This site, authored by the director of the Centre for Science Studies at the University of Lancaster, concerns actor resource theory. This theory was developed in sociology departments but has relevance for various other disciplines, including philosophy of science. The site contains an annotated bibliography of relevant print-based material, organized both alphabetically, by author, and thematically, by subject. There is, for instance, a section dealing with the application of actor resource theory to science. In addition, the site contains links to a small number of online papers, and offers visitors the opportunity to add to the resource by submitting more entries. The presentation is rather basic, but clear enough.
The AHRC Research Centre for Studies of Surrealism and its Legacies is a collaboration between the universities of Manchester and Essex and the Tate Galleries. Surrealism occupies a unique position in the intellectual and cultural history of the twentieth century. It marked a crisis in post-Enlightenment thought, permeated every sphere of creative life and has been at the heart of debates about modernism and postmodernism. The centre will build on existing scholarship on surrealism and pursue vital new areas of research such as the relationship with science. Drawing together a broad range of disciplinary perspectives, the Centre will explore surrealism's many legacies in art and cultural theory and, in collaboration with the Tate, will disseminate research to scholars, students, artists and the wider public.The website provides information on research currently being carried out at the centre on surrealism and dada, events organised by the centre, and the academics involved with the project. The initial foci of research will be lineages and legacies, intersections, surrealism and science, exhibitions and display, and translation and cultural hybridity. The centre received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) within the Research Centre Awards scheme.
This website offers a directory of important philosophers and economists from Sir Thomas More to the present day. Each page contains a list of links to primary texts and most include a brief summary of the author's details and major works. There is also a set of annotated links to other websites at the foot of the main page. At time of review there were a few broken links, but the majority were functioning (additionally, links are often provided to multiple copies of important texts). The site should prove helpful to anyone studying the history of economic ideas.
Alchemy is an online bibliography of English-language writings and was originally published in hard copy in 1980, winning several awards for its author, Alan Pritchard. As the text is now out of print, he has made it available online, this being the second Internet edition, and very much an ongoing project of personal enthusiasm. The bibliography focuses on new published material and the wealth of material made available through the Internet. Material from the first edition is gradually being incorporated in order to provide a comprehensive resource on both the alchemical and Hermetic source literature, and the influences of alchemical thought and imagery. This Web resource explores alchemy as one of the most powerful themes in Western culture, standing for transformation or regeneration. It considers the wide range of writing on the influence of alchemy: 'on early science (including Newton and Boyle), chemistry, medicine, art, literature (from Chaucer to Harry Potter by way of the French symbolists and the Surrealists), psychology (especially C. G. Jung), music, and opera'. The site is also interested in the occult aspects of alchemy as a 'unique mystical Path', as well as its influence on other occult traditions. The overall aim of this bibliography, which is a very personal but well-considered project, is to bring all these extremely diverse aspects of research into the alchemic tradition together in one open access resource.
Aldous Huxley: The Author and his Times is a website devoted to Aldous Huxley (1894-1963), author of novels and essays including Brave New World, Point Counter Point and Island. The site's table of contents includes, General Huxley Links, Brave New World Links, Biography, Complete Works, Coterie (Huxley's 'comrades and affiliates'), Bio-Ethics and Reproductive Issues, Additional Resources, Site Informration (including citation formats), and a Discussion Forum.
Alexander Graham Bell’s Path to the Telephone is an innovative attempt to characterise the process of "invention" or creative discovery leading to a recognisable finished artefact, taking as its case study the telephone, as developed by Alexander Graham Bell (1847 –1922) in the 1870s. The site depicts the process using a flowchart structure, with clickable image maps providing successive levels of detail: through a mixture of diagrams (often reproduced directly from Bell's work), commentary and symbolic illustration, the viewer can trace the complex influences and developments involved. The site was created by a group of faculty and students connected with the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of Virginia [US], led by Michael E Gorman. Historians concerned at the teleological approach suggested by the site's title will hardly be reassured by the authors' early contention that Bell's route to the telephone was "more linear" than his competitors' on account of his "scientific" approach; in fact, however, the content is by no means historiographically simplistic. On the contrary, the introduction contains a thoughtful discussion of how the influences leading to an invention might be characterised: a series of "mental models" are proposed, but it is made clear that these are not to be taken as prescriptive. The purpose of this method of analysis is to trace the roles of diverse sources of inspiration in Bell's thinking, such as the apparatus developed by Helmholtz to simulate vowel sounds, Bell's role as a teacher of the deaf and human aural anatomy. Other important features of the site are an unannotated list of sources on Bell, the telephone, and the art of invention; and a complete transcript and facsimile of the first patent taken out by Bell on a telephonic device (dated 7 March 1876). A link to the text of a follow-up patent, stored elsewhere on the University of Virginia server, was broken at time of cataloguing: the site is now several years old and has a number of problems due to outdated links, the most serious being an inoperable search facility. While the site may be of some help to students seeking background detail on Bell and the telephone, it is not chiefly designed for this purpose, and is more useful for its contributions to the representation of invention. The analytical material will be of interest to research academics in the history or philosophy of technology, and the site might easily be used to provide inspiration for student work.
Founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1743, the American Philosophical Society (APS) is an eminent international association of academics, promoting excellence in scholarship both in the humanities and in the sciences. Each year, the Society organises scholarly and professional meetings for its members (although it should be noted that membership to the Society is by invitation only). The APS also supports programmes in science, education, and community outreach, awards prizes to international scholars, and boasts its own huge list of publications. The site offers access to a large range of information on APS activities. It is split into sections on: the APS; meetings; grants and prizes; library; publications; members; and museum. Perhaps most usefully for the student, the site offers invaluable information on the Society's current and past members; online access to its library catalogue; and information on its scholarly grants and prizes (which have, in the past, funded individuals researching such diverse topics as the depth of the polar ice cap to the biography of Daniel Defoe). The American Philosophical Society site is well-organised and beautifully presented. It should prove a useful resource for anyone with specific interest in this historic organisation.
Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons, and Human rights is a subsite of the Center for History of Physics website. The site provides a good illustrated narrative history of the physicist's life and work, including his participation in the Soviet development of the hydrogen bomb in the 1950s. Of particular interest are the sections emphasising Sakharov's growing conscience and sense of social responsibility with regard to the fruits of his research and design, culminating with his receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. As presented here, the themes of his life, spanning most of the Soviet era and ending in 1989, demonstrate many of the core issues of the Cold War, particularly the connection between scientific, social and political developments. In a final section, site visitors can access a sound file with a recording of Sakharov speaking in Russian. Easy to navigate and clear in its historical outline, the site would make a good starting point for those with general interest in the topic, or an excellent teaching tool. There is a site bibliography and related links list.
'anthropic-principle.com' is an internet resource dedicated to the provision of materials and information relating to a wide range of subjects in the philosophy of science. In particular it focuses on anthropic reasoning, the Doomsday argument, observational selection effects, and related issues in cosmology and evolutionary biology. It is maintained by Professor Nick Bostrom from the Department of Philosophy at Oxford University, and will be of relevance to both students and academics. The site includes an archive of preprints (written by Bostrom and others) on the aforementioned topics as well as other areas. In addition to the archive, there is a bibliography on relevant topics and links to other anthropic resources on the internet. Visitors can also download without charge Bostrom's book on Anthropic Bias. This is a well-designed, informative site that is easily navigable.
The journal 'Arbor' is a bimonthly peer-reviewed publication by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). The scope is vast, encompassing several disciplines in the humanities from philosophy of science to literary studies. Although the publication is entirely academic, the reason to cover such a variety of disciplines is due to the social function which the editors aim for by opening up debates in all these areas. Published six times a year, each issue is a monograph on a specific topic, such as for example: science and culture on the Internet; Republican exile in Latin America; Spanish thought; sociology of knowledge; and the relationship between literature and philosophy. The digital repository of ejournals of the CSIC grants open access to all full-text contents since 2006. The website can be navigated in English or Spanish, but the main language of the publication is Spanish. Contributions in French and Portuguese are also accepted.
The Archives of Scientific Philosophy website describes the holdings of important collections at the University of Pittsburgh. These collections act as archival resources for investigating the history of scientific philosophy, that is, philosophy that has been influenced by scientific thinking and practices. The archives themselves include the publications, notes, lectures, and correspondence of such influential figures as Rudolf Carnap, Hans Reichenbach, Frank Plumpton Ramsey, Paul Hertz, Herbert Feigl, and Rose Rand. In addition to these collections of physical documents, there are microfiches of some of Ludwig Wittgenstein's papers, and a 300-reel microfilm archive for the History of Quantum Physics. The website also has a page on some of the archive's smaller collections relevant to this topic, and a page of practical information for scholars needing to locate and access particular documents.
This website presents an illustrated essay examining the interaction between science and art in Renaissance and early-modern Italy. The discovery and application of mathematical perspective forms an important aspect of this essay, as do Galilei's studies of motion, especially his experiments with inclined planes and his analysis of accelerated motion associated with the leaning tower of Pisa. The first part of the essay is about Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), his life and work. The author then looks at the evolution of perspective in Italian art and architecture, before returning again to Galilei's experiments with motion. The conclusion argues that Galilei achieved a synthesis of theory and observation, and that the mathematical principles of physical reality discovered by the new scientists also facilitated art. Some sections of the site include video clips.
The Atomic Archive, published by AJ Software and Multimedia (San Digeo), presents resources relating to the history of the development of the atomic bomb. The site is intended to supplement a CD-ROM of the same name published by the company. The site is primarily aimed at supporting the US school curriculum and includes introductions to the science underlying nuclear weapons and a collection of data relating to the development, location and storage of nuclear weapons in the present day. The sections which may be of particular interest are the sample primary documents and photographs relating to the early history of the atomic age. Documents include: Lise Meitner and O.R. Frisch, "Disintegration of Uranium by Neutrons: A New Type of Nuclear Reaction." Nature 143 (11 Feb 1939): 239-240; the report by MAUD Committee on the Use of Uranium for a Bomb (1941); the founding of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; eye-witness accounts of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and documents relating to the subsequent development of the hydrogen bomb. The site also includes brief biographies, timelines, and maps.
