'anthropic-principle.com' is an internet resource dedicated to the provision of materials and information relating to a wide range of subjects in the philosophy of science. In particular it focuses on anthropic reasoning, the Doomsday argument, observational selection effects, and related issues in cosmology and evolutionary biology. It is maintained by Professor Nick Bostrom from the Department of Philosophy at Oxford University, and will be of relevance to both students and academics. The site includes an archive of preprints (written by Bostrom and others) on the aforementioned topics as well as other areas. In addition to the archive, there is a bibliography on relevant topics and links to other anthropic resources on the internet. Visitors can also download without charge Bostrom's book on Anthropic Bias. This is a well-designed, informative site that is easily navigable.
The Archives of Scientific Philosophy website describes the holdings of important collections at the University of Pittsburgh. These collections act as archival resources for investigating the history of scientific philosophy, that is, philosophy that has been influenced by scientific thinking and practices. The archives themselves include the publications, notes, lectures, and correspondence of such influential figures as Rudolf Carnap, Hans Reichenbach, Frank Plumpton Ramsey, Paul Hertz, Herbert Feigl, and Rose Rand. In addition to these collections of physical documents, there are microfiches of some of Ludwig Wittgenstein's papers, and a 300-reel microfilm archive for the History of Quantum Physics. The website also has a page on some of the archive's smaller collections relevant to this topic, and a page of practical information for scholars needing to locate and access particular documents.
The Computational Epistemology Laboratory (CEL) is a cognitive science research facility based at the University of Waterloo, Canada. Cognitive science refers to that research on cognition which utilises the combined insights of several disciplines including: philosophy; artificial intelligence; linguistics; and psychology. Headed by Paul Thagard, Professor of Philosophy at Waterloo, the CEL website is broken into several sections: cognitive science at the University of Waterloo; software; bibliographies (including a glossary of cognitive science terms); and other sites of interest. Perhaps most usefully for the student or researcher of cognitive science, the site allows the free download of several software packages designed to enable analysis of cognitive science data. The site is well-designed and easy to navigate. Although the CEL mainly represents and showcases the research of Professor Thagard, it also provides a useful list of links to other online cognitive science resources.
This website makes available the transcript of a keynote speech given at a doctoral colloquium at North Carolina State University by Professor James R. Wilson. It discusses scientific misconduct, and the ethical and methodological principles that genuine scientists must hold on to. The relevance is particularly to computer simulation research, but there are also some general insights into the matter of falsification, and the peer review system as currently practised in scientific journal publication. This article could be of interest to advanced students and researchers exploring questions of scientific ethics and honesty, falsification, and standards in methodology. References are provided.
The Critical Rationalist was a short-lived electronic journal (ISSN 1393-3809) devoted to pursuing and elaborating the philosophy of Karl Popper (1902-1994) and, in particular, his method of 'Critical Rationalism' as outlined in his work Conjectures and Refutations. Note the journal appears to have ceased pbulication in 1998 and there are only three extant past issues, all of which can be accessed on this site in a variety of formats. In the Popperian tradition, this site eschews philosophy as linguistic analysis, focusing on 'real' philosophical problems such as probability, induction, the mind-body problem, the nature of scientific theories and the philosophy of history. The site also exposes Popper's own philosophy to rigorous critical analysis: 'Comprehensively Critical Rationalism' (CCR). This site will be of use especially to anyone with an interest in Karl Popper and the philosophy of science.
HYLE is published by HYLE Publications, Karlsruhe, in cooperation with the University of Karlsruhe, Institute of Philosophy. It is a refereed international journal for the philosophy of chemistry, which covers epistemological, methodological, foundational, and ontological problems of chemistry and its subfields; the peculiarities of chemistry and relations to technology, other scientific and non-scientific fields; aesthetical, ethical, and environmental matters in chemistry; as well as philosophically relevant facets of the history, sociology, linguistics, and education of chemistry. Most articles are in English but some are in German. The journal is available electronically twice yearly, free, and may be purchased as an annual printed volume. The website also provides online bibliographies; book reviews; links to related sites; and contents lists for over 80 other journals (Science studies current contents service).
