The website "Aktion Rheinhard Camps" or ARC is dedicated to presenting the history of three deathcamps, Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka. Aktion Reinhard or "Einsatz reinhard" was the code name for the extermination of Polish Jewry by the Nazis during the Second World War. Led by Odilo Globocnik, the operation drew on the experience of T4 groups, practised in previous euthanasia operations. The site is a collaboration between international historians, which claims the support of many people of renown in the field, including Sir Martin Gilbert. The site provides many illustrations, and information on the camps, their structures, headquarters and the tragic events that they were witness to. There is also an excellent list of pertinent books, in Polish, German, and English. Unfortunately the site was not well translated and there are a few factual errors here and there, such as the statement that the Soviets were in charge in Poland until the 1990s. Overall it is a good site for those wanting to gain a deeper insight into the history of the three death camps. However, this website has been frozen as of October 2006 and is no longer being maintained, although uupdates concerning the issue of counterfeits sites are published.
The website "Anne Frank and the Holocaust" is related to the "Anne Frank: A History for Today" exhibition which was designed by the curators of the Anne Frank Museum in Amsterdam. Published by the East Riding of Yorkshire Council, the site advises local UK teachers on how to approach and teach this subject. The site does not reproduce the Amsterdam exhibition, it does tell Anne Frank's story and that of her family, and recounts the history of the Holocaust through the testimony of contemporary witnesses and other historical documents. In addition, the site offers a range of teaching materials and primary sources, such as an eye-witness account of the liberation of Belsen near the end of the Second World War. The site also contains an extensive range of links to other Holocaust-related Web resources, as well as galleries and a discussion forum.
This website, a subsite of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), is devoted to the writings of the young girl Anne Frank while she hid from the Nazis in Holland from 1942 to 1944. The site is poignant but unsentimental; its animated exhibition, 'An Unfinished Story' presents diary excerpts and photographs and provides a highly informative resource for educators who wish to offer students in Frank's age range, namely 13 to 15, a first lesson on the Holocaust. A complete transcript of the exhibition is posted, but unfortunately for more advanced students and researchers, the full-text of the diary is not available. That said, another page, 'Original Writings' exhibits some of Frank's diaries, photo albums, loose pages and related historical material in a clear and comprehensive fashion.
The exhibition, which describes Frank's aspirations as a writer, highlights not only her daily experiences, but her ability to maintain her ideals in a time when all ideals around her were being destroyed. This underlying theme is expanded upon in an 'Interviews' section, in which Frank's cousin and museum curators reflect on the importance of Frank's diaries. It is also evident in the site's message board, where high level comments prove both the quality of site content and its value for teaching. Finally, the site offers a selected but relevant set of links. The site is intended to complement dozens of similar online exhibitions hosted by the USHMM.
This website makes available the full text of the German periodical Archiv zur Länder- und Geschicht-Kunde unsrer Zeit (Archive for news of countries and history of our time). Facsimiles of the publication, which was published in Schwerin in 1790, can be browsed, printed, and downloaded. Articles provide a German perspective on aspects of history in relation to: Finland; Sweden; Austria; Bosnia; the Netherlands; the West Indies; and Russia. Jewish history is also touched upon. This resource is provided as part of a larger project by the Universitätsbibliothek Bielefeld, which aims to digitalize hundreds of 18th- and 19th-century German literary publications and reviews. The project is supported by Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, Academie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, and Georg Olms Verlag. This archive would be of interest to German historians as a primary source.
This website makes available BARGE, an online database of British archival resources relating to German-Jewish refugees (1933-1950). The database is the result of a three year, AHRB funded project which began in March 2004; it aims to facilitate research on the migration of German-speaking refugees to Britain between 1933 and 1950, whose papers are held in private and public collections in Britain. Before the creation of this database, there was no research tool that brought together this information. The database includes the names of over 2,000 individuals, along with the location of their papers and brief biographical details to aid identification of areas of research interest. Descriptions of over 1,300 individual collections are provided to enable researchers to assess potential use. Users can consult the database online (at the time of cataloguing a trial version was available with the full version promised in the coming month). There are various search categories, such as keyword, author, gender, and profession. This resource would be extremely useful for researchers of migration during Nazi occupation and the Second World War, in particular in relation to Jewish studies.
Bayerische Landesgeschichtliche Zeitschriftenschau, 1995-2001 (Bavarian Regional Historical Journals Exhibition, 1995-2001) is another of the outstanding digitised historical resources linked to the Bavarian Regional Library Online and overseen by the Bavarian State Library. The site is a database of articles published in some 300 Bavarian journals from 1995 to 2001. Article subjects range historically from the early middle ages to the twentieth century. The offering of topics is very broad, embracing all aspects of history, culture, politics, society and religion, with special topics such as women's history and Judaica worthy of highlight. Places, keywords and themes are explained on a separate page. A list is provided of the many journals and their specific issues upon which the database relies. The site has a search engine which allows users to search by author, essay title, journal title, or keyword. This straightforward resource will be invaluable for German Studies researchers focussing on the history, religion, culture, economy and politics of southern Germany, although the articles are not available in full text versions.
Arising from a major AHRC-funded research project at the University of London, the site offers information for anyone interested in the history of the pre-war concentration camps in the Third Reich. The website includes: a detailed history of the development of the pre-war Nazi camps; over 30 documents on the Nazi camps in English translation; facsimiles of original documents in their original languages; podcast lectures on the Nazi camps; and guides to further reading and other online resources. The website is simply and attractively designed and will prove to be of benefit to those starting research in the Holocaust or Nazi Germany. Four PhD dissertations are linked to this project and have related subpages. The site contains some broken links.
This is the home page of the Photograph Database of the Bavarian State Library. The Database is a digitized portion of a larger collection held in the Library's Hoffmann and Timpe Photograph Archives, which contains some 1.2 million items. The Archives include ethnographic images, pictures from the Nazi period through to the post-war period in Germany, and a collection related to cultural, academic and public life in Munich from 1952 to 1988. This last collection features images related to music, literature, art, theatre and television. The digitized element of the Archive posts some 66,000 of these images directly online. Photographs are mainly connected to the Nazis' activities in the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, the Second World War on the one hand, and to the immediate post-war period, notably the Nuremberg Trials, on the other.
The site explains how users can order photographs for purchase, which will be sent to them either via E-mail or on CD-ROM. Navigation is a little scattered, and users will have to hunt around the Library site to find all information pertaining to the Photograph Archive and its digitized section. Information on recent exhibitions, access, regulations and fees for use of the archive is also posted. The Database and Archive should prove useful for researchers working on 20th-century German history and scholars in the fields of German Studies and Holocaust Studies.
German and Austrian Exile Periodicals 1933-1945 is a research site posted by the German Section of the British Library. It provides a listing of German-language periodicals written and produced by Nazi-era exiles from Germany and Austria, which are held at the British Library. This resource will prove of interest to those researching the history of both German and German Jewish culture outside of Germany during the Nazi period. These periodicals were published in London, Paris, Copenhagen and Amsterdam, among other cities. The collection includes works by "Bertolt Brecht, Lion Feuchtwanger, Hugo Huppert, Berta Lask, Georg Lukacs, Heinrich Mann, Thomas Mann, Gustav Regler, Anna Seghers, Friedrich Wolf, and Paul Zech." Aside from complete runs, there is also a select list of isolated periodical issues which the library possesses. The site provides shelfmarks and locations of these resources in the British Library as well as further relevant research aids and links to external sites.