The Australian Science Archives Project (ASAP) Web site consists of a collection of resources drawing attention to the history of science in Australia, and the role played by prominent Australian scientists. The ASAP was founded in 1985 and ended in 1999, when its duties were passed to the Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre. The website continues to function, however and is hosted by the University of Melbourne. The main ASAP section of the site describes the project's aims and objectives, the staff that worked on it, and the services it provided. It features an extensive catalogue of publications, mostly guides to the papers of individual scientists, with ordering information. Several of these publications are available for free online. This part of the site also includes several online publications by ASAP staff, relating either to archives and archiving, or to particular scientific figures. Another part of the site, entitled 'Bright Sparcs', contains a database of scientific repositories in Australia, plus a biographical database browsable by scientific speciality. There are a number of online exhibitions hosted here as well, covering such fields as: optical munitions; Australian Nobel Laureates; the naturalist Amalie Dietrich; and the Australian nuclear physicist Sir Mark Oliphant. The Bright Sparcs section also includes a biographical directory of Australian physicists before 1945, and a searchable bibliography of the history of science in Australia. There is a user's and a teachers' guide to the resources. The 'Cabinet of Curiosities' section presents a very basic introduction to issues such as Australia's position in world science, perceptions of Australia, and how its scientific community has been shaped. Other resources available from the ASAP website include: the History of Australian Science Newsletter (from 1993 to 1995); an annotated transcription of the journal of Darwin's assistant, Syms Covington, on the voyage of the HMS Beagle, 1831-1836; Australian Academy of Science biographical memoirs; the Science, Technology and Medicine Archives; the AUS-ARCHIVISTS email list for Australian archivists; and a page of links to other online resources. In short, this is an extensive site containing many useful resources for students studying the history of science in Australia.
Charles Babbage (1791-1871) was the 19-century pioneer of calculating and computers. This website discusses his life, his achievments, and ground-breaking inventions. His famous Calculating Machine (which incendentky was never built in his life), was the forerunner of the modern computer, and he was very liekely the first programmer. This website provides a biogrpahy of the great mathamatician, includign a list of his inventions such as lighthouse signals, and mathamatical code breaking. Also outlined is Babbage's socio-political ideas. He was a great economist, suggesting that the centre of the economy was the industrialized factories. His ideas influence Marx's ideas about the evolution of society, and capitalism. There are bibliographic references given on various pages for those looking for further research. An illustration of his famous Calculating Machine is given. A brief explanation of Ada Lovelace, Lord Byron's half sister, who became one of Babbages' prize pupils, and is often accredited with the invention of programming. A large excerpt from Nathan Rosenburg's "Babbage: Pioneer Economist" which discusses in greater length Babbage's theories about economy, as well as an essay by the website designer called "Whiggism and the History of Science and the Study of the Life and Work of Charles Babbage". This website is recommended for students of nineteenth-century history, political science student, and economy students.
Bas van Fraassen is an influential philosopher of science and philosophical logic, currently at Princeton University. This, his personal website, contains a wealth of information both professional and personal. A CV, a teaching section, a thorough bibliography of publications and the full text of articles, are offset by pictures of rock climbing and the family cats. Van Fraassen has also compiled bibliographies of articles and reviews pertaining to several of his books. Some excerpts and reviews are in PDF. Van Fraassen is a prolific and wide-ranging philosopher, who has written on science, logic, semantics, epistemology, metaphysics, art, literature and religion. This site would be of use to anyone interested in keeping tabs on his vast and continuing contributions to philosophy.
'bioethics.net' is the homepage for the American Journal of Bioethics. The site contains a contents page and abstracts for articles published in its latest issue, as well as commentaries on each piece. There is also information on how to subscribe to the journal in print and online.The site provides free of charge a number of short articles introducing the general reader to the field of bioethics. It also serves as a portal to a wide range of online resources on bioethics. Topics catered for include: cloning; end-of-life; genetics; stem cell research; and research ethics. This site provided a good general introduction to bioethics for beginners whilst also catering for specialists requiring the latest news, conference reports, and articles relating to the subject.
The Canadian Society for the History and Philosophy of Science is a forum which draws together a range of interdisciplinary scholars, including historians, philosophers and sociologists, to consider all aspects of science, past and present. The Society's website has membership details, with information on current news, forthcoming conferences, publications and resources. The material should be of interest to researchers in this area at all levels. There is a discussion forum available on the site, as well as information on ordering hard copies of the Society's newsletter, 'Communiqué', as well as the society's publications of the Stillman Drake Lectures. These include 'De motu marium: Understanding the Oceans before the Second Scientific revolution' by Eric Mills, of Dalhousie University, and 'The Stillman Drake Lecture 1999', a collection of essays edited by Wesley M. Stevens. A comprehensive links pages offers useful additional resources on university programmes, conferences and related societies.
The Center for Bioethics at the University of Minnesota aims: "to advance and disseminate knowledge concerning ethical issues in health care and the life sciences." The Center organizes and sponsors various research projects ranging from a Genetics and Identity project to an African Genealogy and Genetics project. The excellent website is divided into sections on: the Center's Research; Education (giving details of the University of Minnesota's many graduate programmes in bioethics); details of the many Publications of Center and Faculty staff; and a Resource Center containing bibliographies and details of how to access the University's materials on bioethics. Also contains news features and recently published articles of interest to those working in the field of bioethics. This high quality resource is an extremely useful conduit of information for those working at an advanced level in the field of bioethics.
"Chaos in Prehistory" is a speculative paper on the potential of Complexity Theory for the conceptual study of Palaeolithic Archaeology, authored by Roger Grace of the University of Essex. The paper was given at a conference at the University of Oslo in late 1991, but continues to be updated with recent text and graphics. The paper is divided into ten sections (plus a bibliography) and deals with the study of "nonlinear" (i.e. irregular) systems. Instead of reducing such complex systems to a regular cause-and-effect model, Grace argues we should attempt to deal with their irregular, chaotic and unpredictable behaviour. He states that rather than being random processes and dynamics, as is implied by the word 'chaos', such systems are based on regular patterns lying beneath the apparent disorder. The paper itself is mainly text, but is supported by several diagrams and illustrations. There is a separate chapter on Fractal Geometry offers full colour fractal images.
Cheiron is a society open to students and scholars working on issues relating to the history of the behavioural and social sciences. It aims to promote scholarly research and provide a broad perspective on contemporary scientific activities. The society organises conferences, offers an annual book prize, and publishes a newsletter, amongst other services. The website contains details of upcoming conferences and meetings, the Society's committee, and its membership dues. There is an online version of the newsletter, viewable in PDF format. The site also features a bibliography of recent publications by Cheiron members, along with syllabi details of courses they have taught. There are links to other online resources, including the Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences, with which Cheiron is affiliated. Finally, there is a page on the myth of Cheiron the Centaur, including links to the proceedings of a series of conferences on contemporary centaur scholarship.
The Computational Epistemology Laboratory (CEL) is a cognitive science research facility based at the University of Waterloo, Canada. Cognitive science refers to that research on cognition which utilises the combined insights of several disciplines including: philosophy; artificial intelligence; linguistics; and psychology. Headed by Paul Thagard, Professor of Philosophy at Waterloo, the CEL website is broken into several sections: cognitive science at the University of Waterloo; software; bibliographies (including a glossary of cognitive science terms); and other sites of interest. Perhaps most usefully for the student or researcher of cognitive science, the site allows the free download of several software packages designed to enable analysis of cognitive science data. The site is well-designed and easy to navigate. Although the CEL mainly represents and showcases the research of Professor Thagard, it also provides a useful list of links to other online cognitive science resources.
This website makes available the transcript of a keynote speech given at a doctoral colloquium at North Carolina State University by Professor James R. Wilson. It discusses scientific misconduct, and the ethical and methodological principles that genuine scientists must hold on to. The relevance is particularly to computer simulation research, but there are also some general insights into the matter of falsification, and the peer review system as currently practised in scientific journal publication. This article could be of interest to advanced students and researchers exploring questions of scientific ethics and honesty, falsification, and standards in methodology. References are provided.
The Consortium Ethics Program (CEP) is a biomedical ethics program based at the University of Pittsburgh. Organizing the University's graduate programmes in bioethics, the Center also publishes a quarterly online newsletter, Community Ethics. Recently published issues of Community Ethics have included articles on: Death and Dying; and Adolescence, Medicine, Ethics, and the Law. The full-text of Consortium is accessible free-of-charge via the site. The simply designed and regularly maintained website also provides access to a useful gateway of other online resources on biomedical ethics. All information is freely available and in English.
The Critical Rationalist was a short-lived electronic journal (ISSN 1393-3809) devoted to pursuing and elaborating the philosophy of Karl Popper (1902-1994) and, in particular, his method of 'Critical Rationalism' as outlined in his work Conjectures and Refutations. Note the journal appears to have ceased pbulication in 1998 and there are only three extant past issues, all of which can be accessed on this site in a variety of formats. In the Popperian tradition, this site eschews philosophy as linguistic analysis, focusing on 'real' philosophical problems such as probability, induction, the mind-body problem, the nature of scientific theories and the philosophy of history. The site also exposes Popper's own philosophy to rigorous critical analysis: 'Comprehensively Critical Rationalism' (CCR). This site will be of use especially to anyone with an interest in Karl Popper and the philosophy of science.
The Culture and History of Science Page provides information and resources for students and scholars in this discipline. Written in a mixture of German and English, this site is the work of cultural anthropologist Hartmut Krech from the University of Bremen. A 'materials' section provides the user with a long index of German-language authors writing on the theory, history, and culture of science and the humanities. The site also hosts electronic versions of texts by Francis Bacon ('Of the Proficience and Advancement of Learning'), Immanuel Kant, and Auguste Comte. These are all reproduced in their original languages and edited by Dr. Krech. There is an illustrated list of Krech's own publications (including online materials) and a list of courses he has been involved with. The 'news' button links to 'Kultur-Express', a German website providing up-to-date news in all areas of the cultural sciences.
