This online resource consists of a substantial miscellany of items relating to the ancient mathematician and technologist Archimedes of Syracuse (?287-212BC); it was compiled by Dr Chris Rorres, a member of the mathematics department at Drexel University (Philadelphia, USA) who has a strong amateur interest in Archimedes' life and work. The site is illuminated throughout by translated extracts from the works of Polybius, Livy, Plutarch, Cicero, Vitruvius and other writers, discussing familiar episodes such as the siege of Syracuse - the defence against which is traditionally held to have relied on Archimedes' mechanical ingenuity - and Archimedes' subsequent death and burial. The site includes: a summary timeline of Archimedes' life; a narrative account of the siege; some historical background material, including information on the ruling family of Syracuse; discussions of Archimedes' known or supposed mathematical concerns, including the 'cattle problem and the Archimedean solids; and numerous paintings, engravings and contemporary illustrations (some highly speculative) depicting Archimedes' claw, burning mirrors, screw and other legendary innovations, plus a number of "portraits" available at various resolutions.
This online resource provides an overview of the life and work of the Greek mathematician, Archimedes (287-212 BC). It consists predominantly of an article written by the authors of the site, JJ O'Connor and EF Robertson, of the School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews, in which they discuss important details of Archimedes' biography and provide information about his main works and ideas. This article is also hyperlinked to other articles by the same author which discuss aspects of mathematical theory relevant to the study of Archimedes. In addition to this biographical coverage, users can access a selection of quotations from Archimedes' principal works, a list of references to books and articles on Archimedes, and a list of links to other Web resources on Archimedes.
The Archimides Palimpsest is a website devoted to the oldest surviving manuscript containing the work of the Greek thinker, Archimedes of Syracuse (ca 287-212 BC). Preserved at the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, the manuscript contains a compendium of his mathematical treatises. Most importantly, it includes the only copy of the treatise Method of Mechanical Theorems, in which Archimedes explains how he drew upon mechanical means to elucidate his mathematical theorems. It is also the only source in the original Greek for the treatise On Floating Bodies, in which Archimedes explores the physics of flotation and explains the formal proof for the principle of specific gravity. With beautifully rendered reproductions, biographical and historical background, as well as information on preservation techniques, the Archimedes Palimpsest is an excellent introduction to the manuscript. A core set of data including digital images, transcriptions and metadata of the Archimedes Palimpsest has been released in October 2008 and can be downloaded from a linked website. The core set of data has been used by Google to produce an e-book accessible online. This website and the data made available may be useful to people interested in a variety of disciplines (Greek literature; mathemathics; palaeography; manuscript preservation; digital reading on ancient artefacts; etc.) at all levels.
Created and maintained by Professor Nancy Demand (Indiana University Bloomington), the Asclepion is an online resource which presents a series of brief but useful introductory pages and links to the development and characteristics of early medicine in Greece, Mesopotamia and Egypt. The website is divided into the following sections: an introduction to the study of ancient medicine; essays on health and medicine in the geographical areas mentioned above; a picture gallery of images of ancient surgical instruments; a section on texts and articles (with links to translated passages of Hippocrates as well as short essays on particular aspects of ancient medicine); a page of links to other online resources relating to the ancient world. Although not extensive, the material presented on this website should allow anyone to become versed in the general aspects of the field. References, along with a collection of additional links, will significantly aid readers in expanding their research and locating relevant primary texts.
An ideal introduction to the astrolabe, this site provides a clear, detailed account of the astronomical instrument's history and the principles behind its operation, with several large colour photographs. There is a small collection of annotated links to other sites in the same field, and a good brief critical bibliography. The site is maintained by Janus, a commercial company producing replicas of historical astronomical instruments: their "personal astrolabe" is advertised for sale here, but the commercial content is limited and does not prejudice the remainder of the site. Also available, downloadable at no charge, is a computer simulation known as the "electric astrolabe".
The Centre for the History of Medicine, part of the University of Birmingham's Medical School, was established in 2000 as a centre for research and both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. Particular areas of specialisation include the medical history of the West Midlands area, medicine and surgery in ancient times, and the history of Army and other military medicine. This departmental site contains brief profiles of staff and researchers, with some publication details; information on teaching programmes; a short history (running to around 7000 words, with references) of the University of Birmingham Medical School itself, written by the Senior Lecturer, Robert Arnott; listings for the Centre's seminar series; and details of recent and forthcoming conferences in the history of medicine. Also present is a section on History of Medicine "Resources", which notably includes a list of webpages and societies related to the history of medicine.
Classic Papers from the History of Chemistry is an online repository of primary source documents maintained by the ChemTeam, a US organisation mainly concerned with providing resources in chemistry for high school students. The material on this page of their website, however, is suitable for a more advanced audience also. Some eighty documents are provided, arranged in chronological order: there are a few pieces from the prehistory of chemistry including extracts from Paracelsus, but the material is primarily of nineteenth- or early-to-mid twentieth-century origin. There is a distinct bias towards physical chemistry and the sub-atomic realm. Featured texts include: Volta’s work on the battery; Davy and Faraday on new elements; Joule on the mechanical equivalent of heat; Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden on the nucleus; Bohr on atomic structure; Chadwick on the neutron, and Meitner and Frisch on nuclear fission. Most of the articles are provided as transcripts, but some are facsimile images: there is no indication concerning this on the main index page. Most of the transcripts are excerpted and pagination is not recorded.
