructions for installing the software. This is a powerful and very useful resource but it demands some knowledge of Linux and how to install software and prepare the system, alternatively how to compile and run C++ programs under other operating systems. Although this is not plug and play software this suit is a very useful tool for those interested in corpus linguistics and text analysis, especially in English, Spanish, Catalan, Galician or Italian.
This website is intended to introduce undergraduate students to the Great Vowel Shift (GVS) that affected the pronunciation of the English language between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries. It summarises the historical significance of the changes that took place over this period, and explains how the shift has had an impact on the interpretation of literature. Literary examples of language change are taken from Chaucer, Shakespeare, Dryden, and Pope. The site features an interactive Java applet and audio recordings illustrating how each vowel has changed, and an exemplary dialogue between a conservative and advanced English speaker. Links to other Internet resources, and a short reading list, are also provided. This site provides a clear and succinct guide to the Great Vowel Shift and some of its implications.
The website for IGLO (Intercomprehension in Germanic Languages Online) aims to foster cross-linguistic comprehension (rather than production) among the Germanic languages, and their teaching to people who already speak closely-related languages. The language of instruction can be selected from the IGLO course interactive map, and include: Danish; Dutch; English; German; Icelandic; Norwegian; and Swedish. Once a language of instruction has been selected, simple instructions in that language guide the user through further material, including histories of the Germanic languages, and comparative Germanic. For the Germanic languages listed, users will also find information on spelling and grammar, glossing-tools, and encyclopaedic facts. At the time of cataloguing, a page of sound-spelling correspondences was under development. Further links on the site provide access to three reference grammars for each language (a mini grammar, a reader's grammar and a reference grammar), a glossing device, links to dictionaries and other tools of use to the student, as well as to general information on the IGLO project, which is a collaboration between the Universities of TromsÝ, Hagen, Lund, Salzburg, Iceland, and Antwerp, and the Copenhagen Business School. IGLO should be of use to those interested in the relationships between Germanic languages, and for those hoping to improve their comprehension abilities. At the time of review the coverage seemed somewhat patchy and the site hadn't been updated since 2003. This may still be a useful resource.
This online course in English grammar, written in 1996-1998, was designed at the Survey of English Usage, a research unit based at University College London, and is funded by Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). It contains sections on word classes; phrases; clauses; sentences; form and function; a glossary of linguistic terms; grammar exercises; and a bibliography section. It is intended for university graduates and anyone interested in the English language (including teachers of English as a foreign language and learners). It is freely available to users from UK educational institutions. It is also available on CD-ROM.
This website provides subscription information for the Journal of English for Academic Purposes (JEAP). It provides abstracts and contents of all issues from volume 1, issue 1, 2002 and full access to one free sample copy of the journal as well as a search engine for locating articles by particular authors or containing particular keywords. JEAP publishes articles, book reviews, conference reports, and academic exchanges in the linguistic, sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic description of English as it occurs in the contexts of academic study and scholarly exchange itself. A wide range of linguistic, applied linguistic and educational topics may be treated from the perspective of English for academic purposes; these include: classroom language; teaching methodology; teacher education; assessment of language; needs analysis; materials development and evaluation; discourse analysis; acquisition studies in EAP contexts; research writing and speaking at all academic levels; the sociopolitics of English in academic uses and; language planning. The journal also includes review essays and reviews of research on topics important to EAP researchers.
The database contains records each representing a language in contact with another language or group of languages. Each record contains several layouts, each layout is devoted to a particular domain of structure. The records provide information about the structural categories, domains, and sub-categories that are affected by contact, the type of contact influence (matter or pattern replication), and text fields provide glossed examples of structures that are believed to have emerged as a result of contact. The entire database can be queried for any of the above information. Available through the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website, it is necessary to apply to the OTA for permission to use the resource before downloading.
The Early Modern English Dictionaries Database is an online searchable database of entries from sixteen early dictionaries, dating from between 1530 and 1657. The sources include bilingual lexicons as well as specialist and hard-word dictionaries. In addition to the database, there is a helpful introduction, and a bibliography of works that may be of interest to those studying the lexicography of the period. The search engine is simple and quick to use. The site is intended to benefit lexicographers, researchers studying the work of the authors of the dictionaries included, and those simply looking up words in the course of routine scholarly work. There is a public version accessible to anyone and a licensed more extensive version accessible with a subscription fee.