Deadly Medicine is an online exhibition published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as part of its exhibitions programme. The site looks at the central role of eugenics in Nazi doctrine and the ultimate culmination of this racist ideology in the Holocaust and mass programmes of euthanasia. The exhibition is divided into three main sections, the first of which looks at the popularity of ideas on eugenics and racial hygiene within the Weimar Republic years 1919-1933. The second and third sections concentrate on the Nazis' own theories and the efforts they made to establish an Aryan race, with details of programmes of sterilization, the promotion of motherhood, and the eventual murderous policies of euthanasia and genocide during the war years. The site features some well-chosen primary source material, and information on further reading and related Web links. There is also a related traveling exhibition described here, with catalogue, upcoming dates and cities posted. Separate subpages are devoted to education with teaching and learning mateials for students and information for group visits to the Museum.
'The definition of life' is an online essay by Joseph Morales. He discusses and rejects several possible ways of distinguishing between the living and the non-living, before finally proposing, expounding and defending his own solution. Although Morales does not appear to have any formal academic credentials (or at least not ones he advertises either here or on the site of which this is part), the tone of the essay is scholarly, and the arguments seem thoroughly researched and well reasoned. The other views that are quoted in the text are always attributed, though unfortunately specific details such as page numbers are not usually given. The work is unfinished, and while the author ends by promising that it is to be continued, the site does not appear to have been updated since 1998. Nevertheless, there is still enough material here to make this an interesting and thought-provoking read.
The Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge is one of the world's major centres for study in HPS. This website provides general departmental information, details of staff and graduate students and their research areas, and full listings of over a dozen seminar series, specialist discussion groups and workshops running within the Department. The section "Research Guide", under "Information for Current Students" or on the "Quick Links" section, is one of the best things of its kind ever created, containing numerous essays by members of the Department on areas such as writing style, collecting oral history and organising dissertations, plus bibliographies for a wide variety of specialist fields within the history and philosophy of science. This is invaluable material for students of HPS at any institution, and some of the bibliographic guides may in addition prove useful for higher-level researchers. A separate section within the site is devoted to the Whipple Museum of the History of Science, housed within the Department. The museum specialises in scientific instruments and related materials, and is particularly strong on items produced in England between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. The website provides outline details of its collections, exhibitions and publications, plus a number of "case studies" or small online exhibits. The Department's Whipple Library also has a presence on the site: this offers online catalogue information, collection development policy guidelines, etc, plus a list of dissertations and theses held by the Library, downloadable in PDF format.
The website of the Division of History of Science and Technology of the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science is most suitable for researchers who are interested in the active contribution of this organisation to world affairs. It is set out as an introduction to the work of the DHS, but also aims to offer a general introduction to the History of Science through a brief list of suggested online resources. The site sections include: a short introduction to the DHST/IUHPS; an organisation chart; information on the structure of DHST; a guide to history of science on the Internet; and news and further information. Copies and transcripts of press releases and statements issued by the IUHPS may be found in the news and information section, as well as the minutes of meetings internationally. Aside from the ongoing meetings, which cover various matters including grants and commission reports, public statements include several expressing concern over the fate of cultural sites, libraries and artefacts where armed conflict is ongoing. Also included are newsletters and presentations of research findings, such as the 'World History of Science Online: database of bibliographical and archival sources' project report. This resource is well-presented and straightforward to use, offering insights into the role of the DHS/IUHPS, and starting points for further research.
The European Association for the Study of Science and Technology, founded in 1981, is a pan-European learned society (with some members elsewhere) covering the field of Science and Technology Studies. This site includes a full-text online archive of the Association's quarterly journal, EASST Review, dating back to 1994; an open-access email directory of present and former members; information on joining the society, and a small, unannotated collection of links to STS-related sites. The site suffers from some odd web design in places and often appears to be out of date: it is stated to be maintained regularly but infrequently, "on or about the 15th of March, June, September and December", to coincide with the publication of the journal.
Ethics in Science is a site maintained by members of the chemistry department at Virginia Tech engaged in the teaching of science ethics. It contains a small collection of essays adapted from lectures given in a course at the university, and two useful bibliographic resources: an outline and reference list for an undergraduate course in science ethics, and a substantial thematically arranged bibliography of books and journal articles published prior to 1997. Some sections of this bibliography are devoted to general issues, including scientific misconduct, norms, plagiarism, whistle-blowing, and the teaching of ethics in undergraduate-level science curricula; there are also subject-specific listings, plus sections devoted to some of the most well-known cases of alleged scientific misconduct: the 'Baltimore affair' (concerning suspected fraudulent data in a paper on transgenic mice supervised by the Nobel prizewinner David Baltimore); silicone breast implants; cold fusion; issues surrounding the human genome project, and polywater (the physically anomolous form of water whose existence was widely confirmed in the late 1960s but subsequently came to be regarded as a myth.) There is very little annotation. 'Popular' journals such as Time and NewScientist are covered alongside academic journals, and weblinks provided where available. Press releases and reports on recent misconduct cases are added included to 2005.
A handsomely planned and produced educational website to accompany the seven part PBS television series on evolution first broadcast in 2001 and based around Karl Zimmer's highly acclaimed book 'Evolution : The triumph of an ideal'. In addition to offering a guide to individual episodes of the television series, based around key themes such as Darwin and the history of the debate about evolution, evolutionary change, survival and extinction of animals, sex, human origins and religion (including video clip previews), there is an extensive library of hundreds of additional essays, images and weblinks to complement the contents of the broadcast series and an impressive glossary. Hypertext links are used throughout, though in a way which does not distract the reader from following a linear course through the text, though the website will make demands on your browser in the form of QuickTime or RealPlayer video plug-ins. The website is multi-layered and richly textured to appeal to a wide audience from the general public to college undergraduate level in a broad spectrum of studies from biology, biological anthropology, archaeology and the history of science and religion. It is also aimed at teachers in the form of an extensive series of FAQs and excellent educational and professional resources such as online lessons (with video clips from classroom situations) addressing issues raised by each programme. The fact that some of the educational aids address directly the on-going debate in the US between evolutionists and creationists adds an extra interest for readers from Europe interested in the relationship between science, religion and politics.
This is the website of the Exploratorium: The Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception. Primarily the education arm of the museum, the site contains many interactive resources aimed at school pupils, but also of interest to those in more advanced education. For example, there is a fascinating online multimedia exhibit focusing on biodiversity, which provides readers with an excellent introduction to the issues involved, the models used by scientists, and some of the studies that have been carried out. Online features such as this often utilise the full capabilities of the Internet, particularly favouring video footage.The site also contains links to other sites of interest.
From quackery to bacteriology provides a basic narrative of the history of nineteenth century medical history in the United States. The site has been created by Barbara Floyd, an archivist at the University of Toledo, from nineteenth century printed works. The site is divided into the following main sections: scientific medicine, home health care, quackery, patent medicine, women's health care, mental health, physical fitness and nutrition, the public health movement, medicine in the civil war, nursing, and medical education. Each section is accompanied by a bibliography of the sources used. The text on the site is accompanied by a limited number of illustrations. The site is also a useful source for discerning attitudes towards the body, gender and eugenics.
galton.org is a site devoted to the work of Francis Galton (1822-1911), best remembered as the founder of eugenics, author of "Hereditary Genius" and cousin of Charles Darwin, but also a noted contributor to fields including geography, meteorology, psychology and statistics. The site is the work of Gavan Tredoux, a Galton enthusiast and maintainer of Upstream, a US-based "heterodox" (libertarian and broadly opposed to liberal-academic consensus) web journal and resource. It consists mainly of electronic publications of Galton's work, plus brief biographical sections outlining Galton's activities in various fields. The primary source material is mostly in facsimile form, presented as PDF files (often large, typically up to 9Mb in size). All of Galton's major publications are available: the "Narrative of an Explorer in Tropical South Africa" (1853); "The Art of Travel" (1855); "Hereditary Genius" (1869); "English Men of Science" (1874); "Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development" (1883); "Natural Inheritance" (1889); and Galton's 1908 autobiography, "Memories of My Life", plus the multi-volumed biography prepared after Galton's death by his primary disciple, Karl Pearson, "The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton" (1913-40). "Hereditary Genius" and "Inquiries into Human Faculty" are additionally available as transcripts in both PDF and HTML form. The HTML version of each text is presented as an extremely long webpage (which may cause problems for some users); "Hereditary Genius" lacks pagination in its HTML form, although the PDF version has it. Occasional typos appear in the transcripts. Also archived are a large number of Galton's papers, short articles and letters to individuals and newspapers, including his correspondence with Charles Darwin, in a mixture of PDF facsimile and HTML transcript. There is a very substantial bibliography of Galton's writings, giving links to the digitised texts where available. The various summary pages outlining particular works and activities are also well-supplied with relevant source links. Other site features include a summary of locations of Galton papers catalogued by the Historical Manuscripts Commission, and the best archive of Galton portraits available online.
'Geometry No Friend to Infidelity' is an e-text version of a book by James Jurin, first published in 1734, that was written in reply to The Analyst, a tract in the philosophy of mathematics by the eighteenth century empiricist philosopher George Berkeley (1685-1753). The e-text is based on the original 1734 publication of the print text of The Analyst. Jurin, a Cambridge mathematician of Berkeley's day, and who writes here under the pseudonym Philalethes Cantabrigiensis, takes particular exception to two strands of thought presented in The Analyst. The first is Berkeley's assertion that the mathematics of the day were conducive to anti-Christian beliefs and practices. The second is Berkeley's attack on the notion of fluxions (fluxion: the velocity of the motion that produces lines, planes, or solids), which notion propped up much mathematical theory at the time. The resource is available in 3 formats (PDF, DVI, and PostScript). It is presented in plain text, and there are no hyperlinks within the text itself. The site does, however, provide hyperlinks to e-text versions of both The Analyst, and A Defence of Free-thinking in Mathematics. The latter was Berkeley's own subsequent reply to Jurin.
This is the website of the science, medicine and technology division of the humanities online project (H-Net), based at Michigan State University but aiming to encompass scholars and teachers from all around the world. One of the chief functions of this project is to provide an email discussion group for the historical, philosophical and sociological study of science, technology and medicine. Accordingly, the site contains details of how to join the list, together with an archive of all previous submissions to it and a selected list of some of the more interesting exchanges it has hosted, including some concerning important recent secondary literature. In addition, for the aid of newcomers to the field, the site contains information about teaching and research resources, including bibliographies, and offers links to other relevant websites. Its presentation is straightforward and the site is regularly updated.
