This website currently provides access to nearly forty letters written by Florence Nightingale. The site has been created by the Clendening History of Medicine Library at the University of Kansas in order to make its collection of Florence Nightingale letters freely available.T he original letters have been scanned and are available from the site as facsimile images. These images are accompanied by a transcription of the text. Further research is being carried out on the letters and as this information become available footnotes are being added. The letters can be viewed chronological, alphabetically or can be searched. The site also has a list of links to other sites related to Florence Nightingale.
The website "About Great Ormond Street Hospital" is produced by the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust (with UCL The Institute of Child Health), which was initially launched to mark the 150th birthday of Britain's first hospital for sick children. The site draws together medical notes and photographs that reveal a revolution in how young patients were treated. Quick links from the home page lead to: the whole story; what nursing and surgery were like; key facts and achievements; Gallery; Peter Pan; Museum and Archives services. On the site you can see that Florence Nightingale opposed the hospital, but Charles Dickens approved. So did J.M. Barrie - Great Ormond Street hospital still benefits from the royalties of Peter Pan. From 10 beds when it was first established in 1852, the hospital grew to 200 beds by the end of the 19th century, with 60 more for convalescence in north London. Today the 335-bed hospital treats 22,000 in-patients and 77,000 out-patients each year. The top-navigation of the site provides access to the hospital's current online presence.
The AIDS History Project has been established by a collaborative group with the aim of safeguarding and preserving material related to the history of AIDS in San Francisco. This website, published by the University of California at San Francisco, provides a home page for the project, which is working to compile a history of the establishment of community support and care networks in the city during the first years of the AIDS crisis. These services have come to be known as the San Francisco model of AIDS care, and this site publishes details of the current research being undertaken into this area and links to resources on the AIDS epidemic in 1980s San Francisco. There is also a useful chronology of events, spanning from the advent of the disease in the United States in 1981, until 1988 when the epidemic in the United States reached its peak.
The website of the American Association for the History of Medicine provides information about the work of the organisation. Details of meetings to be held, their publications (including their newsletter, with a online edition that is regularly updated), and on how to join are provided. The site has a news section which issues calls for conferences, details of awards etc. Information on jobs, grants and fellowships are also available from the site. A searchable database of members of the association has been included on the site, but is only accessible to current members. Other features of the site include a useful list of links to relevant sites and organisations, and officers and bylaws of the association.
The "Anatomy Acts" exhibition was held at the City Art Centre, Edinburgh, 13 May to 9 July 2006, and tours to various venues around Scotland. All the objects in the exhibition come from Scottish collections and span more than 500 years of creative development. They are made by professional artists, anatomists and technicians, from Europe and beyond, and most have been created as tools for medical teaching or diagnosis. The objects have been selected from medical museums, university teaching, archive and library departments, as well as fine art collections, and health boards and many have never been on public display before. Images of the exhibits are available online and can be searched by keyword or lender to the exhibition. The website includes an events programme, learning resources, and information about the contemporary artists Christine Borland, Joel Fisher, Claude Heath, and Kathleen Jamie. The exhibition tours to the Lamb Gallery at Dundee University; Gateway Gallery in St Andrews; Inverness; Kingussie; Thurso; Wick; and the Collins Gallery at the University of Strathclyde.
The Archie Cochrane Archive website is part of the Cardiff University site, and was the first project of the Centre for the History of Evaluations in Healthcare. On the site there is a great deal of information on the archival holdings for Dr. Archibald Leman Cochrane, 1909-1988, who pioneered evidence-based medicine. There is a complete catalogue for the archive, which contains photographs, personal items and professional papers, including documents on his experiences in the Spanish Civil War, and the 1950 Rhondda Fach Scheme. In addition to the catalogue there is a biographical outline of Cochrane, a complete list of his publications, a section on his experience as a Prisoner of War, and information about access to the archive. Some of the documents from the archive and archive catalogues have been digitised and can be viewed in PDF on the site, and there is also a video clip that requires QuickTime to view it.
The "Archive for Sexology: History of Sexology" site is part of the wider Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology website, published by an academic at the Humboldt-Universität in Berlin. Although not the best designed site, it holds a great deal of useful information for students of the history of medicine and sexuality. There is a brief history of sexology, which traces the development of the discipline, and a chronology of research divided into three sections - predecessors, antiquity-1892, pioneers, 1896-1936, and modern sex research, which highlights important figures and their research. A larger section on pioneers of sexology contains resources on twelve individuals, including Magnus Hirschfeld, Iwan Bloch, and Harry Benjamin. The biographies include primary source material such as letters, photographs and documents. In addition to this users can also access the full-text of Vern Bullough's 1994 book Science in the Bedroom - the History of Sex Research, and several journal articles, on subjects like the Nazi persecution of homosexuals and fertility.
Created and maintained by Professor Nancy Demand (Indiana University Bloomington), the Asclepion is an online resource which presents a series of brief but useful introductory pages and links to the development and characteristics of early medicine in Greece, Mesopotamia and Egypt. The website is divided into the following sections: an introduction to the study of ancient medicine; essays on health and medicine in the geographical areas mentioned above; a picture gallery of images of ancient surgical instruments; a section on texts and articles (with links to translated passages of Hippocrates as well as short essays on particular aspects of ancient medicine); a page of links to other online resources relating to the ancient world. Although not extensive, the material presented on this website should allow anyone to become versed in the general aspects of the field. References, along with a collection of additional links, will significantly aid readers in expanding their research and locating relevant primary texts.
The Australian Medical Pioneers Index is an online database of pioneer doctors living and working in Australia during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Funded by the State Library of Victoria it is based largely on the print index compiled by Dr. David Roberts and is published online by Barwon Health. The database contains the records of around 3,000 medical men, including ships surgeons, colonial and military surgeons, convict doctors, general practitioners, and specialists. These records can be searched by keyword or with an advanced search. The site also provides a good background to the history of medicine in Australia, listing and discussing primary and secondary sources, images, a bibliography and web links.
The Australian Nursing and Midwifery History Project is an academic project being conducted by the School of Nursing at the University of Melbourne. The aim of the project is to raise the profile of nursing history, promote the study of this subject and to develop the conservation of related historical resources. The project further encourages research by developing exhibitions at the University of Melbourne's History of Medicine Museum in the Brownless Library, the first of which "Feminine Industry: nursing work at the bedside and beyond," was curated by Dr. Sioban Nelson and held in 1998. On the site users can find out information about the project and the areas it is working on presently. There is a history of nursing email list that users can sign up for, information about conferences, related projects, and a list of links and resources. Under the heading ANMHP Resources, the site also links to relevant journals, museums, Web resources and current projects.
This section of the Backdoor Broadcasting Company website makes recordings of academic lectures available to researchers and members of the public. Here, a lecture delivered by Tim Thornton of the University of Central Lancashire on 25 November 2009 at The Humanities and Arts Research Centre, Royal Holloway University of London is posted as a podcast. The lecture, "Clinical Judgement and the Medical Humanities" deals with areas of ethics and contemporary philosophy and linguistic studies related to mental health care. Applying ideas from Wittgenstein, Thornton is known for his work on "clinical judgement, idiographic and narrative understanding, the interpretation of psychopathology and reductionism and social constructionism in psychiatry." Recorded questions which were posed at the end of the lecture are also available.
The Banting Digital Library is published by New Tecumseth Public Library, and has been funded by the Ontario Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Recreation. The Banting Digital Library provides access to a massive range of primary and secondary resources on the life of Sir Frederick Banting, who along with Charles H. Best discovered insulin in 1920. The searchable database contains personal papers, letters, short stories, media clippings, photographs, sketchbooks and paintings and artifacts, and can be searched by keyword or browsed by category. Also featured on the site are a links page, and a bibliography for further reading.
This website, from the University of Indiana Ruth Lilly Medical Library, contains a substantial non-critical bibliography, of both recent and classic secondary work, under the heading American History of Medicine and Related Fields. The bibliography, organized alphabetically is unannotated, although some of the listings contain brief excerpts from the text of the work in question. The site also contains a much smaller bibliography under the heading General History of Medicine and Related Fields. The material is accessed as a simple scroll-down page and presentation is sparse but functional.
'The Black Death' website provides a basic summary of the great plague that struck Europe in 1347 and 1348, and wiped out around a third of the population. The site consists of a number of brief articles arranged into chapters. These cover the history of the plague, the disease itself, the social and medical response to it, and the effects of the disease on different aspects of life and culture. The site lacks full bibliographic notes, and is useful more as a general introduction to the subject rather than as a scholarly text.
The website "Blackwell's herbal", made available by the British Library, provides an overview of and introduction to Elizabeth Blackwell's 'Curious Herbal', first published in 1737. The herbal is one of the texts featured in the British Library's Online Gallery Virtual Books, and provides useful background information for interested users of the website. Elizabeth Blackwell, who was the first female herbalist to publish such a book, drew the plants in her herbal from live botanical specimens at the Chelsea Physic Garden. She also prepared the work for publication, and coloured the plates herself. She was accomplished enough to gain the support of the Society of Apothecaries. Brief accounts are given of two editions of the text: the first edition of 1737; and the 'Nuremberg' edition of 1747-73, which is said to be superior. Four illustrations taken from the two editions of the text are included in each of the pages available, accompanied by a few lines of contextualising information. The images are not of the same quality as those in digitised version, but are equal in quality to the British Library's standard web pages. An audio file is also available to go with this version of the resource, for which Windows Media Player is required. The author(s) of the essay are not identified on the site.
This site, part of the American University of Beirut's Digital Documentation Center, publishes a digitised edition of Ibn Sina's text The Canon of Medicine. This was written by Ibn Sina, known as Avicenna in Europe, in the eleventh century, and is recognised as one of the most important early medical texts. It is an encyclopaedia of medicine and pharmacology, and incorporates Ancient Greek and Roman findings, as well as his own. The copy reproduced here is one published in 1593, and it can be browsed page by page. The introductory pages can be accessed in both Arabic and English, but the text itself is in sixteenth century Arabic.
"Bring your party back safe" is an online exhibition created by the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library at the University of Virginia. The exhibition looks at the 1803 Lewis and Clark exploration into the U.S. West, concentrating on the medicine and medical theory employed by the Corps of Discovery to promote health and prevent disease and injury throughout the expedition. The site is easy to navigate and the text is engaging and well-written. Amongst the areas covered are the background to the expedition, and biographies of Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, Sacagawea and York. Most of the information relates to the medical aspects of the expedition, discussing accidents, injuries and diseases, the treatments for these, the medical supplies brought on the journey, and Native American relations.
This report is the result of a one year AHRC-funded research project which investigated material in UK museums and gallery collections related to the lives and experiences of historical and contemporary disabled people. The study was concerned with gathering information as to what evidence of disability existed within museum collections as the ways this had been represented and re-presented over time, and the factors that relate to the collecting of information about the lives of disabled people and curators’ attitudes to this. The report includes the evidence gathered as well as conclusions and recommendations for further research.
The Canadian Nursing History Collection is an online archive of digitised documents and artefacts taken from the collections of the Canadian Museum of Civilization, the Canadian War Museum, and Library and Archives Canada. Users can either search or browse the archive, which contains hospital and military uniforms, military medals, caps, pins, instrument kits, instructional books, nursing leaders memorabilia and paintings. Within this repository there are four special collections, the Canadian Nurses Association Collection, the Nursing Sisters Association of Canada Collection, the Gloria (Barwell) Kay Nurses' Caps Collection, and the Canadian War Museum Military Nursing Archival Collection. The quality of the digitisation is high, and each artefact is accompanied with explanatory text.
This website lists the wide ranging library special collections held by Cardiff University covering a wide range of literature, history and politics. Of particular note are the University’s extensive holdings related to Wales, its culture, language and politics, supplemented by other material from Celtic-speaking nations. Other collections relate to the history of medicine, trades unions and journalism. There are extensive descriptions of the collections, together with access to the online catalogues and various relevant databases, as well as information about consulting items physically.
The Centre for the History of Medicine, part of the University of Birmingham's Medical School, was established in 2000 as a centre for research and both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. Particular areas of specialisation include the medical history of the West Midlands area, medicine and surgery in ancient times, and the history of Army and other military medicine. This departmental site contains brief profiles of staff and researchers, with some publication details; information on teaching programmes; a short history (running to around 7000 words, with references) of the University of Birmingham Medical School itself, written by the Senior Lecturer, Robert Arnott; listings for the Centre's seminar series; and details of recent and forthcoming conferences in the history of medicine. Also present is a section on History of Medicine "Resources", which notably includes a list of webpages and societies related to the history of medicine.
