The website 'Aelfric's Homilies on Judith, Esther, and the Maccabees' makes available Stuart D. Lee's electronic edition of these Old English texts. The texts themselves are reproduced in PDF format. The site also contains introductory materials including: notes; a glossary; and an extensive bibliography. The editor describes the manuscript sources for Aelfric's Homilies and also discusses questions of: authorship; style; and date of composition. There is a section on the themes of the homilies, which locates the texts in their historical and intellectual contexts. Users may need to download Anglo-Saxon fonts in order to display some of the resources correctly (a link is provided to a free source of such fonts). This site would interest those studying Old English language or religious texts.
The Anglo-Saxon Charms website consists of Old English charms in modern English translation. The charms are taken from Karen Louise Jolly's book 'Late Saxon England: Elf Charms in Context'. The translations include: a field remedy; several miscellaneous Lacnunga charms; the lay of the nine herbs and lay of the nine twigs of Woden; three Lacnunga elf charms; some leechbook elf charms; and the prayer of St. John used for snake bite in Bald's leechbook. The manuscript sources are given, but the texts are not reproduced in their original language. The site does not offer any analysis of the charms, but students of medieval English Literature or medieval history may find these interesting.
The 'Anglo-Saxon Dictionary' website provides online access to Bosworth and Toller's dictionary, which has been the primary lexical reference for study of the Anglo-Saxon language since its publication in 1898. With the sponsorship of the University of California, Berkley, the text of the dictionary can be searched in a limited way online, and also accessed via a Windows / Mac application. Both the application and the texts can be downloaded free from the website, along with images of the original printed dictionary. Also provided alongside these resources are: a list of other Middle English and Old English printed dictionaries; a guestbook; and a small section of related Web links. This is a valuable resource for both students and researchers studying Old English texts in the original language.
The "Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts in Microfiche Facsimile" (ASMMF) website provides information on this initiative, which aims to make available in an economical format the entire manuscript corpus of the Old English language. There are over 500 manuscripts in the entire series. The microfiche volumes are being published at 2-3 months intervals by the Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies at the Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies at Arizona State University, and are available by subscription or by individual volume. The website lists all the published and forthcoming volumes, the manuscripts included in the project, the libraries participating in the project, and some links to Anglo-Saxon related sites. The project also publishes its guidelines for preparing manuscript descriptions on this website. This site would be of interest to academic libraries, and to those studying or teaching Anglo-Saxon literature or history.
Anglo-Saxonists From the Sixteenth Through the Twentieth Century is an online bibliography of secondary works relating to the history of Anglo-Saxon and Old English scholarship and scholars. The bibliography is organised on a century-by-century basis, listing general works and works about specific scholars in each period. There is also a list of general studies. References are not annotated, and the compiler does not claim that the bibliography is comprehensive, although it is extensive enough to be of use to those researching the history of Anglo-Saxon scholarship.
AnsaxDAT is a searchable full-text database of postings to the Ansaxnet (Ansax-l) email discussion list. ANSAX-L is the listserv discussion group for ANSAXNET, the Anglo-Saxon Network. Discussions cover not only Old English language and literature, but also Anglo-Saxon archaeology, history, philosophy, and the arts. The archive contains postings from 1991 to the present day. Postings of interest can be marked for later printing or downloading. Unfortunately the pages surrounding the search engine are all empty so, for example, there are no instructions given for joining the Ansax-l email discussion list.
Arthurian Sources and Texts is an online collection of excerpts from primary source documents which make significant reference to King Arthur. These range from the fifth century, when Arthur may have lived, to the sixteenth century. The extent to which these sources are historically reliable as a chronicle of Arthur's existence as portrayed in the mythical terms in which he is now recognised is unclear. The site benefits from its secondary source historical contextualisation of its excerpts. All sources are footnoted. As a collection, the site would serve as a good starting point for teachers and students to explore the clearer parts of the historical chronology and its transition over time into myth, as well as the meaning of that transition. The site is run off a commercial server which prompts pop-up advertisements with each click to a new screen, which hamper navigation.
The website "ASPNS: Anglo-Saxon Plant-Name Survey" is the homepage of this project at the Institute for the Historical Study of Language, University of Glasgow. The Anglo-Saxon Plant-Names Survey (ASPNS) aims to produce a comprehensive database of these names and interpret this linguistic information within an interdisciplinary context of other humanities and sciences. Plant-names of Anglo-Saxon England survive in a variety of media, such as manuscripts and inscriptions, and are of more than linguistic interest, shedding light on a wide variety of social matters such as dialect, land-use and economy, diet, medical treatment, clothing and the wider perception of the landscape. The site provides the ASPNS annual report from 2000 onwards, downloadable in RTF format, details of the personnel working on the project and a list of plant names arranged in tabular form. These include: bushes and trees; ferns; fungi; lichen; moss; grasses and reeds; fruits and nuts; edible roots; various types of grains; spices and herbs; medicinal plants and plants yielding fibres for cloth making. Also included is the database of Latin plant-names in all their variant forms which were current in Anglo-Saxon England. The website also includes the ASPNS bibliography as well as a select but wide-ranging bibliography of general Anglo-Saxon studies (such as language and palaeography, history and archaeology but also fiction and children's literature) as well as page of weblinks. Although largely a specialist resource aimed at researchers in the historical development of the English language, the bibliographies and weblinks will also benefit students and the general public.
The Battle of Brunanburh is a website dedicated to the Old English poem of the same name. The poem appears in four of the manuscripts of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and celebrates the victory of Aethelstan and Eadmund over the Picts and Vikings at Brunanburh in 937 AD. (The actual location of Brunanburh is disputed.) The website includes the text of the poem in Old English with a modern English translation. The Old English text is hyperlinked to a glossary and notes on the grammatical constructions used. Tennyson's translation of the poem is also included, as are: a brief summary of the historical background to the poem; a paragraph on the Old English language; and a short bibliography with links to other websites. The site also provides a sketchy map of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (entitled 'A Pitiful Map'!). Two undergraduate essays on 'The Wanderer' are also provided. This site would be of interest to students of Anglo-Saxon literature.