This site from the University of Bonn, maintained on behalf of the History of Astronomy Interest Group, contains subscription details of HASTRO-L: the History of Astronomy Discussion Group. This group discusses, via email, matters arising from research into the astronomy of all cultures and time periods, whether that research be socio-historical, philosophical, archeological or mathematical. The group currently contains over five hundred members from forty countries. Although the home page has not been recently updated, the list archive is updated monthly and is current.
Heisenberg and Uncertainty is an online exhibition which is a subsite of the Center for History of Physics, administered by the American Institute of Physics. The site provides an outstanding narrative illustrated history of the life and work of Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976). The technical aspects of his founding of quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle, and his research on nuclear weapons are clearly explained; the historical context of his work -- such as his remaining in Germany for the duration of the Third Reich -- is discussed. Excerpts from his most famous lectures abroad after the War are posted in English and German. Easy to navigate, the site would be a good teaching tool and good starting point for students. A bibliography of his writings is posted on the site.
This is an extensive website regarding the history of phrenology, authored by Dr. John van Whye, University of Cambridge. It contains short essays, complete with numerous links to related websites, concerning the philosophy of phrenology and critical responses to phrenology during its Victorian heyday. In addition, the site offers, amongst other things, a short list of links to electronic versions of primary texts concerning phrenology, a definitive and occasionally annotated bibliography of other relevant texts and links to various phrenological images. Lastly, the site lists and usefully describes links to other sites concerned with phrenology. The presentation is attractive and professional, although some of the text is a little hard to read on account of the colours used.
The History of the Health Sciences Section of the Medical Library Association was set up to encourage and support interest in the history of health sciences among medical librarians and libraries. The section's website offers information for medical librarians, or researchers in the area, at all levels. A full history of the section and its development is available, with joining information and ordering details for the hardcopy newsletter, 'Incipit'. Possibly of most interest to online researchers will be the Listserv forum section of the website. It has a members-only access, offering a forum for members to discuss their work and concerns. The site also has details of short occasional Continuing Education Courses, such as 'The History of the Health Sciences: A One Day Overview', and 'Introduction to Reference Sources in the History of the Health Sciences'. A useful series of links is also available. The site is primarily a source of access to further information, rather than a comprehensive resource in itself, but as a contact for medical librarians, it offers a useful starting-point that is regularly updated.
This is a very large site, mainly a primary resource for the work of Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), zoologist, defender of Darwinian evolution, agnostic, educational reformer and advocate of the professionalisation of science. A comprehensive bibliography of Huxley's writings (originally prepared by Professor James Paradis, author of 'T.H. Huxley: Man's Place in Nature') is used as a medium for links to over two hundred online transcripts, mostly full text and in HTML. These include the entirety of the 1893-4 Collected Essays, plus much material, unpublished in print, held in the Huxley Archives at Imperial College London. In a similar fashion, the site provides bibliographies of nineteenth- and twentieth-century commentaries, reviews and critiques of Huxley and his work, many of which (such as the anonymous 1875 lampoon 'Protoplasm, Powheads, Porwiggles...') are transcribed in full where copyright permits. There are also numerous selections from letters written by Huxley throughout his life. The transcripts are supplemented by facsimiles where appropriate, and numerous illustrations by, of, or relating to Huxley are included in the text. These have a separate index. The material may be browsed chronologically via the bibliographies and letter index, or thematically via a series of narrative 'guides' devoted to Huxley's early marine voyages, ideas on university reform, agnosticism, his role as 'Darwin's bulldog' etc. A family tree and brief timeline are also provided. This website is the result of a collaboration between two faculty members at Clark University, Massachusetts, one a computer scientist, the other active in both English studies and biology. The design appears a little eccentric at first, but becomes increasingly easy to navigate. Historians of science may find the site's enthusiastic introduction off-puttingly presentist - judging Huxley by the standards he himself was instrumental in imposing. This cannot, however, detract from its considerable value as a primary document source.
'Hygiea Internationalis' (ISSN: 1404 4013) is a refereed electronic journal publishing on the history of public health. It is the official journal from the International Network for the History of Public Health (INHPH) based at Linköping University in Sweden. The INHPH aims to promote the study of the history of improvements in the health of populations from antiquity to modern times, with a particular focus on the interaction between ideas on public health, their implementation, public health organisations, and their social and demographic consequences. 'Hygiea Internationalis' was started in 1999 and published annually until 2005, but the site has details of a new pattern of more regular publication, starting in October 2006. The articles are freely available from the website as PDF files. The journal was set up with the support of the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, Swedish Council for Social Research and Swedish Council for Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Information for authors wishing to submit material to the journal is available from the site.
HYLE is published by HYLE Publications, Karlsruhe, in cooperation with the University of Karlsruhe, Institute of Philosophy. It is a refereed international journal for the philosophy of chemistry, which covers epistemological, methodological, foundational, and ontological problems of chemistry and its subfields; the peculiarities of chemistry and relations to technology, other scientific and non-scientific fields; aesthetical, ethical, and environmental matters in chemistry; as well as philosophically relevant facets of the history, sociology, linguistics, and education of chemistry. Most articles are in English but some are in German. The journal is available electronically twice yearly, free, and may be purchased as an annual printed volume. The website also provides online bibliographies; book reviews; links to related sites; and contents lists for over 80 other journals (Science studies current contents service).
This website provides full-text access to 'HYLE', a refereed journal which focuses on the philosophical aspects of chemistry (ISSN 1433-5158). It also provides extensive scholarly and practical information on the philosophy of chemistry. Articles in HYLE deal with problems in the epistemology, methodology, foundations, and ontology of chemistry and its subfields, as a distinct branch within the philosophy of science. The journal provides a forum for discussion as well as book reviews. It has a substantial international scientific board clearly identified on the home page. Most articles are in English but some are in German. Additional features on the website include a bibliography of resources on philosophy of chemistry, biographies of some philosophers of chemistry, a book review service, a conference calendar, detailed conference reports, a journals section with links to the tables of content for related journals both electronic and print, and links to pertinent sites.
Ideas and Issues was an American radio programme hosted by Hugh LaFollette that ran between 1995 and 2003. Most of the guests featured on the show were academics, many of them philosophers or political scientists. Ideas and Issues catered for a general audience, although it was perhaps more academically inclined than some of its rivals. Guests included well-known authors such as Richard Dawkins, Matt Ridley, Michael Ignatieff, and Stanley Fish. This website hosts the archives of the show, which may be downloaded in RealAudio format or, in some cases, mp3. There is some grouping of shows by broad subject area in some parts of the 'list of shows' section, but there is no search engine provided. Episodes include: 'Why I am a Secular Humanist'; 'Why I am a Theist'; 'Greed'; 'The Origins of Virtue'; 'Punishment'; 'Pseudoscience'; 'Atheism'; 'Evolution'; 'The Significance of Community'; 'Relativity Theory'; 'Why Abortion is Immoral'; and 'Deconstruction'.
The Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement is a digitised collection of several hundred photographs, illustrations and facsimile documents from the history of eugenics and related fields, principally in the USA. The archive may be browsed by category, with sections devoted to Mendelian genetics, eugenicist pamphlets, Fitter Families contests, pedigrees (including the famous "Martin Kallikak" case), immigration policy, hereditary defects, eugenic research on circus performers, early psychometrics, religion, sterilisation laws and other topics. Items include documents from the American Breeders' Association, American Eugenics Society and Eugenics Record Office, and the correspondence of leading eugenicists such as Charles Davenport and Harry Laughlin. Each image may be viewed at normal or high resolution. A cumbersome but effective keyword search facility is also available. Associated with the Archive is a virtual exhibition on the history of American eugenics, employing images from the archive and requiring a Flash plug-in. Historians of science may feel uneasy with some of the analysis presented here, and more particularly in the preamble presented on the site's main page: an understandable but perhaps unduly presentist distinction between "legitimate" and "illegitimate" genetic research underlies much of the exposition. The exhibition may, however, be judged suitable as an introductory resource for school-age or undergraduate students, although the images in the Flash presentation are rendered to a surprisingly poor resolution. In some cases, the reader would have to trace the equivalent image in the Archive itself (easily done since each has an identifying number) in order to view it legibly. A comprehensive reference list for the exhibition is provided. The website relies very heavily on Flash technology and can be a little difficult to navigate - there is, however, an older HTML version of the website available.
The website 'In Our Time' complements the popular BBC Radio 4 programme of the same name, presented by Renaissance-style intellectual Melvyn Bragg, who always endeavours to hold more than his own with three guests investigating the history of ideas. The series aims to examine topics in History, Philosophy, Science, and Religion. The intellectual agenda is often applied to relevant discussions of contemporary events. The website allows the user to listen to archived programmes of the current series and a selection of the best of the previous series. There is also a quiz to test knowledge of previous topics. Subjects covered by Bragg and his impressive range of guests include: Proust; Virtue - is it derived from reason?; The examined life - is an unexamined life worth living?; notions of duty; the idea of the soul; the philosophy of Wittgenstein; freedom; the history of drugs; and John Milton - poet or politician? Philosophy has a separate section with resources, where a top 20 nominations, a timeline, and a quiz are part of the offer. There are links to related sites within the BBC website, that may be of interest to the user. The presenter Melvyn Bragg is profiled, and there is an opportunity to sign up to receive an email newsletter from him.
HOPOS, The International Society for the History of the Philosophy of Science, is devoted to better understanding developments in the philosophy of science. The Society's scope is not restricted to a particular culture or time period, and they work to a broad interpretation of their remit. HOPOS organises conferences and publishes a newsletter, so as to keep members informed of the latest research in the field. The website is divided into sections on governance (the committee and its bylaws); conferences; and online resources. The conference section publicises forthcoming conferences and provides details on past events back to 1996. The online resources include a page of links, and a dues form that may be viewed and downloaded in PDF format. There is an email discussion list (HOPOS-L) with online archives, although users will need to have registered in order to view these. The site also includes electronic versions of the HOPOS newsletters, which are usually fairly extensive, covering jobs, awards, calls for papers, and new book reviews.