The United States National Library of Medicine publishes this online exhibition about the history of female doctors in America. The site is well designed, and is based around a collection of biographies of medical women from the mid nineteenth century to the present. The exhibition itself is in three parts, the struggle to enter the medical profession; the impact women have had on medicine; and their position and influence in health care today. Alongside the biographies of women like Elizabeth Blackwell, Mary Putnam Jacobi, and Gerty Cori, there are interactive features and short videos. To view these requires the free Flash and QuickTime downloads. It is also possible to search the site by keyword, and the biographies can be searched by location, ethnicity, specialities and medical school. There is also a resources section with intelligent interactive activities; lesson plans for teachers of high school students; information about embarking on a medical career; and a selection of selected reading. This exhibition was nominated in the competition for Best Museum Web Site Supporting Educational Use in Museums and the Web 2004: Best of the Web.
Cheiron is a society open to students and scholars working on issues relating to the history of the behavioural and social sciences. It aims to promote scholarly research and provide a broad perspective on contemporary scientific activities. The society organises conferences, offers an annual book prize, and publishes a newsletter, amongst other services. The website contains details of upcoming conferences and meetings, the Society's committee, and its membership dues. There is an online version of the newsletter, viewable in PDF format. The site also features a bibliography of recent publications by Cheiron members, along with syllabi details of courses they have taught. There are links to other online resources, including the Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences, with which Cheiron is affiliated. Finally, there is a page on the myth of Cheiron the Centaur, including links to the proceedings of a series of conferences on contemporary centaur scholarship.
The Chemical Heritage Foundation website is an excellent online resource for the study of the history of Chemistry. The site provides a clear and well-presented introduction for students new to the field as well as offering resources for teachers and researchers. The Centre is 'dedicated to preserving and sharing the history and heritage of the chemical and molecular sciences, technologies, and allied industries'. The site contains a wealth of materials, from introductory timelines and narratives of various aspects of chemical history, to online exhibitions. Classroom resources include education modules on molecular science and pharmaceuticals, and several chemistry 'WebQuests' for students. The Centre runs a fellowship programme for academics and offers services for visiting scholars. There is a page publicising forthcoming lectures, conferences, and meetings, and a section containing recent stories about the Centre. Links are provided to related sites. This is one of the foremost websites devoted to the history of chemistry, and should prove a useful resource for those teaching and working in this field.
The ChiMed website is intended to act as a clearing-house of information, where scholars interested in the history of Chinese medicine can exchange ideas. The site includes: a directory of scholars, giving their research specialisations and contact details; an index of institutions; a directory of libraries with noteworthy holdings; a collection of links to online resources; bibliographies and course syllabi; and a page of news and events. The news and events section features: details of ongoing seminar groups; calls for papers; information on jobs, prizes, and grants; and news of upcoming conferences.
Classics in the History of Psychology is a project to provide online transcripts of noteworthy texts from the history and prehistory of the psychological sciences. The project is based in the Department of Psychology at York University, Toronto. The site is regularly updated and contains around 25 full-text books, and 200 articles, with excerpts from longer publications. The inevitable restrictions due to copyright mean that many important texts cannot be reproduced here, but the site still represents an extremely valuable collection. Among the many authors represented are Aristotle, Sigmund Freud, William James, Carl Jung, B F Skinner, J B Watson and Wilhelm Wundt. The contents are indexed by author name and by broad subject area, and there is a basic search facility. All of the contents are presented in HTML form, generally presented as single webpages except where length prohibits this. Publication dates and edition numbers are scrupulously recorded, but the pagination details of the original print editions are not. The site also provides a collection of links to relevant primary texts maintained at other sites. Another useful feature is the page of suggested readings, arranged by subject area and with a commentary on importance and context. This is aimed at students in the history of psychology and related fields and offers a useful starting point for early research.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Decline of Infant Mortality in England and Wales, 1871-1948: a Medical Conundrum' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as an excel file. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. This study aimed to provide a more individual, micro-level appreciation of infant mortality data. Previously, the focus of these data had been aggregative, at a fairly high level of aggregation - the country, county registration district. To that end, a team of research students at the Open University has examined vaccination registers at the sub-registration district level for 22 such districts. In 1853 vaccination was made compulsory and in 1871 legislation was introduced requiring all poor law unions to appoint vaccination officers and to set up a system of registration; this system, with only minor alterations, lasted until 1948. Under the 1871 Act, vaccination officers took over all the functions of the local registrars except for giving parents the statutory notice of compulsory vaccination. The vaccination registrar recorded the following: the registration number in the civil birth register; date of birth; place of birth; name of child; sex; name of father, or if illegitimate, mother; occupation of father or if illegitimate, mother; date of notice to vaccinate given to parent; date of successful vaccination, postponement or insusceptibility to vaccination; name of medical man who signed the certificate; date of death of any child who died before vaccination; reference number in vaccination officer's report book on problem cases. From the monthly information on infant deaths, the vaccination officer compiled an infant death register on children dying under the age of one year. Medical historians have begun to recognise the historical importance of the compulsory provisions of Victorian vaccination legislation, which entailed the growth of a complex administrative structure necessary for its implementation. This can been seen as a forerunner of the Welfare State, particularly as regards the development of the public health movement. It is generally agreed that civil registration had reached a high standard of reliability by 1872, and as the vaccination birth registers and infant death registers are copies of the civil registers for the period 1872-1948, they constitute an unrivalled source of information on infant mortality for the period. The data consists of transcriptions from a sample of English vaccination registers, at the sub-registration district level, for selected years within the period 1871-1913. The variables differ slightly due to local custom and the transcribing methods employed but broadly, for each district, they consist of number in birth register; date of birth; address; gender; legitimacy; parents' occupation; date of vaccination; date of exception; date of death.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the "Demography of Sri Lanka, 1900-1954 : Trends in Fertility and Mortality in Pre-Demographic Transition Sri Lanka" dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as a tab delimited texts and DBF databases. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. The aims of this study were: to examine trends in fertility, nuptiality and mortality in Sri Lanka (Ceylon became Sri Lanka in 1972) in the period prior to demographic transition, i.e. prior to the 1950s; and to search for the reasons for changes which occurred, by examining how these varied across the approximately 20 administrative districts of the island and considering whether this variation was associated with district characteristics such as literacy, availability of health services, etc. There is a tendency to suppose that, prior to transition, developing world countries had more or less constant fertility and mortality - at high levels - albeit with the fluctuations in both caused by famines and epidemics. There may have been more complex movements in Sri Lanka.
The Open University's Department of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine is a relatively large unit, offering undergraduate study and postgraduate research, with specialisations both in the early-modern period and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This departmental site comprises a set of staff pages, including selected publications and notes on research interests; details of undergraduate courses, with synopses, reading lists, entry requirements, etc; information on applying for postgraduate research, with a list of current and past research topics (including some detailed information on a number of projects).
The Development of the London Hospital System, 1823-1982 is an online edition of an out-of-print book of the same title written by Geoffrey Rivett. The book is concerned with the way the London hospital system evolved over two centuries, from a combination of fever, poor law and voluntary hospitals to the NHS system. Each chapter is hyperlinked, with further links to subheadings, making it easy to navigate. In brief they cover medical education and the various types of public hospitals during the nineteenth century, developments from 1860-1889, 1890-1914, and during the interwar period, the Emergency Medical Service during the Second World War, Aneurin Bevan and the NHS, and developments in the NHS 1968-1982. The author is also writing an additional chapter to take the book right up to the end of the twentieth century.
The Digital Clendening site is published by the Clendening History of Medicine Library and Museum, part of the University of Kansas Medical Center. The site features eight digitised collections related to the history of medicine in several countries. The collections are an eclectic mix, and include a database of rare text images, taken from medical and natural history books published before 1800, a collection of some 500 portraits of historical medical figures, and images of the history of medicine in the Ralph Major Photographs collection. There are two other fascinating visual collections of Japanese medical prints and Chinese public health posters. The final three collections are of documents, the Samuel Crumbine papers, the Rudolf Virchow manuscripts, and the Florence nightingale letters.
The directory of history of medicine collections website has been created by the National Library of Medicine in the United States. The site aims to provide information about history of health sciences collections providing research, reference and inter library loan facilities. The main focus of the site is on collections held in the United States. Limited information on collections held in Canada, France, Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom is also available. The information on the site is organized alphabetically by U.S. state and the non-U.S. collection are presented alphabetically by country. Each collection entry provides contact details (including web addresses), a brief abstract describing the collection and a holdings record.
This impressive medical history site, The Discovery and Early Development of Insulin, provides a wealth of primary source material on this important scientific discovery in Canada during the 1920s. Published by the University of Toronto Libraries, the website content is mainly taken from the archives of Dr. Frederick Banting and Dr. Henry Best housed at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library at the University of Toronto. Over 7,000 facsimile images of primary documents relating to this treatment for diabetes are available online, and include laboratory notebooks and charts, letters, writings, scientific papers, photographs, clippings, scrapbooks, awards, artefacts and other printed ephemera. The content can be searched or browsed and there are also short chapters covering an overview of the discovery, the experience of patients, and biographies of the co-discoverers. There is also an interactive timeline, spanning the years 1913-1926, highlighting important milestones in the history of insulin and its use in treating diabetics.
This website provides information on the Dittrick Medical History Center (Cleveland, Ohio) and its collections of 60,000 rare books, 60,000 museum artifacts, 10,000 images, and archive listings. Originally part of the Cleveland Medical Library Association (est. 1894), the Dittrick is now an interdisciplinary centre within the College of Arts and Sciences of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. It is an international resource for the study of the history of medical technology, and provides research material for the study of speciality areas and local and international medical institutions. The site has six main sections: the Dittrick Museum of Medical History which consists mainly of a collection of instruments gathered from Cleveland physicians dating from 19th and 20th centuries; the rare medical book collection dating from late 14th century to 20th century; a section featuring 4 small online exhibits (Cleveland's smallpox epidemic of 1902; Images of dissection; a tour of Lake View Cemetery, Cleveland; and Asklepios Murals at the Allen Memorial Library); sample lists and overviews of the centre's archives; the image collection; and a What's New? section. Each section provides a very small sample of the collections housed at the center through the use of online images accompanied by brief background essays. There are also pages listing the Centre's publications, events and links to medical museums, archives and libraries both in the USA and worldwide. This site is regularly updated and includes news of forthcoming events and publications.
The website "Drug Trade: Therapy, pharmacy and commerce in early modern Europe" makes available online the exhibition of the Museum of the History of Science's (University of Oxford) collection of early modern drug or pharmacy jars from 2004-2005. The jars, which date from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, are situated in the historical context of therapy and pharmacology in early modern Europe. Images and texts from contemporary herbals are used to illustrate the types of drugs and medicinal preparations that would originally have been contained in the jars. These herbals include Dodoens's "Niewe herball" and Gerard's "Herball". The site includes an introductory section, which contains a selection of quotations from vernacular herbals justifying their use of the English language, and a bibliography of the herbals used in the exhibition. The exhibition is presented in three parts: "Exhibition"; "Gallery"; and "Essay". The Exhibition section presents the images of jars and herbal illustrations according to the type of material they contained or represented: herbs; roots; wood bark gum; fruits; roses; animals; and minerals. Each illustration is accompanied by texts from the herbals, which describe the properties and uses of each plant. The Gallery section presents thumbnail images of the illustrations and the drug jars. Each image can be clicked for a larger version, which is accompanied by source and catalogue information. The Essay provides a brief overview of the preparation and use of medicines in the period. This site presents a useful and interesting collection of images and information, which will be appreciated by general users as well as students with an interest in early modern medicine. The site is now archived.
This online database contains over 3,000 photographs, illustrations, engravings, and bookplates for the history of medicine and life sciences in the Duke University Medical Center Library's History of Medicine collections. It is searchable by general keyword or by individual fields (description; author/artist name; title of image; title of source; place; date; subjects). The images presented via the web are reasonable but not of publication quality. Access to three special collections is also included in the database : 107 slides from Georg Bartisch's Ophthalmodouleia; Das is Augendienst (published 1583); The Four Seasons - 504 slides of 4 seventeenth-century copperplate engravings depicting seasons of the year with each season used as a metaphor of one of the 'ages of man'; and the 'Stewart Album' containing 206 photographs of German, French, Spanish, Italian and English physicians and scientists prominent in the mid nineteenth century. These subsets may be searched separately or as part of the entire HIM database.
