This BBC Radio 4 website contains the audio recordings of five programmes about the history of numbers. The five numbers discussed are zero, pi, 1.618 (the Golden Ratio), i (the imaginary number), and infinity. The main page contains a brief introduction to each number and a light-hearted 'what number are you?' quiz. The programmes themselves each last fifteen minutes and go into a little more detail as to the history of each number, yet still in an accessible way. Presenter Simon Singh talks to several experts, who discuss the reasons why each number came to be discovered, and their effects on the history of mathematics. There is also a link to the second series of the programme, entitled 'Another 5 Numbers'.
This BBC website accompanies a series of five programmes broadcast on Radio 4 in 2002 introducing five important numbers in mathematics. The programmes investigate the social, historical and scientific significance of zero, pi, the golden ratio, the imaginary number and infinity. The series was presented by Dr Simon Singh of the BBC's science department. There is a link to the second series which followed in October 2003 which looked at the numbers four, seven, the largest prime, Kepler's conjecture and game theory. Each programme in the two series has a page of notes plus a 15 minute RealPlayer audio file.
This is the website for A Romantic Natural History, which has been developed by Ashton Nichols of Dickinson College in the United States. The site aims to survey relationships between literature and natural history in the century before the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Natural Species (1859). The site provides background information on the work of natural historians from Aristotle and Pliny in the ancient world, through to the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. This survey takes account of landmark scientific developments, and the interplay between science and mythology. The main focus of the resource is the development of natural history during the Romantic period. Ashton Nichol looks at the impact of particular scientists on the imaginations of writers such as Mary Shelley, Percy Shelley, John Keats and William Wordsworth. The site is constructed so that it is possible to search literary authors by name, or through a list of major scientists of the period. These include Erasmus Darwin and Henry David Thoreau. The site is attractively designed with interesting images relating to early natural history. There is also a searchable list of artists' names for those working on pictorial representations of the natural world in the Romantic period.
This website currently provides access to nearly forty letters written by Florence Nightingale. The site has been created by the Clendening History of Medicine Library at the University of Kansas in order to make its collection of Florence Nightingale letters freely available.T he original letters have been scanned and are available from the site as facsimile images. These images are accompanied by a transcription of the text. Further research is being carried out on the letters and as this information become available footnotes are being added. The letters can be viewed chronological, alphabetically or can be searched. The site also has a list of links to other sites related to Florence Nightingale.
The website "About Great Ormond Street Hospital" is produced by the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust (with UCL The Institute of Child Health), which was initially launched to mark the 150th birthday of Britain's first hospital for sick children. The site draws together medical notes and photographs that reveal a revolution in how young patients were treated. Quick links from the home page lead to: the whole story; what nursing and surgery were like; key facts and achievements; Gallery; Peter Pan; Museum and Archives services. On the site you can see that Florence Nightingale opposed the hospital, but Charles Dickens approved. So did J.M. Barrie - Great Ormond Street hospital still benefits from the royalties of Peter Pan. From 10 beds when it was first established in 1852, the hospital grew to 200 beds by the end of the 19th century, with 60 more for convalescence in north London. Today the 335-bed hospital treats 22,000 in-patients and 77,000 out-patients each year. The top-navigation of the site provides access to the hospital's current online presence.
The Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum in Chicago is a public building and a research institution. It aims to educate schoolchildren about astronomy in an exciting environment, whilst also maintaining significant holdings of texts and artefacts of interest to more scholarly visitors. The website provides a virtual tour of the planetarium, along with the usual transport and access information. It offers a substantial education section for teachers of school students. A section on shows and exhibits gives details of current presentations, which again are generally aimed at a younger audience. The historical collections section is more academic. It contains a database of the museum's holdings, which include: almost 2,000 historic instruments; about 550 individual maps, prints, and book plates featuring astronomical illustrations; over 2,000 books, including some incunabula. There are illustrated introductions to some of the more significant types of scientific instrument, such as astrolabes, orreries, armillary spheres, and telescopes. The site also contains Webster's database of signatures of instrument makers.
Established to support the International Polar Year 2007-2008, this series AHRC of AHRC funded workshops and related research project aims to uncover the hitherto hidden histories of the IPY Field Stations. The project sees the international field station as a crucial and under researched ‘nexus’ in the organisation of science, which nevertheless has tended to become the focus of competing social and geopolitical tensions. With this perspective, the project aims to understand the impact of the ‘archipelago’ of international field stations on the surrounding territories and on the science produced, both from a cultural and historical perspective and as a way of furthering the aims and acceptance of future science. As well as abstracts of papers presented at the first workshop, the website includes biographies of researchers involved in the project and its relationship to the International Polar Year 2007-2008.
The AIDS History Project has been established by a collaborative group with the aim of safeguarding and preserving material related to the history of AIDS in San Francisco. This website, published by the University of California at San Francisco, provides a home page for the project, which is working to compile a history of the establishment of community support and care networks in the city during the first years of the AIDS crisis. These services have come to be known as the San Francisco model of AIDS care, and this site publishes details of the current research being undertaken into this area and links to resources on the AIDS epidemic in 1980s San Francisco. There is also a useful chronology of events, spanning from the advent of the disease in the United States in 1981, until 1988 when the epidemic in the United States reached its peak.
The Emilio Segrè Visual Archives is a subsite of the Center for History of Physics, which in turn is administered by the American Institute of Physics (AIP). This subsite is devoted to the photograph and image archive of the Center's Niels Bohr Library. This archive contains some 30,000 historical images. Of these, thousands are available online, and can be browsed casually or searched according to mini exhibitions devoted to well known scientists, including: Niels Bohr ; Ludwig Boltzmann ; Marie Curie ; Paul Dirac ; Arthur Eddington ; Albert Einstein ; Michael Faraday ; Enrico Fermi ; Richard Feynman ; Galileo ; Werner Heisenberg ; Maria Goeppert Mayer ; Isaac Newton ; Max Planck ; Andrei Sakharov ; Erwin Schrödinger ; Emilio Segrè ; and Joseph John Thomson. There is also information on how to submit and order photographs and images. Copyright and permissions information is posted. The site is easy to navigate and would be of use to teachers, students and researchers.
This website from the Turing Project may be viewed via the University of Canterbury, New Zealand, or the University of San Francisco. This dual hosting is designed to make accessiblity straightforward for researchers globally. The site makes available online digital facsimiles of key primary texts in the history of computing, with special reference to the pioneering work of Alan Turing (1912-1954). The articles are indexed under four main headings, within which they are listed chronologically. In addition, the site offers various reference articles concerning the life and career of Alan Turing, as well as information about conferences and discussion groups, although it is not updated regularly enough to ensure that these are current. A list of links to other relevant sites is also available. Its presentation is excellent and it has received a Britannia award.
The Alchemy website and virtual library is an extensive resource relating to the historical study of alchemy. The site is maintained by Adam McLean (based in Glasgow, UK) and relies on contributions from interested individuals. The collection has over 150 megabytes of data spread over 2,400 sections and also available on cd-rom. There also is specialist sections on Islamic, Chinese and Indian alchemy. The texts and bibliographic sections are particularly extensive. Texts have been transcribed or translated, and are mainly in English with separate collections in Italian, French, Spanish, Russian and German. Authors and works include: Roger Bacon, Simon Forman, Paracelsus, Pontanus, Petrus Bonus, Johann Rudolph Glauber, Athanasius Kircher, Edward Kelly, Jean Albert Belin, R.W.Councell, Elias Ashmole, and numerous others. The bibliographic database of alchemical books contains over 4,500 records of books published before 1800. The database can be navigated by author name or by record number and may be browsed by frames. It cannot currently be searched. The database of alchemical manuscripts provides a listing of around 4,000 manuscripts by library. Each record gives the catalogue reference and manuscript contents. Other bibliographic resources include a list of authors of alchemical books and a list of post-1800 books about alchemy. This is an extremely comprehensive site, of use to researchers at all levels, although slightly overwhelming in its enormous content. Time is needed to consider its resources thoroughly.
This site, from the Library of Congress in the United States, contains online versions of the Alexander Graham Bell family papers, amounting to approximately four thousand seven hundred separate items. These include correspondence, scientific notebooks, journals, blueprints, articles, and photographs. They may be searched by keyword, or browsed by series, subject or name. The site also contains some 'special presentations', including descriptions of the highlights of the collection, a timeline, a family tree and a brief description of Bell's invention of the telephone. The presentation is exemplary.
Alexander Graham Bell’s Path to the Telephone is an innovative attempt to characterise the process of "invention" or creative discovery leading to a recognisable finished artefact, taking as its case study the telephone, as developed by Alexander Graham Bell (1847 –1922) in the 1870s. The site depicts the process using a flowchart structure, with clickable image maps providing successive levels of detail: through a mixture of diagrams (often reproduced directly from Bell's work), commentary and symbolic illustration, the viewer can trace the complex influences and developments involved. The site was created by a group of faculty and students connected with the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of Virginia [US], led by Michael E Gorman. Historians concerned at the teleological approach suggested by the site's title will hardly be reassured by the authors' early contention that Bell's route to the telephone was "more linear" than his competitors' on account of his "scientific" approach; in fact, however, the content is by no means historiographically simplistic. On the contrary, the introduction contains a thoughtful discussion of how the influences leading to an invention might be characterised: a series of "mental models" are proposed, but it is made clear that these are not to be taken as prescriptive. The purpose of this method of analysis is to trace the roles of diverse sources of inspiration in Bell's thinking, such as the apparatus developed by Helmholtz to simulate vowel sounds, Bell's role as a teacher of the deaf and human aural anatomy. Other important features of the site are an unannotated list of sources on Bell, the telephone, and the art of invention; and a complete transcript and facsimile of the first patent taken out by Bell on a telephonic device (dated 7 March 1876). A link to the text of a follow-up patent, stored elsewhere on the University of Virginia server, was broken at time of cataloguing: the site is now several years old and has a number of problems due to outdated links, the most serious being an inoperable search facility. While the site may be of some help to students seeking background detail on Bell and the telephone, it is not chiefly designed for this purpose, and is more useful for its contributions to the representation of invention. The analytical material will be of interest to research academics in the history or philosophy of technology, and the site might easily be used to provide inspiration for student work.