'The Battle of Maldon' is an enthusiast website providing details on the historical battle, linking it to the Anglo-Saxon poem describing the battle. The site provides: a short introduction to the battle; a commentary and modern translation of the poem; a map of the battlefield; photographs of the area; information on the resting place of Brithnoth, the leader of the Anglo-Saxon army involved in the battle; and related links. This is an interesting site, which adds background to the poem and the battle for students of English literature and history, and would make a good introduction to the subject.
The website Beowulf in Hypertext, developed under the supervision of Dr. Anne Savage (Department Of English, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario), is an online learning aid for the study of: the Old English poem; its characters; and history. To add to the Anglo-Saxon text, the site provides: a modern English translation; notes; and a select bibliography. The 'History' section includes: an introduction to the Anglo-Saxon manuscript; its authorship; supporting archaeological evidence; and possible sources explaining the Christian traces in the poem. The 'Character' section elucidates on real characters (the: Geats; Danes; and Swedes) as well as fictional ones (Grendel and Grendel's mother). This site would be of interest to students studying the poem and its background, and Anglo-Saxon literature more generally.
The "Beowulf in Cyberspace" website is an online edition of the Old English epic poem Beowulf. A sophisticated and multimedia project, Beowulf on Steorarume contains a fully annotated text of Beowulf, along with new modern English and German translations of the poem. The editor, Benjamin Slade, also provides other relevant Old English texts such as: the Finnsburh Fragment; Waldere; Deor, and Charm Against a Sudden Stitch, for the purposes of contextualisation. Each section of the poem can be heard on an audio recording, and some sections also feature images. There are explanatory and background materials, as well as links to off-site resources.
The Beowulf Translations web site brings together various people's work on the poem, and is edited by Syd Allan, who refers to himself as a 'Beowulf hobbyist' whose labours 'are not meant for scholars'. But Allan's nicely illustrated website provides detailed information on a very impressive range of 'Beowulf'-related subject matters and is very useful to several aspects of the study of this Old English text. The site's main feature is a compilation of bibliographic and photographic information on Modern English translations, as well as: film; theatre; and comic-strip adaptations of the text. These can be accessed from the main page, either chronologically under date of publication (between 1805 and 2002) or alphabetically under author. In addition, the site offers a great number of other features, including: scans (of: nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century editions and translations; parts of the manuscript; and further illustrative material); audio-files; selections of text; and bibliographies. Mr Allan also provides elementary information (of limited but consistent scholarly value) on text-interpretation (discussion of: the contents; the genre; the manuscript; and the language), and the historical background. Finally, a major strength of this site is that it is extremely well hyper-linked, providing access to other websites and discussion groups on 'Beowulf'.
The Bibliography and Methods in Medieval Studies website is an online course outline with detailed bibliographies and links to resources for bibliographic research in medieval studies. The site is divided into sub-sections, representing the topics covered each week in the course, including: general bibliographies and Internet sources; medieval history sources; ecclesiastical sources; Latin authors and texts; interpretations of the Bible; the liturgy; hagiography; iconography; manuscript research; science; and popular culture and folklore. Each section is linked to a bibliography, covering "the major reference guides, encyclopaedias, bibliographies and electronic databases". Some of the links to electronic resources are only available to students and staff of the University of Illinois, but those that are freely available are worth looking at. There are also eight library exercises designed to train the undergraduate medievalist in the scholarly tools which make the discipline possible.
The 'Boethius in early medieval Europe' website provides an overall view of a project based at the Faculty of English, University of Oxford. The project aims to investigate understanding of late Roman culture as appropriated by Anglo-Saxons. In particular the project will focus its attention on Anglo-Saxon versions of the 'De Consolatione Philosophiae' (On the Consolation of Philosophy), by Boethius (480-c.524) and aims to publish a new edition of the Alfredian Boethius complete with glossary, commentary, and translation. The website gives details of: the project's aims; the makeup of the advisory board; and contact details for project staff. This project has received funding from the Leverhulme Trust. This site would be of interest to those researching Boethius and the transmission of his work.
A Brief Outline of Medieval English Literature is part of the San Antonio College British Literature Index, and provides a solid introduction to the principal writers and genres of the medieval period. The site begins with a section on Old English prose and poetry, providing details of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts and modern English translations. The Middle English section offers critical and biographical information on the major writers such as: Geoffrey Chaucer; William Langland; the Pearl Poet; Robert Henryson; and Thomas Malory, as well as details of their major works and links to e-texts and other relevant sites. The main strength of the site lies in its links to excellent pages, such as those concerning: the mystics Julian of Norwich and Margery Kempe; medieval lyrics; and medieval drama. This would make a good introduction to the literature of the period for undergraduate English students.
The Cambridge History of English and American Literature is the online full-text of this work, originally printed between 1907 and 1921. The encyclopedia is a broad survey of English literature from the Middle Ages to the 20th century, and comprises an extensive collection of essays on topics ranging from: poetry; fiction; drama; and essays to: history; theology; and political writing. Renaissance and Restoration drama are particular strengths of this work. The text is searchable by keyword, allowing users to find references to: specific texts; movements; and authors. The encyclopedia will be of use to students as an introduction to English and American literature in general, and also as a starting point for further research on any of the topics covered. Users should bear in mind however the age of this work, and how literary theories have progressed since its original publication.
The Centre for Medieval Studies at the University of York website is the online home of one of the UK's largest interdisciplinary centres for research into the medieval period. The website introduces the centre and its courses, as well as providing information about the various medieval research projects hosted at the University. There is also: an online directory of staff and students at the Centre; a diary of forthcoming lectures and events; and links to other relevant websites. This site would be of use to students studying or contemplating the study of the medieval period.
'A Chronological Bibliography of Books About Tolkien' is a scholarly bibliography by Ĺke Bertenstam of the Swedish Forodrim Society. His bibliography lists 711 titles that relate to the author J.R.R. Tolkien, covering materials from 1959 until 2003. It is organised by year. Works included are only those that are "about Tolkien and his writings" rather than attempting to deal with the dense undergrowth of 'Tolkienalia' such as games, comics, plays or music. There is, however, a short addendum that lists works related to film adaptations. Some entries are annotated. The bibliography also endevours to include reprinted titles. All encyclopaedias were excluded from the bibliography.