This is the website of the University of Sussex-based Centre for German-Jewish Studies, which was established in 1994 to promote the study of the history, thought, and culture of Jews in Central Europe. The Centre's chief research intention is to re-evaluate how the history of Jews in German-speaking lands is studied. The Centre also takes as a research objective the history of Jewish refugees to the United Kingdom during the Second World War and focuses on projects dealing with the history of anti-Semitism, and the Holocaust and its legacy on post-war society. The Centre's website makes available a calendar of events, as well as items of interest such as research papers, newsletters, and details of current and completed research projects. Contact details for project directors are also given, as is a list of the Centre's members and information on how to become a Friend of the Centre.
The Centre has been compiling an archive of relevant resources since its inception and users can search the catalogue via a link to the University's special collections website. There is a links section which directs users to Holocaust, exile, and German-Jewish studies Web resources and a section outlining publications of interest. This website would be of use to scholars of German-Jewish history and culture, as a source of information on current projects and events and as an opportunity to engage in dialogue with others working in this field.
An attractive and well-designed website, Centropa is a platform for Jewish history in Central Europe. The site has contributors from across the region and it serves scholars, teachers, genealogists and the general public. The site contains a large collection of book reviews; travel suggestions for those visiting from abroad; excerpts from fiction and memoirs; historical summaries; and links pages. In the broad range of material, there are two main projects which dominate the site: Jewish Witness to a European Century (An Interactive Database to Jewish Memory) and Centropa Films (The Library of Rescued Memories). Both projects are online collections of family pictures and other photographs related to Jewish life. There is a good search engine with advanced capability. Of additional interest are the site's slideshows, which are chosen according to set themes. These are not to be missed, as they render the site much more than a database with a search engine: they provide historical context and commentary for the collections. Among the slideshows are the Life Book project, with interviews and photographs from a retirement home in Prague whose residents lived through the Holocaust. Another notable slideshow is an anti-Semitic postcard collection. Valuable for its instructive content and clear navigability, the site also provides continuity between past and present for the troubled history of the Jews of Central Europe. The slideshows pose a question best expressed by one of the contributors: how does one photograph an absence? It is a problem that the site clearly seeks to redress and is necessary now for a comprehensive understanding of the region. This message, augmented by the further comment that the past lurks in the shadows in Central Europe, even when it lies in plain sight, is worth remembering. The website has a German version, a Hungarian version, and Centropa student, a site for students interested in Jewish studies.
Compact Memory is an online archive of German-Jewish periodica from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. A side index allows easy navigation through about two dozen journals which are listed alphabetically. Each journal has its own subsite with a useful editorial history and links to scanned online copies. This is truly a valuable online resource for historians of German-Jewish culture and society, with famous titles such as Ost und West (East and West), Der Orient, Die Welt (The World) and the Jüdische Rundschau (Jewish Circular), among many others, which have been made readily available. The site has its own search engine which allows simple or complex searches of all journals and which will bring up all articles on a given topic. Information on this outstanding and complex academic project and its various contributors is posted. There is also an online help function for site visitors.
The website of the "Danish Centre for Holocaust Studies" is the English version of the main Danish site. Not all of the Danish pages are available in English. The aim of the site is to provide teaching materials and learning materials for those researching the Second World War Holocaust. The site begins with a basic overview which examines the ghettos of Poland, extermination camps, the Final Solution, the fate of Danish Jews, and of the Roma and Sinti. The background and aftermath are also briefly described. The bibliography is somewhat misnamed but serves the purpose of providing a brief introduction to leading protagonists. It is, in fact, the literature section that contains details of books, articles, and films in German and English. The timeline is also useful as well as the list of links to pertinent websites. A good site for those studying World War Two or the Holocaust.
The Danish Jewish Museum has an excellent website which can be used as a teaching aid for those teaching Danish Jewish History, the Holocaust, and the history of Denmark up to the Second World War. The museum was designed by the prestigious Daniel Libeskind. One of the most outstanding events of World War Two took place in October 1943, when ordinary Danes smuggled their Jewish countrymen across the Öresund Strait to neutral Sweden to save them from being rounded up by Nazis occupying the country. Dodging German patrol boats and under the cover of darkness on a rocking sea, most of Denmark's 7,300 Jews escaped to safety, some from the concentration camps in Europe.
The museum tells the story of Danish Jews, invited to Denmark by King Christian IV in 1622 throughout the centuries until the present day when the community numbers about 7,000 people. Some of the Royal Library's Hebrew and Jewish artifacts are also displayed. The website is in Danish and English and is easy to navigate. There is a useful list of scholars and their research, as well as the usual details on the museum's opening hours, location and events. There are excellent exhibition areas with information about Jewish culture and the origins and difficulties experienced by Denmark's Jews.
This is the home page of East European Jewish Affairs, a refereed academic journal published twice a year. Since January 2000 it has been administered by the Department of Hebrew and Jewish Studies, University College London and the Oxford Institute for Yiddish Studies. Information on the journal previous to this date is not provided on the site. The journal is interdisciplinary and publishes articles, reviews, and archival and conference notes within its field. The periodical specialises in the study of Jewish communities and perspectives in the East Central Europe. There is a special focus on the post-Soviet context of social, economic, political, and cultural developments within the region. Tables of contents for the most recent issues are available, and free registration entitles users to request a sample copy. Information on subscriptions and submissions is also provided in detail.
This is the home page of eForum Zeitgeschichte Österreich (contemporary history of Austria). The site proclaims to be the first and only e-journal on contemporary history which is based in Austria. The journal specifically aims to showcase the research of younger academics and posts articles and reports on conferences, as well as book reviews. Online editions go back to the first issue posted in 2001. Profiles of authors are provided. A table of contents within each issue gives abstracts of every article. Topics included here under the general term of Austrian Contemporary History are diverse, embracing fields from Jewish History to Cultural Studies. Under the heading Werkstatt, the site provides an additional forum for debate on, and exploration of, further historical research projects and proposed thematic problems. The site also publishes full-text reviews under the heading Rezensionen. There is a useful list of links of innovative German-based academic Internet projects; archives and libraries; and historical institutes. A virtual guestbook confirms the usefulness of the site for younger academics working on the Contemporary History of Austria. At the time of last review, the most recent entries ran up to 2005.
