Aldous Huxley: The Author and his Times is a website devoted to Aldous Huxley (1894-1963), author of novels and essays including Brave New World, Point Counter Point and Island. The site's table of contents includes, General Huxley Links, Brave New World Links, Biography, Complete Works, Coterie (Huxley's 'comrades and affiliates'), Bio-Ethics and Reproductive Issues, Additional Resources, Site Informration (including citation formats), and a Discussion Forum.
This section of the Backdoor Broadcasting Company website makes recordings of academic lectures available to researchers and members of the public. Here, a lecture delivered by Tim Thornton of the University of Central Lancashire on 25 November 2009 at The Humanities and Arts Research Centre, Royal Holloway University of London is posted as a podcast. The lecture, "Clinical Judgement and the Medical Humanities" deals with areas of ethics and contemporary philosophy and linguistic studies related to mental health care. Applying ideas from Wittgenstein, Thornton is known for his work on "clinical judgement, idiographic and narrative understanding, the interpretation of psychopathology and reductionism and social constructionism in psychiatry." Recorded questions which were posed at the end of the lecture are also available.
This is an online exhibition on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study which was carried out by the US Public Health Service between 1932 and 1972. In its aim to document how syphilis spreads and kills, the work enlisted the participation of 399 African Americans in Alabama who were suffering from the disease. Told only that they were being treated for 'bad blood', all forms of known therapy were deliberately withheld from them. The deception, described as 'deeply, profoundly, morally wrong' by Bill Clinton in the official apology issued to the victims and their family members on behalf of the US Government in 1997, remains one of the most disturbing episodes in the history of medical research and experimentation. This website makes available the Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee produced on the 20th of May 1996 and provides links to the full transcript of the Presidential Apology and other relevant sites.
The Center for Bioethics at the University of Minnesota aims: "to advance and disseminate knowledge concerning ethical issues in health care and the life sciences." The Center organizes and sponsors various research projects ranging from a Genetics and Identity project to an African Genealogy and Genetics project. The excellent website is divided into sections on: the Center's Research; Education (giving details of the University of Minnesota's many graduate programmes in bioethics); details of the many Publications of Center and Faculty staff; and a Resource Center containing bibliographies and details of how to access the University's materials on bioethics. Also contains news features and recently published articles of interest to those working in the field of bioethics. This high quality resource is an extremely useful conduit of information for those working at an advanced level in the field of bioethics.
The Consortium Ethics Program (CEP) is a biomedical ethics program based at the University of Pittsburgh. Organizing the University's graduate programmes in bioethics, the Center also publishes a quarterly online newsletter, Community Ethics. Recently published issues of Community Ethics have included articles on: Death and Dying; and Adolescence, Medicine, Ethics, and the Law. The full-text of Consortium is accessible free-of-charge via the site. The simply designed and regularly maintained website also provides access to a useful gateway of other online resources on biomedical ethics. All information is freely available and in English.
Deadly Medicine is an online exhibition published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as part of its exhibitions programme. The site looks at the central role of eugenics in Nazi doctrine and the ultimate culmination of this racist ideology in the Holocaust and mass programmes of euthanasia. The exhibition is divided into three main sections, the first of which looks at the popularity of ideas on eugenics and racial hygiene within the Weimar Republic years 1919-1933. The second and third sections concentrate on the Nazis' own theories and the efforts they made to establish an Aryan race, with details of programmes of sterilization, the promotion of motherhood, and the eventual murderous policies of euthanasia and genocide during the war years. The site features some well-chosen primary source material, and information on further reading and related Web links. There is also a related traveling exhibition described here, with catalogue, upcoming dates and cities posted. Separate subpages are devoted to education with teaching and learning mateials for students and information for group visits to the Museum.
Ethics in Science is a site maintained by members of the chemistry department at Virginia Tech engaged in the teaching of science ethics. It contains a small collection of essays adapted from lectures given in a course at the university, and two useful bibliographic resources: an outline and reference list for an undergraduate course in science ethics, and a substantial thematically arranged bibliography of books and journal articles published prior to 1997. Some sections of this bibliography are devoted to general issues, including scientific misconduct, norms, plagiarism, whistle-blowing, and the teaching of ethics in undergraduate-level science curricula; there are also subject-specific listings, plus sections devoted to some of the most well-known cases of alleged scientific misconduct: the 'Baltimore affair' (concerning suspected fraudulent data in a paper on transgenic mice supervised by the Nobel prizewinner David Baltimore); silicone breast implants; cold fusion; issues surrounding the human genome project, and polywater (the physically anomolous form of water whose existence was widely confirmed in the late 1960s but subsequently came to be regarded as a myth.) There is very little annotation. 'Popular' journals such as Time and NewScientist are covered alongside academic journals, and weblinks provided where available. Press releases and reports on recent misconduct cases are added included to 2005.