The site provides an introduction to the 20,000 monographs, 4,000 manuscripts, as well as medical instruments, photographs and illustrations housed in the Duke University (Durham, North Carolina, USA) Medical Center Library's History of Medicine Collections. Six online exhibitions based on the collections are accessible. The site also provides a gateway to the Historical Images in Medicine (HIM) database (over 3,000 items) and to the National Library of Medicine's HISTLINE database. The Collections include histories of medicine, medical institutions, biographies of doctors, and other practitioners, and the historical aspects of every field of medicine. Online lists of guides, bibliographies and encyclopaedias available in the Library are provided.
This website is part of the Centre for History and New Media at George Mason University. The Research Centre is an annotated catalogue with reviews of over 5,000 websites on the history of science, technology and industry. The collection may be searched or browsed by key word, topic, content or time period. The Collecting Centre is a directory of websites dedicated to online collections of historical materials. It may be browsed by topic and offers a guide to best practice for collecting history online, with a range of additional free tools and services. It also has links to the sites of featured projects. This is a comprehensive site, generous in its resources and well-presented, but it appears to not have been updated since 2005.
This slight site is about the first female doctor in the United States, Elizabeth Blackwell. It is published by Hobart and William Smith Colleges, which claims Blackwell as one of its alumna. On the site users will find a biography of Blackwell, which focuses on her qualification as a medic in 1849, and her subsequent input into medicine and women's opportunities in this field. There is also a handful of recent articles discussing Blackwell and her impact, and wider topics like the history of the New York Infirmary, as well as a few primary sources. The site also features web links and information about the Elizabeth Blackwell Award.
The Elizabeth Blackwell, America's First Woman M.D. (Medical Doctor) website is an online version of an exhibition held at the National Library of Medicine from January to September 1999. The site provides a basic outline of the training and work of Elizabeth Blackwell, who in 1849 was the first woman to graduate from a medical school in the United States. This narrative is interspersed with a number of primary source documents held by the National Library of Medicine. The documents have been scanned and are available as facsimile images. Transcriptions of the documents are provided. The website is divided into four main sections: admission; college life; graduation; and career.
Emotions and Disease is an online exhibition from the History of Medicine Division of the National Library of Medicine. The exhibition aims to provide an explanation of the meaning and relevance of scientific developments linking neurophysiology to the functioning of the immune system. The site has an introductory section about the exhibition and a brief historical perspective on the topic. The main part of the exhibition is divided into five main parts: balance of passions; psychosomatic medicine; self-healing, patents and placebos; stress and deprivation; and frontiers of the mind. These section provide an outline of some of the issues of the topic. A bibliography accompanies the exhibition.
Epidemic Disease in London is a digitised set of working papers published by the Centre for Metropolitan History. These were originally given at an Institute of Historical Research symposium entitled 'Epidemic Disease in London: from the Black Death to Cholera'. Edited by Justin Champion, the papers look at various aspects of epidemics in the capital from the fourteenth to the nineteenth century, and cover the Black Death, the plague, burials, epidemics and the built environment, epidemic disease in the eighteenth century, and skeletal data. There is also a bibliography of the published works cited in the various articles.
The Web page "Ergotism : the Satan loosed in Salem?" offers an online edition of an essay by Linnda Caporael, first published in 1976 in the journal "Science". It seeks to provide an explanation of the outbreak of witchcraft accusations and trials in Salem in 1692, suggesting that poisoning by rye or bread contaminated with ergot (a parasitic fungus) produces symptoms similar to those displayed by some of the girls who claimed they were victims of witchcraft. The case is clearly argued, and Caporael's essay provides a good introduction to the multitude of explanations offered for the phenomenon. By mapping out the crop locations in the village and citing witness evidence, the author shows that it was possible that many of the protagonists in the trials suffered from ergotism. This is a useful essay for those studying Arthur Miller's "The Crucible", American studies, witchcraft in history, or medical history; however, users should note that Caporael's explanation of the events at Salem has not found universal favour among the scholarly community, and has been criticised on a number of points.
Electronic Scholarly Publishing, despite its generalist name, is a project chiefly devoted to the online full-text publication of well-known books and papers from the history of genetics and evolution. The catalogue so far includes works by Aristotle, William Bateson, Charles Darwin (The Voyage of the Beagle, On the Origin of Species, Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication), Galen, Francis Galton, Thomas Malthus, Gregor Mendel, Thomas H Morgan, Alfred Russel Wallace and others. Most of the texts are presented as transcripts in PDF format, although some are given in HTML, and a few as PDF image facsimiles: this is clearly indicated in the indexes. The presentation is a little gimmicky, with the text appearing in a relatively small window inside an onscreen "book". The circumstances of this site’s creation are unusual: it was originally a personal project of Robert J Robbins, of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, but is now supported by the US Department of Energy as part of a commitment to develop educational resources associated with the Human Genome Project. Some Department of Energy publications concerning the Project are also available on the site.
This article from January 2002 in the National Maritime Museum's 'Journal for Maritime Research' examines the attempts by British army and naval physicians to understand and combat dysentery, one of the major killers of sailors in the 18th Century navy. Historians will be interested by the examples provided by the article's author, Dr. David Boyd Haycock, of Wolfson College, Oxford. Haycock contributes a new balance to the modern history of medicine, which has been generally preoccupied with exotic diseases such as Asiatic cholera, typhoid, yellow fever and smallpox. He concentrates on dysentery, which scholars have largely neglected precisely because it was so common. Haycock describes how dysentery, once called the 'bloody flux,' struck the crew of Captain James Cook's ship the Endeavour after they stopped in the Dutch East Indes (now Indonesia) for repairs. Similar accounts presented here describe disease-ravaged colonies in Jamaica. Such experiences with the disease prompted naval and colonial doctors to battle the disease; thus, the history of the development of maritime medicine is directly entwined with the history of exploration and settlement. Haycock investigates contemporary medical understandings of the disease; theories on its cause; the question of contagion; the possible role played by animalcules in causing the disease; and theories of prevention and cure.
The 'Finding the Right Clinical Notes' project, led by the University of Edinburgh, is intended to improve research access to personal health records in Scotland. Personal Health Records (PHRs) are defined as records that relate to the physical or mental health of an identifiable individual, made by or on the advice of a health professional in connection with that patient's care or treatment. The actual format and content of such records varies considerably according to the dictates of the period in which they were written. The website attempts to overcome the geographical dispersion of PHRs by providing a central database for researchers to locate relevant collections.Descriptions of over 1,000 record series have been added to the database, conforming to the General International Standard for Archival Description (ISAD(G), 2nd ed.) The descriptions have been indexed according to Library of Congress, National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and other relevant historical terms. Users may search for records via personal name or free text, or browse the database according to subject term or repository. Records give detailed background information and bibliographic history along with the scope and content of the archived materials and their access conditions.As well as a description of the project, information about patient confidentiality is provided on the website, and there are links to other sites related to PHRs and their usefulness to research.The project received funding from the Research Support Libraries Programme (RSLP).
Folk Medicine is a database of traditional cures for various illnesses and ailments. The database was begun in the 1940s, and now contains entries for about 210,000 distinct cures. Whilst the database is global in scope, much of the information stems from Americans and those who have recently emigrated to the United States from elsewhere. Over 3,000 published works have also been used as sources. The oldest sources date back to the late eighteenth century.Key-word searching may be conducted by ailment, reagent, or any other part of the description. Searches may be limited by application of cure, the region of origin, and the ethnicity of origin. Results are listed by subject and cure, and clicking on an entry in this list brings up the full record. Many of the records are a little short on detail, but optimally provide: the subject illness; the suggested cure; the cause (often unknown); information about who collected the record and where; information as to where the medicine originates from; and the original card number of the record.This is an impressive database that has been assembled over many years and which benefits greatly from the Internet. It should prove useful to students of the history of medicine.
The Forensic Medicine Archives Project is published by the University of Glasgow Archives with funding from the Research Resources in Medical History initiative, a partnership between the Wellcome Institute and the British Library. This is an excellent site that provides a range of useful resources for historians of forensic medicine. Firstly it is possible to search for online finding aids for records from the personal papers of John Glaister Sr. and his son John Glaister, and from the University of Glasgow Department of Forensics archival collection. Perhaps the most fascinating part of the site is the collection of digitised murder case files, filled with photographs and key documents. There is also a research guide that lists other repositories of historical forensic medical resources in the United Kingdom.
The website of the Freud Museum provides the address and contact details of this museum; as well as fairly extensive information relating to Sigmund Freud's life and works. Located in Maresfield Gardens, London, the Museum building was Freud's place of residence in England after he left Vienna to escape the Nazis in 1938. The site offers a section on Freud in England; biographical and bibliographical details; information about Freud's daughter, Anna; lists of Freud's antiquities held by the Museum; information regarding Freud's library (which comprises the books Freud brought with him from Vienna); information about the Museum's research library (which includes the working library of his daughter, Anna Freud, and books bequeathed by Dorothy Burlingham); and comprehensive catalogues of letters, documents and photographs held by the Museum (though most original documents were transferred to Washington to form the Sigmund Freud Archive in the Library of Congress). Past and forthcoming conferences are mentioned, and the site features an interesting "dream exhibition", relating to Freud's Interpretation of Dreams.
From quackery to bacteriology provides a basic narrative of the history of nineteenth century medical history in the United States. The site has been created by Barbara Floyd, an archivist at the University of Toledo, from nineteenth century printed works. The site is divided into the following main sections: scientific medicine, home health care, quackery, patent medicine, women's health care, mental health, physical fitness and nutrition, the public health movement, medicine in the civil war, nursing, and medical education. Each section is accompanied by a bibliography of the sources used. The text on the site is accompanied by a limited number of illustrations. The site is also a useful source for discerning attitudes towards the body, gender and eugenics.
This website is published by Andrew Bamji, the curator of the Gillies archive of plastic surgery at Queen Mary's Hospital in Sidcup. The website provides details of the Gillies archive, which is one of the most complete archives of medical records from the First World War. The archive holds over 2,500 case files on facial plastic surgery performed between 1917 and 1925 on injured servicemen. Although the website is of quite a clunky design it houses some excellent resources, including digital images of the complete Macalister watercolours archive, which show a range of injuries treated at the hospital. The images are graphic, and are somewhat disturbing. Another image gallery of postcards of Queen Mary's Hospital is also on the site, as well as an extremely useful bibliography of surgery and medicine during the Great War.
The Global Project on the History of Leprosy is an ongoing project aimed at creating a database of locations where leprosy archives can be found, so as to facilitate historical research into leprosy. The site intends to cover the modern history of leprosy, post 1847 (when Danielssen and Boeck published 'Om Spedalskhed'), although there are some materials and timelines that refer to the prior history of the disease.While the database creates pathways for researchers, the project will also encourage the preservation of archives and a network of researchers. The site includes an appeal for more leprosy archives, and guidelines on how to preserve such archives.The database can be browsed according to a number of different categories, as well as searched by keyword. Results give contact details for each archive, plus a fairly detailed summary of what materials are held in the archive.This is a major global project which must already be an invaluable resource for those studying the history of leprosy, or working in the broader field of the history of medicine.
This website describes the Gordon Pathology Museum at King's College, London. Predominantly a teaching collection for medical students, the collection is nevertheless of interest to researchers of the history of medicine containing both a growing collection (over 8,000) of pathology specimens as well as anatomical and dermatological wax models by Joseph Towne, medical portraits by Lam Qua and collections of specimens and artefacts associated with Hodgkin, Addison, Bright and Astley Cooper. Although public access to the collection is limited, the website includes a number of illustrations of items within it and details of academic access.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Great Britain Historical Database : Health and Health Care Data : Mortality Statistics, 1851-1973' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as tab delimited text files, UK higher education users may also download the data through the CHCC (Historical Census Collection) system. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. The resource includes: annual cause-of-death data for London districts., 1860-1920; birth and death statistics for local government districts 1921-74 taken from the Registrar General's statistical reviews for England and Wales arranged by sex; age-specific mortality data for registration districts in England and Wales; infant mortality statistics for local government districts in 1911; quarterly mortality counts for registration sub-districts; cause-of-death statistics for registration districts, 1851-1920 taken from the Registrar General's annual reports of births, deaths and marriages; decennial cause of death data for Registration Districts in England and Wales arranged by ages; individual cholera deaths in London in summer and autumn 1866 arranged by date and causes of death.