Exilpresse digital: Deutsche Exilzeitschriften 1933-1945 is an online project published by the German National Library and based on collections of the Exiled Germans Archive, 1933-1945 at the German Library in Frankfurt am Main and related collections of exile literature in Leipzig. These collections contain a total of about 30,000 individual publications and volumes and some 900 periodical titles; a portion of this total was digitized between 1998 and 2003. Around thirty periodicals from the Nazi period from a broad range of subjects are posted on this site. They were published in German in places as diverse as New York, Paris, Shanghai and London. Several, but not all, of the newspapers are Jewish publications, such as the Shanghai Jewish Chronicle; Jüdisches Nachrichtenblatt (The Jewish Voice, Shanghai); Gemeindeblatt der Jüdischen Kultusgemeinde (Shanghai); and Ordo (Paris). Publication histories of the scanned periodicals are posted separately. Resources can be searched by keyword, year, issue and page. A keyword catalogue is provided. Pages have a zoom function for easier viewing. There are some glitches in the site's navigation. The site is entirely in German.
The Web Site "Eydes : Evidence of Yiddish Documented in European Societies" has versions in both German and English and obviously contains a lot of material in Yiddish. The aim of the project is to archive the dialects, folklore, customs and life experiences of the East and Central European Jewry. This is essentially home to a project on the language and culture atlas of Ashkenazic Jewry. The project authors have chosen 603 cities, towns and villages to focus on and have collected over 6,000 hours of tape recordings. This archive represents an amazing resource for ethnographers, anthropologists, historians, and sociologists. This resource is an international academic collaboration between scholars in the US, Poland, and Germany, sponsored by the Commission of the European Union, among other organisations. There is an interactive map with audio clips of regional differences in dialect. There are links to an online Yiddish course (in German) and to other sites of relevant interest. Audio and visual plug-ins are available for download on the site.
The website "The Forgotten Camps" is a very personal site featuring accounts of survivors and their liberators, hosted by JewishGen, Inc. The subject of this project, touched upon rarely, is the lesser-known camps and sub-camps that were scattered around Europe. A comprehensive list of these camps is available on this site. Links are also made to the pages of other camps where they exist. An online exhibition of the art work of Fernand von Horen, a survivor of both Esterwegen and Flossenburg camps captures the brutality of camp life. A very useful section on the site is the glossary of slang used in camps, and there are also short histories of the main camps and some of the smaller camps such as: Drancy, Radogosz, and Nordhausen. The bibliography tends towards personal accounts rather than historical works, and also has a wide selection of French literature on the subject.
The Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies is based in the Manuscripts and Archives department at Yale University Library. It is a video archive of more than 4,300 interviews with Holocaust survivors, telling of their experiences under Nazi occupation. The site provides a detailed background to the project and the activities of the archive, as well as information about the educational resources and publications available for use by teachers. In addition it is possible to view on the site video excerpts from the archive in Quicktime, or as audio files. These are accompanied by transcripts, and include testimonies from Jewish people, American witnesses, and Gypsy internees. Although it is not possible to view the rest of the archive footage on the site, it is possible to search the catalogue using Orbis, the online catalogue for Yale University Library.
This is the website of the Fritz Bauer Institut in Frankfurt, Germany. The institute exists to promote academic investigation of the history and impact of mass killings perpetrated by the Nazis, and in particular the Holocaust. In addition to carrying out research, the institute encourages dialogue, develops educational materials for use in schools, and organises conferences. The website, which is in German throughout, gives details of the institute's recent and forthcoming activities, and provides a selection of online papers and other documents. Also available are copies of the institute's newsletter, in PDF. The Fritz Bauer Institut is affiliated to the University of Johann Wolfgang Goethe, and is housed on the campus of the University of Frankfurt am Main.
This website hosts the Geisteswissenschaftliches Zentrum, Geschichte und Kultur Ostmitteleuropas (GWZO) (Centre for the Humanities, History and Culture of East Central Europe) at the University of Leipzig. It focuses on the region from the Baltic to the Adriatic, covering the Early Middle Ages to the 20th century, and using a comparative cultural context, both within the region and without. The site maintains that this comparative perspective is the basis for the Centre's innovative research methodology which prompts its cooperative and interdisciplinary efforts in the fields of the construction of national identities in comparison with regional and ethnic identities; historical cultural plurality of East Central Europe vis-à-vis Slavic, Magyar, Jewish and German cultural elements; and the significance and boundaries of these developments in relation to general European cultural trends. The site then describes the GWZO's various research projects which expand upon these general themes. These will be of undoubted interest to all specialists in this field. Contact details are given for the researchers and senior academics who head each project. Abstracts of all GWZO publications are listed with the location of reviews of GWZO monographs in scholarly journals. There is an excellent address subsite for all affiliated GWZO members. Their course offerings within the University are listed - as are the lectures of visiting academics.
The German Propaganda Archive was created by Randall Bytwerk of Calvin College. The archive provides access to scanned images of propaganda and materials produced for the guidance of propagandists from both the Nazi Era and the German Democratic Republic. The focus of the site is to provide access to material in English translation, which is not readily available from other sources. The site has been divided into three main sections: Nazi Propaganda pre-1933 material; Nazi Propaganda 1933-45 material including the Second World War; and East German Propaganda (Marxist propaganda: 1949-1989). These sections are further subdivided. The site features two primary kinds of material: a variety of propaganda material designed to influence the citizenry; and "behind the scenes" material designed for propagandists themselves. There is interesting material on Hitler, Goebbels, and Hess. It is also possible to search the site. The site provides links to other appropriate propaganda sites. Information about the site and a list of FAQs are available. This is an extensive and informative website that will be of great interest and benefit to undergraduate and graduate students of German studies, as well as to the general public. The site is updated regularly.
The University of Sussex's Special Collections Library makes available online its German-Jewish Archives. After the Centre for German-Jewish Studies was established at the University in 1994, it has attracted deposits of important and interesting archives relating to political, social, literary and intellectual German-Jewish history. Of particular focus is the immigration to the United Kingdom of Jewish refugees and their families during World War Two. At present, catalogues are presented to search online for the two largest collections: the Arnold Daghani collection and the Elton/Ehrenberg Papers. The Arnold Daghani collection contains 6,000 works (drawings, paintings, and writings) relating to the experiences of Arnold Daghani (1909-1985) in the Bershad ghetto. Works also date from his time spent in Bucharest, Israel, France, Switzerland, and England. There is an online image gallery of over 300 works by Daghani.
The Elton/Ehrenberg Papers archive contains many documents including correspondence, original works of fiction, memoirs, journals, and photographs of this important German-Jewish family, whose members played prominent roles politically and culturally. The homepage links to the Centre for German-Jewish Studies. This resource would be of interest to scholars of Jewish history, with particular emphasis on emigration from Germany. It is a good starting point for further research.
This useful site is part of the Spartacus Educational Web resource, and it contains a wealth of information pertaining to German history from 1900-1945. The main subject areas are clearly listed in a table of contents, which consists of hyperlinks to further tables of contents that provide access to full-text documents in the relevant area. As well as a vast range of material relating to the Third Reich and World War II, the site includes substantial sections on the following topics: World War I; the Weimar Republic; German art; foreign policy; political leaders; the Holocaust; military leaders; and scientific research in Nazi Germany. In addition, the site offers a collection of hyperlinks to other history-related resources on the Spartacus Educational website. The site also contains advertising; it should be helpful for students and teachers.