The Alfred Russel Wallace Page presents a definitive web resource on the life and work of Alfred Russel Wallace, the naturalist and social critic whose 1858 essay setting out the principle of evolution by natural selection prompted Charles Darwin into publication. The site has been created by Charles H Smith, Science Librarian at Western Kentucky University and a student of Wallace's work for over two decades. Dr Smith describes himself as "primarily a biogeographer by training," but the historical and analytical content is thoroughly respectable and carefully researched. The site includes a capsule biography (around 7000 words) and chronological summary of major events in Wallace's life; a comprehensive primary bibliography, listing over 700 of Wallace's essays, monographs, pamphlets, letters and major interviews, indexed chronologically and by subject areas and personal names; a secondary bibliography covering both modern analytical pieces and contemporary reviews of Wallace's writings; and a bibliography of archival sources on Wallace (particularly useful for correspondence) prepared by Michael Shermer, director of the Skeptics Society, in the course of his doctoral dissertation. There is an exemplary archive of full-text transcriptions of Wallace’s writings, including the famous "On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely From the Original Type" (1858) and other evolutionist texts, but also representing Wallace's work on geology, anthropology, spiritualism and politics, plus, arranged separately, transcripts of some published interviews with Wallace. The site also provides an FAQ, chiefly addressing the various myths which have sprung up around the man and his work. Of particular interest to tutors involved in teaching responsible Web use to students is an essay by Smith, entitled '"It's On The Web..."--Or, When is a "Russel" a "Russel"?', which catalogues his experiences in discovering unreliable online resources. This is a highly professional and comprehensive resource, which has won several awards.
The website of the American Association for the History of Medicine provides information about the work of the organisation. Details of meetings to be held, their publications (including their newsletter, with a online edition that is regularly updated), and on how to join are provided. The site has a news section which issues calls for conferences, details of awards etc. Information on jobs, grants and fellowships are also available from the site. A searchable database of members of the association has been included on the site, but is only accessible to current members. Other features of the site include a useful list of links to relevant sites and organisations, and officers and bylaws of the association.
This is the dynamic and colourful website of The American Museum of Natural History, New York. The museum's collections, exhibitions, research centres, education programmes, and some of the 32 million specimens and artifacts in the field of scientific research and education, are available through this resource. Whilst mini-sites cover current exhibitions, more permanent displays and departments of the museum are introduced through dedicated pages.
The description of a hall or collection or subject offers links to some of the artifacts. For example: from the Culture Halls users can view short descriptions of: Indians of the Northwest Coast, Eastern Woodlands, and the Plains; African Peoples; Asian Peoples; Mexico and Central America; South American Peoples; and Pacific Peoples. Teachers' guides (mainly school-level) are available for each, providing PDF articles, evidence and analysis on subjects that range through the fields of anthropology (archaeology briefly features), history of astronomy, biology, earth sciences and paleontology, for example. There are Web pages for most collections such as North American Ethnography, where you can browse more than 50,000 artifacts online. The education resources section was nominated in the competition for Best Museum Web Site Supporting Educational Use in 'Museums and the Web 2004 : Best of the Web'.
The website "The Nature of Diamonds" is an online exhibition from the American Museum of Natural History. It accompanied an exhibition at the Museum from 1997-1998, which explored "the nature of diamonds". Illustrated text is organized in clearly navigable sections that examine scientifically and historically: What is a Diamond?; Origins; History; Mining and Distribution; Industry and Technology; Jewelry and Gems. There is also a lengthy bibliography of printed material. The 'History' section, for example, delves into: the concepts and images of the diamond as a royal gem, significant for love and betrothal; the origins and traditions, trade, and myths and legends in India (including caste and Buddhism) and ancient Greece and Rome, and the mediterranean cultures; picking the story up again in the middle ages, through the Renaissance, and modern history, to the twentieth century. The images, photographs and maps, which have detailed captions, may be enlarged.
This general-interest site on Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine, the nineteenth-century mechanical calculating device widely considered to be the first computer in the modern sense, contains several primary source transcripts which may be useful to the historian. The full-text of Ada Lovelace’s well-known 1842 translation, with extensive annotations, of L F Menabrea’s original account of the instrument is included, as are Babbage’s own account from his autobiography, the 1878 report from the British Association for the Advancement of Science which concluded against building a completed form of the device, and two subsequent papers by Babbage’s son. Diagrams and tables are given as facsimile images where required. Also included for curiosity value is Blaise Pascal’s 1645 account of his own adding machine, presented in the original French. This site is part of Fourmilab, a wide-ranging collection of largely computer-related exotica created by the software designer John Walker. It also contains an emulator which simulates the actions of the Analytical Engine through a Java applet: this is obviously of little value to the research historian, but teachers may find it useful as a way of engaging students’ attention. A brief collection of other Babbage-related links is also provided.
Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons, and Human rights is a subsite of the Center for History of Physics website. The site provides a good illustrated narrative history of the physicist's life and work, including his participation in the Soviet development of the hydrogen bomb in the 1950s. Of particular interest are the sections emphasising Sakharov's growing conscience and sense of social responsibility with regard to the fruits of his research and design, culminating with his receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. As presented here, the themes of his life, spanning most of the Soviet era and ending in 1989, demonstrate many of the core issues of the Cold War, particularly the connection between scientific, social and political developments. In a final section, site visitors can access a sound file with a recording of Sakharov speaking in Russian. Easy to navigate and clear in its historical outline, the site would make a good starting point for those with general interest in the topic, or an excellent teaching tool. There is a site bibliography and related links list.
The Antique Telescope Society (ATS) aims to bring together those interested in antique telescopes, the history of optics, and the preservation and use of telescopic instruments. Its membership consists largely of collectors with practical or scholarly interest in the subject. The ATS publishes a journal, organizes conventions, maintains the website, and moderates an email discussion group. They aim to provide educational services as well as assisting with the preservation and restoration of artefacts. The website features images and descriptions of antique telescopes, along with links to many member sites that go into greater detail about specific models or observatories. A biographical section introduces many of the key craftsmen and manufacturers who produced telescopes. Links are provided to other related sites. Abstracts of the Society's journal may be searched online, or the contents of specific issues listed. There is a page of tips for cleaning optical surfaces, and a mailing list. Full membership details are provided. Historians looking specifically at telescope design, or at the history of astronomical technology more generally, should find this site of interest.
This website celebrates the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission to the Moon. On 20 July 1969, man landed on the Moon for the first time when Neil Armstrong left the landing module and uttered his famous phrase, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. The site narrates the events of the mission and illustrates each phase with photographs taken by the astronauts and with audio clips. There are links to other official NASA history sites, including one with a full transcript of Apollo 11 communications. The site also links to 30th anniversary Web pages by other companies and agencies associated with the landing.
The Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, edited by Eric M. Jones and Ken Glover is an electronic version of the mission journals Apollo flights 11-17 (1969-1972). The journals reproduce the audio transcripts from each of the six successful Apollo missions together with interpolated commentary, photographs, maps, equipment drawings, background documents and video clips. The editors received assistance from the astronauts involved including Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, Pete Conrad and Al Bean. The online journals include audio and video clips. Also provided are supplementary materials which provide insight to the technologies and equipment used. The sites makes use of frames, PDF and RealVideo.
This Web page provides the archives for the arch-metals mailing list. The email discussion forum is intended for use by scholars researching the history of ancient and historic metallurgy (archaeometallurgy), metal artefacts and related subjects. The list is hosted by JISCmail, the UK national academic mailing list service. Visitors to the arch-metals list can join or leave the list and view list archives, dating back to 1998; these archives can be viewed by non-list members. The list appears to be well used.
This online resource consists of a substantial miscellany of items relating to the ancient mathematician and technologist Archimedes of Syracuse (?287-212BC); it was compiled by Dr Chris Rorres, a member of the mathematics department at Drexel University (Philadelphia, USA) who has a strong amateur interest in Archimedes' life and work. The site is illuminated throughout by translated extracts from the works of Polybius, Livy, Plutarch, Cicero, Vitruvius and other writers, discussing familiar episodes such as the siege of Syracuse - the defence against which is traditionally held to have relied on Archimedes' mechanical ingenuity - and Archimedes' subsequent death and burial. The site includes: a summary timeline of Archimedes' life; a narrative account of the siege; some historical background material, including information on the ruling family of Syracuse; discussions of Archimedes' known or supposed mathematical concerns, including the 'cattle problem and the Archimedean solids; and numerous paintings, engravings and contemporary illustrations (some highly speculative) depicting Archimedes' claw, burning mirrors, screw and other legendary innovations, plus a number of "portraits" available at various resolutions.
The Archimides Palimpsest is a website devoted to the oldest surviving manuscript containing the work of the Greek thinker, Archimedes of Syracuse (ca 287-212 BC). Preserved at the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, the manuscript contains a compendium of his mathematical treatises. Most importantly, it includes the only copy of the treatise Method of Mechanical Theorems, in which Archimedes explains how he drew upon mechanical means to elucidate his mathematical theorems. It is also the only source in the original Greek for the treatise On Floating Bodies, in which Archimedes explores the physics of flotation and explains the formal proof for the principle of specific gravity. With beautifully rendered reproductions, biographical and historical background, as well as information on preservation techniques, the Archimedes Palimpsest is an excellent introduction to the manuscript. A core set of data including digital images, transcriptions and metadata of the Archimedes Palimpsest has been released in October 2008 and can be downloaded from a linked website. The core set of data has been used by Google to produce an e-book accessible online. This website and the data made available may be useful to people interested in a variety of disciplines (Greek literature; mathemathics; palaeography; manuscript preservation; digital reading on ancient artefacts; etc.) at all levels.
The "Archive for Sexology: History of Sexology" site is part of the wider Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology website, published by an academic at the Humboldt-Universität in Berlin. Although not the best designed site, it holds a great deal of useful information for students of the history of medicine and sexuality. There is a brief history of sexology, which traces the development of the discipline, and a chronology of research divided into three sections - predecessors, antiquity-1892, pioneers, 1896-1936, and modern sex research, which highlights important figures and their research. A larger section on pioneers of sexology contains resources on twelve individuals, including Magnus Hirschfeld, Iwan Bloch, and Harry Benjamin. The biographies include primary source material such as letters, photographs and documents. In addition to this users can also access the full-text of Vern Bullough's 1994 book Science in the Bedroom - the History of Sex Research, and several journal articles, on subjects like the Nazi persecution of homosexuals and fertility.
The Science and Technology Studies email discussion forum (STS@nic.surfnet.nl) contains subscription details for a Listserv concerning the history, philosophy and sociology of science and related disciplines. The submissions to the list are usually job announcements or calls for papers, although postings concerning topical events, research projects and technical issues are also received. Founded in 1992 and originally US-based, the list became well-known as a site of discussion on the so-called "Science Wars", in which postmodern critics were pitched against hardline scientific realists. The list now has an administrator based in the Netherlands, and this archive site includes the full-text of messages dating back to January 2000. A basic but effective search facility (allowing full-text searching) is provided. The list receives a moderate amount of traffic, averaging about ten topics per month. Other previous submissions include a call for evidence on risks to the well-being of researchers in qualitative research; upcoming conference details; notice for online availability of Chinese journals; and notice of a freeware programme for co-word analysis. This site offers a useful means of keeping abreast of current events, research and resources in science and technology studies.
