The Virtual Library of Andalusia is a project by the government of the Spanish region of Andalusia to digitalise resources available at public libraries and archives in this region. It brings together documents from the medieval period to the present in a wide variety of formats. The library is organised in several sections, according to resource types: manuscripts; incunabula; periodical publications; images (including engravings; drawings; and photographs); and maps. In addition to this there is an archive of sound and video files which includes popular songs; poetry readings; and short movies. Although each section can be browsed as a separate unit, users may search the whole library using several options available. There are also dedicated sections to several authors including: Juan Valera; Luis de Góngora; and the Jewish mystic Ibn Paqūda.
'Casa Shalom' is a research institute dedicated to the study of Spanish Jewish history, specially after the expulsion of 1492 when secret Sephardic Jews (marranos, or Anusim) continued to live in the country. The institute's website will be of interest to anyone interested in this part of Jewish history, as it offers bibliographies of published studies (some of which can be requested online to the institute). 'Casa Shalom' publishes a journal, and lists of contents for all issues can be accessed on the site too. Articles published here include studies on: the Ladino language; Sephardic Jewish history; and Jewish literature. News and membership information are also provided.
'Folk Literature of the Sephardic Jews' is a multimedia online archive of ballads and oral literature in Judeo-Spanish. The collection was amalgamated between 1957 and 1993 by Samuel G. Armistead, Joseph H. Silverman, and Israel J. Katz. Site visitors can listen to initial transcriptions or entire recordings from an online audio archive of ballads (RealPlayer needed). Users gain access to them by means of lists sorted either by date or place of recording. Lyrics are helpfully displayed as the recording plays. The site also offers a linked list of known ballad titles as well as a linked catalogue of folk literature genres other than ballads under the following categories: endecha; liturgy; lyric song; proverb; story; vocabulary; and wedding song. In most instances, English translations are not provided. There is a search engine available, and contributors are named in an alphabetical list with their countries of origin ranging from Morocco, Greece, Turkey and Israel. The site also includes short introductory essays about history and forms of Sephardic oral literature, and the oral literature of the Hispanic world more generally. These include short bibliographies. Unfortunately, this outstanding resource could have been greatly enhanced by more detailed explanations of the historical and cultural context and significance of these ballads within Jewish, European and Mediterranean history. Nonetheless, this resource provides important access to a dying tradition, and should be of great assistance to scholars working in the field.
The Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture (FASSAC) aims to preserve and promote the ancient culture of the Sephardic communities of Turkey, Greece, the Balkans, Europe and the United States. The first of two core resources on the website is a section devoted to Sephardic heritage, featuring: a historical overview of Sephardic communities; family genealogy; a collection of academic papers and other articles; and FASSAC's digital archives of Sephardica. The latter include, for example, the Amsterdam Haggadah from 1695; the Abarbanel Commentary on Prophet Daniel; and the Tehillim (Psalms) from 15th Century Spain. The second pillar of the site is a series of resources relating to Ladino, the Judeo-Spanish language which originated after the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492. The site also features further details of the Foundation and its publications, and general background information pertaining to Sephardic studies.
Hispania Judaica is a research group at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem dedicated to the study of the history of Jews and 'conversos' in the Iberian Peninsula. The project covers both the period before and after the expulsion of 1492. The website for Hispania Judaica offers information about all the activities organised by this research group, as well as their publications. Apart from a series of monographs and documentary collections in English on the subject, the research group publishes a bulletin. Although the full-contents for the bulletin are not available online, the site provides the tables of contents for current and past issues since 1998. Hispania Judaica has also a library,providing a comprehensive bibliography of books and periodicals, which may be extremely useful for the study of Sephardic Jewish history (available in .pdf format).