The Web Site "Germany and Europe: contents" is authored by Raffael Scheck, Professor and Chair of History at Colby College, Maine and author of several books on aspects of Nazi Germany. The site forms a textbook of lecture notes on Germany and Europe 1871-1945. A background to the subject is provided together with a good idea of general debate on the relationship between Germany and Europe. The site is easy to navigate and focuses on subjects including: Germany under Napoleon; Bismarck's empire; fleet building and international issues; Socialists, Jews and women in the pre-war years; the Wiemar Republic; as well as the First World War and the Second World War. The site is of use to undergraduates and interested A/AS Level students who are studying the period. Although addressed to American students, this is a good resource when used in conjunction with a capable teacher. Useful links to relevant sites are embedded in the text.
This is the home page for the Gesellschaft für Exilforschung (GfE), or Society for Exile Research, a centre for research on people, especially Jews, who fled Germany and East Central Europe leading up to and during the Second World War and came to live in exile. For the later period, it also deals with Western Europe. This is a relatively new field of enquiry, emphasising an integration of political history and literary studies, with a deep-rooted exploration of the nature of the cultural identity of Germans and Jews who fled the Nazi regime. It investigates the nature of exile itself, tracing reverberations of the experience into second and third generations. In this light, the site describes the centre's recent exhibitions, such as 'Rudolf Olden. Journalist gegen Hitler – Anwalt der Republik' (Rudolf Olden. Journalist Against Hitler - Advocate of the Republic). The main page also posts new announcements, such as academic meetings held at the GfE and calls for papers to attend relevant conferences. It offers a good newsletter running back to 1997, and a subpage lists recent GfE publications. The centre runs a new journal entitled 'Jahrbuchs Exilforschung' (Exile Research Yearbook), for which tables of contents are provided. The site also has a useful set of links.
This website makes available facsimiles of the German-language publication Heidelberger Student. The academic magazine was published by the student press of the University of Heidelberg and issues available here run from 1929 to 1938. Over 1,000 pages are presented and users can choose an edition from a list or enter a page number to go directly to that page. Arrows also enable users to move forward and back through pages and pages can also be viewed as thumbnails. It is possible to print pages or view individual pages in PDF. This publication gives users an insight into the University and its students' ethos and self-understanding during this time. It is particularly interesting in that the influence of the growth of National Socialism is increasingly evident in each issue. Hitler's party used the student publication as a mouthpiece and propaganda tool and as a result it takes an anti-Semitic stance. Users can chart the publication's evolution from an independent, unbiased source of news, to a Nazi mouthpiece promoting Nationalist ideologies. As a result, this Web resource would be interesting for both scholars of the history of universities and those investigating the influence of National Socialism. The resource is made available online by Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg (Heidelberg university library).
"Hitler's Germany" is a website which has been compiled by Professor Gerhard Rempel of Western New England College. It is easy to navigate and contains the following sections: lectures; examination questions; a quiz (which at the time of cataloguing only contained one image); maps (at the time of cataloguing there were none on the site); media; links to other sites; Auschwitz; and a bibliography. The lecture section is quite comprehensive with over 28 topics including: the 19th-century origins of Germany's power; the Wannsee Conference; Neo-Nazis and History; a chronology of the Holocaust; World War Two in the East; and the question of guilt. The site is a good resource for history teachers and students, indeed for anyone who wants to find out the basic background to the Second World War. It is a good A or AS Level resource. However, Rempel also includes photographs from a personal trip made to Auschwitz, accompanied by comments that not everyone would find appropriate. The bibliography is good for a complete beginner, but is very brief.
The website "Holocaust Education Resources" is essentially a teaching pack designed for those teaching on the Holocaust in schools and universities, and so is of interest also to those learning about it. Notes for students and teachers are provided, including an excellent section on how to deal with Holocaust denial. The interesting aspect of this resource, is that it is based on material from survivors and refugees. Produced by the Centre for German-Jewish Studies at the University of Sussex, the teaching pack draws on their extensive archives, expert academics and the centre's consultations with survivors and Jewish groups.The course is divided into twelve topics, including: History of Antisemitism; History of the Third Reich; Women in the Holocaust; Survivors; and Holocaust Education. Each section provides a paragraph introduction to the theme and images, films, oral accounts, personal correspondence, or links to further information. The pack makes particular reference to and use of the Arnold Daghani collection and one of the most moving sources is a letter from a young man in Auschwitz (Oświęcim) to his mother. The site deals almost exclusively with the Holocaust of the Jewish populations, mentioning briefly some groups, such as the Roma/Gypsies, but omitting others. At the time of last review, the last update on the site was from 2003 therefore the bibliographies and links might not be entirely up to date.
The Institute of Contemporary History is one of six departments which offer courses and special studies in History at the University of Vienna. Founded in 1966, the Institute focuses on the contemporary history of the developments, conflicts and catastrophes of the 20th century. Topics treated here begin with regional foci on National Socialism and the history of Austria as a post-imperial republic. The Institute concentrates as well on audio visual sources and the related new subject of Visual History. Other fields covered here include: gender studies; women's history; cultural themes and approaches; the history of anti-Semitism and research on racism; the history of science; the study of theory and historiography; international dimensions of history; Political and Social History and their economic bases; methods of historical Sociology, such as the use of statistics and Oral History; and applied History, such as exhibition development and specialised journalism. The Institute has its own library and an archive with special collections; private papers; photographs; and a sound archive. The best samples from the archive's photograph collection may be viewed online at Bildarchiv Austria. Further information on the library and archive collections is posted. Of special interest is the Archiv der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Zeitgeschichte (Archive of the Austrian Society of Contemporary History); this non-circulating collection will interest researchers in Holocaust and Jewish Studies and it is additionally available to survivors of the Nazi regime and their relatives. Also of note is the affiliated Heinz von Foerster Archive, with fascinating online reviews, bibliographies, e-Texts, and projects related to the famed Viennese-born architect of second-order cybernetics. Information here addresses bionics, artificial intelligence, and a host of connected contemporary social, cultural and philosophical questions and debates. Site visitors should also check the subsite Projekte with a list of research projects currently underway at the Institute. Finally, the site provides the usual contact details; opening hours; upcoming lectures and events; course offerings; student-related information; links list; information on cooperative efforts with other institutes; and latest news.
This website makes available indices for all volumes of Inter Finitimos, a journal of Polish-German relations, from 1992 to the present. The journal is mainly in German with a few articles in Polish or English. Articles deal with the combined history and politics of Germany and Poland, as well as topics such as the position of women and Jews in society and national identity. Many focus on the Second World War period. A few of the book reviews in the journals are available to read in PDF format. Guidelines for submissions to the journal are also given. This resource would be a useful source of information for anyone researching German-Polish relations over the last century.