This website, part funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, explores the history and buildings of the Great Hospital, Norwich. Founded in 1249 the hospital still retains many of its original buildings and unique archives, giving a valuable picture of the life of the unwell poor over seven centuries. The website narrates the institution’s history, from its beginnings in the spiritual care of the poor to its modern day existence as sheltered housing for the elderly. The website uses high quality digitised images of key documents, photographs and three dimensional architectural illustrations to chart the evolution of the hospital as an institution.
This website hosts a well-used email discussion list for scholars working on the history of science, medicine, and technology. Discussions are not restricted by geographical region or time period. The list was started in 1997 and had over 1,500 subscribers by 2000. It typically receives about ten emails a day, mostly announcements, calls for papers, and user queries. Archives are maintained and may be searched in several different ways. The site also features annotated lists of links to other websites that might be of interest to teachers and scholars working in the discipline.
This is the website of the science, medicine and technology division of the humanities online project (H-Net), based at Michigan State University but aiming to encompass scholars and teachers from all around the world. One of the chief functions of this project is to provide an email discussion group for the historical, philosophical and sociological study of science, technology and medicine. Accordingly, the site contains details of how to join the list, together with an archive of all previous submissions to it and a selected list of some of the more interesting exchanges it has hosted, including some concerning important recent secondary literature. In addition, for the aid of newcomers to the field, the site contains information about teaching and research resources, including bibliographies, and offers links to other relevant websites. Its presentation is straightforward and the site is regularly updated.
The online catalogue for the Haddād manuscript collection, part of the Wellcome Library website, provides catalogue details for the 87 Arabic manuscripts in the library's collections. The manuscripts come from the collection of Dr Sami Ibrahim Haddād (1890-1957), a Lebanese physician and historian of medicine, and range from the 14th to the 20th centuries. They include works on medicine by a number of well-known Islamic scholars like al-Majusi and Ibn Sina, as well as works by Jewish authors writing in Arabic and lesser-known works written or transcribed by Christian Arabs, including Arabic versions of medical manuals by the 19th-century French physician who practised in Egypt, Antoine Barthelemy Clot Bey. The catalogue entries include information on the physical aspects and history of the manuscripts themselves as well as descriptions of the contents of the texts (in Arabic). The full catalogue entries must be viewed as PDF files. This resource allows researchers to consult the contents of the collection in detail before visiting the library to use the manuscripts themselves, and will be of interest to researchers in Middle Eastern and Islamic studies as well as those interested in the history of Islamic medicine.
This is the website of the Hauck Center for the Albert B. Sabin Archives. The centre was founded in 1995 at the Cincinnati Medical Heritage Center with a grant from the John Hauck Foundation. Albert Sabin's complete correspondence, laboratory materials, manuscripts, awards and medals are held by the centre. This collection provide details of the development and testing of the oral polio vaccine as well as of the growth of virology as a discipline. The centre aims to preserve this collection to ensure that it is available for future study and research. The Hauck Center for the Albert B. Sabin Archives website provides information about Sabin and an inventory of the archive. Other features of the site include a list of related links, an on line exhibition, information about the centre and a site map. It is possible to search the site.
The National Maritime Museum's fact files relate to the Museum's collections and the UK's National Curriculum. This document focuses on hygiene in the 17th Century, and the superstitions, ideas, cures and practices of that time: in particular the discovery during the Thirty Years War of the best way to treat wounds.
The UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library History and Special Collections website provides information about their collections, has online exhibits, and details of their online projects. The site has general information about the history and content of their collections. Details of opening hours and information on using the collection are also available for anyone wishing to consult the collections. As well as providing general information about the library and its collection the website has a number of online exhibitions, including ones on the relief of pain and suffering, bloodletting, and smallpox. The History and Special Collections department of the Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library are developing a number of digital projects. Details of these projects are available from the site. The site also has a list of medical history websites and details of fellowships and prizes.
The Channel 4 website "History Heads : Royal Deaths and Diseases" was produced to accompany a documentary on the medical history of the British, English and Scottish Royal families. The website extends this investigation to royalty elsewhere in the world. The site focuses on: living by the sword (medieval and early modern monarchs who went into battle); madness; decadence (sexual indulgence, gluttony, alcoholism, and drug addiction); tainted blood; and royal childbirth. This is a fascinating mélange of accounts of how medicine, illness and addiction have all impacted on History. The range of material is broad, covering Russia, Italy, Spain, France, the UK and the Middle East. However, although the site provides basic information, it concentrates on the sensationalist side of the subject matter, offering little real historical comment.
This web page is part of the Avert website and it provides a chronological history of AIDS split into a number of sections. The sections deal with the history of AIDS - split into a number of small time frames - as well as the origins of the virus. The focus of this historical narrative is on the British experience of AIDS, and the measures and action that have been taken in this country. The global impact of AIDS is also discussed though, and the text is illustrated with adverts, statistics and images from all around the world. In addition to this there is a section that documents the history of AIDS posters and badges from all over the world. This is a simple site, but it does provide a great deal of information on the history of the AIDS epidemic in the United Kingdom and around the world.
History of Medicine On-Line is a peer reviewed online journal from Priory Lodge Education. The journal aims to publish articles on a broad range of medical history topics. The full-text of the articles on this site are available free of charge. There are currently only a limited number of articles available, although further articles are planned. Topics discussed include: The influence of somatic and psychiatric medical theory on the design of nineteenth century American cities; Insulin coma therapy in schizophrenia; the history of Liverpool psychiatry; and the history of depression before the twentieth century. Another feature of the site under development is the creation of an annual bibliography relating to the history of medicine. Submissions to the journal are encouraged from anyone with an interest in medical history. Submission guidelines are available from the site. ISSN 1471-5279
Published by the Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences (IOMS), a history of Muslim pharmacy provides information about medieval Arabic pharmacy, which is also known as Saydanah. The site is comprised of a set of narrative essays on Muslim pharmacy, concentrating particularly on the important figures Abu ar-Rayhan al-Biruni and Abu ja'far al-Ghafiqi, and their respective works as-Saydanah fit-Tibb, and al-Jami' al-Adwiyyah al-Mufradah. The site highlights the important contribution of Middle Eastern societies to modern medicine, and early pharmacology.
This is an extensive website regarding the history of phrenology, authored by Dr. John van Whye, University of Cambridge. It contains short essays, complete with numerous links to related websites, concerning the philosophy of phrenology and critical responses to phrenology during its Victorian heyday. In addition, the site offers, amongst other things, a short list of links to electronic versions of primary texts concerning phrenology, a definitive and occasionally annotated bibliography of other relevant texts and links to various phrenological images. Lastly, the site lists and usefully describes links to other sites concerned with phrenology. The presentation is attractive and professional, although some of the text is a little hard to read on account of the colours used.
The History of the Health Sciences Section of the Medical Library Association was set up to encourage and support interest in the history of health sciences among medical librarians and libraries. The section's website offers information for medical librarians, or researchers in the area, at all levels. A full history of the section and its development is available, with joining information and ordering details for the hardcopy newsletter, 'Incipit'. Possibly of most interest to online researchers will be the Listserv forum section of the website. It has a members-only access, offering a forum for members to discuss their work and concerns. The site also has details of short occasional Continuing Education Courses, such as 'The History of the Health Sciences: A One Day Overview', and 'Introduction to Reference Sources in the History of the Health Sciences'. A useful series of links is also available. The site is primarily a source of access to further information, rather than a comprehensive resource in itself, but as a contact for medical librarians, it offers a useful starting-point that is regularly updated.
The hospital records database, from the Wellcome Trust and The National Archives, provides information on the existence and location of hospital records in the United Kingdom. The database currently contains over 2,800 records which can be searched by hospital or town name. The majority of the records in the database relate to holdings in local authority record offices. The coverage of hospital archives is limited. The database holds information on both administrative and clinical records; where they are held, what type of record is held and the date range. The database also has information on the name, management and type of hospital. The existence of other finding aids, lists and catalogues are listed, where known.
'Hygiea Internationalis' (ISSN: 1404 4013) is a refereed electronic journal publishing on the history of public health. It is the official journal from the International Network for the History of Public Health (INHPH) based at Linköping University in Sweden. The INHPH aims to promote the study of the history of improvements in the health of populations from antiquity to modern times, with a particular focus on the interaction between ideas on public health, their implementation, public health organisations, and their social and demographic consequences. 'Hygiea Internationalis' was started in 1999 and published annually until 2005, but the site has details of a new pattern of more regular publication, starting in October 2006. The articles are freely available from the website as PDF files. The journal was set up with the support of the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, Swedish Council for Social Research and Swedish Council for Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Information for authors wishing to submit material to the journal is available from the site.
The Images from the History of Medicine website, from the National Library of Medicine, USA, provides access to nearly seventy thousand high-resolution facsimiles of items held in the prints and photographs collection of its History of Medicine Division. These images include portraits, caricatures, pictures of institutions, genre scenes and works of art illustrating social aspects of medicine. The items may be searched by keyword or browsed alphabetically. The site includes copyright advice and an order facility for photographic and digital images from the site. There are also detailed 'help' guidelines and a fact sheet offering an overview of the IHM site. The site's presentation is first class and offers a high quality resource for researchers at all levels.
The In Their Own Words website is an excellent resource concerned with the history of HIV/AIDS in the United States in the early 1980s. Published by the National Institutes of Health it concentrates on the history of the epidemic from the perspective of the medical profession and scientific community. The focus is on the period 1981-1988, when the disease was first identified in the United States, and the experiences of the people involved in caring for those infected with AIDS, and those trying to establish more information about it. Included on the site is an oral history archive that houses transcripts of interviews held with health professionals involved at the time, and a collection of primary documents, which include scientific papers, press releases and memoranda. There are also some history articles written by Dr. Victoria Harden that give an overview of the period. In addition to these resources there is also a timeline, which focuses on the response of the National Institutes of Health and other U.S. department of health to the AIDS epidemic, and an image archive which offers clinical and research images, posters, and pictures of AIDS activism amongst others.The site has not been updated for a while, but all of the links seem stable and it is a very useful resource for those studying the history of the AIDS virus in the United States.
Insects, Disease and History is a history of medicine website edited by two academics. The focus of the website is on the impact insect-borne diseases have had on world history. On the site there are a handful of articles on the connections between military history and disease, with mention of yellow fever in the Mexican-American war, typhus fever in World War One, and insects as biological weapons. In addition there is reference information on various diseases and the insects that cause them, and a timeline of diseases, epidemics and historical periods. A glossary completes the useful tools that this site offers. For further research there is suggested reading, and web links.
The International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine was founded in Qatar in 2000 and aims to promote public awareness of the role Islamic scholars have played in the preservation and development of medical science. The Society encourages research through conferences, prizes, publications, and cooperation with other organisations. It issues a biannual journal and seeks to develop a library and museum, to be established in Doha. The website provides an overview of the Society's aims, along with news of meetings and calls for papers. A number of articles are included with the site, mostly in Arabic though with some in English. There is a list of links to other relevant online resources.
The International Society for the History of Medicine (ISHM) was founded in Paris in 1921 and has since grown into a genuinely worldwide society. It aims to assist and support the historical study of medicine, the biomedical sciences, and all aspects of the healing arts. The Society sponsors international conferences and congresses to improve communication and facilitate the exchange of scholarly research and ideas. The website contains a history of the society and its members, along with contact details of the current executive and national delegates. An international calendar of events details forthcoming conferences and activities, whilst programmes, summaries, and abstracts from past ISHM congresses may be accessed from the site. The society also maintains its own unmoderated newsgroup email list, with about 120 members. Instructions for new subscribers are included in the web pages. Finally, there are online abstracts of articles that have appeared in the Society's journal, 'Vesalius'. The journal began in 1995 and is published twice yearly.
This is the website for Isis, the long-running journal for the history and cultural influence of science, medicine and technology produced by the History of Science Society in the USA. Apart from detailed submission guidelines and subscription information, the site also offers access to the contents pages of all issues since 1995 and to the abstracts of all articles published since 1997. Also of use are the details of forthcoming issues and a sample issue which may be viewed online via abstracts and downloadable full-text articles. A Table of Contents Alert email system is available. This site is straightforward and regularly updated.
The Islamic Medical Manuscripts at the (US) National Library of Medicine website has been developed to facilitate research into the field and to illustrate the range and importance of these resources. The site provides an introduction to medieval Islam, along with brief biographies and suggested further reading for a large number of Islamic physicians, surgeons, and scholars. Another feature is the topic-based catalogue of about one third of the NLM's collection of Islamic manuscripts. The catalogue entries for these manuscripts include English translations of titles, shelfmarks, sample folio images, physical descriptions, and information on bindings and provenance. An extensive illustrated glossary provides a guide to both Islamic (or Arabic/Persian) terms and manuscript terminology. A list of cited works relating to the Islamic history of medicine and Arabic or Persian manuscripts is also included. This website should prove an excellent resource for scholars researching Islamic culture or the history of medicine.