The Archive of Women in Science and Engineering aims to preserve the historical heritage of American women in these fields. The collection is held at the Special Collections Department of Iowa State University and is intended to serve as a local, regional, national and international resource. The website gives details of the archive and the motivation behind putting the archive together. Descriptions of each collection are provided and include biographical information and details of the scope and content of each collection. Bibliographic details of the rare books held by the archive are also available from the site. Other features of the site include details of an oral history project being undertaken, a bibliography and related links.
This website presents an illustrated essay examining the interaction between science and art in Renaissance and early-modern Italy. The discovery and application of mathematical perspective forms an important aspect of this essay, as do Galilei's studies of motion, especially his experiments with inclined planes and his analysis of accelerated motion associated with the leaning tower of Pisa. The first part of the essay is about Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), his life and work. The author then looks at the evolution of perspective in Italian art and architecture, before returning again to Galilei's experiments with motion. The conclusion argues that Galilei achieved a synthesis of theory and observation, and that the mathematical principles of physical reality discovered by the new scientists also facilitated art. Some sections of the site include video clips.
Created and maintained by Professor Nancy Demand (Indiana University Bloomington), the Asclepion is an online resource which presents a series of brief but useful introductory pages and links to the development and characteristics of early medicine in Greece, Mesopotamia and Egypt. The website is divided into the following sections: an introduction to the study of ancient medicine; essays on health and medicine in the geographical areas mentioned above; a picture gallery of images of ancient surgical instruments; a section on texts and articles (with links to translated passages of Hippocrates as well as short essays on particular aspects of ancient medicine); a page of links to other online resources relating to the ancient world. Although not extensive, the material presented on this website should allow anyone to become versed in the general aspects of the field. References, along with a collection of additional links, will significantly aid readers in expanding their research and locating relevant primary texts.
An ideal introduction to the astrolabe, this site provides a clear, detailed account of the astronomical instrument's history and the principles behind its operation, with several large colour photographs. There is a small collection of annotated links to other sites in the same field, and a good brief critical bibliography. The site is maintained by Janus, a commercial company producing replicas of historical astronomical instruments: their "personal astrolabe" is advertised for sale here, but the commercial content is limited and does not prejudice the remainder of the site. Also available, downloadable at no charge, is a computer simulation known as the "electric astrolabe".
This website, maintained on behalf of the historical commission of the International Astronomical Union at Bonn University, is a massive database of documents regarding every aspect of the study of the history of astronomy. These include archives, publications, people, meetings and research institutions. The documents are usefully grouped under the sub-headings of History of Science, History of Astronomy and History in General. As well as containing over four hundred internal files, the site also offers unsorted links, in twelve sections, to about eight thousand external sites. A search facility is available; the site is occasionally updated and the presentation is simple but effective.
The Astronomical Instruments of Tycho Brahe is a website about the great Danish astronomer, whose instruments helped measure astronomical phenomena to a previously unattainable degree of accuracy. It includes a short biography of Brahe, a bibliography, and a list of links. The most significant feature of the resource, however, is the online version of his Astronomiae Instauratae Mecanica of 1598. The digitised pages of the original Latin publication, with its full colour illustrations, may be viewed online at various magnification levels. The text is also generally (although not universally) made available in Danish and/or English translations. Brahe describes thirty separate instruments in total. The site's introductory pages explain the slightly peculiar system of measurements he uses to describe his inventions. The site is part of the Royal Library of Denmark website.
Astronomy in Japan is intended primarily to introduce English speakers to the history and culture of Japanese astronomy. The articles contained in the site are written so as to be enjoyable to read whilst maintaining scholarly standards. There are a large number of pages devoted to aspects of Japanese starlore and astronomical history. These are frequently illustrated and include bibliographies. They cover subjects ranging from the Japanese New Year to the diary entries of a 17th-century Kochi resident who observed and drew pictures of a comet. The constellations, and the mythological associations of Japanese astronomy, are also discussed and illustrated. A section of the website is devoted to influential astronomers and important achievements. Links are provided to other websites, and a FAQ section provides responses to common reader enquiries.
The Athanasius Kircher Correspondence Project presents digitised images of the correspondence of this neglected 17th century Jesuit thinker. Based in Rome, Kircher had one of the most wide-ranging intellects of his day, pursuing subjects as diverse as alchemy, Egyptology and engineering. Much of his research was based on correspondence with foreign thinkers, travellers and missionaries, and the collection digitised here is based on the 2,000 plus letters Kircher received from over 700 correspondents. The website provides information on recent publications and bibliographical data on works about Kircher and his correspondence. To view the correspondence itself, it is necessary to download the Insight program from the site: users can then search the database using a range of categories, and will be presented with digitised images of the letters relevant to their search terms.
The Atomic Archive, published by AJ Software and Multimedia (San Digeo), presents resources relating to the history of the development of the atomic bomb. The site is intended to supplement a CD-ROM of the same name published by the company. The site is primarily aimed at supporting the US school curriculum and includes introductions to the science underlying nuclear weapons and a collection of data relating to the development, location and storage of nuclear weapons in the present day. The sections which may be of particular interest are the sample primary documents and photographs relating to the early history of the atomic age. Documents include: Lise Meitner and O.R. Frisch, "Disintegration of Uranium by Neutrons: A New Type of Nuclear Reaction." Nature 143 (11 Feb 1939): 239-240; the report by MAUD Committee on the Use of Uranium for a Bomb (1941); the founding of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; eye-witness accounts of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and documents relating to the subsequent development of the hydrogen bomb. The site also includes brief biographies, timelines, and maps.
The Australian Medical Pioneers Index is an online database of pioneer doctors living and working in Australia during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Funded by the State Library of Victoria it is based largely on the print index compiled by Dr. David Roberts and is published online by Barwon Health. The database contains the records of around 3,000 medical men, including ships surgeons, colonial and military surgeons, convict doctors, general practitioners, and specialists. These records can be searched by keyword or with an advanced search. The site also provides a good background to the history of medicine in Australia, listing and discussing primary and secondary sources, images, a bibliography and web links.
The Australian Nursing and Midwifery History Project is an academic project being conducted by the School of Nursing at the University of Melbourne. The aim of the project is to raise the profile of nursing history, promote the study of this subject and to develop the conservation of related historical resources. The project further encourages research by developing exhibitions at the University of Melbourne's History of Medicine Museum in the Brownless Library, the first of which "Feminine Industry: nursing work at the bedside and beyond," was curated by Dr. Sioban Nelson and held in 1998. On the site users can find out information about the project and the areas it is working on presently. There is a history of nursing email list that users can sign up for, information about conferences, related projects, and a list of links and resources. Under the heading ANMHP Resources, the site also links to relevant journals, museums, Web resources and current projects.
The Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre was established in 1999, as a continuation of the Australian Science Archives Project. Particularly noteworthy among its online resources is "Bright Sparcs," a register of over 4000 individuals involved in the development of Australian science, technology and medicine, with brief biographies (generally concentrating on professional careers), bibliographies and references to archive materials. Also attached to the Bright Sparcs project are various online exhibits aimed at a popular audience. Bright Sparcs now has a counterpart in "Australian Science at Work", a similar database listing corporations, societies and other institutions connected with Australian science and related fields, again with bibliographies and archive references. Both registers are fully searchable and browsable. The site is also home to online versions of several of the Centre's publications: these include "Federation and Meteorology", telling the story of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology; "Technology and Innovation in Australia, 1788-1988" compiled by the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering; and "Science and the making of Victoria", exploring the role of the Royal Society of Victoria in scientific history. Other items include an impressive collection of guides to archive records relating to various Australian scientists and societies, and information on resource management software developed by the Centre to manage its online publications, some of which is available for free downloading.
The Australian Science Archives Project (ASAP) Web site consists of a collection of resources drawing attention to the history of science in Australia, and the role played by prominent Australian scientists. The ASAP was founded in 1985 and ended in 1999, when its duties were passed to the Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre. The website continues to function, however and is hosted by the University of Melbourne. The main ASAP section of the site describes the project's aims and objectives, the staff that worked on it, and the services it provided. It features an extensive catalogue of publications, mostly guides to the papers of individual scientists, with ordering information. Several of these publications are available for free online. This part of the site also includes several online publications by ASAP staff, relating either to archives and archiving, or to particular scientific figures. Another part of the site, entitled 'Bright Sparcs', contains a database of scientific repositories in Australia, plus a biographical database browsable by scientific speciality. There are a number of online exhibitions hosted here as well, covering such fields as: optical munitions; Australian Nobel Laureates; the naturalist Amalie Dietrich; and the Australian nuclear physicist Sir Mark Oliphant. The Bright Sparcs section also includes a biographical directory of Australian physicists before 1945, and a searchable bibliography of the history of science in Australia. There is a user's and a teachers' guide to the resources. The 'Cabinet of Curiosities' section presents a very basic introduction to issues such as Australia's position in world science, perceptions of Australia, and how its scientific community has been shaped. Other resources available from the ASAP website include: the History of Australian Science Newsletter (from 1993 to 1995); an annotated transcription of the journal of Darwin's assistant, Syms Covington, on the voyage of the HMS Beagle, 1831-1836; Australian Academy of Science biographical memoirs; the Science, Technology and Medicine Archives; the AUS-ARCHIVISTS email list for Australian archivists; and a page of links to other online resources. In short, this is an extensive site containing many useful resources for students studying the history of science in Australia.
This web resource describes the Ava Helen and Linus Pauling holdings forming the special collection at the Valley Library of Oregon State University. Linus Pauling (1901-1994) is considered one of the foremost scientists of the twentieth century, and is the only person every to win two individual Nobel Prizes, for chemistry in 1954, and peace in 1962. His textbook 'General Chemistry' has been a mainstay of undergraduate curricula. The collection includes all of the Paulings' personal and scientific papers, notebooks, and correspondence from 1916 to the present. There are more than half a million items altogether. The website organises the holdings by material type and alphabetical order, returning the catalogue code for each item along with a brief summary of what it includes and what date it covers. Some of the holdings have been digitised and may be viewed online, but users should be aware that the catalogue lists are not linked directly to the digitised material, which must be accessed from different parts of the website. The site also includes biographical information about Linus and Ava Helen Pauling, and links to exhibitions and other sites relating to them. This website was developed to assist scholars in locating particular items from the Pauling collection, and it fulfils this role admirably.
This website is the online presence of AVISTA, which was founded in 1984 to promote interest in the writings of 13th-century French artist, Villard de Honnecourt. The extensive travel and wide ranging interests of Villard de Honnecourt have made him the figurehead of AVISTA, whose members now study the science and art of the medieval craftsman throughout the Middle Ages. With a strong interdisciplinary agenda, AVISTA's website promotes live events in North America and Europe, enjoying links with the Universities of Oxford and Leeds, as well as containing a large amount of accessible online information. The site has pages on Villard de Honnecourt, including a biography, bibliography and samples from his manuscripts, with discussion and analysis of his ideas. There are also comprehensive details of the society's print Forum Journal, with full contents listings and several archived issues available as PDF files. Also available are details of publications arising from society conferences. Particularly useful for those in search of secondary source material are the full contents analysis of these texts. Editors include Nancy Wu, Marie-Therese Zenner and Robert Bork. Comprehensive links and resources pages are available.