The Complete Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Poetry is a Web page that contains plain-text electronic editions of a considerable number (but not all, despite its title) of Old English poems, produced by O.D. Macrae-Gibson on the basis of Greg Hidley's original work. Initially Hindley produced texts that were collations of the electronic texts of the 'Old English corpus' held by the 'Dictionary of Old English' with the printed texts of the 'Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records'. Macrae-Gibson has revised Hindley's work on the basis of more recent updates from the 'Dictionary of Old English', as well as further collations with printed material, facsimiles and manuscript readings. The resulting website aims to make available highly reliable editions of the extant Old English texts. The site offers only texts, with no: editorial comments on the collations; notes and background information; or Modern English translation. The site would benefit from a better organised main menu and from a more user-friendly navigation, but would be of use as a abasic tool for undergraduates and graduates studying these texts in their original language.
The Dictionary of old English is the website of an electronic dictionary based on the DOEC (Dictionary of Old English Corpus) and is an ongoing project of the University of Toronto. The DOEC contains the full-texts of nearly all known Anglo-Saxon texts - from the law code issued by Athelbert of Kent (c.580-616) to the closing annal of the Old English Chronicle in 1154. Versions of texts that have been transcribed in different dialects or at different times are included in the DOEC. The corpus consists of over 3,000 documents and is available (via subscription) online. As of 2006, volumes 'A' to 'F' of the Dictionary of Old English have been completed and published, with work continuing further down the alphabet. These volumes can be bought on CD-ROM. The website does allow users to search freely for variant spellings in the Dictionary, but citations can only be viewed if the user or their institution has a subscription to the Corpus. A list of texts cited in the Dictionary (with bibliographic information) is also available free. This site would be of use to researchers working in the fields of Anglo-Saxon literature or language, but gives limited options without subscription. The corpus can be ordered via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)) on completion of the request access form.
Digital Medievalist is the website of an online community of practice for medievalists working with digital media, particularly the digital representation of historical source material. The project runs: an email discussion list to enable the sharing of experience and knowledge amongst scholars working with medieval sources in a digital environment; a refereed online journal; and a news server for calls for papers and announcements. The Project also arranges conference sessions at relevant congresses. Full texts of journal issues are available on the website, as are guidelines for contributors. The Executive Board of the project has an international membership, reflecting the scope of this area of research. The site would be of interest to researchers already in the field, and anyone considering starting a digital project using medieval sources.
'Dragons in the Sky' is an electronic book, published online by Stuart Lee of the University of Oxford. The aim of the book is to compare and contrast the beliefs, practices and attitudes of English-speaking communities at the turn of the year 2000 CE, with their Anglo-Saxon counterparts in 1000 AD. The essays published here discuss topics such as: 'The Worship of Technology'; 'Religious Icons'; fashion in both periods; 'Marriage and the Family'; 'National Identity'; and 'Attitudes to War'. The articles, while scholarly, aim to encourage popular interest in the Anglo-Saxon period through explanation of academic terminology and translation of Old English texts into modern English. This site adds a fresh perspective to the study of medieval culture, and would be of interest to researchers, students and general readers alike.
The Electronic Introduction to Old English is an online edition of the book by Peter S. Baker of the University of Virgina. The aim of the online resource is to promote interest in Old English by making information about the language widely available. The site invites readers' comments and suggestions, with the promise that any subsequent corrections will appear in the online version, and at a later date, in the printed edition. The website is divided into chapters, including: 'The Anglo-Saxons and their language'; 'The Grammar of Old English Poetry'; and 'Reading Old English Manuscripts', as well as chapters on: pronunciation; word order; basic grammar; nouns; cases; adjectives; and verbs. The chapters are preceded by an introduction to the electronic edition of the work, and details relating to system requirements and accessibility. Appendices to the main work include a bibliography and suggested further reading. This resource would be of use to English and history students wishing to read Anglo-Saxon poems and documents in their original language.
'English literature and culture from medieval period to the eighteenth century' is the work of Professor Cecilia H. C. Liu (Fu Jen University). The site compiles a wealth of introductory material on: medieval; sixteenth-century; seventeenth-century; and eighteenth-century literature, aimed explicitly at an audience of undergraduate students. Included here are resources relating to many different works and authors, such as: 'Beowulf'; Geoffrey Chaucer; William Langland; 'Sir Gawain and the green knight'; the 'Morte d'Arthure'; Thomas More; Edmund Spenser; Christopher Marlowe; William Shakespeare; Robert Herrick; John Dryden; Daniel Defoe; Jonathan Swift; and Samuel Johnson, as well as: medieval drama; ballads and lyrics. The site contains Liu's own research on the above works and authors, with some background on genres and history, and also notes and short essays written by her students. This site would be a useful tool for students learning how to read, summarise and interpret literary texts from these periods.
Fontes Anglo-Saxonici is an online database which aims to identify all written sources incorporated, quoted, translated, or adapted into all English and Latin texts written down in Anglo-Saxon England.The database contains a detailed listing of the sources of sentences and in some cases phrases occurring in both Old English and Latin texts, and as such, it is an excellent resource for an in-depth analysis of the sources of Anglo-Saxon literature. The well-organized database allows the user to search for specific passages in available works according to line numbers. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB, now Arts and Humanities Research Council AHRC) within the Research Grants scheme. The resource can also be downloaded from the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)), as a zipped file in HTML and Microsoft Access format.
This is the website of Forgotten Ground Regained - a site devoted to alliterative verse in Old English, Middle English, modern English. Forgotten Ground Regained contains translations, original texts, contemporary poetry written in alliterative styles, resources, commentaries, and links to related material. Perhaps the most interesting part of Forgotten Ground Regained is the editor's guide to alliterative poetry. Written in an engaging (yet informed) manner, the introduction explains the fundamental techniques of alliterative verse (including stress and meter), provides technical commentaries on excerpts of well-known texts, such as Beowulf, and offers advice for those wishing to write in these forms.
The Germanic Lexicon Project (formerly the Indo-European Language resources page) is a website that collects and provides access to out-of-copyright grammars and dictionaries of Germanic languages. Most of the texts digitised here date from the last decades of the nineteenth century or the first couple of decades of the twentieth. Languages covered include: Proto-Germanic; Old English; Gothic; Old High German; Middle High German; Old Saxon; Old Frisian; and Old Norse. There is also a nineteenth-century guide to the Somersetshire dialect, and a small section on non-Germanic languages. Background information for each publication is available. The featured texts were in various states of digitisation when reviewed, with several having been fully converted into HTML or XML, others existing as scanned pages. The site's editor, Sean Crist, is seeking volunteers to assist with digitisation. The site features a keyword search engine. There is also an e-mail discussion board, although this does not seem to have many regular users. This is a valuable online resource, recommended to those working on the linguistics of early Germanic languages.