From quackery to bacteriology provides a basic narrative of the history of nineteenth century medical history in the United States. The site has been created by Barbara Floyd, an archivist at the University of Toledo, from nineteenth century printed works. The site is divided into the following main sections: scientific medicine, home health care, quackery, patent medicine, women's health care, mental health, physical fitness and nutrition, the public health movement, medicine in the civil war, nursing, and medical education. Each section is accompanied by a bibliography of the sources used. The text on the site is accompanied by a limited number of illustrations. The site is also a useful source for discerning attitudes towards the body, gender and eugenics.
galton.org is a site devoted to the work of Francis Galton (1822-1911), best remembered as the founder of eugenics, author of "Hereditary Genius" and cousin of Charles Darwin, but also a noted contributor to fields including geography, meteorology, psychology and statistics. The site is the work of Gavan Tredoux, a Galton enthusiast and maintainer of Upstream, a US-based "heterodox" (libertarian and broadly opposed to liberal-academic consensus) web journal and resource. It consists mainly of electronic publications of Galton's work, plus brief biographical sections outlining Galton's activities in various fields. The primary source material is mostly in facsimile form, presented as PDF files (often large, typically up to 9Mb in size). All of Galton's major publications are available: the "Narrative of an Explorer in Tropical South Africa" (1853); "The Art of Travel" (1855); "Hereditary Genius" (1869); "English Men of Science" (1874); "Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development" (1883); "Natural Inheritance" (1889); and Galton's 1908 autobiography, "Memories of My Life", plus the multi-volumed biography prepared after Galton's death by his primary disciple, Karl Pearson, "The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton" (1913-40). "Hereditary Genius" and "Inquiries into Human Faculty" are additionally available as transcripts in both PDF and HTML form. The HTML version of each text is presented as an extremely long webpage (which may cause problems for some users); "Hereditary Genius" lacks pagination in its HTML form, although the PDF version has it. Occasional typos appear in the transcripts. Also archived are a large number of Galton's papers, short articles and letters to individuals and newspapers, including his correspondence with Charles Darwin, in a mixture of PDF facsimile and HTML transcript. There is a very substantial bibliography of Galton's writings, giving links to the digitised texts where available. The various summary pages outlining particular works and activities are also well-supplied with relevant source links. Other site features include a summary of locations of Galton papers catalogued by the Historical Manuscripts Commission, and the best archive of Galton portraits available online.
'Hygiea Internationalis' (ISSN: 1404 4013) is a refereed electronic journal publishing on the history of public health. It is the official journal from the International Network for the History of Public Health (INHPH) based at Linköping University in Sweden. The INHPH aims to promote the study of the history of improvements in the health of populations from antiquity to modern times, with a particular focus on the interaction between ideas on public health, their implementation, public health organisations, and their social and demographic consequences. 'Hygiea Internationalis' was started in 1999 and published annually until 2005, but the site has details of a new pattern of more regular publication, starting in October 2006. The articles are freely available from the website as PDF files. The journal was set up with the support of the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, Swedish Council for Social Research and Swedish Council for Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Information for authors wishing to submit material to the journal is available from the site.
Ideas and Issues was an American radio programme hosted by Hugh LaFollette that ran between 1995 and 2003. Most of the guests featured on the show were academics, many of them philosophers or political scientists. Ideas and Issues catered for a general audience, although it was perhaps more academically inclined than some of its rivals. Guests included well-known authors such as Richard Dawkins, Matt Ridley, Michael Ignatieff, and Stanley Fish. This website hosts the archives of the show, which may be downloaded in RealAudio format or, in some cases, mp3. There is some grouping of shows by broad subject area in some parts of the 'list of shows' section, but there is no search engine provided. Episodes include: 'Why I am a Secular Humanist'; 'Why I am a Theist'; 'Greed'; 'The Origins of Virtue'; 'Punishment'; 'Pseudoscience'; 'Atheism'; 'Evolution'; 'The Significance of Community'; 'Relativity Theory'; 'Why Abortion is Immoral'; and 'Deconstruction'.
The Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement is a digitised collection of several hundred photographs, illustrations and facsimile documents from the history of eugenics and related fields, principally in the USA. The archive may be browsed by category, with sections devoted to Mendelian genetics, eugenicist pamphlets, Fitter Families contests, pedigrees (including the famous "Martin Kallikak" case), immigration policy, hereditary defects, eugenic research on circus performers, early psychometrics, religion, sterilisation laws and other topics. Items include documents from the American Breeders' Association, American Eugenics Society and Eugenics Record Office, and the correspondence of leading eugenicists such as Charles Davenport and Harry Laughlin. Each image may be viewed at normal or high resolution. A cumbersome but effective keyword search facility is also available. Associated with the Archive is a virtual exhibition on the history of American eugenics, employing images from the archive and requiring a Flash plug-in. Historians of science may feel uneasy with some of the analysis presented here, and more particularly in the preamble presented on the site's main page: an understandable but perhaps unduly presentist distinction between "legitimate" and "illegitimate" genetic research underlies much of the exposition. The exhibition may, however, be judged suitable as an introductory resource for school-age or undergraduate students, although the images in the Flash presentation are rendered to a surprisingly poor resolution. In some cases, the reader would have to trace the equivalent image in the Archive itself (easily done since each has an identifying number) in order to view it legibly. A comprehensive reference list for the exhibition is provided. The website relies very heavily on Flash technology and can be a little difficult to navigate - there is, however, an older HTML version of the website available.
The website of the Margaret Sanger Papers Project is devoted to the collection and publication of letters, manuscripts and articles by the birth control pioneer (1879-1966). The Project, sponsored by the Department of History at New York University, has so far produced a microfilm edition of the Sanger Papers, details of which are on the site. Free registration is necessary to access all the material on the site. A transcript collection of some of Sangerís articles and speeches is provided, alongside a useful capsule biography, histories and staff details of the various organisations with which Sanger was involved. There are also comprehensive primary and secondary bibliographies, and details of the Projectís newsletter. An mp3 file of a speech by Sanger in 1953 is available, as well as regularly updated details of news, events and publications relating to Sanger's work. There are also links to Sanger-related documents (mainly facsimiles and transcriptions of her work) held at other sites.
This is the website for Mersenne, an informal email discussion group for the history, philosophy and sociology of science, technology and medicine. The site is the responsibility of JISCmail, the provider of electronic discussion lists to the UK higher education community. Apart from information about how to join or leave the list, the site contains archives of previous submissions which may be browsed by author, date or thread, or searched by keyword. The volume of postings is low: most messages consist of job advertisements, calls for papers, and announcements of meetings, new websites or seminar series. All postings are archived at the JISCmail site, and it is thus possible to keep up to date without subscribing to the list by regularly checking this address. The archive contains all messages posted since September 1998, a significant proportion having been imported from the mailbase facility which formerly handled UK academic discussion lists. The site's presentation is simple but eminently clear.
Published by the Lane Library, Stanford School of Medicine, to accompany an exhibition held from February to September 2007, the 'Not a Cough in a Carload' website provides enlargeable images of print and poster advertisements that tell "the story of how, between the late 1920s and the early 1950s, tobacco companies used deceptive and often patently false claims in an effort to reassure the public of the safety of their products". One of the tactics that was used was to show, in advertising campaigns, medical staff (doctors, dentists and nurses) as smokers. Another was to use celebrities (such as John Wayne, Lucille Ball, and Ronald Reagan), athletes (Joe Di Maggio), and even spacemen, to advertise cigarette smoking. A third strategy was to make false medical claims (smoke cigarettes to prevent sore throats, smoke cigarettes for a good digestion), use pseudoscience (smoke cigarettes to relieve fatigue and irritability, the myth of "safe cigarettes"), or raise fears over weight gain (reach for a cigarette instead of a sweet). The website provides dozens of advertising images, which are organised by brand, or by theme, such as: doctors smoking; brides smoking; inhaling; calming nerves; infants and children; targeting teens; comical ads; santa claus; religious symbols; and cultural icons. Useful commentaries are provided, although dates are not always given for individual advertisements, and it also possible to read some famous slogans, which are organised by brand.
This is the full text of an article on the role nurses played in the Nazi's euthanasia programme during the 1930s and 1940s. Written by Professor Susan Benedict from the College of Nursing at the Medical University of South Carolina, it outlines the euthanasia programmes that were established by the Nazis to kill handicapped and mentally ill children and adults, such as the T-4 adult euthanasia programme, and the 'wild' programmes. It also focuses on the women who participated in these events as nurses, and their motivations for doing so. This is a useful resource for a topic not much documented on the Internet and will complement historians' related work in Holocaust Studies.
This website, which charts the role of the contraceptive pill in United States history, has been devised in tandem with a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) film dealing with the same subject. The website includes material directly related to the film, such as a description and transcript, but it also provides resources on scientific and medical history, the women's rights movement and gender relations in the United States of America during the twentieth century. Available are video clips of interviews, which can be viewed with QuickTime and RealPlayer, a timeline tracing the history of birth control from antiquity until the twentieth century, and transcripts of primary source material, including correspondence between Katherine McCormick and Margaret Sanger who were responsible for the advent of the oral contraceptive pill. In addition to this there are biographies of key individuals, encyclopedic entries on key events, and a gallery of pill packets and designs from the 1960s onwards. There is also a teacher's guide, with classroom activities and suggestions of how to use the resources on the site.