This Internet resource was established in 1993 by the International School for Holocaust Studies, which organizes educational programs and produces educational materials for a variety of target populations and educational organizations in Israel and abroad. The organisation adopts an interdisciplinary approach to Holocaust education through art, music, literature, theology and drama. In addition to information pertaining to the many courses and online seminars arranged in several languages by the organisation, visitors to this site can access a vast range of information relating to the Holocaust. The menu on the left hand side of the home page takes users to a list of hyperlinks relating to various aspects of Holocaust studies. These include: The Shoah Resource Centre, a comprehensive database on the Holocaust including photographs, artifacts, testimonies, documents, maps, diaries, research papers, book reviews and Frequently Asked Questions; a chronology of the Holocaust 1933-38, which consists of a timeline comprising of hyperlinks which take users to text documents relating to the topic or event selected; a bibliography, consisting of over 200 books in English that are generally regarded by scholars and teachers as important in the study of the Holocaust; and Documents of the Holocaust, a Comprehensive collection of over 200 documents on the destruction of the Jews of Germany, Austria, Poland, and the Soviet Union. In addition, the site includes a number of online exhibitions relating to the Holocaust and lists those deemed 'Righteous among Nations,' that is, non-Jews who helped Jews during this racial persecution and genocide.
This Internet resource provides information pertaining to Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich. It is part of the American Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, which was established in 1993 as a nonprofit nonpartisan organization to strengthen the US-Israel relationship by emphasizing the fundamentals of the alliance. The welcome page of the site consists predominantly of a list of hyperlinks, which take users to informative and well-written text documents, photographs, and diagrams relating to the topic selected. The range of subjects covered is quite broad, concentrating primarily on Hitler's political activity in the 1920s, his rise to power in the 1930s, and finally World War II. In addition, there are sections on aspects of Hitler's ideology, his anti-Semitism, his attitude to cruelty, and the power structure of the Third Reich. Also included are extracts from Hitler's book, 'Mein Kampf.' Users should note that this site forms part of the larger resource the Jewish Virtual Library.
The KZ Mauthausen-Gusen info-pages is a website devoted to the history of the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camps in Sankt Georgen an der Gusen, Austria, not far from Linz. It is presented and maintained by the camps' memorial committee. According to a remark from one of the survivors, Gusen was one of the least-known camps and its group was the worst component of the Mauthausen complex of more than forty camps. The Gusen camps were involved in aircraft production in the connected 'Bergkristall' underground factories. Gusen included Gusen I in Langenstein, Gusen II in St.Georgen/Gusen and Gusen III in Lungitz; these were in operation from 1941 until American troops liberated them on 5 May 1945. Over 37,000 Jews and prisoners of war died there, which was "nearly one third of all the victims that died in the forty-nine concentration camps all over 'Austrian' territory." The names of specific inmates who worked on the construction of underground installations are listed on the site along with their nationalities. The site's timeline of Gusen's history reveals the bureaucratic banality upon which these terrible crimes rested, as well as Gusen's epidemics, slave labour and brutal conditions. The number of prisoners in the Gusen camps near the end of the war hovered around 24,000 people. The site provides a further history of Gusen and its underground factory complexes (some of which still exist to the present day but are not yet open to the public). This more recent history includes the building, in the late 1950s, of private housing developments on terrain formerly covered by Gusen I. More in-depth history is given on the site's subpages. Among these is an account of the liberation of the Gunskirchen camp, hidden in a forest south of Gusen, along with a link to a contemporary American pamphlet with photographs documenting the liberation. There is also information on the gas chamber at nearby Hartheim Castle. A bibliography will interest researchers in Holocaust Studies, as will the links page. The site has its own search facility and a what's new page with summaries of the committee's latest updates.
The website of the Leo Baeck Institute London, which together with its other centres in New York and Jerusalem is the leading research institute in the field of German-Jewish history and culture, offers information about the Institute's research projects and publications, events and conferences, as well as on fellowships and awards available to the research community. The institute, founded in 1955, is named after Leo Baeck, the last public representative of the Jewish community in Nazi Germany. Its main aim is to document the history and culture of the once large Jewish communities in Germany, destroyed in the Holocaust, and their contributions to European culture. The website allows users to browse through the table of contents of the LBI Yearbook, which is edited in London, and of its series of symposium volumes and monographs, both covering cultural, economic, political, social and religious history as well as the impact of antisemitism and Jewish responses to it.
This incredibly moving website is published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as part of its online exhibitions collection. The site explores the history of the Jewish children who survived the Holocaust in hiding or disguise. A wide selection of primary sources are used to tell their stories. The exhibition considers three main topics: parents' decisions to send their children into hiding; the experience of being hidden; and the search for family at the end of the Second World War. There is also a section where users can explore digitised artefacts from the museum, including photographs, letters and belongings. The site makes use of much interactive material, including flash and video footage.
The website "Literature of the Holocaust" is maintained by Alan Filreis, a Professor of English at the University of Pennsylvania and acts as a portal to a vast array of online resources involving the Holocaust. The material is arranged rather haphazardly, in an alphabetical list according to the first word of the entry. However, the entries are not named in a consistent way, so a tremendous amount of digging has to be done, or users are recommended to use the search facility at the bottom of the page if they know what they are looking for. Subjects, found in a variety of formats, such as images, newspaper articles, essay, and books include: the controversy over Swiss bank accounts; the Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies; survivors' testimonies; the truth about Oskar Schindler; and Primo Levi. What is interesting is that the site also contains brief information on Africans and German Africans living in Germany during the Nazi period, and on the atrocities in the Balkans in the nineteen nineties. Although the site is constantly updated by its creator, some older external links are broken.
The "Lost art internet database" is published online by the Koordinierungsstelle für Kulturgutverluste, Germany's central office for the documentation of lost cultural property, which was set up by Germany's government and regions. The database aims to provide information on cultural objects that were relocated, moved, or seized from their owners (for the most part, Jewish) as a result of Nazi persecution. This website allows users to search the database for items that may have been seized illegally from private individuals or institutions. Users can also view images of found objects that have an uncertain past and whose ownership is unsure.
Of use to researchers also is a detailed bibliography of publications on the subject of art theft under National Socialism and Nazi trophy art. Users can also post comments to a Forum, which encourages debate and the posting of relevant conference information, reviews, and reports on events held in the field of lost art. This Web resource is extremely useful for anyone researching the Nazi period and Second World War in Germany in general, and particularly to those looking at the displacement of Jews in Germany and the seizure of their property.
The website "Mapping the Holocaust" is an exhibition page of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), which uses a variety of very good visual and textual sources to present an extremely comprehensible overview of the geography of the Holocaust. There are excellent animated maps showing the geographical context of the Holocaust. One map shows the general directions of attack and invasion by Allied and Axis forces, another shows the movement of Jewish and other persecuted groups to death and labour camps. There are also animated maps of the Warsaw Ghetto, Auschwitz (Oświęcim), Łódź, and the aftermath of the Holocaust. Photographs, paintings, and text are also used in this exhibition, to great effect. There are also non-animated maps, and many Holocaust Learning Center Articles on topics such as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, extermination camps, rescue, and personal stories of both the rescued and the rescuers. The website has the advantage of referring to other resources within the USHMM on World War II. The website encourages users to browse the Holocaust Encyclopedia, which is available in English, French, Arabic and Farsi. Some of the maps in the online exhibition have Spanish versions. "Mapping the Holocaust" was short-listed for Best Innovative or Experimental Application in the 2003 Best of the Web competition sponsored by the Museums and the Web conference, to recognise achievement in heritage website design.