This website provides full-text access to 'HYLE', a refereed journal which focuses on the philosophical aspects of chemistry (ISSN 1433-5158). It also provides extensive scholarly and practical information on the philosophy of chemistry. Articles in HYLE deal with problems in the epistemology, methodology, foundations, and ontology of chemistry and its subfields, as a distinct branch within the philosophy of science. The journal provides a forum for discussion as well as book reviews. It has a substantial international scientific board clearly identified on the home page. Most articles are in English but some are in German. Additional features on the website include a bibliography of resources on philosophy of chemistry, biographies of some philosophers of chemistry, a book review service, a conference calendar, detailed conference reports, a journals section with links to the tables of content for related journals both electronic and print, and links to pertinent sites.
This is the website of the International Society for the Philosophy of Chemistry (ISPC), which encourages the exchange of scholarship and ideas regarding the philosophical foundations of the chemical sciences and related fields. The scope of the Society includes questions about practices unique to chemical research, as well as the relationship between chemistry and other disciplines, including metaphysics and the philosophy of the mind. Two journals serve this expanding field: 'Hyle'; and the ISPC publication, 'Foundations of Chemistry' (members of the Society receive a discount on the latter). The ISPC website hosts a philosophy of chemistry electronic discussion group, firstname.lastname@example.org. Subscription details are provided, but not online archives. There is also information on past and future symposia. Contact details are provided for the Society's officers, along with the text of the ISPC constitution and a membership request form. There is a short list of links to other relevant websites.
This website reprints the review of Karl Popper's (1902-1994) legacy to the philosophy of science which was first published in the 'Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy'. It sets out the central tenets of Popper's thought together with an analysis of the context in which it developed and some key biographical information. The webpage was compiled as a tribute to the life and work of a scholar 'regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of this century'. The author, Stephen Thornton of the University of Limerick, is also editor of 'Minerva: The Internet Journal of Philosophy' and there is a link to this site. The page sets out Popper's problem of the demarcation between 'science' and 'non-science' in terms of his engagement with traditional empiricism and situates the argument in the context of his social and political thought and the critique of historicism. It forms a useful introduction to Popper's thought for students of philosophy of science and related disciplines. There are links to relevant webpages and a bibliography of primary and secondary sources.
Lyle Zynda's Lectures on the Philosophy of Science is a site which posts Zenda's complete lecture notes prepared for the course Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Lyle Zynda, now an academic at Indiana University South Bend, taught this course at Princeton University in the Spring 1994 semester. His lectures are posted as recommended reading by Stephen Sapp of Iowa State University for Sapp's final year undergraduate course on the Sociology of Technology. There are 24 lectures in all, with the following titles: Introduction ; The Inferential View Of Scientific Explanation; The Causal Theory Of Explanation, Parts I - III; Problems with the Causal Theory Of Explanation; Van Fraassen's Pragmatic View Of Explanation; Carnap vs. Popper; An Overview Of Kuhn's The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions; Paradigms and Normal Science; Anomaly, Crisis, and the Non-Cumulativity of Paradigm Shifts; Incommensurability; Laudan on Kuhn's Theory of Incommensurable Theories; Laudan on the Hierarchical Model of Justification; Laudan's Reticulated Theory of Scientific Justification; Dissecting the Holist Picture of Scientific Change; Scientific Realism Vs. Constructive Empiricism; Inference To The Best Explanation As An Argument For Scientific Realism; Entity Realism (Hacking & Cartwright); Entity Realism And The 'Non-Empirical' Virtues; Laudan on Convergent Realism; Convergent Realism and the History of Science; and The Measurement Problem, Parts I and II. Academics and postgraduates preparing lectures and seminars on the Philosophy of Science should find this site most informative, as will undergraduates taking similar courses.
The Metaphysics of Science is the name of is a major three-year AHRC-funded project based in the UK, exploring how natural and obvious classifications can be fitted into a coherent and unified worldview. The project website has an overview of the project, its staff and researchers, aims and outcomes, and partners (the Universities of Birmingham, Bristol, and Nottingham). There are details of five project workshops, most of the papers from a 2007 Birmingham conference titled 'Nature and its Classification: A Metaphysics of Science', and also details of the forthcoming conference 'Metaphysics of Science' to be held in September 2009. The website has many full-text papers, freely available for download as PDF files. These include: 'Natural Kinds: (Thick) Essentialism or Promiscuous Realism?'; 'Ayn Rand on Concepts'; 'Aristotle on the Ontological Basis of Zoological Classification'; and 'Natural kinds, Naturalistic Epistemology and Philosophical Method', among many others.