This is the home page of Polanyiana, the periodical of the Michael Polanyi Liberal Philosophical Association. Based in Budapest, the journal is published twice per year and devoted to the work of Michael Polanyi (1891-1976) a scientist-turned-philosopher from the noted Hungarian Jewish family. His observations on the connections between science, society, economics, and political and moral philosophy provide the foci for the scholarly research posted in this periodical. The periodical articles are posted online either in English or Hungarian. The journal archive is incomplete, with some articles offered online in full and some only as abstracts. Issues for several years were missing from the site at the time of review. Nonetheless, the site will be quite worthwhile for scholars whose work relates generally to the broad range of fields that Polanyi studied, and especially to the history of Central Europe.
The SHiPS (Sociology, History and Philosophy of Science) resource centre serves science teachers requiring materials and ideas for education projects. Aspects of the history and philosophy of science are increasingly being taught in science lessons in secondary and further education, hence the perceived need for such a centre. The site describes itself as 'an online library, a repository of information for teachers to plan lessons and to learn more deeply about science studies'. The website is extensive, offering news of publications and educational developments, a reference section with projects and papers, and a guide to American standards in science teaching. The site features online curriculum modules (adapted for particular age groups) and essays on scientists and scientific discoveries. There are sections on educational issues such as gender stereotyping and the presumed conflict between science and religion. There are also modules and case studies on science and culture, and scientific ethics. Reading lists are suggested for teachers new to the history of science. The reference part of the site includes biographies and portraits of important figures and links to original papers and online projects or exhibitions. The proceedings of the Third International History, Philosophy and Science Teaching Conference may be purchased from the site.
The Society for Social Studies of Science (4S), founded in 1975, is an international learned society covering broadly the subject area usually identified as Science and Technology Studies (STS), incorporating the social and cultural study of science, technology and medicine. Its associated website provides conference news, information on joining the Society, a list of names and contact addresses for members of the governing council, and details of prizes awarded by the Society. Brief details are given of the Society's journal, Science, Technology and Human Values; 4S also maintains a thrice-yearly newsletter, Technoscience, of which most copies since 1995 are archived at this site. Also included (on the links page) are the subscription details for the STS graduate student discussion group, STSGRAD-L.
Part of the Poynter Centre for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions website, the Teaching Research Ethics pages contain information and resources for those teaching science research ethics. Funded by the US Government, the centre designs curricular materials and organises workshops in order to promote and develop 'moral reasoning skills'. The site's resources for teachers include: a large annotated bibliography; a free 80-page book entitled 'Moral Reasoning in Scientific Research: Cases for Teaching and Assessment'; and essays by the director of the project. The book may be purchased over the Internet, or downloaded for free in PDF format. It consists of six case studies designed to teach moral reasoning and assess students' abilities. The essays include: 'Using Short Writing Assignments in Teaching Research Ethics'; 'Using Small Group Assignments in Teaching Research Ethics'; 'Using Case Studies in Teaching Research Ethics'; and 'Assessing Student Learning in the Responsible Conduct of Research'. An archive of the Centre's newsletter, 'TREnds', is also included with the site. Now discontinued, TREnds included various articles that will still be of use to the educator, such as 'Contexts for Teaching Research Ethics'. There are overviews of past and forthcoming workshops organised by the Centre.
This website has details of a major oral history survey of the 'treatments' used for homosexuality during the second half of the 20th century in the British Isles, and aims to place some of its narratives online in the future. The research project was funded by the Wellcome Trust from 2001 to 2004. Further research is said to be ongoing, a survey of 300 therapists in the UK is being undertaken at April 2009, and researchers are making a worldwide call for information on 'treatments' still being practiced outside the UK. At April 2009 this website is currently very sparse in terms of content, but does contain several interviews with professionals, details of the projects and researchers, and external Web links. This will be a useful contact point for those interested in making contact with active researchers in the post-war history of the medicalisation of homosexuality.
This web page contains the text of a polemical guest editorial written for the journal 'Philosophy of Science' in 1992, by its former editor-in-chief, C. West Churchman. Churchman was one of the pioneers of the philosophy of management science, and this essay applies some of his ideas concerning management ethics to the physical sciences. Considering the development of the atomic bomb, he starts by asking whether "human beings should study physical nature, whether it is dangerous or ethical to do so". The essay then broadens to consider the nature of the management decisions that scientists (and others) are required to make, but frequently deny responsibility for, before turning to address the perceived ethical failings of the modern world, especially concerning child abuse. Although this essay skips between subjects rather rapidly, and is decidedly polemical in tone, it does raise questions about the ethics of science and technology, and demonstrates that the philosophy of the social sciences is not easily separable from that of the physical sciences.