This Internet resource provides German-language information pertaining to the life and work of the Jewish theologian, philosopher, bible translator, and proponent of the chassidic tradition (a Judaic religious movement), Martin Buber (1878-1965). An abridged version of the site is available in English. The main attraction of the site is the sizeable collection of electronic secondary texts relating to the work of Buber. Equally useful is the section on Buber's life and work, which consists of an informative overview of his works and main intellectual pursuits and achievements. Themes include Jewish-Christian theological debates. Also available here is an extensive range of excerpts from Buber's works - a greater number of these are available in the German language version of the site than in the English. Other notable features of the site include a chronology of Buber's life; a bibliography of secondary literature on Buber; and a collection of links related to Buber.
Captured German Sound Recordings is a website that describes an important World War II collection at the U.S. National Archives. The site offers a full finding aid for captured Nazi sound recordings. Sixty-four recordings are available for order, including Heinrich Himmler's infamous Posen speech (4 October 1943), in which he speaks openly of "the destruction of the Jewish people" ('die Ausrottung des jüdischen Volkes'). Also available in the collection are other speeches of interest to researchers, delivered by top Nazis such as Hitler, Goering and Goebbels at official ceremonies. In addition, there are copies of monitored broadcasts. Information is provided on how to purchase copies of the audio tapes. The site also has a link to a page on captured German records, reproduced on over 70,000 rolls of microfilm in the National Archives. These can be viewed at the Archives (visiting hours are posted). For researchers who already know what they need, microfilms can be reproduced for a fee. Alongside pre-World War II and World War II German government documents, such as military and navy records which were copied en masse, this collection includes thousands of microfilms of Nazi party and SS records (including party members abroad); microfilms on firms and individuals, with records of private Austrian, Dutch and German Enterprises, 1917-1946, correspondence of Herbert von Bismarck, 1881-1883, and material relating to Joachim von Ribbentrop, 1893-1942. There are records of U.S. Army commands from 1942; general records of the Department of State; World War II war crimes records, both in Europe and the Far East; and records of the international military tribunal at Nuernberg (Nuremberg). Archival staff can direct users to further photographic and print evidence that is connected to both audio and microfilmed primary sources. Navigation of this valuable research aid is straightforward and clear. Registration is required to ask reference questions.
The Nizkor Project is an extensive site devoted to the memory of those who died in the Holocaust. This site addresses a broad audience. It posts many academic articles which constitute the current scholarly discussion on the Nazi period, the Holocaust, and their general historical background and context. The Nizkor Project also presents the material produced by those who deny the Holocaust. There is an large sub-section of articles on the techniques of Holocaust denial, with links back to source articles and source sites. There is also a subsite focussing on Antisemitism with listed examples. Each major camp has its own subsite with annotated links; bibliographies; film listings; contemporary images; and extracts of testimonies from witnesses. There are short biographies of leading figures among the Nazi administration. Primary source excerpts are provided from the Nuremberg trials. The site also has pages on figures and events noted after the Second World War; these include the transcripts of Adolf Eichmann's trial. Functioning in part as a growing archive of a vast array of E-mails, websites and articles on this subject, the Nizkor Project's site content clearly demonstrates the continuity between the tragedy of this past event and present political issues and concerns. There are several specialised bibliographies of primary and secondary sources. The annotated bibliographies take in much of historiographical debates surrounding the Holocaust, and would be a valuable tool for teachers when preparing reading lists for their students. Instructions for ordering pre-prepared courseware via the site's Social Studies School Service are posted. The site has its own search engine and a good sitemap. The site has won several online awards.
The Nuremberg Trials Project is an endeavour run by Harvard Law School Library to digitalise its one million pages of documents relating to the Nuremberg Trials (1945-1949). The trial of military and political leaders of Nazi Germany, after the Second World War, occurred before an International Military Tribunal and several US Nuremberg Military Tribunals. The documents which remain include trial manuscripts; legal briefs; document books; and evidence files. This digital project hopes to create and present images of full-text versions of its Nuremberg documents, along with analytical information about each document and general commentary about the trials themselves. 23,000 pages have currently been made available on the site. The documents are presented comprehensively with a photstat of the original; a German typescript; an English translation; and analysis of the document. The site provides information on the leaders of the Nazi regime including key personnel in: government (the Reich Chancellery and ministries); SS; the National Socialist German Workers Party; and the Wermacht. Details of primary and secondary sources, plus links to other sites, provide further information related to the Nuremberg Trials.
Primärquellen zur Geschichte Österreichs im 20. Jahrhundert is a subsite of ZIS, the online Information System for Contemporary History, which is based at the University of Innsbruck. The site offers a selection of online transcriptions of excerpts from primary documents related to the history of Austria in the 20th century. Most of these fall within the latter half of the century, and there is a notable focus on the period surrounding the Second World War. Nonetheless, historians will find this site to be a good teaching tool for Austria in World War II as well as the periods immediately preceding and following it. For example, small thematic collections are available on such topics as "Anti-Semitism from Schönerer to Hitler" (Antisemitismus von Schönerer bis Hitler), and "Austria under Allied Occupation, 1945-1955" (Österreich unter alliierter Besatzung 1945-1955), which will give students a sense of historical continuity. Other themes include the First World War; Social Democracy and Civil War; the Holocaust; the Waldheim Affair; and European Integration. The site will also be useful for undergraduates and as a starting point for graduate students.
Relations of Austria and Israel since 1945 is a subsite of ZIS, the online Information System for Contemporary History which is based at the University of Innsbruck. The majority of information on the site can be initially accessed via a chronological chart of important events related to the founding and history of Israel, as well as Austrian-Israeli relations. Additional information on the timeline posts links to transcribed primary source documents, short videos and scanned images. The site also offers a database of over 1,200 relevant primary source documents that can be searched with an accompanying search engine. The database gives precise archival details for each item, along with the location of different archives. The site has an extensive bibliography, covering the Holocaust and Israel; Austrian-Israeli relations from 1945; and general literature on Israel and the Middle Eastern conflict (English and German sources). There is an additional alphabetised list of important figures who have been active in relations, or in the history of relations, between Austria and Israel in the post-war period. Also helpful is a glossary and an excellent annotated links list. For its elucidation of the links between the History of Central Europe and the History of the Middle East, this site should well serve researchers in the fields of German Studies, Middle Eastern Studies, and European History. It will also be of interest to teachers, students and members of the public.