The International Study Group on Ethnomathematics (ISGEm) was founded in 1985 to broaden awareness of the cultural diversity of mathematical practices. In particular, it seeks to apply ethnomathematical principles to secondary education. The term 'ethnomathematics' was coined by Ubiratan D'Ambrosio to describe the mathematical practices of identifiable cultural groups, be they national, religious, or class-restricted. The website contains membership information, along with current and back-issues of the ISGEm newsletter. It also gives details for subscribing to email@example.com, the Group's email discussion list. The list archives are not available from the website, however. Categorised links to ethnomathematics sites on the Internet are also provided. These include syllabi, software, bibliographies, and critiques of ethnomathematics, as well as research articles.
The home page for the J. R. Ritman Library (Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica) provides information about the library's collections and activities. This private library (unaffiliated to any university or other institution, but freely accessible to the public) houses materials relating to the Hermetic-Christian tradition (Hermeticism is a set of religious and philosophical beliefs based on a body of writings attributed to the mythical philosopher and alchemist, Hermes Trismegistus). Topics covered include: alchemy; mysticism; Rosicrucianism; and Hermetic philosophy. It is possible to search the library's catalogue online, and a digitisation project is underway, although at time of review the works were not yet available via the website. The site also offers a series of articles on subjects relating to the Hermetic tradition, a bibliography of other relevant works, and access to the library's online exhibitions.
This website reprints the review of Karl Popper's (1902-1994) legacy to the philosophy of science which was first published in the 'Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy'. It sets out the central tenets of Popper's thought together with an analysis of the context in which it developed and some key biographical information. The webpage was compiled as a tribute to the life and work of a scholar 'regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of this century'. The author, Stephen Thornton of the University of Limerick, is also editor of 'Minerva: The Internet Journal of Philosophy' and there is a link to this site. The page sets out Popper's problem of the demarcation between 'science' and 'non-science' in terms of his engagement with traditional empiricism and situates the argument in the context of his social and political thought and the critique of historicism. It forms a useful introduction to Popper's thought for students of philosophy of science and related disciplines. There are links to relevant webpages and a bibliography of primary and secondary sources.
This website, dedicated to the philosophy of Karl Popper, is the online companion to the Annual Conference on the Philosophy of Karl Popper. Of interest to undergraduates will be the critical introduction to Popper's philosophy. Relevant to postgraduates and researchers are, amongst other things: the online Popperian journal 'The Critical Rationalist'; the email discussion group 'The Critical Café'; conference information; the directory of researchers interested in Popper's work; and the detailed index of Popper's papers held at the Hoover Instituition Archives, Stanford. This is a well-presented site that has received a Britannica award.
The KLI Theory Lab originates from the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research (KLI) in Austria. It is a comprehensive database that allows users to make efficient searches for online resources in the domain of science, philosophy, evolution and cognition. The site is divided into a number of sections, in order to aid speed of search. Sections include: AI and computing; artificial life; cognitive science; cultural evolution; epistemology and philosophy of science; history and social studies of science; philosophy of biology; philosophy of mind. Each section consists of a brief introduction to the subject, and a partly-annotated list of links to periodicals, conferences, societies, institutions, personal websites, and other resources connected with the field. Searches can be performed using author name, title, or key word. Note that at the time of reviewing, certain sections were under construction, and a non-negligible number of links broken or outdated.
This website, authored by a freelance enthusiast, concerns the life and work of the nuclear scientist, biophyscist and 'scientist of conscience', Leo Szilard (1898-1964). Amongst the items included are various biographical articles, secondary articles about his work, the most recent being by Valentine Telegedi and William Lanouette, and assorted pieces regarding the atom bomb and Szilard's opposition to its use. These include a copy of the petition he sent to President Truman in 1945. In addition, the site contains an audio version and transcipt of the speech Szilard gave at Harvard in 1961, called 'Are We on the Road to War?', which lead to the foundation of the Council for a Livable World. There are also links to other relevant sites. The presentation is a little busy but functional enough, although it has not been updated recently.
This Web resource is a series of three online exhibitions devoted to the innovations and genius of key Renaissance figures, including Leonardo da Vinci, Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti. It is likely to be of interest to researchers at all levels in many aspects of history. The exhibitions are titled 'Leonardo da Vinci', 'Sienese Engineers' and 'Brunelleschi and the Dome of Florence Cathedral'. Each one is accessed through a series of icons which lead to a page on the life, work or methodology of the subject, with Windows Media 9 or QuickTime 6 playable files available also for further detail. The site is available in both Italian and English. Sub-headings in the exhibitions include 'Biography', 'Models' and 'Manuscripts', as well as sections on 'Major Achievements' and 'Key figures', which cover all three features. The site includes a huge amount of material, with lists of manuscripts and images of machines, sculptures, models and works of art. Most of the images are rather small and although they can be opened in a new window, they are enlarged only slightly. However, the detailed analysis of the manuscripts and the range of material included offers valuable access to primary source material. The site is hosted by the Institute and Museum of the History of Science at Florence and is under ongoing development.
This website makes available a hypertext version of Jacques Siboni's book "Les Mathèmes de Lacan". In the 1950s, the French philosopher and psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan began to produce a series of texts that, rereading Freud in the light of recent developments in linguistics and phenomenology, revolutionised not only psychoanalysis but also many other disciplines in the human sciences. One of Lacan's most controversial and oft-criticised strategies was the use of mathematics and diagrams in his theoretical work. Les Mathèmes de Lacan attempts to help the reader of Lacan's frequently difficult texts navigate this mathematical terminology. Although the introductory matter is in both French and English, the text itself is only available in French.
The website of the Liebig-Museum in Giessen offers a useful introduction to study of Justus Liebig, who taught at the Giessen University as Professor of Chemistry from 1824 to 1852. The site is in German and English, with a wider range of information available in German, but the English material offering a background to his work and a selection of further material and links. The site reflects the museum's aim to be accessible to the general public and academic researchers. Liebig's most important innovations are detailed, his primary discoveries being those which influenced developments in agriculture chemistry. Also, information on the museum is included for those planning to visit the collection, which includes rooms left as Liebig would have used them and apparatus dating from that time. A series of links is available to other sites for further detail. For researchers who can read German, this site is a much richer resource, with a biography of Liebig and a range of material on his work and discoveries.
Lyle Zynda's Lectures on the Philosophy of Science is a site which posts Zenda's complete lecture notes prepared for the course Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Lyle Zynda, now an academic at Indiana University South Bend, taught this course at Princeton University in the Spring 1994 semester. His lectures are posted as recommended reading by Stephen Sapp of Iowa State University for Sapp's final year undergraduate course on the Sociology of Technology. There are 24 lectures in all, with the following titles: Introduction ; The Inferential View Of Scientific Explanation; The Causal Theory Of Explanation, Parts I - III; Problems with the Causal Theory Of Explanation; Van Fraassen's Pragmatic View Of Explanation; Carnap vs. Popper; An Overview Of Kuhn's The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions; Paradigms and Normal Science; Anomaly, Crisis, and the Non-Cumulativity of Paradigm Shifts; Incommensurability; Laudan on Kuhn's Theory of Incommensurable Theories; Laudan on the Hierarchical Model of Justification; Laudan's Reticulated Theory of Scientific Justification; Dissecting the Holist Picture of Scientific Change; Scientific Realism Vs. Constructive Empiricism; Inference To The Best Explanation As An Argument For Scientific Realism; Entity Realism (Hacking & Cartwright); Entity Realism And The 'Non-Empirical' Virtues; Laudan on Convergent Realism; Convergent Realism and the History of Science; and The Measurement Problem, Parts I and II. Academics and postgraduates preparing lectures and seminars on the Philosophy of Science should find this site most informative, as will undergraduates taking similar courses.
This bilingual (Spanish/English) website, created by researcher and teacher Martín Pozzi of Buenos Aires University, is devoted to the study of the first century AD Latin poet Marcus Manilius, whose best known work is the Astronomica, a 4500 line hexametric poem which combines astrology with Stoic philosophy. The site offers links to online editions of the text (Loeb and Intratext) as well as commentaries, articles, secondary literature and reviews. A useful and extensive bibliography of works on Manilius also provides a list of publications on ancient astrology and the zodiac. Much of the secondary material referenced in the bibliography is in English. There is an excellent range of links including ones on the wider history of astrology. There is also a discussion group to which readers can subscribe. This resource will benefit researchers and teachers in classics and related subjects, including the history of science and religion.
This site provides listings of magical manuscripts and early printed books from the classical, medieval and early modern periods. The material has been gathered by Frank Klassaan of the University of Saskatchewan and is a work in progress. The listings are divided in to four themed areas: 'Ars notaria' and 'Liber visionum'; Necromantic and other ritual magic manuscripts; 'mage magic, Arabic image magic, and other Arabic magic; and the 'Sworn Book of Honorius' or 'Liber sacer'. Records are listed alphabetically by place of repository. There are also list of manuscripts by author (where known) and an index of incipits (first lines). This site will interest historians of magic, of science, of religion and theology.
The website of the Margaret Sanger Papers Project is devoted to the collection and publication of letters, manuscripts and articles by the birth control pioneer (1879-1966). The Project, sponsored by the Department of History at New York University, has so far produced a microfilm edition of the Sanger Papers, details of which are on the site. Free registration is necessary to access all the material on the site. A transcript collection of some of Sanger’s articles and speeches is provided, alongside a useful capsule biography, histories and staff details of the various organisations with which Sanger was involved. There are also comprehensive primary and secondary bibliographies, and details of the Project’s newsletter. An mp3 file of a speech by Sanger in 1953 is available, as well as regularly updated details of news, events and publications relating to Sanger's work. There are also links to Sanger-related documents (mainly facsimiles and transcriptions of her work) held at other sites.