Charles Babbage (1791-1871) was the 19-century pioneer of calculating and computers. This website discusses his life, his achievments, and ground-breaking inventions. His famous Calculating Machine (which incendentky was never built in his life), was the forerunner of the modern computer, and he was very liekely the first programmer. This website provides a biogrpahy of the great mathamatician, includign a list of his inventions such as lighthouse signals, and mathamatical code breaking. Also outlined is Babbage's socio-political ideas. He was a great economist, suggesting that the centre of the economy was the industrialized factories. His ideas influence Marx's ideas about the evolution of society, and capitalism. There are bibliographic references given on various pages for those looking for further research. An illustration of his famous Calculating Machine is given. A brief explanation of Ada Lovelace, Lord Byron's half sister, who became one of Babbages' prize pupils, and is often accredited with the invention of programming. A large excerpt from Nathan Rosenburg's "Babbage: Pioneer Economist" which discusses in greater length Babbage's theories about economy, as well as an essay by the website designer called "Whiggism and the History of Science and the Study of the Life and Work of Charles Babbage". This website is recommended for students of nineteenth-century history, political science student, and economy students.
The website With Reference To accompanies of the BBC Radio 4 programme with the same name aired in 2002. Each programme in the series features a visit to a 'unique or definitive collection of some sort (e.g. teeth, plants, ice, recordings of English dialects)'. The most recent programme follows presenter Quentin Cooper to Stirling where he explores the archive of the spirits manufacturer, Diageo. Not simply an enquiry into the science of spirits, the programme also considers the history of the products - for example the replacement of brandy with gin as the most popular drink in the nineteenth century. The site includes links to other BBC science programmes, many of which can be heard on line.
This website, from the University of Indiana Ruth Lilly Medical Library, contains a substantial non-critical bibliography, of both recent and classic secondary work, under the heading American History of Medicine and Related Fields. The bibliography, organized alphabetically is unannotated, although some of the listings contain brief excerpts from the text of the work in question. The site also contains a much smaller bibliography under the heading General History of Medicine and Related Fields. The material is accessed as a simple scroll-down page and presentation is sparse but functional.
The excellent website of the Bill Douglas Centre for the History of Cinema and Popular Culture provides information on the academic research centre and its museum. The Centre houses one of the UK's largest collections of books, prints, artefacts and ephemera, collected by Bill Douglas and Peter Jewell. These depict the history of the cinema illustrating the development of 'optical recreation' and popular entertainment from the late 18th century to the present day. The centre also encompasses what it calls the "pre-history" of cinema, boasting a copy of Athanasius Kircher's "Ars Magna Lucis et Ombrae" of 1671, the first book to illustrate the magic lantern. There is a teaching and learning section, a searchable database of the collections, and further information about the onsite museum. An excellent section on further reading recommends the best publications on cinema and related themes. The website hosts virtual exhibitions and provides information about forthcoming events. The Teaching and Learning section includes information on degree courses, research opportunities and resources for schools for Key Stages 1 to 3. Worksheets are provided and the Centre can be used as a part of science projects, and 19th- and 20th-century history. The Centre's EVE online catalogue and virtual exhibition space received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and is preserved at AHDS Performing Arts.
The Biographical database of the British chemical community, 1880-1970 is a searchable database featuring biographies of around 3500 chemists active in Britain between the 1870s and 1970s. This database grew out of a project entitled 'Studies of the British Chemical Community: the Principal Institutions, 1881-1972', by Gerrylynn K Roberts and Robin Mackie of the Open University [UK], which incorporates a survey of some 9000 individuals. For data protection reasons, only those now deceased are profiled online. The chemists surveyed are drawn from the memberships of four professional bodies -- the Chemical Society, [Royal] Institute of Chemistry, Society of Chemical Industry, and Institution of Chemical Engineers -- plus staff and graduates of the Department of Chemistry at University College London. Each chemist's profile is brief and avoids narrative, presenting dates of birth and death, details of education and career, institutional memberships and honours received. An intelligently-designed search facility is provided, allowing complex searches by combinations of personal name, institution and birth date range; the records may also be browsed by name. The site also contains details about the scope of the database, further information on the institutions surveyed, and a list of publications arising from the project.
This compact website is part of an on-going project by mathematics students at Agnes Scott College, a private liberal arts college for women in Atlanta, USA. The aim of the project is 'to illustrate the numerous achievements of women in the field of mathematics'. Accordingly, the site contains short biographical essays, written by the students, about most of the notable women in the history of mathematics, which can be browsed alphabetically, chronologically or by location of birth. Also included in these essays are brief lists of references and, where available, images. In addition the site contains lists of mathematical prizes won by women, a list of some of the first women to study for PhDs in mathematics at American universities and a series of links to other sites relevant to women in mathematics. There is also a topical 'Did you Know?' feature containing references to women and/or mathematics in popular culture, in areas as diverse as 'The Simpsons' and the background of actress, Danica Mckellar, and the news on the future plans of notable female maths students. The site is regularly updated and includes details of workshops and conferences.
'The Black Death' website provides a basic summary of the great plague that struck Europe in 1347 and 1348, and wiped out around a third of the population. The site consists of a number of brief articles arranged into chapters. These cover the history of the plague, the disease itself, the social and medical response to it, and the effects of the disease on different aspects of life and culture. The site lacks full bibliographic notes, and is useful more as a general introduction to the subject rather than as a scholarly text.
The “Blackout History Project” website explores the experiences of those caught up in the power failures that affected the New York metropolitan area in 1965 and 1977. Reactions to the blackouts were very different: the first brought people together and the second led to looting and rioting. The site is experimental in that it asks visitors to help build the site by adding their own comments and recollections of events. This online resource focuses in particular on the experiences of New York residents during the two blackouts and on the technical failings of the electricity utilities. Included here are narrative accounts of the two blackouts, audio files and text transcripts of interviews conducted with ‘survivors’ and employees from the utilities companies and an online forum. In addition, many press articles and official documents relating to the incidents are reproduced in PDF format for downloading and several secondary essays place the events in their historical context and examine the lessons learnt by the power industry. This interesting site demonstrates how the interactive features of the Internet can be utilised for historical research on relatively recent events.
Bletchley Park was home to the Second World War codebreaking initiative which famously defeated the German Enigma machine, employing Alan Turing’s innovation of the Bombe, a predecessor of the early electromechanical computers. It now operates as a visitor attraction, and this official site is relatively commercial: there is, however, some historical information including a loose narrative chronology of events in the period September 1941-March 1942 (author unspecified) and an account of early Polish successes in breaking Enigma, often overlooked, plus photographs and a Java simulation of an Enigma machine (also available at the website of its author, Russell Schwager). The material is popular in tone and would be suitable for presenting to school-age or first-level undergraduates as background or a basis for project work; there is little of potential use to researchers, however, with the possible exception of a paper, written by Bletchley Park mathematician Frank Carter, entitled "Mathematics in Action". This discusses some of the principles behind the breaking of the Lorenz cipher: the full-text is available in PDF format. The site also provides conference details, briefly annotated links, and general information about visiting the site. The layout is rather busy and a little confusing: most of the useful material is to be found in the sections "Enigma" and "History".
This site, part of the American University of Beirut's Digital Documentation Center, publishes a digitised edition of Ibn Sina's text The Canon of Medicine. This was written by Ibn Sina, known as Avicenna in Europe, in the eleventh century, and is recognised as one of the most important early medical texts. It is an encyclopaedia of medicine and pharmacology, and incorporates Ancient Greek and Roman findings, as well as his own. The copy reproduced here is one published in 1593, and it can be browsed page by page. The introductory pages can be accessed in both Arabic and English, but the text itself is in sixteenth century Arabic.
Bright Sparcs is an online database of biographical, bibliographical and archival records on Australian scientists throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The database is published by the Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre, and was originally published as part of the Australian Science Archives Project. The database contains some 4,558 records on scientific figures, the majority of which are finding aids for archival material. Some of the records contain links to relevant articles and images. The database can be searched by keyword or by field, and the archival and bibliographic records can be searched separately. It is also possible to browse the records alphabetically, either by the repository where the records are held, or by the profession of the individual.
"Bring your party back safe" is an online exhibition created by the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library at the University of Virginia. The exhibition looks at the 1803 Lewis and Clark exploration into the U.S. West, concentrating on the medicine and medical theory employed by the Corps of Discovery to promote health and prevent disease and injury throughout the expedition. The site is easy to navigate and the text is engaging and well-written. Amongst the areas covered are the background to the expedition, and biographies of Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, Sacagawea and York. Most of the information relates to the medical aspects of the expedition, discussing accidents, injuries and diseases, the treatments for these, the medical supplies brought on the journey, and Native American relations.
This is an online version of a dictionary of chemical (and alchemical) terms current in the eighteenth century. The common historical name of a substance or process is provided, followed by its modern equivalent, and, where appropriate, the chemical symbol. The dictionary aspires to be multi-lingual but is not fully so at present. It is nevertheless an ambitious project that contains a great many entries. Links are provided to similar projects. The site should prove a useful reference source for students of the history of science.
The British Society for the History of Science is the principal organisation for the general academic study of the history of science in the UK. The Society's lively and current website provides information on the Society's publications, including the British Journal for the History of Science, the BHS monograph series and Viewpoint, the BHS newsletter. There is also up to date news on conferences organised by the BSHS, information on how to join the Society (open to non-academics), a list of members of the Society's Council (with contact addresses), and details of prizes awarded by the Society. Of particular importance is a comprehensive online Guide to Institutions offering courses in the history of science and related fields in the UK, and a BHS List of Theses. A separate section within the site is devoted to the BSHS Outreach and Education Committee, which aims to promote understanding of the history of science in primary, secondary and higher education and make resources available in several formats. The home page provides clear navigation around the site's various features. A list of links and details of relevant suppliers are also provided. This site is an essential resource to researchers in the History of Science at all levels.
The British Society for the History of Mathematics aims to promote research into the history of mathematics and its use at all levels of mathematics education. The Society was formed in 1971. It organises meetings, publishes a newsletter, and disseminates information about activities and projects in schools, colleges, universities, and elsewhere. The Society is interested in all aspects of mathematics, in all parts of the world, spanning all time periods. The website describes the organisation and provides membership details. It also serves as a news service, keeping users up-to-date as to conferences, meetings, and other events. A comprehensive list of recent book and article abstracts is provided on the site, as are the contents pages of the Society newsletter. There is a directory of history of mathematics courses at UK universities, and a mathematical gazetteer of the British Isles. The gazetteer consists of an index of towns and localities associated with great mathematicians or projects of mathematical interest, with short summaries of why each place is noteworthy.