'Islamic Medicine' is an online book edited by Dr Shahid Athar, a clinical associate professor of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology at Indiana University School of Medicine. It features a compilation of articles previously published in the Journal of Islamic Medical Association as well as a few of Dr Shahid's own work. Articles include: historical notes; Islamic philosophy of medicine; Islamic view of the well-being of man; the Quran and the psyche; Islamic perspective on medical ethics; and the role of the Muslim doctor.
In 1753 James Lind published his Treatise of the Scurvy. The work is a record of his clinical trial of a number of potential cures for the disease. In this paper, published in the National Maritime Museum Journal for Maritime Research (January 2002), Bartholomew seeks to establish Lind's theory of the disease and describes his clinical practice in the years following the publication of the Treatise. Bartholomew argues that Lind did not in actual fact accept the efficacy of fruit and vegetables in the treatment of scurvy.
The Jenner Museum website provides a number of resources on Dr. Edward Jenner, the eighteenth and nineteenth century English doctor and scientist. On the site there are two well-written reference chapters. The first of which provides a biography of Jenner and highlights aspects of his career, including his interest in migration, hibernation, and fossils. The other looks specifically at his pioneering work on smallpox and vaccination, and the founding principles of immunology. Elsewhere on the site there is a chapter explaining the principles of immunology and vaccination. There is also a learning resources section, which suggests how displays at the museum can be connected to the national curriculum, interactive games, and general information about visiting the museum and its facilities.
This website on John Aitken Carlyle (1801-1879), the younger brother of writer Thomas Carlyle, is compiled by Malcolm Ingram, a retired consultant psychiatrist and former lecturer at Glasgow University. A well-presented resource, it is likely to be of interest to researchers across a range of disciplines, due to the connection with a literary family, as well as the context of the history of medicine. The home page offers an introduction and a side bar has links to a chronology of the significant events of John Aitken Carlyle's life. These include his years as a travelling physician, working for the Countess of Clare and later the Duke of Buccleuch, the time spent making a translation of Dante, and his tragic marriage. Also included is an account of a criminal case in which he was involved with links and references for further research. Available on the site as a PDF file is a conference paper given by Malcolm Ingram to the Carlyle Society in 2005. This is a thorough site, with comprehensive information and a detailed guide to further research.
The website "John Gaunt (1620-1674)" is published by an academic at the Western Washington University. On it is the transcribed first edition of John Graunt's Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality, written in 1662, along with two biographies of Graunt, one by his contemporary John Aubrey, and one by the site's author. In addition there are several resources on related topics, including the Black Death, the Plague, the Great Fire of London, portraits of notable individuals, and a timeline of seventeenth century England. This is a useful website for those interested in statistical and medical history.
This website describes the Foyle Special Collections Library at Kings College London. Built up over centuries, the library contains some 150,000 items and is particularly strong in the fields of the history of science and medicine, travel and exploration, the history of Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean, the British Empire and 20th century German and Jewish studies. The website describes the collection in detail, and provides 'canned searches' of items within the university's library catalogue.
This website makes available a hypertext version of Jacques Siboni's book "Les Mathèmes de Lacan". In the 1950s, the French philosopher and psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan began to produce a series of texts that, rereading Freud in the light of recent developments in linguistics and phenomenology, revolutionised not only psychoanalysis but also many other disciplines in the human sciences. One of Lacan's most controversial and oft-criticised strategies was the use of mathematics and diagrams in his theoretical work. Les Mathèmes de Lacan attempts to help the reader of Lacan's frequently difficult texts navigate this mathematical terminology. Although the introductory matter is in both French and English, the text itself is only available in French.
'Linus Pauling: A Centenary Exhibit' is an online exhibition hosted by the Special Collections and University Archives of the Oregon State University Libraries. It honours the life and work of Linus Pauling, the only individual winner of two Nobel Prizes. The material, which has been developed from the on-site exhibition at the University in 2001, is drawn from the Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers and various photographic collections. A detailed biography of Pauling is included, which traces the many areas of his interest from molecular research to his resistance to war, including details of his colleagues, different stages of his work and the suspicions aroused against him by his commitment to peace. This exhibit is well presented, with many images of primary source material and a very detailed picture of the way in which his life and work interacted. Unfortunately, it cannot be searched or accessed via a specific page except through a series of very small thumbnail icons at the top of the title page. These are only likely to be useful once the user is already familiar with the content. Alternatively, the exhibition can be viewed by starting at the beginning and working through a page at a time, although it is possible to go back one page at any time. Each page is divided into several columns, which are then viewed in detail by zooming in, when a link to the next column becomes available. This makes viewing a slow process, but it is comprehensive in terms of the material included and the extent of detail, which should make it a useful resource at all levels of research.
This website commemorates the 2001 centenary of the birth of Linus Pauling, the Nobel-laureate chemist, geneticist and pacifist campaigner who died in 1994. The site is maintained by the Special Collections department of Oregon State University Library, home to the Pauling papers collection. It provides a chronology of Pauling's life, contributed by Pauling's official biographer, Dr Robert J. Paradowski, details of several relevant print publications, and information on the Pauling Heritage Committee. Also hosted at this site is "Linus Pauling: a Centenary Exhibit", an online version of an exhibition display presented in 2001, aimed at a general audience and including numerous photographs and other primary documents; note that the functioning link for this exhibit is found in the "what's new" box on the home page.
Complete online publication of 47 laboratory research notebooks kept, over the course of his career, by the influential US chemist Linus Pauling (1901-94). The notebooks begin in 1922 and continue until the year of his death, covering work on inorganic crystallography, protein structure, superconductivity, the research which led to the controversial publication "Vitamin C and the Common Cold", and countless other fields; there is also more personal material, including references to his wife and collaborator, Ava Helen Pauling, and indications of Pauling's pacifist stance, such as the draft of a 1991 open letter to President George Bush opposing war in the Gulf. The online presentation has been prepared by Special Collections staff at Oregon University Library, which holds the Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers archive. Each page of each notebook (7680 pages in total) is displayed as a facsimile image, viewable at two levels of resolution. No transcripts are provided, but contents lists and a very thorough alphabetical subject index are provided, plus a guide to "selected highlights".
The London museums of health and medicine site, created by the London Museums of Health and Medicine Group, provides information on over twenty health and medical museums in London. The type of information available for each museum listed includes: a brief description of individual collections, opening hours, addresses, location details, email addresses, and a link to the museum's website (if available). An interactive map of London displays the exact location of each institution. Additionally, the site offers a news section and maintains a news archive. The list of museums includes amongst others: the Chelsea Physic Garden; Freud Museum; Florence Nightingale Museum; Old Operating Theatre; Veterinary Museum; Worshipful Society of Apothecaries; and the Wellcome Trust.
This is the website of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine's archive, which is currently being surveyed, sorted and catalogued to enable greater access to the material held there. The archive holds a range of records - the letters and personal papers of scientific, medical and public health professionals engaged in searching for cures and treatments for diseases such as malaria, cholera, filariasis and leprosy, the administrative records of the School itself, and photographs, ephemera and artwork. Currently users can access collection level descriptions of the personal papers through the AIM25 website, and brief descriptions of the holdings for each individual - including Patrick Manson, Major General Sir Leonard Rogers, Sir Ronald Ross, and Edwin Chadwick are available on this site.Along with access information for the archive, which lists opening hours, the access policy and guidelines of use, the site also provides a chronology of the history of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and biographies of all of the people named on the building of the school.
The "Lunacy Commission, A Study of its Origin, Emergence and Character" is a somewhat busy, but extremely useful, website is published by an academic at Middlesex University. It is an online monograph on the history of the Lunacy Commission in England and Wales. The book features an introductory chapter, which outlines the establishment of the Lunacy Commission as a government department in the mid-nineteenth century, and its evolution over the years, as well as examining its predecessors in full too. The subsequent chapters look at the individual commissions that preceded the Lunacy Commission, with a chapter each on the organisation and development of the Physician, Metropolitan, and Inquiry Commissions. The two final chapters provide a directory of commissioners, with biographies, and a list of relevant statutes with reference information.
Making the Modern World is an impressive website that charts the development of modern industrial society, and the changes in science, technology and medicine from the eighteenth century onwards. It is published by the Science Museum, in partnership with Peter Symonds College, Winchester and Mackensie Ward Research, and with funding from the ISB Fund. It features a wide number of resources, with a stories timeline, interactive presentations on particular people or inventions, an exploration of artefacts and learning modules for students and educators. There are also guided tours of particular topics, such as women in the modern world, conflict and technology, modern health, modern life and modern work. Users will find a wealth of information on the site ranging from the inventions of Richard Arkwright, to the development of the contraceptive pill.
'Medica: the Society for the Study of Healing in the Middle Ages' is an academic association designed to explore the relationship between medicine and other scientific disciplines during the middle ages, while providing a forum for those interested in this topic to share their views and research. The site offers two main resources that may interest a wide array of students and scholars. The first is the Medica mailing list, which may be joined by contacting its operator. The second is a helpful bibliography of medieval medicine, divided into primary and secondary sources, and organized alphabetically by author. The site also features listings of upcoming events and calls for papers (although unfortunately these are not always up to date), a list of links to online medieval medicine resources, and PDF or MS Word versions of past editions of the Medica newsletter.
This Web page gives free access to the full-text of the British journal 'Medical History', offering issues from 1957 until 2009. Each issue has a linked table-of-contents, with articles available as a summary, as "page-view", or as a PDF file. Obituaries, book notes, essay-reviews, and book reviews are also regularly available in each issue. Example article titles include: 'Medical aspects of tobacco smoking and the anti-tobacco movement in Britain in the nineteenth century'; 'Design for a medical service: Peter the Great's Admiralty Regulations (1722)'; 'The barber-surgeons of York'; and 'History of opium in Sri Lanka', among a great many others. The journal may be keyword searched via PubMed, and a direct link to the search box has been added to this Intute record.
Medicina Antiqua (ancient medicine) is a website hosted by the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at University College London and intended as a central resource for researchers in the history of ancient medicine. The site contains: online transcripts of English translations of several works by Galen, with links to a few other transcript sites; a small collection of short analytical essays on aspects of ancient medicine (topics covered include poisons, Hippocrates, dreams, and Galen); and external links to other relevant resources on ancient medicine.
'Medicine and Madison Avenue' explores the relationship between medicine and advertising in the United States between 1910 and 1960. The site consists of a database of advertisements categorised by product type. In addition, there is a timeline of significant developments in advertising from the 1840s to the 1960s, and some suggestions for using the site in classroom activities.Adverts may be accessed by browsing or searching. The site's search engine allows searches to be conducted in combinations of various fields such as: publication type; manufacturer; advertiser; target audience; illustration subject; and date. Results are listed by product category and after this by advertisement headline. Individual records feature digitised copies of the advertisements, which may be enlarged.
The website of The Medieval Academy of America provides information about this organisation, which promotes all aspects of medieval studies. The full text of selected articles from the Academy's online newsletter, "Medieval Academy News", are available to download as PDF or HTML files. A broad range of topics are covered including literature, social, political and environmental history, as well as issues relating to education in medieval history in schools, colleges and universities. Other features on the website include discussion forums, details of research grants available to students, a research guide for American medievalists and students visiting libraries and archives in Europe, relevant conferences and events, and a directory of the research interests of the Academy's members. The 'Science and Medicine databases' section of the website links to eTK, a digital resource based on Lynn Thorndike and Pearl Kibre, A Catalogue of Incipits of Mediaeval Scientific Writings in Latin Cambridge, MA: Mediaeval Academy, 1963; and eVK2, an expanded and revised version of Linda Ehrsam Voigts and Patricia Deery Kurtz, Scientific and Medical Writings in Old and Middle English: An Electronic Reference CD (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000).
The Medieval Manuscripts at the National Library of Medicine website is an online version of an exhibit held by the National Library of Medicine from 18th May - 15th August 2000. This exhibition was designed to celebrate the medieval manuscripts holdings of the National Library of Medicine in general, and in particular their twelfth century manuscript 'Treatises on Medicine'. The site has been divided into the following main sections: Treatises on Medicine, The Articella, Arabic Legacies, Salerno, and English Leechcraft and Physick. Each section has a narrative on the topic and is accompanied by facsimile images from medieval manuscripts illustrating the topic. The resource would be of value to anyone seeking an accessible introduction to manuscripts with medical themes.