The virtual library Gonzalo de Berceo has made available the website 'Inquisición Española' (Spanish Inquisition), which brings together a large number of articles on the most important aspects of the history of the institution. They are written by some of the most prominent Spanish historians, and therefore quality is assured. Some of the titles include: 'The Spanish Inquisition' by José Antonio Escudero; 'The Trial Process' by Francisco Tomás y Valiente; 'The Jewish Question' by Antonio Domínguez Ortíz; and 'The Inquisition and the Moriscos' by Julio Caro Baroja. In addition to this, there are some articles on Medieval heresies and the Inquisition as an European institution. Articles are illustrated throughout with images of Francisco de Goya's 'Caprichos'. The large number of articles, as well as their quality, represents an important resource for all those interested in the Inquisition (Spanish and European) and heresy.
'Medieval Sourcebook: Iberia' is an online resource by the Internet History Sourcebooks Project. It offers an annotated list of primary resources for the study of medieval Spain and Portugal organised in several sections: archives; Visigothic Spain; Al-Andalus-Moorish Spain; the 'Reconquista'; Leon and Castile; Aragon; Portugal; the life of Christian Spain; and Sefarad: Jewish Spain. A lot of the resources are hosted locally, but for those which are external links the site does not guarantee full functioning. Only English translations of the texts are offered. Some of the resources available include: the Visigothic Code (forum iudicum); an anthology of the poetry of the Spanish Moors; the Chronicle of the Cid; Argonese laws; Legend of Santiago; and an account by an Italian Jew of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain. The resource will be useful for students and lecturers of Iberian studies looking for English versions of primary source documents from the medieval period.
The Pan-Hispanic Ballad Project website brings together a number of databases containing essential materials for students and researchers of Pan-Hispanic Balladry, or the Romancero. By Pan-Hispanic the site is referring to the: Castilian; Catalan; Galician; Jewish-Spanish; Luso-Portuguese; and Basque linguistic and geographical areas. At the time of cataloguing, two databases were available on the site. The first is a bibliographic database, containing details of published books, journal articles, essays, dissertations, and musical recordings related to the field. Searches may be carried out author, date, ballad title, geography, genre and so on. The second database is a large corpus of representative Ballads documented worldwide since the 15th century, and may be searched under similar categories. In this database, the user may also search from a variety of subsets such as: the Galician; Luso-Brazilian; Segovian; Leonese; and Cantabrian Ballad traditions. This database provides the full-text of ballads, metadata and in some cases audio recordings too. Extensive information and advice on searching the databases is provided. The project is also undertaking the compilation of a cartographic display of primary and secondary material, and digitized reproductions of original oral performances and their musical notation. These should be added to the site in due course. This clearly navigable site (in both Spanish and English) is an immensely valuable reference resource for anyone studying pan-Hispanic balladry.
BIMUS is the Spanish network of museum libraries created by the Ministry of Culture in order to centralise the services offered by the libraries of eighteen museums and arts institutes, such as: Museo Arqueológico Nacional; Museo del Greco; Museo Sefardí; Museo de América; Museo Sorolla; and Museo Nacional de Teatro. The website grants access to the collective catalogue of resources. Although materials have not been digitised, the catalogue will be useful for researchers of Spanish art history; theatre studies; and Latin American Studies. Search options include the possibility of browsing: periodic publications; historical documents (prior 1956); and new acquisitions. There is also the possibility of accessing other museum libraries' catalogues around the world.
The website 'Sefarad' brings together a large number of resources about the culture and history of the Jewish-Spanish population. The history section analyses the evolution of the Jewish community in the Iberian peninsula since Antiquity to their expulsion in 1492. The decree by the 'Reyes Católicos' ordering the expulsion and some historical analyses of this event are also offered on the site. Introductory texts to Hebrew have been made available, along with audio files of a short story in 'ladino', the language of the Jewish-Spanish people, and songs. The 'curiosidades' section is a miscellanea of documents analysing the life and culture of the Jewish-Spanish community in the present time. This is a very good site which gives an overview of the crucial relationship there is between Jewish and Spanish history and society.