The Heroic Age is a freely available, peer reviewed electronic journal concerned with the history, archaeology and literature of northwestern Europe from the end of the Roman Empire to the start of the Norman Empire. The Heroic Age aims to bring together professional historians, students, independent historians and amateurs in order to open up debate and new lines of investigation. The main geographic focus of the journal is Britain, Ireland and their North Sea neighbours. The site includes: reviews of websites and books (both fiction and non-fiction); a section on archaeological investigations; announcements; an extensive links section; and a blog. There is also an announcements list which enables registered users to receive emails about new issues, calls for papers and other relevant information. The website is straightforward to browse and the archive of past issues has a search engine. All material is presented in English.
This website details the ongoing Historical Thesaurus of English (HTE) project. It describes the project itself, how the finished work will be organised, and lists publications that have benefited from the work on the thesaurus so far. The site also provides some sample entries, such as 'beer' and 'gin'.The HTE contains English words (including Old English) from their earliest written occurrence, giving information on when they fell out of use (where appropriate and known). It is based on the New Oxford English Dictionary. The HTE is organised into three sections: the External World, the Mind, and Society. Within each section, words are ordered chronologically and semantically (not alphabetically). The HTE allows the building of models of vocabularies available at any one time, and it should be a valuable research tool for studying literary and linguistic history. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The International Society of Anglo-Saxonists (ISAS) website exists essentially to provide information on ISAS and its forthcoming conferences, and give contact details for those interested in joining the Society. The Society's constitution and history are outlined, and a membership application form is available to download. Some information is given regarding the Society's electronic mailing list, and the site also links to the "Old English Newsletter" website. Linkst to Web resources concerning Anglo-Saxon literature and period are provided on this site.
An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts provides the general reader with an excellent introduction to the manuscripts and manuscript culture of Anglo-Saxon England. Written by Michelle Brown, Curator of Illuminated Manuscripts at the British Library, it is divided into five sessions: Anglo-Saxon England and the Book; Reading and Writing the Manuscripts; Spiritual and Secular Worlds; Materials and Techniques; and Illustration and Ornament. The site is generously illustrated with a selection of images from British Library manuscripts. Some of these can be enlarged and the quality is good. Interested readers might also like Brown's seminar on the Lindisfarne Gospels (MS Cotton Nero D.iv), which is also part of the Fathom site. This resource would be of use to those beginning to study western manuscripts, and those interested in medieval studies.
This website is an introduction to traditional grammar for students of medieval literature. Written and edited by Dr Bella Millet of Southampton University, the site seeks to present the varieties of medieval grammar in an historically contextualised manner. The site is divided into two main sections: basic grammar (that is, modern grammar) - for example, syntax and parts of speech; Old English - basic grammar equivalents in Old English.There is also a very useful index of grammatical terms, complete with links to explanations and examples.
Junicode (short for Junius-Unicode) is a Unicode font for medievalists which contains over 1,4000 characters including: runic; phonetic; and a range of special characters in the Unicode Private Use Area requested by the Society for Early English and Norse Electronic Texts. The font is made freely available under an Open Source Software licence for Windows, Linux and Macintosh. Documentation is also available. The developer of the font is Peter S. Baker, lecturer in Old English at the University of Virginia.
King Alfred's Grammar Book is an online guide to the Old English language spoken by the Anglo-Saxon inhabitants of Britain from the sixth to the eleventh centuries. It does not aim to be a comprehensive grammar, but it is nevertheless a fairly extensive introductory work, which should prove helpful to students new to Old English, as well as those who would like a refresher course on the language. The site is constructed like a printed book, with: an introduction; chapters; appendix; and glossaries, and is intended to familiarise students with the basic characteristics of Old English: its history; alphabet; pronunciation; and grammar. Within the book are then sixteen 'chapters' covering the specific parts of speech and pointing out things to look for when translating. These are supplemented with an appendix on sound changes and glossaries of grammar terms and Old English words. Presentation is plain but clear, and the content is well structured, with hyperlinks connecting different paragraphs to assist reference.
The Labyrinth Library: Old English literature website provides access to Anglo-Saxon texts. The site includes: poetry; prose; and liturgical texts in the original language. The site also has a section on contemporary composition in Old English and another section on reference works. This website forms part of the Labyrinth Library: Resources for medieval studies from Georgetown University. The Labyrinth Library was set up with the objective of providing free organised access to electronic resources on medieval studies via the World Wide Web. It is possible to search the Labyrinth Library as a whole using either a basic or an advanced search.
This online project makes available material relating to rural England over a thousand years ago. The LangScape project provides detailed descriptions of the landscape (boundary clauses) drawn up by contemporary Anglo-Saxon land surveyors. The project is one of many produced within the Centre for Computing in the Humanities (CCH) at King's College in London and provides a powerful research resource with broad application for research and public use.
The Learning Old English website provides a teach-yourself guide to the Old English language. It was created in response to a perceived lack of a simple and practical learning guide for beginners without a sound prior knowledge of grammar. Although the guide is work in progress, most sections are now complete. It begins with a general introduction to the origins and characteristics of the language, and proceeds to give pronunciation guidelines and the basics of Old English grammar. The focus of the course is on how words and constructions are generally used in practice, with exceptions and idiosyncrasies left to the later stages. Undergraduates struggling with the standard Mitchell and Robinson guide may wish to try this course to supplement their knowledge.
The Lindisfarne Gospels website is the work of the British Library, and gives a brief introduction to the Gospels manuscript. The manuscript was created between 715 and 720 on the island monastery of Lindisfarne, and is written in Latin but also includes the oldest surviving translation of the Gospels into Old English. The site gives a brief overview of the Gospels and their history, and some contextual historical information. There is also a link to the British Library's 'Turning the Pages' Web pages, where users can access high quality images of some pages from the Gospels. This last involves the use of Shockwave, and knowledge of connection speed in order to work effectively. This resource would be of interest to beginners studying medieval manuscripts, or the more general reader.