Classics in the History of Psychology is a project to provide online transcripts of noteworthy texts from the history and prehistory of the psychological sciences. The project is based in the Department of Psychology at York University, Toronto. The site is regularly updated and contains around 25 full-text books, and 200 articles, with excerpts from longer publications. The inevitable restrictions due to copyright mean that many important texts cannot be reproduced here, but the site still represents an extremely valuable collection. Among the many authors represented are Aristotle, Sigmund Freud, William James, Carl Jung, B F Skinner, J B Watson and Wilhelm Wundt. The contents are indexed by author name and by broad subject area, and there is a basic search facility. All of the contents are presented in HTML form, generally presented as single webpages except where length prohibits this. Publication dates and edition numbers are scrupulously recorded, but the pagination details of the original print editions are not. The site also provides a collection of links to relevant primary texts maintained at other sites. Another useful feature is the page of suggested readings, arranged by subject area and with a commentary on importance and context. This is aimed at students in the history of psychology and related fields and offers a useful starting point for early research.
Until the late 19th century when developments in the chemical industry allowed the manufacture of artificial colouring agents, dyes were laboriously manufactured from a range of plant and animal extracts. This wide-ranging website provides a comprehensive historical, cultural and scientific overview of the various processes involved in the making of dyes such as Indigo and woad, Tyrian purple, Murexide and Lichen purple, from technical chemical details to biographical and historiographical material illuminating the history of dye making. Extensive bibliographic references and weblinks on this subject and contact details of modern manufacturers and supplies of traditional dyes are provided. The resource includes a guide to the contents of the journal "Dyes in History and Archaeology" since 1991 which published the proceedings of annual conferences on this subject. The text is illustrated throughout with a variety of botanical and historical images as well as many chemical formulae. The hypertext links lead you to a variety of websites of related interest in English, French and German. "Ancient dyes" has a wide potential audience among students and researchers of archaeology, anthropology and history of all periods (including the history of science, industry and clothing). Regular meetings are organised and advertised on this website.
Electronic Scholarly Publishing, despite its generalist name, is a project chiefly devoted to the online full-text publication of well-known books and papers from the history of genetics and evolution. The catalogue so far includes works by Aristotle, William Bateson, Charles Darwin (The Voyage of the Beagle, On the Origin of Species, Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication), Galen, Francis Galton, Thomas Malthus, Gregor Mendel, Thomas H Morgan, Alfred Russel Wallace and others. Most of the texts are presented as transcripts in PDF format, although some are given in HTML, and a few as PDF image facsimiles: this is clearly indicated in the indexes. The presentation is a little gimmicky, with the text appearing in a relatively small window inside an onscreen "book". The circumstances of this site’s creation are unusual: it was originally a personal project of Robert J Robbins, of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, but is now supported by the US Department of Energy as part of a commitment to develop educational resources associated with the Human Genome Project. Some Department of Energy publications concerning the Project are also available on the site.
This online resource is designed to introduce undergraduate students to science and technology in ancient Greece and Rome. The resource features: an alphabetical 'Who's who' giving brief biographical details for key individuals; information about important inventions and technical innovations; and a chronological table putting scientific developments into their wider historical context. There is also a section which deals with specifice scientific subjects. This covers the following: astronomy; biology and medicine; engineering; geography; mathematics; physics; mechanics; and engineering. An article on each topic gives an overview, with hyperlinks to other pages on the relevant personalities and inventions. The site is being developed by Dr Tracey Rihll as part of her undergraduate teaching and research programme at the University of Swansea and includes some student papers containing text and photos of some of the practical projects submitted by level 2 students on her technology and engineering module. There are also links to external sites which provide online versions of relevant ancient texts.
This website deals with the life and work of the Greek mathematician, Euclid (c. 300 BC). The site has been compiled by Donald Lancon, a freelance mathematical enthusiast who was educated at the University of Houston in the United States. The site consists mainly of an extended essay prepared by Lancon while he was a student at Houston. This includes biographical information about Euclid, which would be of general interest to classicists and ancient historians. Source references are given throughout. The site deals in some detail with Euclid's contributions to geometry and mathematics, paying particular attention to the Elements. This work by Euclid deals with topics including plane geometry, solid geometry and number theory. The site also provides a detailed bibliography of suggestions for further study relating to works on Euclid and other aspects of Greek mathematics.
This bilingual (Spanish/English) website, created by researcher and teacher Martín Pozzi of Buenos Aires University, is devoted to the study of the first century AD Latin poet Marcus Manilius, whose best known work is the Astronomica, a 4500 line hexametric poem which combines astrology with Stoic philosophy. The site offers links to online editions of the text (Loeb and Intratext) as well as commentaries, articles, secondary literature and reviews. A useful and extensive bibliography of works on Manilius also provides a list of publications on ancient astrology and the zodiac. Much of the secondary material referenced in the bibliography is in English. There is an excellent range of links including ones on the wider history of astrology. There is also a discussion group to which readers can subscribe. This resource will benefit researchers and teachers in classics and related subjects, including the history of science and religion.
Medicina Antiqua (ancient medicine) is a website hosted by the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at University College London and intended as a central resource for researchers in the history of ancient medicine. The site contains: online transcripts of English translations of several works by Galen, with links to a few other transcript sites; a small collection of short analytical essays on aspects of ancient medicine (topics covered include poisons, Hippocrates, dreams, and Galen); and external links to other relevant resources on ancient medicine.
This site, from the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge, is a sizeable reference resource for students studying the history of astonomy from ancient times to the Sixteenth Century. The database is divided into three main sections: Instruments, Themes and Personalities, within which are numerous subdivisions, including Early Modern Books, Celestial Globes, Calendar Reform, Weather Prediction, Tycho Brahe and Kepler. Each individual entry contains a short essay together with a brief bibliography and, where appropriate, relevant images (which may be viewed full-page). The quality of presentation is excellent and an index and keyword search facility are also contained on the site.