A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English, 1150 - 1325 (LAEME) is an interactive online atlas, designed to enable regional and chronological linguistic study of English during this period. The Atlas complements the printed 'Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English' (LALME), which covers the period immediately following LAEME. Resources provided as part of the atlas include: a comprehensive introduction to the atlas, its contents and uses; a corpus of lexico-gramatically tagged texts (in a searchable database); a database of information regarding LAEME corpus sources; information on the software used by LAEME with instructions on concordancing, dictionary-making and map-making; and a corpus of etymologies and changes. Searches are performed mainly via 'task' buttons, which bring up search fields relevant to particular interests, namely: mapping; concordancing; timetables; tagged texts; and dictionaries. The maps illustrating regional word usages are particularly useful for those researching the origins of a particular work or manuscript. LAEME is designed specifically as a non-commercial teaching and research resource, to be cited as per a printed text. This resource would be of use both to linguists and also to medievalists studying manuscripts of the period.
Lowlands-L is an email discussion list with an excellent supporting website for anyone with an interest in the languages and cultures of the Lowlands. Lowlands languages are those Germanic languages developed in the areas next to the North and Baltic Seas and include: Dutch; Zeelandic; Frisian; Limburgish; and Low Saxon. The site's scope also includes Afrikaans; pidgins and creoles; and English and Scots. Rather than focus on one particular language or culture, the discussion list considers as a group, and worthy of equal respect and importance, the linguistic and cultural varieties of the languages listed above. Minor language assertion and promotion and supported wherever possible. Archives of list postings dating from May 1999 are freely available online but registration is required in order to post to the list. Earlier archives, dating back to April 1999, is available through the Linguist List. The site features various other resources of interest including a detailed map of the Lowlands region and introductions to all the Lowlands language varieties. These introductions include a brief history, overview of status and textual samples. Also available is a spreadsheet of 100 words in 19 different Lowlandic varieties, and an extremely comprehensive collection of links to Web resources relevant for study of each of the Lowlands languages. Bibliographies of print materials are also provided. The whole site is equally navigable in a variety of languages, and represents a crucial online resource for anyone working on or interested in Lowlands languages.
The Middle English Grammar Project (MEG) is funded by the Norwegian Research Council and based at the University of Stavanger, Norway and the University of Glasgow. The eventual aim of the project is to produce a reference grammar of Middle English, based on a corpus of electronic texts. The project's website provides: an introduction to the project and its methods; a description of work currently being done by project members; a list of related sites; a list of related publications by project staff; news and contact information. The site also gives access to HTML and PDF versions of the MEG corpus of electronic texts, which can be browsed by dialect region. This site would be of interest to those studying linguistics or Middle English.
The New Zealand English (NZE) website is a compilation of materials provided by a number of researchers on various aspects of English as spoken in New Zealand. The site has a simple, clear layout and provides articles on the origins, social variation and sounds of NZE. Extensive bibliography on NZE is also provided. The research projects listed include: NZE Dictionary Centre; Corpora of NZE; the NZE Journal; 'Origins of NZE Project'; English On-line Project (resources for teaching); and Evaluating English Accents Worldwide. A brief description of projects and contact details for further information are also provided.
The Routes of English was a programme broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Presented by Melvyn Bragg, it explored many aspects of the English language throughout the world, particularly variations in pronunciation and the sociolinguistic significance of such variations. The programme's website retains much that was of interest from the broadcasts, with a good number of audio extracts in RAM format (playable with RealPlayer, etc.). The site also features: links to related web pages; games; a question and answer section; and an online message board, though this does not appear to be well used. Although intended for a general audience, undergraduates new to English linguistics should find the site a fascinating introduction to the subject.
This is the website of Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses (RCEI) - a bi-annual journal in the field of English studies. The journal publishes critical essays, interviews and book reviews. Each single issue discusses a topic related to literary, cultural or linguistic field, providing a forum within the discipline. RCEI encourages writing that moves through the tradition of research in English studies, American studies and Linguistics, and boasts contributions by leading international scholars. The site provides contents of published and forthcoming articles, information for contributors, calls for papers, and helpful links.