The MANCASS C11 database project is an online database of scripts and variant Old English spellings in eleventh century manuscripts and texts. The project is based at the Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies (MANCASS), University of Manchester and funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). At present the manuscript catalogue contains details of more than 250 eleventh century manuscripts written in English from 47 major collections worldwide, and more additions are being planned. The database offers sophisticated tools for palaeography and spelling analysis. At the top level the database can be searched either by using an index of the collections included in it or an index of the manuscript shelfmarks. The database operates with concepts such as: sequences; sequence spelling; scriptors; item heading or incipit; and item spelling; many of which provide image-based points of access into the catalogue. C11 is a sophisticated specialist palaeographical and linguistic tool of great value to scholars of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts and texts.
The 'Marginalia' journal website is part of a larger site also called 'Marginalia', which is the home of the Medieval Reading Group at Cambridge University. This peer-reviewed journal is published and edited by postgraduate students of medieval studies, with the assistance of an advisory board of established academics. The editors invite submissions of long papers and shorter notices on any aspect of the Middle Ages in England within the broad period from 500 CE to 1500 CE. All articles are based on original research. The publication also includes book reviews. This journal showcases new work being undertaken by young researchers, and will be of interest to students and scholars of medieval studies in all disciplines. The first edition of the journal, with the theme of 'Margins', appeared in 2005. Published papers available on the site include: 'The marginalization of John Lydgate'; 'The participation of women in the fourteenth-century manor court of Sutton-in-the-Hole'; 'A previously unidentified fragment of 'Pearce the Black Monke upon the Elixir' in MS. Mellon 43'; 'The hem of whose garment? Intertextual allusion in Osbern of Canterbury's Miracles of St Dunstan'; and 'Museums and medieval material culture'. The contents of the journal are presented as simple Web pages, with hypertext links to footnotes. The site also includes notes for contributors and links to other online journals.
Medieval Forum is an online journal concerned with providing an arena for discussion on aspects of medieval studies. Edited by Professor George Tuma and Dinah Hazell of San Francisco State University, the website provides full-text access to the articles in all of its annual volumes, starting in 2002 and running to 2007, which touch on: Icelandic sagas; Old English literature; the Bible; and Chaucer, among other subjects. As of 2007 the journal has ceased to call for new submissions, and there are no new volumes planned. Interdisciplinary and historical in emphasis, the resources on the Medieval Forum website remain of interest to students of medieval English literature, history and theology. Contact details for previous contributors are provided.
Despite its broad title, Prof. Kelly's Medieval Literature and Culture website focuses entirely on the study of Old and Middle English literature, and reflects the contents and structure of Prof. Kelly's university course in medieval English literature. As such, the site provides practical reading lists on a number of topics: the 'idea of history'; travel literature; the medieval perception of the body; and religious writings. There are also hyper-links to a great number of primary texts (and modern English translations) of: medieval romances; lyrics; and prose. These primary texts are frequently hosted on other websites. The site has a pleasant lay-out (including some illustrative picture material) and benefits from a very straightforward navigation. However, the 'medieval' font used for the main menu page may cause somewhat uncomfortable reading. On the whole, the main strength of this site is its providing and systematizing links to primary texts, whereas its other features generally only offer minimal information and depend upon elaboration in a teaching context.
Medievalists.net is a website offering news and resources relating to all aspects of medieval studies. The site is aimed at anyone interested in the medieval period, from academics to interested readers, to re-enactors and beyond. The site provides resources or links under different headings, including: news (stories in the media with medieval connections); books; videos; academia; fiction; movies; music; blogs; travel; and games. By far the largest and most varied of these is the 'articles' section, which provides a large database of interdisciplinary academic articles, each tagged by subject and keywords for easier browsing using the site's 'Subject Guide' (the site can also be searched in its entirety by keyword). Subjects covered include: archaeology; art history; literature (several languages); drama; demography; and economics. The database is a work in progress, with over 400 articles already at the time of writing, some available as PDF files and others as text. Videos of a number of academic lectures on various subjects are also available, as are links to book reviews and information on courses in medieval subjects worldwide. This is a varied and interesting resource, covering a wide scope of subject areas.
This resource is available via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website, and can be downloaded as a zipped file, available in plain text, C programming language and HTML format. It is necessary to apply for approval from the OTA before download, and a link is provided to the terms and conditions of use, and a form to apply for permission. The publication is based on texts made available by the OTA (Macrae-Gibson, O.D., and J.R. Lishman “Computer assistance in the analysis of Old English metre : methods and results - a provisional report” in Poetics in the early Middle Ages : essays in honour of C.B. Hieatt. M.J. Toswell, ed., 1995; and Macrae-Gibson, O.D., and J.R. Lishman. - “Variety of Old English metre usage”. - (Neuphilolgische Mitteilungen), 1999.)
The Mythopoeic Society is a scholarly "organization for the study, discussion, and enjoyment of fantastic and mythic literature, especially the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, and Charles Williams." The Society publishes the monthly newsletter 'Mythprint', and the irregular peer-reviewed scholarly journal 'Mythlore'. Tables of contents, submission and subscription details are available for 'Mythlore', which is only available in print form. The Mythopoeic Society has held an annual conference since 1970, and details of these are available. There are external Web links to useful websites, including the websites of members. The website contains a concise 'Beginner's Bibliography of the Inklings'.
The excellent Old English Aerobics website uses a Java program designed to test students' knowledge of Old English (Anglo-Saxon) grammar. The site provides exercises on: cases; pronouns; nouns; verbs; adjectives; adverbs; and syntax; as well as on Old English student favourites such as i-mutation. Additional exercises are planned for metre and poetics. As well as the tests, the site also links to the 'Old English Aerobics Anthology' Web pages, which provide a number of full texts of Old English poems and prose, including: 'The Dream of the Rood'; 'The Story of Caedmon'; 'The Wanderer'; 'The Wife's Lament' and 'The Life of Aethelthryth' by Aelfric. The Old English Aerobics site is currently being re-written to accompany Peter S. Baker's 'Introduction to Old English', and can be accessed as part of the University of Virginia's Old English Resources website, together with the Anthology and a glossary. This site will be of great use to students starting to learn Anglo-Saxon, or to researchers who wish to brush up on their language skills.