Todd Hammond's (Truman State University) impressive Mathematics and the Liberal Arts site, is a substantial list of annotated resources focused on the relationship between the mathematical sciences and their impact and interaction with other non-scientific disciplines. Directed towards advanced students and teachers on the history and philosophy of science, the bibliographic citations listed here are organized by geography, but can be restricted into increasingly specific categories by selecting the appropriate link at the head of the page such as nation, epoch, mathematical subset, and even individual philosophers and/or mathematicians. While the annotations are extremely helpful in locating good resources on the history of mathematics, navigation of the site is not as accommodating as one would hope. The citations are not stored in a larger database but pre-set into different web pages and no search utility has been provided which would allow users to quickly locate references. To find information on a specific topic one must move through the geographical links at the top of the page. Users should also note that the link above leads to the section on European mathematics, for the specific starting page to this resource, if it exists, has proved to be elusive. If you are struggling to locate a reference and comfortable navigating by using the file directory, it can be found at the following address: http://math.truman.edu/~thammond/history/.
The website of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science offers valuable online access to research into the ways 'new categories of thought, proof, and experience have emerged in the centuries-long interaction between the sciences and their ambient cultures'. The layout of this site makes it very accessible for researchers and its content offers resources at all levels. Alongside the information headings on the Institute, its staff and news, the section on research is particularly valuable. Within three departmental headings, research projects may be searched by Research Units, Name of Project or Names of Involved Scholars. The information contained within these headings is comprehensive. This site is plainly laid out, efficient and accessible. It may be viewed in English or German.
This is the website for Mersenne, an informal email discussion group for the history, philosophy and sociology of science, technology and medicine. The site is the responsibility of JISCmail, the provider of electronic discussion lists to the UK higher education community. Apart from information about how to join or leave the list, the site contains archives of previous submissions which may be browsed by author, date or thread, or searched by keyword. The volume of postings is low: most messages consist of job advertisements, calls for papers, and announcements of meetings, new websites or seminar series. All postings are archived at the JISCmail site, and it is thus possible to keep up to date without subscribing to the list by regularly checking this address. The archive contains all messages posted since September 1998, a significant proportion having been imported from the mailbase facility which formerly handled UK academic discussion lists. The site's presentation is simple but eminently clear.
The Muslim Scientists and Islamic Civilization web page attempts to redress the perceived imbalance in Western education that promotes European science and invention whilst ignoring the contributions and achievements of Islamic scholars. It contains accounts of Muslim scientists, scientific references in the Qur'an, quotations from historians of science, and a section called 'putting the record straight', which takes scientific accreditations in works such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica and places them alongside earlier Muslim thinkers and inventors who made the same discovery. The site contains more than simply articles on the history of science. There are also accounts of Islamic civilisation by geographic area, a section about the Qur'an, a group of essays about Western perceptions of the Prophet Muhammad, and a miscellaneous group of writings, many of which concern conflicts between Christianity and Islam. Islamic thinkers listed on the site include: Ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi (Alkindus, 800-873); Al-Farabi (Al-Pharabius, 870-950); Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037); Al-Ghazali (Algazel, 1058-1111); Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya (Ibn Bajjah, 1106-1138); Ibn Rushd (Averroes, 1128-1198); Ibn Khaldun (1332-1395). Whilst this is in many ways a fascinating site, it should be noted that some of the accounts are rather more controversial than the site flags (such as the account of the Gospel of St. Barnabas to name but one).
MuslimHeritage.com is a website dedication to improving knowledge of the contributions to science, technology, and the arts made by Muslims, particularly during the European (so-called) Dark Ages period. The site features articles explaining how the Islamic world both kept alive earlier technologies and ideas whilst developing new ones and promoting science during the period after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. It also argues that this period of intellectual history is not given the attention that it deserves.The site features: an interactive timeline; biographies of Muslim scholars and scientists; and features covering fields as diverse as medicine, agricultural technology, conflict between science and religion, and architecture.This is a site with a point to prove, and it contains a lot of fascinating information. Some of the articles do, however, fail to flag points that might be considered contentious, and sometimes one suspects that words such as science or agricultural revolution are being used rather loosely. Nevertheless, students of the history of science would be well advised to have a look at the perspectives here offered.The site does not appear to function properly in Netscape browsers, but its presentation under Internet Explorer is clean and effective.
This website offers the work of John Baptist Porta (Giambattista della Porta), "Magiae Naturalis" ("Natural Magick") in the original Latin and in the 1658 English translation. The Neapolitan playwright, alchemist, and general Renaissance polymath, Giambattista della Porta (1535-1615) claimed that the natural philosopher could learn to manipulate the world through practical experiment, and stated in his great work what could be achieved. "Magiae Naturalis" covers subjects as diverse as the generation of animals and plants, home economics, alchemy, cosmetics for women, cooking, cryptography, and mechanical experiments. The main Web page is a little untidy, but links to the two texts, and to several shorter biographical and critical sketches of the author and his works. The English translation features hyperlinks to a glossary of terms. The website is a labour of love by a former US Army officer who inherited a 1584 edition of della Porta's work from his grandmother. The site should prove a useful resource for those studying the history of scientific ideas during the early modern period.
This is the full text of an article on the role nurses played in the Nazi's euthanasia programme during the 1930s and 1940s. Written by Professor Susan Benedict from the College of Nursing at the Medical University of South Carolina, it outlines the euthanasia programmes that were established by the Nazis to kill handicapped and mentally ill children and adults, such as the T-4 adult euthanasia programme, and the 'wild' programmes. It also focuses on the women who participated in these events as nurses, and their motivations for doing so. This is a useful resource for a topic not much documented on the Internet and will complement historians' related work in Holocaust Studies.
The Paideia Project On-Line is dedicated to the Proceedings of 20th World Congress of Philosophy at Boston University, held between 10 and 15 August 1998. The most substantial aspect of the site is the Paideia Archive, which makes available almost a thousand papers presented at the conference. The archive arranges papers by subject matter in an orderly and user-friendly manner, and the coverage is fairly comprehensive. Beyond the traditional philosophical categories, there are sections on the philosophy of sport, education, children, gender, and literature, plus regional entries focusing on African, Asian, American, and Latin American philosophy. The papers themselves are in printer-friendly HTML format and, with a few exceptions, are in English. They are written by professional philosophers and graduate students who attended the Congress. There is a sophisticated search function for finding particular topics in the archive. This resource will be of primary use to research students and faculty members, especially those investigating the less conventional or widespread areas of philosophy.
This website is part of a wider site on pain, published by the Wellcome Trust as a companion to an exhibition held at the Science Museum. The site looks at concepts and approaches to pain in different historical eras and the discourses that surround pain in medical history. Featured are three articles written by academics on pain and medieval medicine, pain in Victorian England, and pain and surgery in the early twentieth century. In the first the spiritual and religious contexts of pain are explored, in the second the reassessment of pain in the light of medical and scientific advances, and the third discusses Unterschenkel-amputation, surgical film footage from the early twentieth century.
Palaeontologia Electronica, published biannually since 1998, is the first exclusively electronic journal devoted to palaeontology. Its attractive and innovative layout is designed to appeal to a wide constituency from professional palaeontologists and research students to school teachers and the general public. While it publishes technical academic papers, it also offers a range of summaries, letters, news items and reviews (of technical books, popular works and items of interest to children and teenagers) which will appeal to anyone with an interest in fossils. One important feature of this online journal is the inclusion of abstracts not only in French, German, Italian and Spanish but also in a 'plain English' version for non-specialists and, in some cases, an audio summary. Each issue also features a selection of online teaching resources which will be of use to teachers of all didactic levels. These sections, which features themes such include as climate change, dating, dinosaurs, palaeoenvironments, and the relationship between evolution and the philosophy of science, have been validated by the editors as scientifically accurate though the reader will have to judge for themselves the value of the didactic presentations of individual weblinks. The website is hosted by a series of worldwide archives; it is necessary to choose one.
The Papers of Thomas Reid is an online archive of images scanned from Reid's manuscripts held at the University of Aberdeen, known as the Birkwood Collection (MSS. 2131/1-8). Reid (1710-1796) was an eighteenth-century divine and philosopher, concerned in particular with questions of ethics and epistemology but who also wrote and published works on logic and the arts. The Birkwood collection contains over 800 items altogether, 7 of which are available in full from this website. The materials here published are principally concerned with Euclidian mathematics. The images of the manuscript pages are scanned at a high resolution, and will therefore take time to download to computers with slow Internet connections. Strangely, no plain text versions of the manuscripts are given. The size of images does however render the script very readable (Reid was blessed with unusually modern and neat handwriting for an eighteenth-century scholar).This site will prove useful to scholars working on Reid who cannot get to view these manuscripts in person, and it is to be hoped that the University of Aberdeen will continue to add to the online collection.
The Peirce Edition Project was established in 1976 and is based at Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis. The aim of the project is to document the manuscripts of, and produce a scholarly edtition of, the work of Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914). An indirect aim of the project is also to be an international centre of excellence for Peirce studies. The project has published, in printed form, six volumes of Peirce's work. A parallel electronic edition is in the process of being produced. The project's website includes the following sections: an introduction to the life and works of Charles S. Peirce; electronic companions to the printed volumes (the complete text of volume two is online), including a textual apparatus for the two-volume Essential Peirce; electronic versions of the project's newsletter; a guide to the critical methods employed by the project; and information about the staff and research interests.
This site is a collection of 150 essays, about various topics in current philosophy. The main topics are: philosophy of science, cognitive science, aesthetics, philosophy of economics, and philosophy of psychology. The essays tend to be quite short but, in many cases, serve as a useful introduction to various topics. Essays on "Mind and Artificial Intelligence", for example, cover Searle's Chinese Room argument, and Turing Machines.The site consists of a series of links to the articles, which are organised by area of philosophy, and accessing the material is therefore quite straightforward. There are also links to other useful sites.
The website of the Philosophy of Science Association (PSA) provides information about this organisation, which exists to promote research, teaching, and discussion of issues in the philosophy of science. The Association was founded in 1934, and holds a major conference every two years, details of which are given on the website. The site also offers: membership information; notices about opportunities in the field for graduate students; announcements; and details of the PSA Women's Caucus. Additionally, there are sections devoted to two PSA publications: an electronic archive of PSA newsletters going back to 1995, and the editorial pages of Philosophy of Science, the official journal of the PSA.