The Scottish Corpus of Texts and Speech (SCOTS) project aims to create a collection of audio and visual material and texts in electronic form which relate to language usage in Scotland (Scots and Scottish English, as well as other community languages). The constantly evolving corpus is available online and is intended to present a linguistic picture of contemporary Scotland. It contains over 1,100 documents and over 4 million words. The documents collected date from 1945 onwards, and most of the spoken texts were recorded since 2000. A search and browse facility is provided. The project is funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) in collaboration with the School of English and Scottish Language and Literature at Glasgow University. Aside from the corpus itself, the website provides basic background information on the project, details of the people involved, links to related sites, and an opportunity to suggest texts or receive further information on the project. This is a valuable site for students and researchers of Scots languages and literature, but would also be of use to anyone with an interest in Scottish language or culture.
The online resource SCRIBE - Spoken Corpus of British English provides information on a pilot project that 'investigated the construction of a corpus of spoken British English'. The project ran in the academic year 1989/90 and was funded by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and the UK Science and Engineering Research Council. Research was facilitated by the partnership between the University College London, Cambridge University, Edinburgh University, the Speech Research Unit, and the National Physical Laboratory. This resource is part of the UCL website. Despite the project's short duration, resulting from the shortage of funding, a substantial prototype corpus was collected and partially annotated. The resource describes the current status of the project as well as provides its existing documentation in 'The SCRIBE Manual' that can be viewed online (HTML format). There are also samples of annotated audio recordings which can be downloaded. These have been grouped into two categories: Sample of many talker recordings and Sample of few talker recordings. Both categories provide recordings of male and female speakers, representing four dialect areas: South East, Glasgow, Leeds and Birmingham. This resource will be of interest, and use, to researchers of spoken English and corpus linguistics.
This website provides access to an online bibliography of publications relating to the linguistic aspects of Lowland Scots. The bibliography is extensive although not comprehensive. Priority has been given to more recent and important texts. The compiler has marked books she considers to be particularly important with an asterisk. The bibliography is categorised according to: region; linguistic field; phonological aspect; age of language; and various other headings. Where appropriate, books appear in more than one section.
The website of the Slovak Association for the Study of English (SKASE) is a resource for language researchers and teachers, as well as those interested in cultural studies, literature in translation and the English-speaking people of Slovakia. SKASE is a member of the European Society for the Study of English (ESSE). The Association's three electronic journals are the main features of the site: Theoretical Linguistics; Translation and Interpretation; and Literature Studies. The full-text of past volumes are available here, and calls for papers for future editions are announced. Also included are details of SKASE members' research projects and publications, as well as news of events and conferences. The material covered by the SKASE journal and projects includes: synchronic research into phonology; inflectional morphology; word-formation; lexical semantics; syntax; and psycholinguistics. The international scholars whose work is covered on the site include Kvetko Pavil, Puci JŠn, Salvadore Valera, Stanislav Kavka and Mona Baker. This is a well-presented site, which is straightforward to navigate.
The website 'Sounds Familiar? Accents and Dialects of the UK' is one of the British Library online learning resources. It is dedicated to the study of British accents and vocabularies, from a contemporary and historical perspective. Users can investigate recent trends in pronunciation, such as 'upspeak' or 'T-glottaling', or discover how the English of British Asians is influenced by their bilingual status. The resource includes a selection of over seventy audio recordings and more than 600 short audio clips from the British Library Sound Archive. Some of the materials were recorded in the 1950s and others almost half a century later, between 1998 and1999. The resource consists of five main sections: Regional Voices; Changing Voices; Your Voices; Case Studies; and Activities. The first two of these sections focus, respectively, on the regional and historical variations of English. 'Case Studies' looks into three specific English varieties: Received Pronunciation, Geordie Dialect, and the language of ethnic minorities in the UK. Suggested 'Activities' encourage users to investigate the use of English in their own communities, and 'Your Voices' provides them with an opportunity to publish their results on the site. With its interactive character and comprehensive set of audio data and their interpretations, this site is commendable to general audience interested in the subject, as well as students and researchers of linguistics, particularly phonetics and sociolinguistics.