Old English at the University of Calgary is a website that provides teaching materials for an online course in Old English language and literature (401) taught by Murray McGillivray. Students may register (and pay the course fee) if they wish to receive personal tuition, undertake assessed work,and receive credits. The central objective of the course is to enable students to read any Old English prose with the aid of a dictionary. The course site includes: information about the course; a menu of lessons; a wide selection of set texts; further lessons on grammar; and a short selection of related links. As the course advances students are also encouraged to use a Java-based flashcard system to assist the learning of vocabulary and grammar; and to translate sentences either from modern to old English or vice versa (also Java-based with instant feedback). The set texts for this course include: The Story of Abraham and Isaac; Ælfric's Colloquy; Bede's Account of the Poet Cćdmon; and Cynewulf and Cyneheard. A selection of texts used in a sister course (Old English 403) is also available.
This website is a specialised research tool for linguists and students of textual editions of Old English manuscripts. Graphotactics is defined by Professor Robert D. Stevick, the author of the website, as 'the incidence and measure of spacings between strings of written symbols of a text, where both the graphic symbols and the spacings carry linguistic information'. In its present state, the website contains the analysis of two manuscripts: Beowulf (British Library Cotton Vitellius Axv, fols. 132-201v), and Alexander's Letter (British Library Cotton Vitellius Axv, fols. 107-131v). Other manuscripts are in progress. The study of each manuscript is broken down into several analytical sections, each being a separate PDF file.
The Old English Course Pack website is designed to help students (primarily undergraduates) study some of the more popular Old English texts in their original language. The pack includes primary texts of: 'The Wanderer'; 'The Dream of the Rood'; and parts of 'Beowulf' among others, together with: running glossaries and notes; reading lists; translations; and contextual information. The site is hosted by the English Faculty at the University of Oxford and is part of a project funded by the Higher Education Academy's English Subject Centre. UK academics can download a version of this site for their own use, but need to credit the original project when doing so. Some users may find the site's dependence on the use of frames a problem.
This handy website, compiled by John Herrington and hosted by Georgetown University, provides a short introduction to Anglo-Saxon manuscripts written in, or containing, Old English. Introductory matter is kept to a minimum, however, since the main purpose of the site is to provide an Excel spreadsheet which aims to list all the available facsimiles of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Nevertheless, users will find information on: the historical background of Old English manuscripts; Facsimilies of manuscripts; and instructions on using the database. N. R. Ker's 'Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon' (Oxford, 1957) is the cornerstone of this database. Manuscripts are listed by Ker number, perhaps slightly confusingly, in three sequences. Each entry contains the pressmark, the major contents of the manuscript, author (if known) and approximate date. Lastly, there is a reference to the facsimile. The spreadsheet also includes a listing by by date. This tool is extremely useful for tracking down manuscript surrogates, a task which can be time-consuming and frustrating. The spreadsheet is offered in versions for Excel 4.0 and 5.0.
The Old English Martyrology website contains an extensive annotated bibliography for use in the study of the 9th-century text of the same name. The site includes: indices for saints, feasts, and persons named in the manuscript; criticism on the dating and sources of composition for the text; and research on its language, style and historical importance in terms of earlier Anglo-Saxon hagiography. It was originally compiled as a guide to the extensive work on the sources of the Old English Martyrology by the late James E. Cross, of the University of Liverpool, but the bibliography now supersedes his work, covering publications on all aspects of the text. It should be noted however that the compiler of the bibliography suggests that it be used in conjunction with the 'Fontes Anglo-Saxonici' database, which gives more detail on specific saints. This resource would be of interest to students and scholars in the fields of Old English, manuscript studies and the history of religion.
The online version of the Old English Newsletter (OEN) contains a wealth of information for scholars engaged in Anglo-Saxon studies. The website includes the material published in the print version of the newsletter (launched in 1967) and the annual 'Bibliography and Year's Work in Old English Studies'. The newsletter section includes news on: upcoming events and conferences; project reports; and abstracts of recent books in the field. Each issue includes a selection of essays, which are freely available in full online. There is also an archive of past articles and reports, dating back to 2000. The site provides categorized links to websites relating to various aspects of Old English studies. The second major part of this site is the OEN cumulative bibliography of Anglo-Saxon studies, begun by Carl Berkhout of the University of Arizona in 1975. The bibliography contains over 16,000 entries. Various search options are available, but access is restricted to registered subscribers. Subscription is free, and details are provided on the site. The site would have a broad appeal to scholars working in: Old English language; literature; history; or culture.
The Online Corpus of Old English Poetry is the work of Dr Murray McGillivray of the University of Calgary. The aim of the project is to make online texts of all extant Anglo-Saxon poems available to students and researchers, with glosses and annotations. The Project began in 2005, and at the time of writing is still a work in progress. Most of the texts made available through the site are taken directly from the Labyrinth online Library at Georgetown University, and appear as plain texts with no glosses. A few of the poems have been glossed, or are in the process of being annotated, including: the Battle of Maldon; Beowulf; Deor; and the Dream of the Rood. The site also describes the project and its aims, as well as providing a 'frequently asked questions' section.
The Electronic Beowulf is an image-based facsimile edition of the sole extant 11th-century manuscript of the Old English poem, held by the British Library. The electronic edition is edited by Kevin Kiernan of the University of Kentucky and published on CD-ROM by British Library Publications and the University of Michigan Press. The online guide to Electronic Beowulf reproduces the complete help documentation from the CD-ROMS, together with: information about the history of the project; a selection of online articles; and associated links. The online articles cover the technical aspects of the project, including: constructing a glossary; digital restoration of the text; and image processing. This site would be of use to anyone working on a similar project, and also to students and researchers in the fields of manuscript studies and medieval literature.
The Online Medieval Sources website provides a searchable bibliography of texts written in the Middle Ages, including: private letters; wills; household accounts; literary works; philosophical treatises; chronicles; court proceedings; and church records, which are available in printed or electronic form. The database is easily navigated using the comprehensive search form that gives help on: subject headings; record types; and medieval authors. The database entries themselves provide detailed information on the works cited, including: contents; genre; archival reference; and language, as well as hyperlinks to any online sources. The database would be invaluable to researchers and students working on history or literature of the medieval period.
The Online Old English Paradigm Project (OOEPP) is an online tool for students learning Old English. It is designed to supplement existing handbooks, and assumes a certain level of knowledge of grammar, or the availability of other resources to enable this. The OOEPP consists of a number of exercises (using Flash) dealing with: pronouns; nouns; adjectives; and verbs. The site aims to train students to learn to college-level introductory Old English course. This is a useful addition to the resources already available to students.