The PhilSci Archive is an electronic database for preprints in the philosophy of science. It is a freely accessible collection, sponsored by the Philosophy of Science Association and the University of Pittsburgh. The archive is fully searchable by author, title, publication, and year (advanced searches can also be conducted using more fields). Alternatively, users can browse the site by specific topic in the philosophy of science, such as induction or causation, or by relevance to a particular scientific field, such as developmental biology or evolutionary theory. Registration is free and allows users to opt for regular email announcements of new papers. There are also details for those who wish to post papers to the Archive (registration required).
This is the website of the Polanyi Society - a scholarly society devoted to the thought of Michael Polanyi (1891-1976), a scientist and philosopher. Largely overlooked by professional philosophers during his lifetime, Polanyi's work is now regarded by many theologians and philosophers as an important challenge to the Enlightenment assumptions that dominate western thought. The site contains: information about the Society, its meetings, and a discussion list; details of its journal 'Tradition and Discovery', biographical information; photographs of Polanyi; a guide to the philosopher's papers; and a selection of short articles by Polanyi.
This is the home page of Polanyiana, the periodical of the Michael Polanyi Liberal Philosophical Association. Based in Budapest, the journal is published twice per year and devoted to the work of Michael Polanyi (1891-1976) a scientist-turned-philosopher from the noted Hungarian Jewish family. His observations on the connections between science, society, economics, and political and moral philosophy provide the foci for the scholarly research posted in this periodical. The periodical articles are posted online either in English or Hungarian. The journal archive is incomplete, with some articles offered online in full and some only as abstracts. Issues for several years were missing from the site at the time of review. Nonetheless, the site will be quite worthwhile for scholars whose work relates generally to the broad range of fields that Polanyi studied, and especially to the history of Central Europe.
This is the home page of Quirks and Quarks, a long-running and award-winning popular science radio programme produced by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). There are archives of past shows on the site with excellent transcripts, links, images, and sound files. Archives go back to 1989, although audio files are no longer available for older shows, and the earliest entries provide programme logs only. Recent shows are available in MP3 or Ogg format, and a podcast of the current show is updated weekly. The site covers an enormous range of topics related to technology, medicine and science and their connections to social issues. Quirks and Quarks has addressed subjects of interest to philosophers such as animal consciousness. The site's extensive bibliographies may appeal to those working in philosophy as well as the history and philosophy of science, since they include references to relevant biographies, books on cosmology and evolution, the human place in the environment, and problems in understanding the biological aspects of perception. The site has a newsletter, its own search engine, and a questions section which allow users to ask questions of the site's host, who then posts his answers. The friendly tone and accessibility of the site will also make it useful and informative for teachers, students and members of the public.
The Brazilian Institute of Philosophy and Science Ramon Llull has made available a fair number of resources on the Majorcan philosopher and mystic. Author of over 250 works in Catalan, Arabic, and Latin, Lull devoted much of his life to converting the Saracens to Christianity through a unification of theology and philosophy. His most important work is the 'Ars Magna', which involved a mechanical logic machine. The front page of the site is available in English, German, or Catalan, but most of the actual content is in either Catalan or Portuguese. There is a biography and chronology of Lull's life, along with a map of his last voyage. Another section details the current state of research into Lull and the progress towards compiling a complete critical edition (in Latin and Catalan). There are links to a good number of primary and secondary texts. A catalogue is provided of the alchemical works of the Pseudo-Lull (there has been a long tradition of crediting Lull with an extensive body of occult works on alchemy). Links are provided to other sites that may be of interest to scholars studying Lull.
This Web page introduces the life and achievements of the mathematician George Boole (1815-1864), now regarded as one of the founding fathers of modern computing. Boole gave his name to Boolean logic, a binary system used in digital technology and familiar to all modern programmers. The text is taken from a guidebook to Lincoln Cathedral, where there is a memorial stained-glass window to Boole, paid for by the dignitaries of the town. The site owner has added a short bibliography to the account of Boole's life, which includes a link to his seminal paper, 'The Calculus of Logic'.
The Rutherford Journal is an online journal that publishes invited articles, and critical notices, from leading international scholars in the history and philosophy of science and technology. It is edited by Professor Jack Copeland of the Philosophy Department of the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The journal has been published annually since December 2005, and the full texts of the articles of this and subsequent volumes are freely available as HTML files. The articles include original contributions from: Rom Harré; Alan Chalmers; Margaret Boden; and Alan Musgrave. Many of the articles include JPEG images which, although welcome and often instructive, can pose a problem for printing.
The Department of Science and Technology Studies at University College London offers both research and teaching expertise across the full breadth of STS/History and Philosophy of Science-related disciplines, with a notable specialisation in the field of science communication. This website contains contact details and general information about the department; full details of undergraduate, taught postgraduate and research programmes; listings for the STS Speakers seminar series; and individual pages for staff and researchers, giving details of courses taught, recent publications, research areas and administrative responsibilities. A particularly welcome addition is a parallel collection of pages for postgraduates, giving details of research in progress. The Department's online provision for undergraduate students is at the time of cataloguing the most advanced in any British HSP/STS-based unit. Detailed course lists, timetables, syllabi and, in some cases, lecture notes are available as PDF files or downloadable Word documents. The section "notes for guidance", containing such information as staff responsibilities, the departmental plagiarism policy, pastoral care announcements, marking criteria and essay guidelines, is altogether exemplary.
The Science Studies Unit at the University of Edinburgh is a small research and postgraduate teaching unit well known for pioneering the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (SSK) approach in the UK. This website provides details of staff associated with the Unit, including, in some cases, full-texts of publications and conference papers; brief information on the Unit's current research; and details of research postgraduate programmes. At the time of cataloguing, parts of the site were considerably out of date, with a section on current postgraduate students' projects unchanged since March 2000. Also slightly outdated, yet still useful, is a collection of links to other departments offering SSK- or science and technology studies-based courses.
This Web page, entitled "A Selection of Web and other Internet Sources For the History and Philosophy of Science, Technology and Medicine", is a large single-page collection of web links with occasional brief annotations. It is regularly updated and its summary of relevant discussion lists, with subscriber information, archive addresses and home page details, if available, is particulary useful. The main catalogue is subdivided by resource type: the sections on general-purpose and subject-specific sites, journals and primary texts are perhaps not large enough to be representative, but those on professional institutions and museums are extensive, covering a variety of countries. The website is based at the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, in Florence, and is partially available in Italian translation.
Sherlock Holmes and Probabilistic Induction is an online seminar paper written by Professor Soshichi Uchii of Kyoto University. It looks at nineteenth-century approaches to the philosophy of science by comparing the method of reasoning employed by Arthur Conan Doyle's fictional detective with the methods of the philosophers John Herschel, John Stuart Mill, William Whewell, Augustus de Morgan, and William Stanley Jevons. Uchii determines that Holmes's methods are similar to the approaches advocated by de Morgan and Jevons, which employed a "new symbolic logic and probabilistic theory of induction". The use of examples from the Sherlock Holmes stories works well, and provides an accessible route into the comparison of Victorian theories of induction and scientific epistemology. The paper should be of interest to students studying the history of the philosophy of science and inductive reasoning.
The SHiPS (Sociology, History and Philosophy of Science) resource centre serves science teachers requiring materials and ideas for education projects. Aspects of the history and philosophy of science are increasingly being taught in science lessons in secondary and further education, hence the perceived need for such a centre. The site describes itself as 'an online library, a repository of information for teachers to plan lessons and to learn more deeply about science studies'. The website is extensive, offering news of publications and educational developments, a reference section with projects and papers, and a guide to American standards in science teaching. The site features online curriculum modules (adapted for particular age groups) and essays on scientists and scientific discoveries. There are sections on educational issues such as gender stereotyping and the presumed conflict between science and religion. There are also modules and case studies on science and culture, and scientific ethics. Reading lists are suggested for teachers new to the history of science. The reference part of the site includes biographies and portraits of important figures and links to original papers and online projects or exhibitions. The proceedings of the Third International History, Philosophy and Science Teaching Conference may be purchased from the site.
Luminarium's web page on Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) provides links to information on his life, works, and achievements. It also hosts several secondary essays about the author. Bacon is credited with the invention of modern scientific method in his unfinished 'Great Instauration', consisting of the 'Novum Organum' ('New Organon'), and his treatise on 'The Proficience and Advancement of Learning'. The website has five sections: quotations (from Bartleby); biography; works (online editions and extracts); essays (secondary essays, including one by Stephen Jay Gould); and links to other sites. This website provides a good way in to studying Bacon and should be of use to undergraduates.
'Sir Thomas Browne' is a website that provides a wide assortment of texts by Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682), the 17th-century physician and writer best known for his reflective treatise 'Religio Medici'. That work is available here, both as a searchable electronic text and as a facsimile for readers to download (as a PDF file). Most of Browne's other major writings are also presented, among them: 'Pseudodoxia Epidemica' (1646); 'Hydriotaphia' (1658); and 'A Letter to a Friend' (1690). The site, maintained by James Eason of the University of Chicago, also offers valuable supplementary materials including: contemporary responses to Browne's writing; correspondence; and Samuel Johnson's Life of Browne. The site contains about a dozen or so 17th-century texts not directly related to Browne, including works by: Henry Peacham; Richard Jobson; and the translator Philemon Holland. Students and researchers would find this site of interest.
The Society for Social Studies of Science (4S), founded in 1975, is an international learned society covering broadly the subject area usually identified as Science and Technology Studies (STS), incorporating the social and cultural study of science, technology and medicine. Its associated website provides conference news, information on joining the Society, a list of names and contact addresses for members of the governing council, and details of prizes awarded by the Society. Brief details are given of the Society's journal, Science, Technology and Human Values; 4S also maintains a thrice-yearly newsletter, Technoscience, of which most copies since 1995 are archived at this site. Also included (on the links page) are the subscription details for the STS graduate student discussion group, STSGRAD-L.
The Society, Religion and Technology Project is a unit within the Church of Scotland which aims to promote analysis of the relationship between science, technology, religion and ethics, to encourage discussion between professionals in the various fields involved and the general public, and to disseminate its own views on the subject. This site contains the texts of many of the Project’s reports and press releases on such matters of public concern as genetic modification, nuclear energy, cloning and stem-cell research, and information relating to the Project’s 1999 publication "Engineering Genesis", produced in consultation with a group of social scientists, geneticists and ethicists. Also provided are links to other sites concerning the relationship of Christianity with both science and the environment.