Calculating Machines introduces the history of mechanical calculation devices from the abacus up to the electromechanical calculators of the twentieth century. It has been written from a collector's point of view, but should also appeal to those with a more academic interest in the subject. The site includes a chronological history of adding and calculating machines, with a classification system and colour photographs of many twentieth-century models. There is also a selection of American adverts for such machines from the 1930s to 1950s. Another section looks at early devices such as the abacus and the slide rule. The controversy surrounding the replica of Leonardo Da Vinci's adding machine is also covered. The site features articles from various publications, a Java applet simulating a "Felt" adding machine, and an email discussion list with online searchable archives. The reference section of the site contains a bibliography of printed works, a list of organisations, societies, and periodicals, and a page of links to other websites.
The Calculator Museum Web Page contains information about early electronic calculators from 1963 to 1975. The site consists of three main galleries: the Desktop Calculator Gallery features larger models spanning the entire period; the HP gallery is devoted specifically to models manufactured by Hewlett-Packard; and finally, there is a gallery of pocket calculators. Each gallery contains photographs of the models the site owner has collected, accompanied by text explaining technological innovations and interesting features. The site also features a 'trading post' for collectors of old calculators, and links to related websites.
This useful Internet site briefly describes various calendars, modern and historic, from around the world (including, for example, Chinese, Christian, Persian, Roman and lunar calendars). Each calendar is named and explained, with any adjustments due to the irregular solar or lunar orbits noted. Where relevant, such as with the Gregorian calendar, the dates on which various countries adopted the calendar are provided, along with the dates lost during the changeover. A comparative table enables quick comparisons between the various methods that have been employed to keep track of the days in a year. The resource can be searched by type of calendar or by topic. Themes which are covered include: the Earth's orbit; Kepler's laws of planetary motion; counting years; months, weeks and days; and New Year's Day. This site should prove to be a convenient reference source for arts students studying subjects with an historical dimension.
The Canadian Nursing History Collection is an online archive of digitised documents and artefacts taken from the collections of the Canadian Museum of Civilization, the Canadian War Museum, and Library and Archives Canada. Users can either search or browse the archive, which contains hospital and military uniforms, military medals, caps, pins, instrument kits, instructional books, nursing leaders memorabilia and paintings. Within this repository there are four special collections, the Canadian Nurses Association Collection, the Nursing Sisters Association of Canada Collection, the Gloria (Barwell) Kay Nurses' Caps Collection, and the Canadian War Museum Military Nursing Archival Collection. The quality of the digitisation is high, and each artefact is accompanied with explanatory text.
Sandretto are an Italian company that supply plastic moulding processes and machines. In 1995 they opened a museum devoted to the history of plastics. This accompanying website presents a brief history of plastics, along with images of many of the artefacts housed at the museum. It also includes a number of art images inspired by the chemistry of plastics. The site offers guided online tours of the plastics museum and the art museum, both of which have searchable catalogues. There is also a glossary of the various types of plastics, and an industrial history of Pont Canavese, the town in which the museum is situated.
Published by the British Library, the Online Catalogue of Photographically Illustrated Books provides a valuable search aid for those interested in the early history of photography. The collection, conceived in 1994 and initially funded by the Penny Charitable Trust, comprises over 1,300 books containing a total of 15,274 photographs, and is "one of the world’s largest and most comprehensive sources of early British and foreign photography" between 1839 and 1914. The complete catalogue can be searched online by keyword, or by using a more advanced search, with categories that include subject and process. Also on the site are some 320 digitised examples of the photographic content in the books, giving viewers a welcome taster in the British Library's Online Gallery of Historic Photographs. More digitised images are promised in future site updates. For a complete idea of the scope of early photographs used in books in the British Library collections, users should check the link to the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections, where there are additional similar sources. Instructions for searching the catalogue are provided, as are details on how to order image and more information on the history of this project. Related catalogues are posted and completed research on this collection are described.
This site, part of Rice University's Galileo Project, is an online catalogue of over six hundred members of the European scientific community during the sixteenth- and seventeenth-centuries. It is based on the catalogue compiled by Richard Westfall, late professor in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at Indiana University. Each entry contains various facts about the life and work of the individual in question, systematically organised into ten categories, which include family information, nationality, scientific disciplines, means of support and religion. Detailed information on the importance of the categories is offered. The catalogue may be searched on the basis of any or all of these categories, amounting to twenty searchable fields in all. The site's presentation is sparse but functional. It lacks an alphabetical listing of the names included, which would be a helpful feature.
The Center for History of Physics is a division of the American Institute of Physics (AIP). The centre has a mission to preserve and make known the history of modern physics and allied fields including astronomy, geophysics, optics, etc. The site includes links to the AIP History of Physics Newsletter which reports on work in the history of physics (and allied fields such as astronomy and geophysics), archival materials, bibliographies, photographs, etc; selected bibliographical listing of publications; exhibits and online source materials for history of physics and allied fields; links to other sites; history of physics syllabi (including reading lists); and the Center's Niels Bohr Library Archives (including library catalogue) .
The Center for History of Physics is run by the American Institute of Physics whose aim is to preserve the history of modern physics and allied fields including astronomy, geophysics, and optics. The site includes information on the Center's oral history and educational programmes and several well documented and interesting online exhibitions. There is also an International Catalog of Sources (ICOS), compiled by the Center to collect information on publications and research collections of historical interest in physics ; astronomy ; acoustics ; optics ; geophysics ; and medical physics. The ICOS covers the period from 1890 to the present, although it also includes notable collections from earlier in the nineteenth century. The database can be searched through an online catalogue. Another collection entitled Physics History Finding Aids offers full-text descriptions of finding aids at 15 different academic and research institutions. These can also be searched on the site. The site further provides the catalogues and information on the Center's library, the Niels Bohr Library in College Park, Maryland and its image archive, the Emilio Segrè Visual Archives. This section of the Niels Bohr Library possesses some 25,000 historical photographs -- several thousand of which can be browsed online. This site would prove invaluable for general interest, teaching or research. Despite its size, it is easy to navigate and clearly organised.
This site, from the American Institute of Physics, offers free access to the twice-annual newsletter of its Center for the History of Physics. Every issue since 1994 may be accessed in this way, and the opportunity to subscribe to future issues is also offered free of charge. The newsletter contains reports on recent work in the history of physics and allied fields such as astronomy and geophysics, carried out at the American Institute of Physics and elsewhere. Also included are reports on archival materials. Of perhaps most use, however, to the researcher is the site's comprehensive bibliography of recent books and articles in the history of physics, the former being usefully indexed by subject area, the latter according to the journal in which the articles appear. The site is very well presented and easy to navigate.
The website of the Centre for the History of Defence Electronics, History of Technology Research Unit, University of Bournemouth introduces the activities and scope of this research department. The research focuses on the work of their Oral History Research Unit, which aims to explore new ways of understanding technological change through oral history and to use the Internet in presenting the history of technology in the virtual museum environment. Currently, archive material available on the website relates mainly to radar and radio communications during the Second World War, also prisoner of war radios. You can listen to extracts from some of the interviews, some with a transcript, most with at least a summary of the key points to accompany the sound clips. There are also oral history presentations for the 'Talking About Technology' project, funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund, working with the University of the Third Age, which relate to local history - iron and steel, shipbuilding, building conservation - in Melton Mowbray, Basildon, Billericay, Wokingham, and Stamford. The creators of the site have ceased to add new materials or to expand their projects but the site still remains live to provide access to its archives.
The Centre for the History of Medicine, part of the University of Birmingham's Medical School, was established in 2000 as a centre for research and both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. Particular areas of specialisation include the medical history of the West Midlands area, medicine and surgery in ancient times, and the history of Army and other military medicine. This departmental site contains brief profiles of staff and researchers, with some publication details; information on teaching programmes; a short history (running to around 7000 words, with references) of the University of Birmingham Medical School itself, written by the Senior Lecturer, Robert Arnott; listings for the Centre's seminar series; and details of recent and forthcoming conferences in the history of medicine. Also present is a section on History of Medicine "Resources", which notably includes a list of webpages and societies related to the history of medicine.
The Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at Imperial College London (CHOSTM) is one of the largest units in Britain devoted to the historical side of the discipline. This departmental website provides contact details and publication lists for all teaching, research, and affiliate staff; general information on research degrees; details of PhD and MPhil researchers; details of the Centre's Research Seminar series (chiefly featuring postgraduate researchers from the Centre and other London departments); and a list of research resources, museums and relevant departments in the London area. One of the Centre's notable specialist areas is the history of Imperial College itself, which played a key role in the professionalisation of British science: a page is devoted to the Imperial College Centenary Book Project undertaken by Hannah Gay, scheduled for completion in 2007. Information is also provided about the Centre's other current research projects.
Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine (CHSTM), a unit within the School of History at the University of Kent at Canterbury, is active in research and both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. Its work focuses on consideration of the history of science as part of a wider culture, and promotes cross-disciplinary studies in science and literature, science fiction, and science and religion. This single webpage gives an overview of the Centre's activities and brief contact details; a link is provided to the main School of History pages, where information on staff, courses, conferences and postgraduate opportunities may be found.
This web page hosts an online essay introducing the history of astronomy in Denmark. Beginning in the Middle Ages and progressing to the present day, the site covers astronomers such as Tycho Brahe and Ole Rømer, and concludes with the astronomical observatory of Copenhagen University. The text contains hyperlinks to more detailed accounts of important people, places, and concepts. The site also introduces readers to the important astronomical sites in Copenhagen and provides links to calendar programmes and star calculator. Features of the site include some virtual three-dimensional models of Tycho Brahe and Ole Rømer's instruments, and an interactive periodic table that provides chemical data such as boiling point and atomic weight, along with the name of each element's discoverer and date of discovery.
The United States National Library of Medicine publishes this online exhibition about the history of female doctors in America. The site is well designed, and is based around a collection of biographies of medical women from the mid nineteenth century to the present. The exhibition itself is in three parts, the struggle to enter the medical profession; the impact women have had on medicine; and their position and influence in health care today. Alongside the biographies of women like Elizabeth Blackwell, Mary Putnam Jacobi, and Gerty Cori, there are interactive features and short videos. To view these requires the free Flash and QuickTime downloads. It is also possible to search the site by keyword, and the biographies can be searched by location, ethnicity, specialities and medical school. There is also a resources section with intelligent interactive activities; lesson plans for teachers of high school students; information about embarking on a medical career; and a selection of selected reading. This exhibition was nominated in the competition for Best Museum Web Site Supporting Educational Use in Museums and the Web 2004: Best of the Web.