This is the website for Mersenne, an informal email discussion group for the history, philosophy and sociology of science, technology and medicine. The site is the responsibility of JISCmail, the provider of electronic discussion lists to the UK higher education community. Apart from information about how to join or leave the list, the site contains archives of previous submissions which may be browsed by author, date or thread, or searched by keyword. The volume of postings is low: most messages consist of job advertisements, calls for papers, and announcements of meetings, new websites or seminar series. All postings are archived at the JISCmail site, and it is thus possible to keep up to date without subscribing to the list by regularly checking this address. The archive contains all messages posted since September 1998, a significant proportion having been imported from the mailbase facility which formerly handled UK academic discussion lists. The site's presentation is simple but eminently clear.
This website is written by a professional historian and is published as part of the Science Museum of Minnesota website. The Museum of Questionable Medical Devices Online features a mixture of primary and secondary resources on quack medicine and its practitioners in the United States. On the site readers can browse through several examples of quack devices, including devices for bloodletting and breast enlargement. Elsewhere users can access advertisements and magazine covers related to health and quackery, biographies of well-known U.S. quacks, and a digitised copy of Samuel Hopkins Adams book The Great American Fraud, which helped to change food and drug laws.
MuslimHeritage.com is a website dedication to improving knowledge of the contributions to science, technology, and the arts made by Muslims, particularly during the European (so-called) Dark Ages period. The site features articles explaining how the Islamic world both kept alive earlier technologies and ideas whilst developing new ones and promoting science during the period after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. It also argues that this period of intellectual history is not given the attention that it deserves.The site features: an interactive timeline; biographies of Muslim scholars and scientists; and features covering fields as diverse as medicine, agricultural technology, conflict between science and religion, and architecture.This is a site with a point to prove, and it contains a lot of fascinating information. Some of the articles do, however, fail to flag points that might be considered contentious, and sometimes one suspects that words such as science or agricultural revolution are being used rather loosely. Nevertheless, students of the history of science would be well advised to have a look at the perspectives here offered.The site does not appear to function properly in Netscape browsers, but its presentation under Internet Explorer is clean and effective.
This online history of the National Health Service (NHS) is owned and maintained by author, Geoffrey Rivett, and closely linked to his book 'From Cradle to Grave: 60 years of the NHS'. The text of the author's first book on the development of the London hospital system, now out of print, is available in full on the site. The material is aimed at 'degree programmes in health sciences' and may be of particular interest owing to the fact that the author has both practical and academic experience of the NHS and the Department of Health. The site is frequently updated and, from the home page, features may be accessed on General Practice and Primary Health Care; Local Authority Health Services; Hospital and Specialist Services; Clinical Progress; Medical Education and Staffing; and Nursing. There is also a short history of the NHS, a site index and a feature on London's Hospitals. Each section has several sub-headings, and aside from the rather crowded home page, the site is straightforward to use.
The National Library of Medicine: History of Medicine Division website provides access to a variety of resources relating to medical history. The website presents a wealth of resources and information on a wide range of medical history topics. Perhaps of greatest benefit will be the 'Historical Collections' section of the website, which presents a number of sub-themes (including 'books and journals', 'archives and manuscripts' and 'digital collections'). The information presented here is excellent laid out and will prove to be of significant interest to those interested in the history of medicine.
The National Museum of Civil War Medicine website provides general information on the Museum, together with a brief overview of the various aspects of medicine practised during the American Civil War (1861-5) and select bibliographies for further reading and research on the subject. It offers a useful starting point for researchers in Civil War history and the history of medicine. The National Museum of Civil War Medicine, located in Frederick,Maryland, is an independent corporation which collects, exhibits and preserves medical artifacts, manuscripts, books, documents and other materials related to the Civil War. It is the national centre for study and research of American Civil War medicine. The website features an exhibits section, which provides a short guide to the exhibits housed at the museum accompanied by images of featured objects and reconstructed scenes of camp life, evacuation, field hospital, etc. The research section provides suggestions for further reading on nurses and women, diseases and drugs, hospitals and prisons, surgeons, soldiers, medical definitions and medical equipment and information on records held at the National Archives in Washington. It also gives details for researchers wishing to use its library. The site also features an online shop and details on opening hours, location, events and news.
This website showcases the Special Collections of the University of Newcastle upon Tyne Library. The collection is particularly strong in material related to the history of Newcastle and North-East England and papers relating to significant local literary and political figures. As well as brief summaries of each collection, the website hosts more detailed material in the form of online exhibitions covering a number of the collection’s highlights. These 'Treasure of the Month' subpages illustrate the richness of the Library's rare books, archives, woodblocks and illustrations from the mid-fifteenth century to the twenty-first century. While a comprehensive archival guide is not available online for researchers, the site does post a free, online interactive resource entitled, 'Archives Alive,' for teachers. This section is subdivided according to different primary school levels and should serve as an excellent classroom tool.
This is the full text of an article on the role nurses played in the Nazi's euthanasia programme during the 1930s and 1940s. Written by Professor Susan Benedict from the College of Nursing at the Medical University of South Carolina, it outlines the euthanasia programmes that were established by the Nazis to kill handicapped and mentally ill children and adults, such as the T-4 adult euthanasia programme, and the 'wild' programmes. It also focuses on the women who participated in these events as nurses, and their motivations for doing so. This is a useful resource for a topic not much documented on the Internet and will complement historians' related work in Holocaust Studies.
This is a Web exhibition published by the Dittrick Medical History Center at the Case Western Reserve University. The exhibition looks at the history of birthing and obstetrics from the early sixteenth century to the nineteenth century. It concentrates in particular on the medical men who worked in the area and influenced the development of obstetrics from a domestic to a surgical event. Key figures like Eucharius Rösslin, who wrote the Rosengarten in 1506, famous French accoucher Francois Moriceau, and forceps designer James Young Simpson are discussed. The site does not go into any great depth, but it provides a useful introduction to the topic and its key historical figures.
This is the website of the Old Operating Theatre Museum and Herb Garret, a London museum that explores the history of medicine, surgery and herbal medicine at St Thomas Hospital. On the site there are several online exhibitions tracing the history of the hospital from its medieval foundations, through the Reformation and Age of Enlightenment, to the nineteenth century. There are also panoramic tours of the operating theatre, which is the oldest one in Britain, the herb garret, and St Thomas Street. In addition to this the site provides information about the museum, such as opening hours, bookings and events.
This website documents the special collections and archives held at Oxford Brookes University. Individual collections are described, and items in them may be searched for through the library’s online catalogue. The collection reflects the history of the institutions, together with its strengths in research, and is notably strong in material relating to the history of medicine, cartography, twentieth century literature and the food, drink and hospitality industry. Collections are supplemented by a number of important archives, including the National Brewing Library, the Museum of Modern Art Oxford collection (now Modern Art Oxford) and Man Booker Prize archive.
This website is part of a wider site on pain, published by the Wellcome Trust as a companion to an exhibition held at the Science Museum. The site looks at concepts and approaches to pain in different historical eras and the discourses that surround pain in medical history. Featured are three articles written by academics on pain and medieval medicine, pain in Victorian England, and pain and surgery in the early twentieth century. In the first the spiritual and religious contexts of pain are explored, in the second the reassessment of pain in the light of medical and scientific advances, and the third discusses Unterschenkel-amputation, surgical film footage from the early twentieth century.
Paracelsus and the medical revolution of the renaissance web pages are based on an exhibition organised by the United States National Library of Medicine to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the birth of Paracelsus (1493-1541). Paracelsus (Theophrastus Phillippus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim) revolutionised the theory of medicine with his controversial occult system of analogous microcosm-macrocosm relations between substances. He rejected the old notion of the humours derived from Galen, and turned towards chemical medicines for practical treatment. The website describes Paracelsus's theories and influence upon the history of medicine.
The 'Parnassus Scientiarum', named after a lost work by Descartes, is the online catalogue of the Waller Collection of History of Science and Medicine. Collected by the Swedish surgeon, Erik Waller, the collection includes letters, manuscripts, printed texts and artefacts. The size of the collection is a feature of its value, as its acquisition immediately doubled the number of volumes in the catalogue of the Uppsala University Library, where it is housed. As an example of a private library, it is considered to be unique, containing around 110,000 items. The database may be searched by object type (eg. book; engraving; photograph), or thematic group (eg. Danish Collection; Bibliography on the Waller Collection; Baglivi's Correspondence), as well as by details including shelfmark, person or date. A search may also be made by a guided access feature through samples from the catalogue, some of which include digital texts. This is an ambitious and ongoing project, laid out for easy use of a complex collection and should be of use to researchers at all levels.
Partners of the Heart is the website of a PBS documentary film of the same name exploring the work of Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas who, in 1944, pioneered heart surgery procedures for 'blue babies'. Their story is the more compelling as when they first met, while Blalock was already a prominent surgeon, Thomas was looking for a job as a hospital janitor.
The website offers a synopsis of the film, as well as a complete transcript, further reading list, and several supporting features offering background to the documentary. 'Early Years' deals with the segregation laws of the time; the 'pivotal decisions' that influenced the work of Blalock and Thomas against this backdrop; and six other African American medical pioneers. 'Breakthroughs' looks at the changing treatment of heart conditions over time; explores a segregated city; discusses Civil Rights tactics; and offers interactive features on surgery and living with segregation. 'Legacy' traces the work of other heart surgery pioneers; considers the 'twists of fate' that brought Blalock and Thomas together; and, again, offers interactive features, while 'Today' looks at the making of the film and offers a resource guide, interviews and more interactive features.
This site is aimed at a general audience and senior school students, but is likely to be a useful starting point for undergraduate level research also. It is well presented and straightforward to use with some interesting photographic material.
This website, which charts the role of the contraceptive pill in United States history, has been devised in tandem with a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) film dealing with the same subject. The website includes material directly related to the film, such as a description and transcript, but it also provides resources on scientific and medical history, the women's rights movement and gender relations in the United States of America during the twentieth century. Available are video clips of interviews, which can be viewed with QuickTime and RealPlayer, a timeline tracing the history of birth control from antiquity until the twentieth century, and transcripts of primary source material, including correspondence between Katherine McCormick and Margaret Sanger who were responsible for the advent of the oral contraceptive pill. In addition to this there are biographies of key individuals, encyclopedic entries on key events, and a gallery of pill packets and designs from the 1960s onwards. There is also a teacher's guide, with classroom activities and suggestions of how to use the resources on the site.
The introductory section of this site briefly outlines the bubonic plague in Renaissance Europe. The introductory section also outlines the original aims of the project, which were to create a 'hypertext archive of narratives, medical consilia, governmental records, religious and spiritual writings and images documenting the arrival, impact and response to the problem of epidemic disease in Western Europe between 1348 and 1530'. The site currently provides access to some primary source material on Florence, Pistoia and Lucca in 1348. It will be interesting to see whether the site will fulfil its original aims as it has been a while since the content was last added to.
This fascinating website from Project Facade presents a wealth of information on a relatively obscure aspect of the First World War: soldiers' injuries and war wounds. Created by artist and curator Paddy Hartley, with the support of a Wellcome Trust SciArt Production Award, the website is a response to, and artistic interpretation of, the surgical methods of facial reconstruction pioneered by New Zealander Sir Harold Gillies. In addition, the website enables Hartley to research and communicate the later life experiences of some of Gillies's WW1 patients. Hartley works in partnership with Dr Andrew Bamji, the Gillies Archive's Curator at Queen Mary's Hospital Sidcup, Dr Ian Thompson, a Biomaterial Scientist in the Oral Maxillofacial Department at Guys Hospital, London, the National Archives at Kew, and the families of some of the men who were operated on by Gillies, to produce sculptures that present "fragmented personal histories of the men who endured long and painful reconstructive surgery developed by Sir Harold Gillies and his surgical team". The attractively designed website contains details on plastic surgery itself, on the importance of uniforms both to group identity and individual/personal history, and a large collection of medical documents (including photographs) on the type and extent of injuries suffered by the servicemen. The website includes a number of very detailed and graphic images of extensive facial disfigurement and surgery. Although this project will prove to be an invaluable resource and addition to World War One studies and to medical and surgical history in general, it is primarily a "sculptural response" to the servicemen's stories that have been provided by the Gillies Archive and others, and it is this artistic interpretation that is the focal point of the project.