'The Oxford Companion to English Literature', is a full text reference source, offered online by eNotes. The version offered appears to be the full version of the 6th Edition edited by Margaret Drabble, dating from 2000 and containing over 8,300 entries presented in a simple A-Z manner. It can also be searched by keyword. The Companion offers short author biographies, summaries of stories, novels and poems, and outline descriptions of various movements and genres in literature. No user registration appears to be required to use this resource, but only part of entries is available free. For full access to the content of the Companion a monthly or annual fee is required; access is in plain HTML format.
The Paris Prose resource is an online electronic edition of the first fifty Latin psalms in the Paris Psalter (MS Bibliothčque Nationale fonds latin 8824) and their Old English translations, developed by Richard Stracke and published by Augusta State University. The Latin and Old English texts are shown side by side, with accompanying notes, in tabular and non-tabular form (non-tabular for older Web browsers). The edition also gives a detailed introduction to the manuscript and the texts of the psalms, including a section on the relationship of the text to the Gallican and Roman psalter traditions. Tables demonstrate where the Old English text prefers to follow the Roman, Paris or a variant psalter text. A detailed glossary of Old English words and names with links back to the text is also provided. This would be a useful resource for students of Old English language or literature.
The Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England (PASE) website is the home of the project of the same name, which is based at the Department of History and Centre for Computing in the Humanities at Kings College London. The project was originally funded (2000-2004) by the Arts and Humanities Research Board and has continued to be funded (2005-2008) by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. There are subsequently two phases, which cover the early and the high middle ages. The project aims to provide a register of all recorded inhabitants of Anglo-Saxon England, and to compile as much biographical data on them as is possible from extant sources. The website is well designed and easy to navigate and links directly to the database, which holds over 11,000 records. The database can be entered in a number of ways, by choosing a topic of interest, including: persons; sources; events; locations; status; offices; and occupations. The range of browsing options then varies according to the topic. The user can then access citations and lines of text that refer to the topics chosen. This database would be of use to scholars of Anglo-Saxon and social history. The project website contains plenty of information about the historical and technical aspects of PASE, setting out the context, objectives and methodology of the project, together with information on relevant conferences and publications.
The Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies is an institution devoted to advanced study 'of the material and intellectual cultures of the Middle Ages'. The Institute is affiliated with the University of Toronto, and has its own library which houses an important collection of medieval resources, including microfilmed copies of more than 450 manuscripts, and papal letters stored at the Vatican. The PIMS website provides information on the Institute and its research, as well as the library and its resources. Of interest to researchers and students of medieval studies is the 'Engines of Electronic Enterprise' section, which comprises an extensive collection of Web links relating to the field, and information on PIMS publications.
The production and use of English manuscripts 1060 to 1220 is the website for the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) funded project of the same title. The project intends to 'identify, analyse and evaluate all manuscripts containing English written in England between 1060 and 1220'. A collaboration between the Universities of Leeds and Leicester, the project aims to produce a corpus of material in order to address fundamental questions about the evolution of medieval English textual culture. The project will also analyse the manuscripts': place of origin; contents; audience; and reasons why they were written. The status of written English in relation to French and Latin will also be addressed. The site provides information on activities and publications by the Project and its team, as well as a catalogue of manuscripts, an online newsletter archive, and a related bibliography. The work of this project would be of interest to researchers and students of: linguistics; manuscripts studies; and English.
The Richard Rawlinson Center is the website of the main research centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies and manuscript research at the Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University. The Center's website is mainly an information site offering: details about seminars run by the centre; links to associated research and publication projects; links to other subject-related websites; and information on current research. The site also hosts a full-text electronic version of Introduction to Old English by Peter S. Baker (originally published in 2003) which would be of interest to students of Anglo-Saxon language and literature.
"St. Mary of Egypt in BL ms Cotton Otho B. x" is a full-text online version of an MA thesis of the same title, submitted to the University of Kentucky by Linda Cantara in 2001 and supervised by Kevin Kiernan. The subject of the thesis is the anonymous Old English prose Life of St. Mary of Egypt, in particular the fragmentary text contained within the severely damaged Otho B. x. manuscript of the British Library's Cotton collection. Using high-resolution digital facsimiles (which in turn were created in conjunction with ultraviolet fluorescence) the author contends that Otho B. x. contains textual evidence not present in other versions of the work (e.g. BL MS Cotton Julius E. vii). The thesis examines the textual history and current scholarship of the text and, in part three, presents new textual evidence illustrated with excerpts from the digital images of the manuscript folios. A list of figures and works cited are also included. This is a fascinating piece of work, which should be of intererst to those studying Old-English literature and medieval manuscripts.
Stuart D. Lee's podcasts webpage contains his lectures on Old English literature in context (delivered to Oxford University), readings from Beowulf and the Anlgo-Saxon Chronicle, and audio guidebooks to the Anglo-Saxon holdings of the British Library and the British Museum. Each of the podcasts is available to download or listen to online in MP3 format.
The lectures themselves are well delivered and accessible, although the medium does not do justice to the visual aids used. They are pitched at an undergraduate audience approaching Old English for the first time. The sound quality is not crisp, but perfectly audible. The readings from key texts alternate between old and modern English, and are accompanied by useful introductions.
The audio guidebooks are intended to be used by visitors to the British Library and British Museum. They are designed to be downloaded to MP3 players and then played and paused as the visitor walks around the exhibitions.
The content of the website is liable to change as new lectures are added and older ones deleted.
The TEAMS website is the online home of the Consortium for the Teaching of the Middle Ages. The organization was founded by the Medieval Academy of America to support the teaching activities of its members and is now a non-profit organisation supporting the teaching of medieval studies at all educational levels. TEAMS projects include: the publication of a series of teaching texts in association with the University of Western Michigan's Medieval Institute Publications; the maintenance of an online textual archive of the literature of the Middle Ages; and outreach work with secondary schools. Details of all these activities are published on the site. The online teaching resources for primary and secondary educators are amongst the most useful features of this site. Resources include detailed lesson plans for teaching different age groups, providing: a checklist of equipment needed; a glossary of key vocabulary for each unit; and suggestions for evaluating pupil performance during each task. Activities for younger children include: music; movement; and re-enactment exercises. Online texts are accompanied by an introduction and suggestions for further reading. There is also a comprehensive bibliography on the site.