The Charles Babbage Institute (CBI) is an historical archives and research centre of the University of Minnesota. It is dedicated to promoting study of the history of information technology and information processing and their impact on society. CBI preserves relevant historical documentation in all media, conducts and fosters research in history and archival methods, offers graduate fellowships, and sponsors symposia, conferences, and publications. The website also provides a catalogue of the institute's significant archives of the history of technology. Materials within the archives include: corporate records, manuscript materials, personal papers, records of professional associations, oral history interviews, trade publications, periodicals, obsolete manuals and product literature, photographs, films, videos, and reference materials, and books that have become historically significant in the subject area.
Cheiron is a society open to students and scholars working on issues relating to the history of the behavioural and social sciences. It aims to promote scholarly research and provide a broad perspective on contemporary scientific activities. The society organises conferences, offers an annual book prize, and publishes a newsletter, amongst other services. The website contains details of upcoming conferences and meetings, the Society's committee, and its membership dues. There is an online version of the newsletter, viewable in PDF format. The site also features a bibliography of recent publications by Cheiron members, along with syllabi details of courses they have taught. There are links to other online resources, including the Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences, with which Cheiron is affiliated. Finally, there is a page on the myth of Cheiron the Centaur, including links to the proceedings of a series of conferences on contemporary centaur scholarship.
The Chemical Heritage Foundation website is an excellent online resource for the study of the history of Chemistry. The site provides a clear and well-presented introduction for students new to the field as well as offering resources for teachers and researchers. The Centre is 'dedicated to preserving and sharing the history and heritage of the chemical and molecular sciences, technologies, and allied industries'. The site contains a wealth of materials, from introductory timelines and narratives of various aspects of chemical history, to online exhibitions. Classroom resources include education modules on molecular science and pharmaceuticals, and several chemistry 'WebQuests' for students. The Centre runs a fellowship programme for academics and offers services for visiting scholars. There is a page publicising forthcoming lectures, conferences, and meetings, and a section containing recent stories about the Centre. Links are provided to related sites. This is one of the foremost websites devoted to the history of chemistry, and should prove a useful resource for those teaching and working in this field.
The ChiMed website is intended to act as a clearing-house of information, where scholars interested in the history of Chinese medicine can exchange ideas. The site includes: a directory of scholars, giving their research specialisations and contact details; an index of institutions; a directory of libraries with noteworthy holdings; a collection of links to online resources; bibliographies and course syllabi; and a page of news and events. The news and events section features: details of ongoing seminar groups; calls for papers; information on jobs, prizes, and grants; and news of upcoming conferences.
This site contains a digitised version of Christiaan Huygens' 'Systema Saturnium', his pioneering work about the planet Saturn, its rings and moons. The 1659 edition is used. It is printed in Latin and the site does not provide a translation or a text file version, only images of each original page. The site does however allow users to skip directly to particular pages or illustrations. An introduction to Huygens and his work is provided. It explains the significance of his discoveries and places the book in its historical context, examining the (mixed) reaction to its Copernican ideas. Developments in astronomical observations of Saturn since Huygens are briefly summarised. Bibliographical information is given, along with a short list of sources.
Circumscribere (International Journal for the History of Science) is an international online peer-reviewed journal edited by the Center Simão Mathias for Studies in the History of Science, at PUC-SP, São Paulo. Published twice a year, it carries academic articles on the history of science as well as book reviews and dissertation abstracts. Previous articles have included topics as diverse as the chemical image of miners, signs and sciences of technology in Lisbon's streets, Jesuits sources fr the study of astronomy and female knowledge in distillation images and practices. Articles are published in English and PDFs are available to download freely from 2006 onwards. With a search engine and browsing capabilities, this is an excellent journal for students and researchers in the history of science.
The International Centre for the History of Universities and Science (CIS), based at Bologna University, aims to promote research into the history of science and the role of science in higher education. It encourages comparative studies in the field, and organises conferences to bring together scholars to facilitate the international exchange of information and ideas. The CIS website contains a number of useful features. Apart from introducing the Centre and its staff, it publishes a newsletter, 'Universitas', which may be read online. Produced annually, the online archives begin in 1997, although publication seems to have stalled more recently. The newsletter includes articles and book reviews as well as announcements. The website carries news of upcoming conferences and publications on its main page. Another feature of the site is the series of 'Bologna science classics online'. At present, there are two full-text primary works on the site: Luigi Galvani's 'De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari' and Mondino dei Liuzzi's 'Anothomia'. Both works are in Latin and are available as digitised page images or text files (enabling text searching). The site hosts iconographic archives, illustrating the history of science and technology at the University of Bologna from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century. Over 700 images are included in a searchable database. Images are accompanied by explanatory captions (in Italian) and bibliographic details. There is an interactive guide to the scientific history of Bologna (in Italian) and a guide to history of science holdings in the city's libraries (also in Italian).
The principal content of Classic Chemistry is a large collection of transcripts of primary documents from the history of chemistry and related fields, maintained by Dr Carmen Giunta of the Department of Chemistry at Le Moyne College, New York State. The contents are arranged by subject area, with sections devoted to biochemistry, electrochemistry, electronic structure, organic chemistry, periodicity, radioactivity, thermodynamics and several other fields; there is also an alphabetical index by author's name. The date range is very broad, but most of the papers date from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Links to relevant biographical sketches, portraits etc are occasionally given. Although most of the documents linked to are hosted by the site itself, there are some external links, mostly to the ChemTeam's Classic Papers from the History of Chemistry site. All such links are clearly indicated. The local transcripts are mostly quite short and often excerpted; where a translation or modern edition has been used, this is indicated above the text. Pagination is not recorded. Also present on the Classic Chemistry site are a potentially useful glossary of archaic chemical nomenclature, a page of links, with brief annotations, to other sites in the history of chemistry, history of science in general, and scientific biography. This site has received many commendations and mentions in scientific journals.
Classic Papers from the History of Chemistry is an online repository of primary source documents maintained by the ChemTeam, a US organisation mainly concerned with providing resources in chemistry for high school students. The material on this page of their website, however, is suitable for a more advanced audience also. Some eighty documents are provided, arranged in chronological order: there are a few pieces from the prehistory of chemistry including extracts from Paracelsus, but the material is primarily of nineteenth- or early-to-mid twentieth-century origin. There is a distinct bias towards physical chemistry and the sub-atomic realm. Featured texts include: Volta’s work on the battery; Davy and Faraday on new elements; Joule on the mechanical equivalent of heat; Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden on the nucleus; Bohr on atomic structure; Chadwick on the neutron, and Meitner and Frisch on nuclear fission. Most of the articles are provided as transcripts, but some are facsimile images: there is no indication concerning this on the main index page. Most of the transcripts are excerpted and pagination is not recorded.
Classics in the History of Psychology is a project to provide online transcripts of noteworthy texts from the history and prehistory of the psychological sciences. The project is based in the Department of Psychology at York University, Toronto. The site is regularly updated and contains around 25 full-text books, and 200 articles, with excerpts from longer publications. The inevitable restrictions due to copyright mean that many important texts cannot be reproduced here, but the site still represents an extremely valuable collection. Among the many authors represented are Aristotle, Sigmund Freud, William James, Carl Jung, B F Skinner, J B Watson and Wilhelm Wundt. The contents are indexed by author name and by broad subject area, and there is a basic search facility. All of the contents are presented in HTML form, generally presented as single webpages except where length prohibits this. Publication dates and edition numbers are scrupulously recorded, but the pagination details of the original print editions are not. The site also provides a collection of links to relevant primary texts maintained at other sites. Another useful feature is the page of suggested readings, arranged by subject area and with a commentary on importance and context. This is aimed at students in the history of psychology and related fields and offers a useful starting point for early research.
Clocks and Time is essentially a resource guide to Internet sites about horology, from an historical or scientific perspective. Some of the links are annotated, but many are simply listed according to topic area. The site does, however, provide an interesting FAQ section and some software that may be downloaded. The FAQ section addresses such problematic issues as whether timepieces should use 'IIII' or 'IV', the origins of hours and minutes, and why clock hands are often depicted at 10:10. A potentially useful resource on a slightly unusual subject. The site does feature some text adverts, but these are not unduly intrusive.
Codes and Ciphers in the Second World War is a site principally devoted to the work of Bletchley Park, the secret British codebreaking centre. The site is maintained by Tony Sale, original curator of the Bletchley Park Museum, and is independent from the present Bletchley Park Trust. Significantly richer in detail than the official Bletchley Park site, it provides useful introductions (both technical and contextual) to the prehistory of the codebreaking initiative; the operation of the various Enigma machines; the roles of Polish and French cryptanalysts; Alan Turing and the development of the Bombe; the physical layout of the Park (with numerous photographs from 1938 and the present); the logistics of the codebreaking and translation process; the building of the Colossus machine to break the Lorenz cipher; and the 1990s project to reconstruct Colossus, which was instigated and organised by the site's author. Notes to several lectures given by Tony Sale on Enigma, the Bombe and the Colossus are also included, as is a chronology (compiled from secondary sources) of twentieth century codebreaking history. Also present are full-text transcripts of several reports and manuals from the 1940s which concern Enigma or Bletchley Park, presented in PDF format; a contents list to Tony Sale's personal database (not archived online) of source documents from the history of cryptanalysis; and an interactive simulation of the Colossus machine.
Colour Prints by George Baxter (1804-1867) is an online exhibition displaying archival collections held at the E. J. Pratt library, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Baxter was an English lithographer and engraver who "developed a process to produce colour prints from blocks and plates using oil-based inks. His aim was to provide good, inexpensive prints for popular sale, and to imitate oil painting. He was the first printer successfully to use oil-based inks, and was among the first to make colour prints available to ordinary people." These images helped to set the tone for the period: compare, for example, the similar styles of The Carrier Pigeon and The Holy Family. A number of fine samples are available for users to view online. Images are arranged according to the following categories: Early Prints; Missionary Prints; Needle-box Prints; Portraits; the Coronation; and Exteriors and Landscapes. They are accompanied by helpful historical and cultural commentary. Further information -- including lists of all print titles held in the Library, Baxter's biography and a full account of his work, and other samples of his pieces -- is available on a subpage of the E. J. Pratt Library Special Collections page, which is also devoted to Baxter. Researchers in British Art History for the Victorian period should find the site of special interest.
The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online is a website providing unprecedented, comprehensive access to Darwin's published works and unpublished papers as well as to his private papers. With at least one exemplar of all known Darwin publications available here, this impressive resource provides over 40,000 pages of searchable text and over 150,00 images. Complementing these primary texts (which have either been scanned or transcribed, or both) are a number of other valuable resources. These include: the largest Darwin bibliography, based on the work of R.B.Freeman; the largest catalogue of Darwin manuscripts (from the University of Cambridge Library); hundreds of additional texts such as reviews of Darwin's works, obituaries, biographies, and works useful for studying Darwin; and editorial introductions to contextualise Darwin's work and aid understanding. As from April 2008, Darwin's private papers are also available, including his diaries, field notebooks, drafts, drawings and diagrams, photographs and much more.