The web page "Spirits, Witches and Science: Why the Rise of Science Encouraged Belief in the Supernatural in 17th-Century England" presents an essay written by Richard Olson, for the Skeptics Society. The essay discusses one of the most important intellectual debates and shifts of the early modern period, which had consequences for religious, social and even political issues. The early modern theological and scientific debates on the existence of spirits and their forms has recently been the subject of renewed interest by witchcraft historians. The often-claimed juxtaposition between the rise of scientific belief and the decline in the belief in witches, has received a variety of attention. The author traces changes in the perception of demonic power, citing several interesting and well-known examples, before he embarks upon the central point of his essay - the scientific defender of witches, Joseph Glanvill. Glanvill, a member of the Royal Society, is famous for his treatise "Saducismus Triumphatus: or Full and Plain Evidence Concerning Witches and Apparitions" published in 1689, at a time when scepticism was evinced towards belief in witchcraft in most English circles.
Talk of the Nation is an American talk radio show produced by National Public Radio in the USA. Programmes discuss current affairs and cultural issues, and regularly include special features looking at particular subjects in greater depth. The Friday edition of the show, 'Science Friday', is dedicated to discussions of popular science. Some editions of Talk of the Nation concern philosophers or philosophical topics. Past shows have covered such themes as: 'Bioethics'; 'Emotion, Cognition and Consciousness'; 'Undiscovered Mind'; 'Science and Religion'; 'Happiness'; 'Confucius'; 'Philosophy for the Masses'; 'Origin of Language'; 'Thomas Kuhn and Scientific Revolutions'; and 'the Influence of Karl Marx'. Audio files of all programmes are preserved in the online archives, although there is no option to browse by topic.
Part of the Poynter Centre for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions website, the Teaching Research Ethics pages contain information and resources for those teaching science research ethics. Funded by the US Government, the centre designs curricular materials and organises workshops in order to promote and develop 'moral reasoning skills'. The site's resources for teachers include: a large annotated bibliography; a free 80-page book entitled 'Moral Reasoning in Scientific Research: Cases for Teaching and Assessment'; and essays by the director of the project. The book may be purchased over the Internet, or downloaded for free in PDF format. It consists of six case studies designed to teach moral reasoning and assess students' abilities. The essays include: 'Using Short Writing Assignments in Teaching Research Ethics'; 'Using Small Group Assignments in Teaching Research Ethics'; 'Using Case Studies in Teaching Research Ethics'; and 'Assessing Student Learning in the Responsible Conduct of Research'. An archive of the Centre's newsletter, 'TREnds', is also included with the site. Now discontinued, TREnds included various articles that will still be of use to the educator, such as 'Contexts for Teaching Research Ethics'. There are overviews of past and forthcoming workshops organised by the Centre.
'Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology' is an electronic journal published by the Digital Library and Archives (DLA) of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). The journal was first published in 1995 and recent articles have dealt with issues like cognitive science; engineering; nanotechnology; the internet; email communication; technological theories; and technological dependency. The site has a very simple, basic design. Articles are available in both HTML and PDF versions. However, all PDF articles are only accessible to the Virginia Tech community. Also available on the site are guidelines for authors and a search engine.
Temporal Modelling Project is an online collection of resources that presents the research results of a project to investigate time and its representation using digital technology in humanities-based research. This site presents all of the research and design work which led to the creation of "PlaySpace", an online tool that allows users to generate visualizations and XML (eXtensible Markup Language) models of temporal relations in their own (previously undigitised) data. Prototypes are linked to at the Salem Witch Trials project, and the Race and Place research project. The site opens with a depiction of a clock, and there is "mouse over" Flash animation to navigate this site. However, once past this splash screen, navigation is possible via the footer of each page.
The Web Site "The Garden, the Ark, the Tower, the Temple : Biblical Metaphors of Knowledge in Early Modern Europe" is an online exhibition curated by the Museum of the History of Science in Oxford. It explores interpretations of symbolism derived from biblical sources in the sixteenth century. The exhibition has an introduction written by Cambridge scholar Dr Scott Mandelbrote, and the focus is on the intellectual group around Samuel Hartlib (c.1600-1662). Biblical themes influenced this circle greatly, in their discussion of linguistic, agricultural, theological and botanical matters. There are selected highlights of the exhibition and its images on the site, together with commentaries on the works. A search facility makes the site easier to navigate, and the user needs to be able to view large images. An excellent site for all those interest in intellectual history, the history of science, and the ealry modern period in Europe.
This Web page by Professor Frank Pajares of Emory University offers an outline of Thomas Kuhn's 'The Structure of Scientific Revolution' (1962). This classic text, written by Kuhn when he was a graduate student in theoretical physics at Harvard, deals with the idea that science is not a steady accumulation of new knowledge, but undergoes periodic revolutions, in which the nature of scientific enquiry within a particular field is abruptly transformed. The website provides links to biographical information, and also further reading on the debates, which were initiated by the philosophical treatise. The website was originally written for teaching purposes, so offers a useful and comprehensive study guide to Kuhn's text, with a summary on the first page. It is designed so that it can be read without a copy of the text to hand, although this is recommended for a full appreciation. The further reading list includes reviews and articles on Kuhn and his work, from both critical and supportive perspectives. The website is aimed at undergraduate researchers, but is also likely to be useful for early graduate work or as a teaching resource. It is accessed as a scroll-down single page with highlighted links to secondary source criticism, though not all are active.
'The Vital Science: Biology and the Literary Imagination, 1860-1900' is the online full text of Peter Morton's 1984 work. Morton, an Associate Professor in English at Flinders University, South Australia, writes that the confusion and chaos in the biological sphere following the publication of Darwin's 'The Origin of Species', proved fertile ground for writers such as: H. G. Wells; Thomas Hardy; W. H. Hudson; and Samuel Butler. Morton examines their imaginative responses to such theories as: evolutionism; degeneration; eugenics; and ideas of heredity. The online layout is very easy to navigate, via chapter headings, with notes and references listed separately. Unfortunately there is no index or search facility. An impressive bibliography on Darwinism and literature is appended to the book. This site would interest students of English and also of history of science.
Internet for History and Philosophy of Science is a free "teach yourself" tutorial on the Web, covering Internet information skills for this subject. The tutorial is aimed at students, lecturers, and researchers who want to improve their knowledge of the best Internet resources for the history and philosophy of science. Internet for History and Philosophy of Science is one of a set of tutorials which make up Intute's Virtual Training Suite. The tutorials may be used in the course of independent study, or to support teaching and training courses. Each tutorial consists of: a tour of some key sites; techniques for discovering additional Web resources; guidelines for critically evaluating such resources; and a set of success stories giving concrete examples of how the Internet can be used by students, researchers, and teachers. Each tutorial is written by subject specialists. The Intute Virtual Training Suite receives funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC).
This website offers a basic introduction to the philosophy of science. It is divided into three sections: the first consists of brief accounts of some of the key figures in the history of the philosophy of science; the second introduces some of the important concepts in the discipline; the third looks at the limits of science. The section devoted to influential figures from the history of the philosophy of science includes brief summaries of the innovations contributed by Francis Bacon, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, John Herschel, William Whewell, Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn, and Imre Lakatos. The key ideas section introduces the theories of observation, induction, imagination, falsification, 'new orthodoxy', and reductionism. The section on the limits of science defines the scope of scientific enquiry and relates what science can and cannot tell us. The site should be of use to those with no prior knowledge of the philosophy of science who require a basic primer.
This web page contains the text of a polemical guest editorial written for the journal 'Philosophy of Science' in 1992, by its former editor-in-chief, C. West Churchman. Churchman was one of the pioneers of the philosophy of management science, and this essay applies some of his ideas concerning management ethics to the physical sciences. Considering the development of the atomic bomb, he starts by asking whether "human beings should study physical nature, whether it is dangerous or ethical to do so". The essay then broadens to consider the nature of the management decisions that scientists (and others) are required to make, but frequently deny responsibility for, before turning to address the perceived ethical failings of the modern world, especially concerning child abuse. Although this essay skips between subjects rather rapidly, and is decidedly polemical in tone, it does raise questions about the ethics of science and technology, and demonstrates that the philosophy of the social sciences is not easily separable from that of the physical sciences.
This is the home page for Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000), the influential American mathematician and philosopher. The page was set up and is maintained by his son, Douglas Boynton Quine. W.V.O. Quine worked on such fields as mathematical logic, the logic of language, set theory, and the philosophy of language. His best known publications include 'The Ways of Paradox', 'Mathematical Logic', 'Set Theory and Its Logic', 'Quiddities', and perhaps the most influential, 'Word and Object'. The website is extensive in scope. It contains a detailed bibliography of Quine's papers and publications, including editions and translations. There is a selection of his book reviews, with links to the texts themselves. Newspaper profiles of Quine, and a number of obituaries, are also included. For the truly obsessive, there is even a list of the many countries that he visited, along with the amount of time spent in each and the year of the visit. The site should prove of interest to scholars studying Quine, although more primary and critical texts would improve it further.
The World of Athanasius Kircher functions as a portal to the online resources published by a major international research project aimed at bringing the manuscript correspondence of the seventeenth-century Jesuit polymath Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680) to the Web. The website introduces the project and directs users to the searchable interactive digital archive. To access the manuscript images themselves, it is necessary to download Luna Insight software. This is available free of charge from Stanford University, though installing it is a somewhat tedious process. (Other Stanford digital collections can be viewed via the Web version of Luna Insight, which requires no downloading, so it may be hoped that this facility will be extended to the Kircher correspondence collection in time.) Kircher was a scholar and inventor who wrote on such subjects as cryptography; Egyptology; optics; music; magnetism; universal language; and alchemical transmutation. He also devised pneumatic, hydraulic, catoptric and magnetic machines. He wrote in a number of languages (but predominantly Latin), and had a great many correspondents including scientists, physicians, Jesuit missionaries, two Holy Roman Emperors, popes, and potentates from around the world. The project editors encourage user feedback.