PubMed Central is a free Web-based archive of journal literature for all of the life sciences. The JISC Digitisation Programme funded the Medical Journals Backfiles Project in the UK to digitise and make available a selection of medical journals through PubMed. Some of these date back to the early 19th century, e.g. 1809 (the first edition of the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine). Historical discoveries are obviously part of these papers: Sir Alexander Fleming's use of penicillin to fight bacterial infections; Thomas Hodgkin’s description of lymphadenoma (Hodgkin’s disease). Moreover, current issues can be understood through the study of earlier literature - the example given by the Project is that in order to understand the recent MMR scare, researchers can turn to the discussion surrounding autism in the 1940s and 1950s. Medical journal backfiles digitised in this way have had to be indexed and new xml citations are being created and added to PubMed Central. You can search the site by journal title, or by keyword across the range of journals included.
The website "Resources in the History of Idiocy" is published by an academic at the University of Dundee and provides a number of resources for those interested in the history of learning disabilities and mental health. On the site users will find two lengthy bibliographies of secondary and primary sources, as well as a handful of online articles and a selection of transcribed historical texts spanning 1797 to 1882. Also on the site is a selection of links to relevant websites and to other historical documents. The contents are mainly concerned with American and British history, although some European material is also included. The site seems to be archived now since it was last updated in 2004.
Science and Technology Resources on the Internet: Selected Web Resources in the History of Science is a critical bibliography of web resources in the history of science, technology and medicine. Written originally for the journal 'Issues in Science & Technology Librarianship' by Marianne Stowell Bracke and Paul J Bracke, subject librarians at two Texas universities, it is presented as a long, single-page document. The guide covers relatively few sites, but the commentary is thorough and often raises worthwhile analytical points about the nature and usability of the sites catalogued and of web resources in general. The guide is divided into sections dealing with 'gateway' sites, overviews of the field, journals, biographical resources, centres of research, bibliographies, professional organisations, primary texts, and sites devoted to specific disciplines. The number of records catalogued is seldom large enough to be representative, but the way the guide is structured may in itself be of interest to anyone planning to develop a similar resource. The guide was first compiled in January of 1999: since that point the page has been updated only to take account of site moves and disappearances. Important sites created subsequently therefore do not appear.
This website describes University College, London’s Science Collections. A by-product of the research conducted at UCL over the past two centuries, these are composed of scientific apparatus, equipment, notes and memorabilia. Collections include: Geomatic Engineering (including the Thompson pin-hole plotter, Professor E.H. Thompson's papers and items associated with surveying and photogrammetry); Chemistry (including Sir William Ramsay’s Nobel Prize Citation the very first clinical X-ray photograph ever taken in Britain); Physics (including historic laboratory equipment); Electronic and Electrical Engineering (including Thermionic Valve inventor Sir Ambrose Fleming’s papers); Physiology (including published papers from 1860’s and gramophone records made by Lovatt Evans). UCL Museums & Collections has recently acquired Medical Physics collection which is awaiting documentation. The website includes fuller descriptions of each collection as well as brief details of related research and access information (access by appointment only).
The Science in the Nineteenth-Century Periodical (SciPer) is an interdisciplinary initiative that charts the relationship between science and literature, and specifically the representation of science in the British periodical press, in the years 1800-1900. The project was run in the years 1999-2007 by the Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies in the Department of English Literature, University of Sheffield, and the Division of History and Philosophy of Science in the Department of Philosophy, University of Leeds. The product of this co-operation is an electronic index to articles concerning science, technology or medicine in sixteen selected general-interest journals of the period. The index 'contains entries for over 14,000 articles and references to more than 6000 individuals and 2500 publications'. It can be browsed by references: to people; authors; illustrators; books; periodicals; and institutions, societies, and companies. Various search options are also available. Also included are notes on the project's editorial policy and details of its personnel. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Innovation Awards scheme.
This web page consists of an extensive bibliography of secondary source works concerning the history of Chinese medicine and science. The bibliography is divided into chronological sections covering such subjects as: mathematics and divination; astronomy; science and society; science and philosophy; materia medica; encounters with Europe; and reference works. These sections are subdivided by publication type. Entries are lightly annotated, giving evaluative summaries. It is possible to jump to each section through links after each initial heading. Although the website really consists of one main page, it is a useful, convenient reference source for anyone interested in the development of medical practice in China from Imperial times to the twentieth century.Users will find an explanation of the project at the top of the page, although it should be noted that the gateway to The University of Pennsylvania's Department of History and Sociology of Science is no longer active. There is a link, however, to the author's own departmental homepage.
This Web page, entitled "A Selection of Web and other Internet Sources For the History and Philosophy of Science, Technology and Medicine", is a large single-page collection of web links with occasional brief annotations. It is regularly updated and its summary of relevant discussion lists, with subscriber information, archive addresses and home page details, if available, is particulary useful. The main catalogue is subdivided by resource type: the sections on general-purpose and subject-specific sites, journals and primary texts are perhaps not large enough to be representative, but those on professional institutions and museums are extensive, covering a variety of countries. The website is based at the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, in Florence, and is partially available in Italian translation.
A Short History of the Development of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology provides a chronological overview of technological developments in this field since the nineteenth century. Much of the information on the site has been written by the site creator, Joseph Woo, although links to external sites are also used where appropriate. As well as providing a chronology the site has an index which divides the information into the following categories: Early developments in ultrasonics; Short histories of the developement of medical ultrasonics in pioneering countries; Biographies and mentions; Gray scale and scan converter; The Real-time Scanner; The Transvaginal Scanner; Early Doppler ultrasound; Applications; Amniocentesis; Three dimensional ultrasound; Tissue characterization; Bio-safety; and Others.
Sigmund Freud: Conflict and Culture is a travelling exhibition produced by the US Library of Congress, which uses primary materials such as photographs and manuscripts (mostly from the Library itself, supplemented by items from the Vienna and London Freud museums and elsewhere) to display the work and cultural context of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), founder of psychoanalysis. This associated website consists largely of a presentation featuring most of the narrative material, and images of many of the items, from the physical exhibition. The narrative treatment is relatively brief (a few thousand words in total) and aimed at a popular audience: it would be suitable for beginning undergraduate students, but -- excepting some discussion of Freud's Jewish identity -- there is nothing which would not be found in any of the standard print introductions. The site is of more interest for its many illustrative images. These include several portraits of Freud and his family, photographs of patients such as Bertha Pappenheim and Ida Bauer; images of hysterical and epileptic cases under treatment at Salpêtrière; a 1911 group photograph of the International Psychoanalytic Congress; title pages of well-known publications, and facsimiles of extracts from Freud's letters in manuscript. Although these are of little research use, they would be ideal as illustrative material in lectures -- although the site's copyright statement should be noted. In the case of the manuscript and print facsimiles, usually only a single page is reproduced, although this varies: one 1896 letter to Wilhelm Fliess is produced in full, although the transcript, translation and commentary cover only a brief passage. The illustrative material is not limited to static images, but includes a number of "home movie" clips of Freud, shot between 1929 and 1937, available in RealPlayer format.
The website for the Sigmund Freud Museum in Vienna commemorates the life and ideas of the founder of psychoanalysis. The museum itself is situated in the former living quarters and office of Sigmund Freud in the house at Berggasse 19 in Vienna's ninth district. It has been gradually expanded and now hosts a library, an art gallery, and a lecture hall. The website provides information on accessing the museum and gallery, along with news about special exhibitions and installations. The library collects literature on Sigmund Freud and on the theory, technique, and history of psychoanalysis. It contains over 30,000 volumes in total. New accessions and journals are reported on the site. The archives are accessible by appointment only. The website also provides information about the Fulbright Scholarship for students wishing to conduct research at the museum. The Sigmund Freud Society, and the Society of Friends of the Sigmund Freud Museum, are both represented here. Membership details are explained and names of committee members provided. There is also a press section and a dedicated news section. The final part of the site is the 'Sigmund Freud Online' feature. This gives biographical information about the psychoanalyst and discusses important places, themes, and events in his life. It also includes some multimedia videos of Freud at home. This nicely presented site may be accessed in German or English.
This online resource explores the life of Sir James Crichton-Browne (1840-1938), one of the most famous of the Victorian 'nerve doctors'. The home page includes an introduction and overview of his career, including an account of his meeting with Thomas Carlyle. A series of highlighted links leads to further details, which may also be accessed from a side bar. Subheadings on the site include: Family History and Early Days; Wakefield Years; London: Visitor in Lunacy; Personal Life; and Honours and Publications. Crichton-Browne's relationship with the Carlyle family is also traced in detail and reviewed links to further reading are available. A summary page takes a critical perspective on his overall contribution to medical science, considering comments on Crichton-Browne's work from his contemporaries to provide a balanced view of his approach. This is a well-presented site, with a strong author presence from Malcolm Ingram, who manages to add his own perspective on Crichton-Browne without losing objectivity. He offers a useful resource for early research on the history of medicine at the turn of the 19th century, which is straightforward to use.
'Sir Thomas Browne' is a website that provides a wide assortment of texts by Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682), the 17th-century physician and writer best known for his reflective treatise 'Religio Medici'. That work is available here, both as a searchable electronic text and as a facsimile for readers to download (as a PDF file). Most of Browne's other major writings are also presented, among them: 'Pseudodoxia Epidemica' (1646); 'Hydriotaphia' (1658); and 'A Letter to a Friend' (1690). The site, maintained by James Eason of the University of Chicago, also offers valuable supplementary materials including: contemporary responses to Browne's writing; correspondence; and Samuel Johnson's Life of Browne. The site contains about a dozen or so 17th-century texts not directly related to Browne, including works by: Henry Peacham; Richard Jobson; and the translator Philemon Holland. Students and researchers would find this site of interest.
The U.S National Library of Medicine publishes this well-illustrated web exhibition on smallpox, as part of their exhibitions on the history of medicine. This site looks at the history of smallpox from the advent of widespread variolation in the eighteenth century through to its world eradication in the late twentieth century, due to the efforts of the World Health Organisation's Smallpox Eradication Unit. This is not a particularly in depth site, but it features a number of interesting images and provides a well-structured introduction to the history of smallpox, useful to many students.
The website of the Society for the Social History of Medicine (SSHM) includes information on the activities of the organisation. It provides details of their conferences, prize competitions, and publications (including the journal "Social History of Medicine" published by Oxford University Press, and the SSHM's book series published by Routledge). From these pages you may download (PDF-file) a report on the one-day symposium on "Medical Practice around the Year 1000", held at the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, Oxford, November 2000. A recent addition to the site is an online version of the organisation's newsletter, the "SSHM Gazette", each issue downloadable as a PDF-file. Other features include links to seminar series in the history of medicine, lists of officers of the Society, and the Society's constitution. The site is regularly updated and contains details of the programme for the coming year, as well as significant past events.
This simple site is webpage of STAMA, the science, technology and medicine subdivision of the International Council on Archives. Based in Australia, it aims to bring together people from all over the world who are interested in science, technology and medicine archives by offering them the chance to subscribe to an electronic mailing list providing 'a supportive, informative, creative and tolerant environment for the discussion, publication and promotion of issues relating to science, technology and medicine archives'. Previous postings to the list are archived on the site. They generally consist of various types of announcements, including announcements of forthcoming conferences, as well as information about various archives around the world.
The Steno Museum for the History of Science and Medicine website offers a useful introduction for researchers planning to visit the Museum. Based in Århus, Denmark, the museum houses exhibitions on the history of science, astronomy and medicine, with a planetarium and a medicinal herb garden based on a 16th century model. The website, which may be viewed in Danish, English or German, offers sufficient information on the different aspects of the museum to enable a thorough understanding of what is available. The museum's exhibitions have original objects, reconstructions and 'hands-on' features to give a view of the development of science, with a particular reference to the Renaissance, but also focusing on modern discovery. The 'Virtuseum', which has text in Danish only, takes a virtual tour of the Museum with high quality images from the collection. The site is well presented and provides detailed information on a large collection of primary source materials.
The website of the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit provides information about the Unit's manuscript collection and research. Based in Cambridge University Library, the Unit holds 140,000 fragments of Hebrew documents from the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo. Much of the material dates from the 11th to the 13th centuries. The main scholarly resource accessible from the site is the Genizah Online Database, which offers cataloguing and bibliographic information, together with images of selected fragments. The database has particular strengths for the study of Targumic and medical manuscripts, for which high resolution images are available. A brief bibliography is also provided, together with an online newsletter, and details of the research interests of the Unit's staff.