The site may be navigated in a number of ways, including searching and browsing, as described on the User Guide page. Additions and improvements to the site are being made continually; more editions, translations and introductions are planned, and new materials added can be found in the 'What's New' section. MP3 files of some of the works may be downloaded for free, and a user guide is available to help make the most of this vast website. This immensely important and rich resource will appeal to anyone interested in the works of Charles Darwin, and represents a major contribution to the digital humanities.
The Computer History Museum is a visitor attraction, archive and deposit centre for the history of computing and computer culture, based in California's Silicon Valley. The Museum's associated website will be of interest to researchers mainly for a section on access to its collections, begun in the 1970s and now numbering many thousands of items, grouped under the headings Artefacts, Documentation, Software, Media (audiovisual footage) and Ephemera. Eventually the catalogues for all collections will be digitised and placed online; at present only the Artefacts catalogue is available, accessed through a keyword search facility. The site also provides a few "online exhibits": a history of the Internet (to 1992) with narrative discussion; a timeline charting the development of the microprocessor; and photographs and brief details of several of the Museum's artefact holdings. Another feature is a more general timeline, covering the period 1945 to 1990. Short summaries of individual events from the established historiography of computing are presented: the subheadings under which they are classified -- "computers"; "people and pop culture"; "software"; "components"; "robots and artificial intelligence"; "networks"; "companies" -- define the scope of the survey. The tone is concise, poppy, and sometimes unreasonably glib (1970: "Vietnam War protesters attacked university computer centers. At the University of Wisconsin, the toll was one human and four machines"): the material may be of help to some beginning students looking for an overview of the field, but is unlikely to be better than the established print sources. In addition, the site gives details of the museum's location, staff and current events, including lecture series.
An archive of data on over 80 twentieth century women who have made original and important contributions to physics, and whose contributions to physics were published before 1976. The Web page describes their major contributions to different areas of physics and provides biographical information pertaining to their scientific achievements. Fields covered include astrophysics, atomic physics, molecular physics, optics, condensed matter, cosmic rays, crystallography, fluid dynamics, plasma physics, geophysics, materials physics, mathematical physics, nuclear physics, particles and fields, beams, and space physics. The site includes the full-text of documents written by some of the women. It was compiled by Nina Byers with the help of colleagues at UCLA.
Contributions of Twentieth Century Women to Physics is an archive of information, mostly bibliographic, on 83 women in the history of physics whose principal researches were published between 1900 and 1976. It has been compiled by members of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at UCLA, and verified by an extensive network of specialist field editors. Each profile lists significant publications, education details and positions held, with brief biographical notes and annotated bibliographies of deeper biographical material where this is available. References to papers cited, etc, provided in detail on separate pages reached via hyperlinks. The profiles may be browsed by subject area, and a comprehensive search facility is available. The site also hosts the full-texts of a number of "fascinating documents" (such as papers, conference addresses and obituaries) by or concerning the women featured; an annotated photo gallery, which might serve as an introductory guide to women's role in twentieth-century physics; and essay pieces on fields in which women were conspicuously prominent, such as the nuclear physics work of Lise Meitner, Ida Noddack, the Curies and others.
The Cosmographia of Petrus Apianus was one of the most popular books of its kind in sixteenth-century Europe. The book acted as a layman's introduction to such subjects as astronomy, geography, cartography, surveying, navigation, and mathematical instruments. The authors of the website describe cosmography and the intellectual context into which the Cosmographia was published. They also look at the technological aspects of the work, and the situation regarding the scientific instruments of its time. There is a bibliography and a list of editions of the Cosmographia. The text itself is not included with the site. Despite this obvious absence, the site does provide a good introductory essay on the history of science and the history of publishing in sixteenth century Europe.
'The Creation of Color in Eighteenth-Century Europe' is a scholarly historical monograph and online exhibition, hosted by Gutenberg-e and Columbia University Press. The focus of this cross-disciplinary book is on England and France, and includes Germany and the Netherlands as well, and it examines both the scientific, philosophical, and cultural aspects of the history of the development of colours in those nations. The website is illustrated, and PDF print-ready versions of each section are available. There is an index of all media included in the website. In addition to the free access/open access version, the book is available through the Humanities E-Book series of the ACLS (US).
The website "Croness Pumping Station" is published by the Crossness Engines Trust, and is part of the National Grid for Learning. The site covers the history of the Crossness Pumping station, built in 1865 by Joseph Bazalgette as part of London's new drainage system. There is a sizeable section on the pumping station's history, taken from Ian G. Hampson's 'A popular history of Crossness'. This covers the building and it's engines, as well as including a biography of Joseph Bazalgette, and information on the state of London's sanitation and public health in the Victorian age. There is also information about the Trust and it's work to restore Crossness since the 1980s.
This is ‘virtual museum’ of the Cornubian Orefield – the mineral rich geological formation which underlies much of Cornwall. Exploited for thousands of years, the orefield was mined industrially from the early nineteenth century, and the Cornish mining landscape is now a UNESCO world heritage site. This website, the result of AHRB (now AHRC) funded research introduces the geology and industrial history of the Cornubian Orefield, illustrated with items prepared from the extensive collections of Camborne School of Mines, the Royal Cornwall Museum, Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Penzance, Cornwall, Bodmin Town Museum, and various individuals. The website includes a substantial bibliography relating to the history of mining and geology in Cornwall.
The Culture and History of Science Page provides information and resources for students and scholars in this discipline. Written in a mixture of German and English, this site is the work of cultural anthropologist Hartmut Krech from the University of Bremen. A 'materials' section provides the user with a long index of German-language authors writing on the theory, history, and culture of science and the humanities. The site also hosts electronic versions of texts by Francis Bacon ('Of the Proficience and Advancement of Learning'), Immanuel Kant, and Auguste Comte. These are all reproduced in their original languages and edited by Dr. Krech. There is an illustrated list of Krech's own publications (including online materials) and a list of courses he has been involved with. The 'news' button links to 'Kultur-Express', a German website providing up-to-date news in all areas of the cultural sciences.
Cultures of Knowledge is the website of a project funded by the Andrew W Mellon Foundation. The project website is hosted by the Faculty of History at the University of Oxford, whose partners in the project include institutions in the UK; Wales; Hungary; the Czech Republic; and Poland. The aim of the project is to catalogue and edit the Bodleian Library's archives of correspondence of some of the 17th century's leading men of science, and make these widely available to international scholars. It is ultimately hoped that the project will enable international collaboration and study into the intellectual history of the period. The website provides information on: the aims of the project; the partner institutions; resources held at the Bodleian (including brief biographies of: John Aubrey; John Wallis; Edward Lhwyd; and Martin Lister); events and details of how to get involved in this work; and related links and bibliographies. This site would interest those working in: English; history of science; and history.
Da Vinci Notebook is a webpage from the British Library's collection. The manuscript is sometimes referred to as 'The Codex Arundel' and was put together after Da Vinci's death from loose papers. The material dates from throughout Da Vinci's life (1452-15190 and ranges from geometry, mechanics and landscape architecture to the movement of water and the flight of birds. The document is part of the British Library's Treasures which makes available historically significant manuscripts in its public galleries and reproduced through the British Library's Publication Programme. The manuscript is also available online through the library's Turning Pages Programme. Da Vinci's unusal handwriting from right to left and in Italian has been reversed and translated into English for users. A Shockwave Player is required to view the manuscript.
'Darwin 200' is the website of a national event in the UK, which aims to celebrate the 200th birthday of the scientist Charles Darwin. The website has been created by the Natural History Museum and has a full description of the project, its aims, and partner events such as a BBC 'Darwin season' on television. There is also an events listing which is searchable by keyword or can be filtered by place. Visitors to the website can create their own customised programme of events. The website also has a guide to online Darwin resources, and an interactive map of "Darwin's Britain". This may be a useful website for those studying media coverage of science, public understanding of controversy in scientific history, and the role of the arts in contemporary science education.
The website "The Darwin Correspondence Online Database" is not only an online database, but also provides an extended and extremely comprehensive bibliography of works on the eminent scientist and thinker. It is of use to those researching or studying any aspects of Darwin's thinking, nineteenth century correspondence, or any other figures connected to Darwin, as well as botanists, biologists, and sociologists. It contains information on all the known correspondence of Charles Darwin, which can be searched by name, places, plants, animals, geological terms, and many other terms. There is also a list of correspondents, supplemented with their biographical details. The correspondence is also arranged chronologically, consisting of almost fourteen thousand items from 1821 to Darwin's death in 1882, at the time of cataloguing. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) within the Resource Enhancement scheme.
The Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge is one of the world's major centres for study in HPS. This website provides general departmental information, details of staff and graduate students and their research areas, and full listings of over a dozen seminar series, specialist discussion groups and workshops running within the Department. The section "Research Guide", under "Information for Current Students" or on the "Quick Links" section, is one of the best things of its kind ever created, containing numerous essays by members of the Department on areas such as writing style, collecting oral history and organising dissertations, plus bibliographies for a wide variety of specialist fields within the history and philosophy of science. This is invaluable material for students of HPS at any institution, and some of the bibliographic guides may in addition prove useful for higher-level researchers. A separate section within the site is devoted to the Whipple Museum of the History of Science, housed within the Department. The museum specialises in scientific instruments and related materials, and is particularly strong on items produced in England between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. The website provides outline details of its collections, exhibitions and publications, plus a number of "case studies" or small online exhibits. The Department's Whipple Library also has a presence on the site: this offers online catalogue information, collection development policy guidelines, etc, plus a list of dissertations and theses held by the Library, downloadable in PDF format.
The Open University's Department of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine is a relatively large unit, offering undergraduate study and postgraduate research, with specialisations both in the early-modern period and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This departmental site comprises a set of staff pages, including selected publications and notes on research interests; details of undergraduate courses, with synopses, reading lists, entry requirements, etc; information on applying for postgraduate research, with a list of current and past research topics (including some detailed information on a number of projects).
The Development of the London Hospital System, 1823-1982 is an online edition of an out-of-print book of the same title written by Geoffrey Rivett. The book is concerned with the way the London hospital system evolved over two centuries, from a combination of fever, poor law and voluntary hospitals to the NHS system. Each chapter is hyperlinked, with further links to subheadings, making it easy to navigate. In brief they cover medical education and the various types of public hospitals during the nineteenth century, developments from 1860-1889, 1890-1914, and during the interwar period, the Emergency Medical Service during the Second World War, Aneurin Bevan and the NHS, and developments in the NHS 1968-1982. The author is also writing an additional chapter to take the book right up to the end of the twentieth century.