Sefarad is a Spanish-published peer-reviewed journal of Hebrew, Sephardic, and Near East studies. Appearing twice a year, this publication offers articles and book reviews on topics including: ancient Middle Eastern languages and cultures; philology and textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible; philology and linguistics of the Hebrew and Aramaic languages; the history and culture of the Jews in Spain; and the language, literature, and cultural creativity of the Sephardim. The articles are chiefly in Spanish or English, with occasional pieces in other languages; book reviews are generally in Spanish only. The journal first appeared in 1941, though only the most recent issues (2006 onwards) are available via the website. For six months after publication, material is available solely to subscribers to the print edition of the journal; thereafter, it is freely accessible by all.
Focusing on the music of the Jewish community that has family origins in the Iberian Peninsula, the Sephardic Music website showcases recorded Sephardic music, from around 1906, when commercial recording of Sephardic music began, to the present day. The 'Appendices' section of the website includes a bibliography, and consists of an extensive discography, which is browsable by label, song, and artist. There are three other sections to the website that provide background information and material about Sephardic music: 78 RPMs, which includes details about the first recordings; early repertoire, about the performance of Sephardic music; and modern recordings, which includes information about the folk revival, as well as Sephardic music in Spain, Turkey and Israel. Throughout the website it is possible to listen to sound samples of the music that is described. Although the website was created by an independent researcher, he was given a lot of support (financial or otherwise) from a number of educational institutions, including the Jewish Music Research Centre in Jerusalem, and the Judaica Sound Archives at Florida Atlantic University.
'Tamid' is the scholarly journal of the 'Societat Catalana d’Estudis Hebraics' (Catalan Society of Hebrew Studies), published in Catalan (with English abstracts) since 1998. Each volume brings together research publications of the members of the society, related to different historical periods: Biblical-Talmudic period; medieval ages; and modern age. Articles usually focus on the philological and historical study of documents, but the journal also publishes Catalan translations of documents and articles on certain relevant topics within the field. Some topics covered include: the concession of freedom to a Jewish slave in 1450; a bibliography of the bibliographies on Maimonides; and Jewish inhabitants of Barcelona and the maritime commerce with the Oriental Mediterranean sea. The journal will be of interest to those working in the field of Catalan Studies and/or Jewish Studies.
The website of the Spanish historian Dr. Teresa de Castro offers electronic versions of some of her scholarly work on the history of food. Users may choose between navigating the site in English or Spanish, while her work may be in Spanish, English, or Italian. De Castro has published books and articles on the history of food in Spain (including Al-Andalus and Sefarad) and Australia. She has made available electronic versions of some of her books online: "Food mentality in Spain at the Renaissance"; "In the Christian Alhambra: Foods, Shops and Food Market"; and "Food Supply Policies in the Kingdom of Granada (1482-1510)". Some of her articles include: "The Introduction of Coffee and Coconut in Western Australia in 1869"; "Moriscos and Christians in Castile: The emergence of a Dietary Identity in Early Modern Times"; and "New Norcia’s Treasures (1884-1890)". This site will be of interest to anyone interested in the history of food, in particular in Spain and Australia. As the page is hosted by a free server, it carries some advertising.
'Toledo: Espacio y Tiempo' is a website by the University of Castilla-La Mancha which gathers information, images and multimedia material about the medieval period of the city of Toledo. The site was launched in September 2009 using the research which Jean Passini has carried out during the last twenty years. As an ongoing project, it promises to grow with further research, but it already offers very good materials which will prove of interest to anyone interested in medieval Spanish urban history. The main goal of the project is to gather topographic information about dwellings and streets of the city in the medieval period, and users may access a multimedia map with this type of information. There are various options available to explore the map, but alternatively the texts and documents which have been used to create the map can be accessed on the site too. Additionally, an images section provides a good amount of pictures of historical places in Toledo, and an impressive cartographic section holds historical maps, engravings, aerial pictures of the city, and a 3D reconstruction of Toledo.