The Speech Accent Archive is an online database containing recordings of over 600 native and non-native speakers of English reading a paragraph of text which contains most of the consonants, vowels, and clusters of standard American English. Each sample is accompanied by demographic and linguistic information about the speaker and an IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) transcription of their speech. The archive is intended for use as a teaching and research tool in order to compare different speakers of English. The site also includes details of the methodology employed; a bibliography of further reading; a clickable map showing the geographic origins of the speakers; and an inventory of native language phonetics. The authors invite the submission of further sample recordings. The site has been developed by Steven Weinberger (Department of English, George Mason University) and represents an excellent online resource for the comparative study of foreign accents.
Take Our Word For It describes itself as a bi-weekly word-origin webzine, although the site does not appear to be updated quite as regularly as this would seem to imply. The site explores English words, phrases, and grammar, tracing etymology and relating interesting facts (and opinions) regarding derivations and usage. It is popular rather than scholarly in focus, taking a light-hearted approach to its subject matter. Nevertheless, there should be enough content here to interest students of the English language. The website is divided into several sections: a Spotlight page takes a relatively in-depth look at a particular word or phrase; the Words to the Wise page answers reader's etymological enquiries; the Curmudgeons' Corner hosts rants about poor English usage; Sez You provides readers with a space to challenge the editor's judgements; and there is a laughing stock page for amusing observations. The site also hosts an online book store, a list of links, and a page on etymological theory. The theory page is fairly basic, but does offer lists of Latin and Greek roots and prefixes commonly found in English words, and a guide to Indo-European consonant groups.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'U.K. County Data, 1851-1966' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as a tab delimited text file or SPSS portable file or STATA 6 file. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. To collect social, demographic, electoral and linguistic data for each of 118 British and Irish counties in the period 1851-1966, in order to study national development in the UK and Ireland. Variables: County. Population: growth, proportion aged 65 and over, sex ratio, density, marriage rate, per capita income, proportion in agriculture/manufacturing/middle class/civil service, proportion who were female domestics. Proportion urban, city size, index of ethnic diversity, vote residual and income residual. Proportion voting Conservative, Labour, Liberal, Nationalist Party. Proportion Celtic speakers. Religiosity, literacy. Proportion of Church of England, non-conformists, Roman Catholics. Proportion English born, Welsh born, Scottish, Irish and French. Voting turnout, birth rate, infant mortality rate.
World Englishes is a journal devoted to the study of English in a global context: varieties of English around the world; language policies and language planning; language teaching methodology; and related issues. The site provides access to: the journal's contents and abstracts, starting from volume 1, issue 1, 1981; article submission information; editorial information; and a sample full-text issue. Electronic access to the full-text of articles for downloading or printing is available through service providers. Access is given to members of institutions subscribing to the print version (librarians should be able to provide further details).
The World Wide Words website is a large online resource explaining English words and phrases. The author of the site, Michael Quinion, is a word enthusiast who has written books on the subject, compiled a weekly column for a national newspaper, and contributed to the Oxford Dictionary of New Words. The website was established in 1996 and has since grown to more than 1,500 archived pages. Quinion's focus is on what words and phrases mean, where they are derived from, how they have evolved, and how they are sometimes misused. Some pages deal with issues of grammar, punctuation, and style. The site is specifically concerned with British English, although some articles are more international in scope. Those interested in etymology or new trends in English language usage should find this a fascinating site. The website is organised into sections consisting of articles, reviews, questions and answers, explanations of phrases, and weird words. There is an alphabetical browse facility and a simple search engine. The site features a pronunciation guide, explaining the principal sounds of standard British English (Received Pronunciation). There is also a good list of links. The site's author sends out a free email newsletter every week, subscription details for which are provided. The newsletter has over 20,000 subscribers.
The York-Toronto-Helsinki-Toronto Parsed Corpus of Old English Prose contains 1.5 million words of Old English prose taken from the Toronto Dictionary of Old English Corpus, with special formatting which makes it possible to search conveniently for syntactic structure using a computer search engine. The corpus is in HTML format, and can be downloaded from the Oxford Text Archive (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)). However, use of the resource is restricted, and consequently users are requested to fill in a short form on the site to gain access to the data.