This is the home page of Polanyiana, the periodical of the Michael Polanyi Liberal Philosophical Association. Based in Budapest, the journal is published twice per year and devoted to the work of Michael Polanyi (1891-1976) a scientist-turned-philosopher from the noted Hungarian Jewish family. His observations on the connections between science, society, economics, and political and moral philosophy provide the foci for the scholarly research posted in this periodical. The periodical articles are posted online either in English or Hungarian. The journal archive is incomplete, with some articles offered online in full and some only as abstracts. Issues for several years were missing from the site at the time of review. Nonetheless, the site will be quite worthwhile for scholars whose work relates generally to the broad range of fields that Polanyi studied, and especially to the history of Central Europe.
The "Scientific Revolution" website is part of web page of Dr. Robert A. Hatch and is made available by the University of Florida. It provides access to a range of resources for the study and teaching of the Scientific Revolution, covering developments from Copernicus to Isaac Newton over the period 1550 to 1700. At the time of review, some links on the site were incomplete or broken. Nevertheless, the site presents much useful information about the resources available for the study of the Scientific Revolution and the scientists and thinkers involved. The site is divided into the following sections: Introduction; Overview and Background; Outlines, Timelines and Tools; Biography and the Scientific Revolution; Intermediate Resources; Research - Primary Texts; and Research - Early English Books Online. It is aimed at undergraduate students and teachers. The content available at the time of cataloguing included: an introductory essay discussing the concept of periodisation in relation to the Scientific Revolution; bibliographic essays by Robert Hatch and Richard Westfall; an account of basic concepts of various world and cosmological systems, from the Aristotelian cosmos to Newton; timelines; bibliographies of secondary and important primary material; and a guide to online resources, in particular Early English Books Online and Gallica. Hatch's "History of Science Study Guide", which covers developments in astronomy and related scientific disciplines from pre-scientific times to Newton, is a very useful overview. The site also makes available Richard Westfall's browsable prosopographical list of over 600 individuals involved in the scientific community. This is a valuable tool and will be of use to students and researchers. The study guide and account of cosmological concepts will also be of considerable interest to those involved in the history of science in the early modern period. The bibliographical material will be of use to all students of the subject. There is no indication of updates and the site seems to be archived.
This website is a bibliography of texts on evolutionary epistemology, and is a revised electronic version of a print edition by Gary A. Cziko and Donald T. Campbell. Very simply, evolutionary epistemology (or selection theory) investigates the way in which organisms find a 'fit' with their environment. Many scientists now believe that evolutionary assimilation is not simply a question of organic change, but that it implies a kind of knowledge. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically according to author. It also has a quote index - a very useful and interesting feature. Representative quotes by important scholars in the field are available alphabetically. The site is text-based and fast loading, although it does not appear to have been updated since the end of 1997.
Sherlock Holmes and Probabilistic Induction is an online seminar paper written by Professor Soshichi Uchii of Kyoto University. It looks at nineteenth-century approaches to the philosophy of science by comparing the method of reasoning employed by Arthur Conan Doyle's fictional detective with the methods of the philosophers John Herschel, John Stuart Mill, William Whewell, Augustus de Morgan, and William Stanley Jevons. Uchii determines that Holmes's methods are similar to the approaches advocated by de Morgan and Jevons, which employed a "new symbolic logic and probabilistic theory of induction". The use of examples from the Sherlock Holmes stories works well, and provides an accessible route into the comparison of Victorian theories of induction and scientific epistemology. The paper should be of interest to students studying the history of the philosophy of science and inductive reasoning.
Luminarium's web page on Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) provides links to information on his life, works, and achievements. It also hosts several secondary essays about the author. Bacon is credited with the invention of modern scientific method in his unfinished 'Great Instauration', consisting of the 'Novum Organum' ('New Organon'), and his treatise on 'The Proficience and Advancement of Learning'. The website has five sections: quotations (from Bartleby); biography; works (online editions and extracts); essays (secondary essays, including one by Stephen Jay Gould); and links to other sites. This website provides a good way in to studying Bacon and should be of use to undergraduates.