This site is devoted to the collections related to exile at branches of the German national library, notably the Deutsches Exilarchiv in Frankfurt am Main and related literature collections at the Deutsche Bücherei in Leipzig. Exile in this case refers to a relatively new field of scholarly enquiry into the culture, literature and history of people, especially Jews, who fled Germany, Austria and other parts of Europe leading up to and during World War II. The site primarily gives information on archival holdings (files, private papers and special collections, letters and manuscripts). These holdings will be of particular interest for historians, as they include the records of exile organisations such as the American Guild for German Cultural Freedom; the Emergency Rescue Committee of New York; old BBC broadcasts; deutschsprachiger Autoren im Ausland, London (1953 - 1990) (German-speaking authors abroad, London); Deutscher PEN-Club im Exil (1933 - 1940) (the German PEN club in exile); Club 1943, London; and Schutzverband Deutscher Schriftsteller in der Schweiz (Association for the protection of German writers in Switzerland). Private papers are listed alphabetically according to authors' names, and feature a great range of professionals: writers; artists; scientists; academics; doctors; jurists; journalists; and linguists. Private collections on more famous exiles include: Albert Einstein; Heinrich Mann; Thomas Mann; Franz Werfel; Arnold Zweig; and Stefan Zweig. The printed collection also holds newspapers, books and other materials. Exilpresse Digital is a good subsite on exile newspapers. Of connected interest here are subpages on the Anne-Frank-Shoah-Bibliothek and the Börsenvereinsbibliothek for Frankfurt am Main nach 1945 (the Library on the stock exchange group at Frankfurt after 1945). The site gives further information on access to collections, contact details, exhibitions and related publications.
The Shoah Memorial website offers a range of resources for those studying the Holocaust. Features include: a multimedia encyclopaedia of the Holocaust (or in Hebrew, the Shoah); a timeline of key events between 1933, when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, and the end of the Second World War in 1945; information about relevant publications; and details of the Contemporary Jewish Documentation Center (CDJC) which is housed within the Shoah Memorial premises. The CDJC's database of French Shoah victims and Jewish resistance fighters is available to be searched online. The site also provides information on the Memorial's educational programme, including an online interactive activity aimed at 8-11 year olds (this requires a Flash plug-in). The original version of the site is in French, though most materials have also been translated into English. This site provides a helpful introduction to the Holocaust, along with one or two more specialised resources for more advanced students.
The website "Library and Digital Archive Online Catalogs" is published by the Simon Wiesenthal Center, an international Jewish human rights organisation based in Los Angeles, particularly concerned with the history of the Holocaust. The site is a repository of photographs, diaries, letters, artwork, artifacts and rare books, which can be searched by keyword, category and date. It is also possible to browse the content by collection, which includes a photograph album from the liberation of Buchenwald, photographs of forced labour camps, artwork from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp, goodbye letters written by Jews, and an album of anti-Semitic signs in Germany. The Digital Archive has a facility for users to save items they are interested in, enabling users to create their own collection. Images have good descriptions and copies can be ordered via the site. The site also contains the link to the Center's library catalogue. The digital archives and the library catalogue can be searched together thanks to a recent feature of the site.
The website Sobibor: the Forgotten Revolt commemorates the most successful revolt of prisoners within the Nazi concentration camp system during World War II. It took place at the Sobibor camp in Poland on 14 October 1943. The site's content is based upon the personal experiences and research of Holocaust survivor Thomas 'Toivi' Blatt, who escaped from Sobibor during the revolt. Copies of historical documents, drawings and photographs accompany a narrative of events, including some background on the Nazis' 'Final Solution'; the construction of the camp; a list of transports into the camp, with cities of origin and numbers of prisoners, where known; the assembly line procedures that led to extermination in the gas chambers; and the planning and execution of the revolt itself. 320 Jews escaped across a minefield into the forest after a shoot-out with SS guards; many were caught and killed, with only 53 final survivors. Nazi retribution "under the code-name Erntefest (Harvest Festival)" came 20 days after the revolt, in November 1943, when 43,000 Jews were killed in six days at different camps. Pictures and profiles of both the surviving Jews and of Sobibor's leading Nazis are posted. But researchers will perhaps be most interested by transcripts of interviews conducted by the site's author, Blatt: one interview was conducted with one of Sobibor's former SS commanders, Karl Frenzel, in Germany in 1984; another was conducted in Rostov, U.S.S.R. in 1980 with Alexander Pechersky, leader of the revolt. Blatt outlines his further work advising on memorials of the some 250,000 Jews and 1,000 Poles who died at Sobibor. He also posts information on his books and the award-winning 1987 television film, "Escape from Sobibor."
This Website showcases the work of the Taskforce for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research. This group, which was initiated by the Swedish Prime Minister in 1998, is an association of elected officials, government workers and members of non-governmental organisations. The Taskforce aims to win support from political and social leaders for Holocaust education, remembrance, and research, both nationally and internationally. Previous lectures and papers are downloadable in full, as are reports from several international task forces on Holocaust research and teaching. Details are posted on membership; affiliated organisations; press releases; applications for funding; multilingual teaching guidelines and useful teaching links; and a number of extensive links lists to sites devoted to Holocaust commemorative events and related administrative bodies.
The Literature section of the online Teacher's guide to the Holocaust, provides a practical guide to Holocaust literature for educators, researchers and students. Part of a broader site, these pages outline the scope and diversity of literary writing related to the Holocaust. Divided into seven sub-sections, these pages cover: writing by victims; survivor testimonies; accounts of resisters; narratives about rescuers; texts which offer an insight into the cultural, social and political context in which Nazism grew and gained momentum; and a selection of literary and critical reflections which have emerged since. Some of these address the moral issues facing contemporary society in the aftermath of the Holocaust, whilst others focus on commemorating victims and survivors. A final sub-section provides a collection of pedagogical resources which includes: a glossary; discussion topics; student handouts; detailed bibliographic material; and a sequence of lesson plans. Whilst these materials are designed for teachers within an American educational context, the detailed overview the section provides will also be useful to those teaching and studying within Further and Higher Education in the UK, offering as it does an accessible and reliable grounding to Holocaust literature.
Then and Now is an online exhibition which is a subsite of Remember.org. This exhibit shows artworks by former inmates of the Auschwitz concentration camp and juxtaposes the rendered scenes of camp existence with photographs of the camp as it now stands. Users can click on the images to flip back and forth between the image 'then' and the image 'now.' The startling contrasts would particularly serve as a teaching tool. The current lonely and barren scenes in the camp testify to a key problem that teachers and researchers of Holocaust Studies confront: namely, that the physical skeleton of the camp remains a mute wreckage of history which is stripped of its essential human element that told the true story. This exhibition seeks to replace that missing element in a clear way. The exhibition is based on 24 years of study by writer and photographer Alan Jacobs and his son, Jesse, who together photographed the scenes to match reproductions of original art pieces provided by the Auschwitz Museum Archive in 1979. Of particular note is the basement of interrogation Block 11 in Auschwitz, the horror of the prison inside the prison; thus the site comments: "If Auschwitz was the end of the line either for gassing or for forced labor, Block 11 was the end of the line at the end of the line." The exhibition gives an idea of the camp's conditions, from the comment that prisoners of war, especially the Soviets, were treated so terribly that they sometimes resorted to cannibalism to stay alive, to the extremely limited toilets, washing and sleeping facilities. This exhibition reveals that camp life became a struggle to preserve these basic aspects of human existence (eating is not depicted) in the face of all attempts to eradicate them.