'The medical history of British India' is a website giving access to a number of reports and maps held by the National Library of Scotland detailing the advancements in public health made during the period of British rule of India. The fifty reports available on the site show the efforts of the colonial state to meet the demands placed upon it by endemic and epidemic diseases. The documents are presented as jpeg images and are also available as pdf downloads. The quality of these images is impressive, as is the range of documents given on the site, which include commission reports, scientific accounts of research findings, regional surveys of disease and reports on specific outbreaks. The collection is fully searchable, and has a 'highlights' section as well for the more casual visitor. A well laid out and very useful research tool.
The Thin Blue Line is an online exhibition published by the Stetton Museum, Office of National Institutes of Health (NIH) History in collaboration with the Centre for History and New Media. It looks at the history of the home pregnancy test kit in the United States, and the researchers who contributed to its release in 1978. On the site are interviews with Judith Vaitukaitis and Glenn Braunstein who worked at the NIH during the 1970s on reproductive hormone studies and hCG research, and were instrumental to the development of the pregnancy test. A timeline on the site charts pregnancy testing over the centuries, and the advertisements section features digitised images of several 1970s and 1980s magazine ads. Along with the glossary and suggested reading, there is also a forum where people can submit their own stories of using home test kits, building up an archive of first hand accounts.
This website offers a description of the AHRC-funded research project ‘Trauma and Personhood in Late Colonial Kenya’. Based at the University of Oxford’s African Studies Centre, this project makes use of the archives of Dr. Edward Margetts (1920–2004), psychiatrist in charge of Mathari Mental Hospital, Kenya. Documents in the collection include clinical findings, research and observations, and the backgrounds and stories of Margetts’ patients. Of particular interest are the meticulously annotated photographic portraits, including images of symptoms, expressions and spasms. The archive is “a uniquely detailed record of psychiatric endeavour in the colonial context” providing a unique insight into “colonial psychiatry” at the end of empire. As well as an overview of the project and collection, the website includes a biography of Dr Edward Margetts, a bibliography and a list of the projects activities.
This website has details of a major oral history survey of the 'treatments' used for homosexuality during the second half of the 20th century in the British Isles, and aims to place some of its narratives online in the future. The research project was funded by the Wellcome Trust from 2001 to 2004. Further research is said to be ongoing, a survey of 300 therapists in the UK is being undertaken at April 2009, and researchers are making a worldwide call for information on 'treatments' still being practiced outside the UK. At April 2009 this website is currently very sparse in terms of content, but does contain several interviews with professionals, details of the projects and researchers, and external Web links. This will be a useful contact point for those interested in making contact with active researchers in the post-war history of the medicalisation of homosexuality.
Tuberculosis: the enduring enemy is published by the Digital Collections Program and the Osler Library at McGill University. The Osler Library houses a large collection of historical texts on tuberculosis, the core of which were collected by Dr. William Osler. Some of these have been digitised and page images and transcriptions can be accessed on this site. The texts are fully searchable, but currently cannot be browsed. Also on the site is background information on how physicians and researchers have worked to understand tuberculosis, also known in the past as phthisis and consumption, over the past two hundred years, and a brief chronology of the disease.
This website provides information and enlargeable images of the collection of almost 400 Japanese woodblock prints, held by the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Library and Center for Knowledge Management. The collection is based on health-related themes and is considered to be the largest collection of woodblock prints related to health in the United States. The prints provide a fascinating insight into traditional Japanese attitudes towards illness, the human body, women's health, religion, and the West. The prints can be searched, browsed or viewed by theme, including: contagious diseases (such as smallpox, cholera, or measles); drug advertisements for medicines or cosmetic products; foreigners and disease; religion and health; and women's health (including some vivid depictions of pregnancy and childbirth). A record description is provided for each image, which includes the title in Japanese and English, the creator of the resource (where known), the date (where known), and the type of resource.
The website introduces the University of Bath’s special collections, much of which can be searched via the University library’s online catalogue. Each collection is summarised here, with particular strengths in the history of agriculture, medicine, industrial archaeology and music as well as collations relating to Sir Isaac Pitman, inventor of the eponymous shorthand system.
The website 'University of Bristol Special Collections' describes the special collections held by the University of Bristol Library. Covering a wide range of subjects the collections derive from a wide range of subject-specific personal and institutional libraries donated to the university. Particular strengths are in the history of architecture, non-conformist Christian movements, science and medicine as well as rare books, political pamphlets and social history. Other collections include various family archives, often related to the history of Bristol and the nationally important collection of material relating to Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The site informs about catalogues and archives and gives guidance regarding library policy and practical things to know for users.
This website brings together the various artefact and archive collections held at the University of Dundee. Accredited by the Museums, Libraries & Archives Council, the collections include botany; chemistry; dentistry; civil, electrical and mechanical engineering; ethnography; fine and applied art; mathematics; medicine; physics; physiology; psychology and zoology. Objects within the collections would obviously be of interest to those studying the history of these disciplines and the website describes the origins of each collection and includes illustrated highlights, as well as information on viewing objects, through regular exhibitions in University premises, which are archived here.
Thewebsite 'University of Edinburgh Library Special Collections' describes the special collections held by the library of the University of Edinburgh. Objects tend to reflect the university’s own strengths, with manuscripts and papers papers of major Scottish Enlightenment figures, architectural drawings, papers of scientists from the 17th-20th centuries, along side other collections relating to the history of medicine and science, Scottish literature, Gaelic and Celtic studies, music, theology and Middle Eastern studies. The website includes information about the university’s theses collection and collections of images and photographs. Some image collections these are available online. The website also includes details of research projects related to the special collections.
The University of Iowa Healthcare medical museum website provides information about the museum and has a number of online exhibitions. There are nearly thirty exhibitions in total covering both historical and more contemporary topics. The online exhibitions are on a range of topics including: 'The Beat Goes On: A History of Cardiology', 'Nature's Pharmacy: Ancient Knowledge, Modern Medicine', and 'The Trail of Invisible Light: A Century of Medical Imaging'. Each exhibition provides a narrative which is illustrated by items or photographs held by the museum. The website also has basic information about the museum; its collections, opening hours, collection policies, and their mission statement. A list of links is also available from the site.
This website describes the special collections and archives held at the University of Leicester Library. There is a particular strength in holdings related to Leicester, from personal papers of local literary figures Sue Townsend and Joe Orton to archives relating to the history of science and medicine in the area. The collection is more wide ranging than this however, encompassing labour history, European history, 12th-20th century manuscripts, 17th century prints, incunabula and early children's books. As well as briefly describing the contents of each named collection, the website includes access information.
This website presents the digitised study collections of Barts and the London, School of Medicine and Dentistry. Drawn from three separate museum collections, this is an extensive database of specimens prepared for medical study, many including case notes (dating back in some instances to the early twentieth century). Registration is compulsory, but approval is automatic and free for email addresses from a recognised academic or clinical domain (for example .ac.uk or .nhs). Whilst intended for clinical study, the resource is obviously of interest to those studying or researching the history of medicine and dentistry as well as those looking for high quality and unusual anatomical images. Equally this web resource stands alone as an exemplary ‘virtual museum’. The VPathMuseum was created with financial assistance from the AHRC.
Wellcome Images is an online collection of pictures focusing on medicine, its practice, healthcare and biosciences published by The Wellcome Trust. Many images have significant historical value and there pictures of several written documents such as fragments of Hippocratic oath; the Johnson Papyrus (herbal); Egyptian Book of the Dead; Egyptian Bryce papyrus; and many others. There are also several images of ancient artefacts such as Egyptian frescoes; a Karo-Batak inscription on bone; a Sudanese amulet; and others. Some images document also the medical practices throughout time and across the world. It is possible to access a larger version of the images by clicking on them. This is not a comprehensive collection of pictures on any specific theme, and is aimed principally to student and teachers as an aid to prepare lectures and essays. All images are beautiful and browsing them is recommended even to people not specifically interested in the history of medicine. Researchers may ask for new pictures to be taken from the Wellcome Library; everybody can order prints.
The Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine is one of the largest medical history libraries in the world. As the leading national resource in the history of medicine this website is accessed by international academics, historians, students and the general public. The site provides a comprehensive guide to the library's collection of books, journals, manuscripts, pictures, archives and films. Though somewhat confusing to navigate, packed as it is with information, the online catalogue itself is simple to use with searches made by keyword, author, title or subject. Although none of the holdings are available to download there is information on a photocopying and inter-library loan service. Online access to a collection of over 130,000 digitised images from the Wellcome Trust's Medical Photographic Library are available for searching. The site is regularly updated and includes recent news and details of developments on the website and in the Library itself.
The Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine (formerly the Wellcome Institute) is now a research centre attached to University College London's Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, although it maintains its undergraduate and postgraduate teaching programmes. This site offers news about the Centre, profiles of teaching and research staff, course details and news of public lectures and symposia, plus detailed information on recent works published by individual staff members and by the Centre's research groups. A page is devoted specifically to the activities of the Centre's History of Twentieth Century Medicine Group. The website presents a wealth of information on various aspects of the history of medicine and the academic projects currently on-going in the department.
The Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine at the University of Oxford, a subdepartment of the Modern History Faculty, operates as a centre for research and postgraduate teaching in most areas of the history of medicine. This website provides a brief overview of the Unit; news of its seminar series, occasional conferences and recent publications; profiles of researchers and staff attached to the Unit (with publication histories in many cases); library information; a collection of relevant links, and details of current research projects and (at an external site) the Global Project on the History of Leprosy.
"Whonamedit.com" is a biographical dictionary of medical eponyms aimed at the general user. However the information presented here for some of the entries can be so comprehensive, and so well hyperlinked throughout the database that "Whonamedit.com" [Who named it?] might be of use to school and higher education users. To find a particular person, use the function "List persons by last name" (always visible in the top navigation bar of every page) by clicking on the first letter of the name. Alternatively you can find all persons linked to a particular eponym listed at the top of the eponym description. Biographies can also be displayed by country. To find a particular eponym, you can either browse through the categories or perform a free text-search. In addition, all eponyms relevant to a particular person are listed in his or her biography.The intention is to present a complete survey of all medical phenomena named for a person, with a biography of that person. Currently over 5,700 eponyms have been described in over 2,700 main entries. These eponyms are linked to over 2,300 persons (of whom 68 are female - and there is a category to facilitate access to these). Correction and additions are solicited by the editor.
The World Health Organization (WHO) historical collection was established in 1995 in association with the Institut Louis Jeantet d'Historie de la Médecine of the University of Geneva. The collection includes: administrative documents; information on the foundation of the WHO; official records; International Sanitary Conventions; and rare books dating from 1507. A programme to scan selected works and the rare historical collections is currently being undertaken by the WHO. The facsimile images of these works are being made freely available from the website as PDF files. Documents currently available include: rare books on plague, smallpox and epidemiology; material relating to the History of the World Health Organization; and the League of Nations malaria documents. The WHO's Historical Collections website also provides full details of the scope of the collection and on how to search the collection. Information for researchers wishing to use the collection is also provided on the site.
The Yellow Fever Collection website has been developed by The Claude Moore Health Sciences Library at the University of Virginia. The site has two main sections, the first of which outlines major themes and personalities in the United States Army Yellow Fever Commission’s search for a yellow fever vaccine. The second part of the website provides information about and access to the Philip S. Hench Walter Reed Yellow Fever Collection from the Historical Collection at the University of Virginia Health Services. This collection includes correspondence, notes, reports, photographs, negatives and artifacts from the Walter Reed Series, Jesse Lazear Series, Henry Rose Carter Series, Jefferson Randolph Kean Series and the Philip S. Hench Series. It is possible to browse by date, series and subject. It is also possible to search the collection by keyword. Other features of the website includes a list of links, a who’s who, a collection guide and help on navigating the site.
This website provides a detailed introduction to the library special collections, archives, museums and digital resources held at the University of Aberdeen. These collections have a distinctly Scottish flavour, although their quality is said to be of international significance, and range from the archives of the University’s own five centuries of history, through family and estate records, to items associated with the history of science and medicine, Jacobitism and the Enlightenment. These records can be searched via the library catalogue. The website also acts as a portal to the University’s eight museums, all leaders in their field, ranging from ethnography to zoology. The website also details the various digitisation projects which have taken place, a set of useful resources derived from key collections. Of particular note is the archive of "Collection Highlights" which showcase particular collections or achives as well illustrated online exhibitions.
This website describes the special collections and archives held by the University of Bradford Library. Built around the University’s research interests, the collections cover areqa including: archaeology; local history; history of science and medicine; literature (notably the JB Priestley Archive); religion and peace studies. As well as describing each collection in some detail, the website also explains how to find and access material.