The Wanderer is an online edition of the Anglo-Saxon poem of that title, put together by Tim Romano (Swarthmore, Pennsylvania)) and based on digital images taken from the facsimile published by: R. W. Chambers; M. Förster; and R. Flower in 1933. The design of the website enables simultaneous viewing of: the original manuscript page: the Old English transcription; and related palaeographical notes (the latter obtained by clicking anywhere on the manuscript image). The editor also provides a glossary of Old English, with grammatical forms found in the text. There is also: a commentary; bibliography; and a free translation of the poem. This would be a useful resource for students studying Anglo-Saxon literature in the original language.
The Thesaurus of Old English (TOE) is a searchable online resource, based on a thesaurus first published in print by King's College London in 1995. The site is hosted by the University of Glasgow and creation of the electronic resource was originally funded by the British Academy. The site allows users to search by Old English or modern English words, as well as browsing by TOE category headings from the print version (either alphabetically or by the order they appear in print). Part-word searches in Old English are particularly useful, as are the flags which indicate whether words are infrequently used or mainly used in Old English poetry rather than prose. This site would be of use to university students and researchers making linguistic studies of Old English texts.
TOEBI (Teachers of Old English in Britain and Ireland) is the website of an association that supports the teaching of Old English at university level. The website provides: details of how to join and participate in the work of the association; a list of Old English courses; and details of associated events and publications. A secondary aim of the website is to provide information on materials relating to teaching Anglo-Saxon: language; literature; and culture. Links and suggestions for language-teaching resources include sections on: course books and grammars; dictionaries; online teaching modules; and recordings. The association also suggests further background reading, and provides links to resources relating to: Old English texts in the original; other organisations; research projects; and museums and Anglo-Saxon sites.
'Uncovering Old English Texts' is a website designed by Professor Susan Oldrieve of Baldwin-Wallace College, Ohio, together with students of her undergraduate course on Anglo-Saxon translation. The aim of the site is to provide access to translations of Old English texts and research by Oldrieve and her students, for the use of other undergraduates. The site provides student translations of a number of well known poems, including: 'The Wanderer'; 'Deor'; 'The Battle of Maldon'; and 'The Wife's Lament', as well as an 'Introduction to Anglo-Saxon Life' and translations of: 'The Battle of Maldon'; 'Exodus'; 'Genesis B'; and 'The Wife's Lament' by Professor Oldrieve. Each translation has its own preface, usually written by the translator. A number of useful Old-English-related links are also provided.
This is the website of the Cambridge department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic (ASNC). ASNC covers 'the history, material culture, languages, and literatures of the various peoples who inhabited the British Isles and Scandinavia in the early Middle Ages'. The Resources section will be particularly valuable to teachers and students, with extensive sections with links to images and facsimiles of texts, for example. This website is a useful resource for anyone interested in the subject area,
Voice of the Shuttle : Anglo-Saxon and Medieval is an annotated list of Web links relating to the study of medieval English literature. The links are part of the University of California's Voice of the Shuttle online database, which provides extensive links for teaching and learning in humanities subjects. The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval section is divided for easier browsing by themes, including: general resources; 'Authors and Anonymous Works'; 'Manuscripts and Manuscript Study'; journals; newsgroups; courses and teaching resources; and conferences. This resource would be of great interest to those studying medieval English literature or manuscripts.
The Wanderer Project is an online resource that examines the Anglo-Saxon poem 'The Wanderer' both in the original language and in translation. The project is the work of Dr Rick McDonald of Utah Valley University, and is one of a number of medieval English language resources provided on his home page. The site provides images from the Exeter Book manuscript of the poem, as well as four modern English translations of the text (including one by the author of the site). Also available are: readings of the text (as wav files); a glossary; and a 'poetic transcription' of the original Anglo-Saxon text. This resource would be of use to University students studying Anglo-Saxon literature and language.
The 'What Every Medievalist Should Know' (WEMSK) website consists of an extensive annotated bibliography covering all aspects of medieval studies. It is intended for graduate students rather than specialists, although undergraduates may find it useful as well. Everything from 'Mechanics in the Middle Ages' to 'Old Church Slavic Literature' is covered, with topics being posted on a weekly basis. The site is divided into the weeks on which the topics were added, and then according to specific topic area. Topics can also be browsed alphabetically. Each topic is introduced with recommended starting reading and helpful remarks as to where to take one's studies from there, with sub-lists for specific fields within the overall topic. Each topic page concludes with links to other electronic resources. This is a site with clear aims, which it addresses admirably. The new graduate student beginning research in any aspect of medieval life or literature will find direction and useful starting points here.
Wulfstan's Eschatological Homilies is a website containing translations of the five eleventh-century Anglo-Saxon homilies on the 'Last Days' by the eleventh-century Archbishop Wulfstan of York. As well as the texts, the site contains critical commentaries, historical material on the genesis of the manuscripts, source information and discussion of related texts - such as those of Augustine, Bede and Aelfric. Users are provided with translations of the source texts, and glossed versions of the homilies. A detailed bibliography of the texts used in the editing process is on the site, and there is also a search tool for textual analysis. This site would be of use to students of medieval theology, manuscripts and history.
The York Poetry Corpus is an annotated selection of Old English poetic texts from the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts. It contains 71,490 words; the size of the corpus is approximately 2.5 megabytes. It is funded by an ESRC grant.The York Poetry Corpus is a part of a larger project aiming to produce syntactically annotated corpora for all stages of the English language. It is intended for students and scholars studying the history of the English language. The Corpus is freely available for educational and research purposes. Viewing the manuals is unrestricted, but the texts themselves may be viewed after filling out an access request form. The York Poetry Corpus can also be ordered via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)), upon completion of a request form.
The York-Toronto-Helsinki-Toronto Parsed Corpus of Old English Prose contains 1.5 million words of Old English prose taken from the Toronto Dictionary of Old English Corpus, with special formatting which makes it possible to search conveniently for syntactic structure using a computer search engine. The corpus is in HTML format, and can be downloaded from the Oxford Text Archive (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)). However, use of the resource is restricted, and consequently users are requested to fill in a short form on the site to gain access to the data.