This German- language website is dedicated solely to the public reception of Thomas Bernhard's play 'Heldenplatz' ['Hero Square'], written in 1988 as the writer's contribution to the 50th anniversary of the annexation of Austria. The play features a Jewish professor who, having emigrated under the Nazis, returns to Vienna after the war only to find the Austrian population as anti-semitic and xenophobic as before. He consequently ends his life by throwing himself from a window on Hero square exactly where Hitler gave his first big speech after the annexation. The play gave rise to much public controversy in Austria, which this Web resource carefully analyses. Visitors to the site will find: an introduction to the historical context; a detailed summary of the play; quotations by various Austrian politicians; and a study of the reactions in the press and of the Austrian public opinion. This resource is definitely worth a visit for the Thomas Bernhard specialist as well as for anyone interested in modern drama and/or public life in Austria in the latter half of the 20th century.
The website "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum" introduces America's national institution for the documentation, study, and interpretation of Holocaust history, which serves as the country's memorial to the millions of people murdered during the Holocaust. The site is an amazing and extensive resource which provides a comprehensive history of the Holocaust. Whilst the emphasis is mainly on the Jewish experience from 1933-1945, the persecution and extermination of other groups such as homosexuals, Communists, Jehovah Witnesses, Slavs, and the disabled is also covered. An extensive Holocaust Encyclopedia covers all the major issues related to the events in Europe during the WWII. There is a dedicated education section that caters for teachers, students, families, adults, and undergraduates, and there is also a learning centre. In addition, the site features a well-pitched introduction, personal histories, interactive maps, and online exhibitions. Access is provided to the online catalogue of the Museum Library, which includes photo and document archives. The website also carries information about the museum's Registry of Holocaust survivors, plus other research facilities.
This is the website of the University of Southern California Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education. Its collections were brought together by the Survivors of the Shoah Foundation, which was established by Steven Spielberg during the filming of 'Schindler's List.' Between 1994 and 1999, the foundation collected some 52,000 testimonies of Holocaust survivors and other witnesses, including liberators, from 56 countries in 32 languages; about 90 per cent of the survivors are Jewish, the rest are "Jehovah's Witnesses, Sinti and Roma, homosexuals, political prisoners, and survivors of eugenics policies." The site states that the testimonies have been primarily collected for the purposes of education in order to inform students about the Holocaust as well as other genocides and to combat racism and prejudice. Altogether, the testimonies make up 120,000 hours of video which are searchable on this site. The Shoah Foundation has made several award-winning films based on its testimonies, as well as CD-ROMs for educational purposes; the site also describes the Foundation's ongoing educational projects. For researchers in Holocaust Studies, it is worth noting that, while some short video excerpts and the testimony catalogue are available online, the site does not provide immediate access to the videos. The catalogue offers information on witnesses, such as city and country of birth, religion and wartime experiences. In the autumn of 2005, the Shoah Foundation became part of the University of Southern California, where researchers can make appointments to gain direct access to the collection. Procedures for gaining access are provided on the site, although online instructions seem to be aimed primarily at institutions and teachers; there is, however, a Visiting Scholars Fund to support graduate students and post-doctoral researchers who wish to consult the archive.
The main purpose of the Virtual Library Zeitgeschichte (Modern History) is to provide an overview of selected online resources relating to the history of the Third Reich during the Second World War, with a particular emphasis on German language resources. Topics covered include: the Holocaust; resistance; business and politics; and historiography. The language of the site is German. The catalogues of sources is hosted by the Historisches Centrum Hagen. This contributes to the central catalogue for the WWW-Virtual Library network of indexes to historical materials online. It is intended for general public use.
This website showcases the Wiener Collection in the Elias Sourasky Central Library, Tel-Aviv University, Israel. The collection relates to Jewish European communities; Europe during the interwar period and the Second World War; German Third Reich publications; and anti-Semitism and Fascism globally. The collection on Nazi Germany was begun in Amsterdam in 1933 by Dr. Alfred Wiener (1885-1964), who foresaw the importance of documenting the rise of the Nazi régime. His library was transferred from Amsterdam to London in 1939, forming the basis of London's Wiener Library. In 1980, Wiener's Collection was transferred to Israel. Publications in the Collection include some 150,000 books, pamphlets and journals; over one million newspaper clippings; unpublished memoirs and interviews; approximately 40,000 documents related to the Nuremberg trials; extensive materials on 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion'; dossiers on war criminals; Gestapo and other Third Reich documents on the Jewish Question; and over 500 sources on microfilm and microfiche which refer to the Holocaust and Holocaust denial. Items can be searched online in the Sourasky library catalogue. Further sources, according to the site, were being transferred from card catalogues into an online catalogue at the time of review. Teachers, students and researchers should note the site's virtual exhibitions which illustrate the extent of the Collection. The collection is open to researchers and the public and rules for access are provided.
This is the home page of the Centre for Research on anti-Semitism (ZfA) at the Technical University of Berlin, which was founded in 1982. The site opens with a list of the Centre's current lectures and colloquia and a link to its newsletter, available online in full-text versions running back to 1996. A Forschung subsite outlines the main concerns and research aims (Aufgaben und Forschungsschwerpunkte) of the Centre as the interdisciplinary study of German-Jewish History and the Holocaust. The ZfA also focusses on contextual issues surrounding racism and xenophobia, such as changing economic and social conditions and immigration. Geographically, the Centre deals with Germany, Austria, East-Central Europe and the Baltic regions; it has also addressed the plight of other minorities, such as the Roma. Topics for special research projects and conferences have included: Anti-Semitism in Italy and Germany in comparison, 1870-1914; the history of concentration camps; exile and emigration to the fifth continent; German-speaking musicians in exile in Australia; solidarity and help for the Jews, 1933-1945; the rescue of Jews in National Socialist Germany, 1933-1945; and the murder of the European Jews and German society, 1941-1945. Latest projects are outlined in detail on a special subpage. The Forschung subsite also lists a chronology of the main events related to the founding and functioning of the Centre, going back to 1978. Other subsites provide information on holdings in the ZFA's library and archive; a wide range of ZFA publications; course offerings; affiliated academics; and an association for friends of the ZFA. Of particular note is the ZFA's Jahrbuch für Antisemitismusforschung (Yearbook for Research on Anti-Semitism); the site gives the journal's contents and abstracts.
Founded in 1993, Österreichische Exilbibliothek is a section of the Literaturhaus in Vienna, Austria. This library is devoted to the arts, humanities and culture of those people, particularly Jews, who left Germany to live in Austria leading up to the Second World War, and who subsequently fled Austria just before and during the war. The site opens with a retrospective essay. Exhibitions, meetings, lectures and related events and publications on the topic of Exile Studies are also listed on the main page. Contact information is provided to enquire further on the library's holdings. The subject covers a broad range of human issues, from the persistence of German or Austrian cultural identity in the exiles' foreign destinations such as Latin America or New York, to children's literature, to the nature of culture in exile and its transformation as it reverberates down subsequent generations in new places. The site should serve interested members of the public, along with researchers who are investigating this central dislocation in the History and Cultural Studies of Austria and Central Europe.