The website of the Division of History of Science and Technology of the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science is most suitable for researchers who are interested in the active contribution of this organisation to world affairs. It is set out as an introduction to the work of the DHS, but also aims to offer a general introduction to the History of Science through a brief list of suggested online resources. The site sections include: a short introduction to the DHST/IUHPS; an organisation chart; information on the structure of DHST; a guide to history of science on the Internet; and news and further information. Copies and transcripts of press releases and statements issued by the IUHPS may be found in the news and information section, as well as the minutes of meetings internationally. Aside from the ongoing meetings, which cover various matters including grants and commission reports, public statements include several expressing concern over the fate of cultural sites, libraries and artefacts where armed conflict is ongoing. Also included are newsletters and presentations of research findings, such as the 'World History of Science Online: database of bibliographical and archival sources' project report. This resource is well-presented and straightforward to use, offering insights into the role of the DHS/IUHPS, and starting points for further research.
The Dibner Library is the Smithsonian Institution Library for the history of science and technology. It holds a number of special collections of manuscripts and rare books dating from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries. It has grown from Bern Dibner's original collection of works about Leonardo da Vinci to now include over 35,000 rare books covering such fields as engineering, transportation, chemistry, mathematics, physics, electricity, and astronomy, and 2,000 manuscript sources. The website describes the history of the library and its collections, along with access details and its services for scholars and the general public. A section on new acquisitions provides an annual report, and a PDF newsletter gives details on other projects and developments. Lectures and digital editions of primary works are accessible from the site. The library also offers research grants for students and an annotated list of links to other online resources. The library's holdings are included on the international OCLC database and on the Smithsonian Libraries own catalogue, SIRIS. There is a list of further reading for those interested in learning more about the library.
The Digital Clendening site is published by the Clendening History of Medicine Library and Museum, part of the University of Kansas Medical Center. The site features eight digitised collections related to the history of medicine in several countries. The collections are an eclectic mix, and include a database of rare text images, taken from medical and natural history books published before 1800, a collection of some 500 portraits of historical medical figures, and images of the history of medicine in the Ralph Major Photographs collection. There are two other fascinating visual collections of Japanese medical prints and Chinese public health posters. The final three collections are of documents, the Samuel Crumbine papers, the Rudolf Virchow manuscripts, and the Florence nightingale letters.
The directory of history of medicine collections website has been created by the National Library of Medicine in the United States. The site aims to provide information about history of health sciences collections providing research, reference and inter library loan facilities. The main focus of the site is on collections held in the United States. Limited information on collections held in Canada, France, Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom is also available. The information on the site is organized alphabetically by U.S. state and the non-U.S. collection are presented alphabetically by country. Each collection entry provides contact details (including web addresses), a brief abstract describing the collection and a holdings record.
This impressive medical history site, The Discovery and Early Development of Insulin, provides a wealth of primary source material on this important scientific discovery in Canada during the 1920s. Published by the University of Toronto Libraries, the website content is mainly taken from the archives of Dr. Frederick Banting and Dr. Henry Best housed at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library at the University of Toronto. Over 7,000 facsimile images of primary documents relating to this treatment for diabetes are available online, and include laboratory notebooks and charts, letters, writings, scientific papers, photographs, clippings, scrapbooks, awards, artefacts and other printed ephemera. The content can be searched or browsed and there are also short chapters covering an overview of the discovery, the experience of patients, and biographies of the co-discoverers. There is also an interactive timeline, spanning the years 1913-1926, highlighting important milestones in the history of insulin and its use in treating diabetics.
This website from the American Institute of Physics presents a hypertext history of global warming which supplements a book written by Spencer Weart entitled "The Discovery of Global Warming". The entire site is searchable, with the table of contents acting as a site map. The whole resource can be downloaded as a zip file, or individual essays can be printed out as PDF files. Alternatively the whole site is available on a CD-ROM.
The Discovery of Global Warming is a subsite of the Center for History of Physics, which in turn is administered by the American Institute of Physics. This site provides a narrative on the history of climate change science and the culmination of that field's findings in the understanding of the effects of greenhouse gases on the atmosphere of the planet. Topics range from the scientific analysis of the phenomenon of global warming -- to the socio-political issues which have surrounded it. Navigation of the site is not linear, as there are two sorts of essays within the general narrative: longer essays to describe "the history of some major development, such as computer modeling or international negotiations" and shorter pieces which focus deeply on a particular topic of historical importance. For this reason, teachers who use the content may wish to guide students' navigation to focus on particular aspects of the site. Footnotes are hyperlinked throughout within the text. In addition, the site offers information on navigation ; ordering the book upon which this shorter online history is based ; downloading capabilities ; a site map ; and methodology, sources and the essay's bibliography.
The Discovery of the Electron is another online mini-exhibition featured by the Center for History of Physics, administered by the American Institute of Physics. The site begins with an overview of the life and work of Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940) whose work at Cambridge on electromagnetism and atomic particles was performed in conjunction with the teaching of many talented young physicists -- seven of whom later won Nobel prizes and 27 of whom later became Fellows of the Royal Society. The site goes on to describe the rest of Thomson's career: his own Nobel prize ; the influential work of his contemporaries ; his discovery of electrons as components of atoms. The site includes a sound file of Thomson discussing his ideas and is illustrated with historical photographs. Concise, clear and easy to navigate, the exhibition would make an excellent teaching tool, although it is less extensive than some of the other exhibitions attached to the Center for History of Physics site. There is a brief links list and select bibliography provided for further information and reading.
This website provides information on the Dittrick Medical History Center (Cleveland, Ohio) and its collections of 60,000 rare books, 60,000 museum artifacts, 10,000 images, and archive listings. Originally part of the Cleveland Medical Library Association (est. 1894), the Dittrick is now an interdisciplinary centre within the College of Arts and Sciences of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. It is an international resource for the study of the history of medical technology, and provides research material for the study of speciality areas and local and international medical institutions. The site has six main sections: the Dittrick Museum of Medical History which consists mainly of a collection of instruments gathered from Cleveland physicians dating from 19th and 20th centuries; the rare medical book collection dating from late 14th century to 20th century; a section featuring 4 small online exhibits (Cleveland's smallpox epidemic of 1902; Images of dissection; a tour of Lake View Cemetery, Cleveland; and Asklepios Murals at the Allen Memorial Library); sample lists and overviews of the centre's archives; the image collection; and a What's New? section. Each section provides a very small sample of the collections housed at the center through the use of online images accompanied by brief background essays. There are also pages listing the Centre's publications, events and links to medical museums, archives and libraries both in the USA and worldwide. This site is regularly updated and includes news of forthcoming events and publications.
The American Museum of Natural History's palaeontology department website contains an immense database of fossils held by the Museum, which houses the largest collection in the world. What may be of more interest to Humanities scholars, however, are the late nineteenth and early twentieth-century field notebooks, photographs, and letters of the famous palaeontologists of this era. Many of the notebooks have been fully digitised, allowing users to magnify the images of the original pages as well as viewing the text transcripts. These books provide an insight into the working practices of fossil-hunters around the turn of the twentieth-century as well as providing records on the fossil-finds themselves.
The Dream of Flight is an online exhibition published by the Library of Congress. It looks at the history of flight, and the notion of flight in past centuries. Using digitised primary sources from the library's collections the exhibition explores images and ideas of flight from antiquity, through to the Renaissance and then the twentieth century. The history of hot air balloons is covered, and the first dirigibles, as well as a substantial chapter about the Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville, which features some fascinating archive material. In addition there is a useful timeline of important dates, and a list of suggested further reading.
This online database contains over 3,000 photographs, illustrations, engravings, and bookplates for the history of medicine and life sciences in the Duke University Medical Center Library's History of Medicine collections. It is searchable by general keyword or by individual fields (description; author/artist name; title of image; title of source; place; date; subjects). The images presented via the web are reasonable but not of publication quality. Access to three special collections is also included in the database : 107 slides from Georg Bartisch's Ophthalmodouleia; Das is Augendienst (published 1583); The Four Seasons - 504 slides of 4 seventeenth-century copperplate engravings depicting seasons of the year with each season used as a metaphor of one of the 'ages of man'; and the 'Stewart Album' containing 206 photographs of German, French, Spanish, Italian and English physicians and scientists prominent in the mid nineteenth century. These subsets may be searched separately or as part of the entire HIM database.
The site provides an introduction to the 20,000 monographs, 4,000 manuscripts, as well as medical instruments, photographs and illustrations housed in the Duke University (Durham, North Carolina, USA) Medical Center Library's History of Medicine Collections. Six online exhibitions based on the collections are accessible. The site also provides a gateway to the Historical Images in Medicine (HIM) database (over 3,000 items) and to the National Library of Medicine's HISTLINE database. The Collections include histories of medicine, medical institutions, biographies of doctors, and other practitioners, and the historical aspects of every field of medicine. Online lists of guides, bibliographies and encyclopaedias available in the Library are provided.
Until the late 19th century when developments in the chemical industry allowed the manufacture of artificial colouring agents, dyes were laboriously manufactured from a range of plant and animal extracts. This wide-ranging website provides a comprehensive historical, cultural and scientific overview of the various processes involved in the making of dyes such as Indigo and woad, Tyrian purple, Murexide and Lichen purple, from technical chemical details to biographical and historiographical material illuminating the history of dye making. Extensive bibliographic references and weblinks on this subject and contact details of modern manufacturers and supplies of traditional dyes are provided. The resource includes a guide to the contents of the journal "Dyes in History and Archaeology" since 1991 which published the proceedings of annual conferences on this subject. The text is illustrated throughout with a variety of botanical and historical images as well as many chemical formulae. The hypertext links lead you to a variety of websites of related interest in English, French and German. "Ancient dyes" has a wide potential audience among students and researchers of archaeology, anthropology and history of all periods (including the history of science, industry and clothing). Regular meetings are organised and advertised on this website.
Early Classics in Biogeography, Distribution, and Diversity Studies: To 1950 is a beautifully clear and informative bibliographic and full-text resource covering early publications broadly relating to biogeography, the study of the distribution of living organisms. The site's creator is Dr Charles H Smith, Science Librarian at Western Kentucky University and himself a former research biogeographer, author of the well-known Alfred Russel Wallace resource site. The bibliography is a straightforward alphabetical list by author, unannotated and presented as a single webpage, citing close to 600 publications (chiefly journal articles) from the early nineteenth century to 1950. Most of the papers referenced are in English but there are some in other languages, with German research particularly prominent. What makes the listing particularly useful is that links are provided to full-text transcripts of the works cited wherever these occur on the web; many of these transcripts have been prepared by Dr Smith and are available on-site. Also present -- carefully distinguished by colour-coding -- are links for all those papers which, although not freely available on the web, have appeared in journals with electronic archives available through the commercial JSTOR service. Most universities now subscribe to JSTOR, and so the majority of academic users will be able to access some or all of these papers (often only in digital facsimile form): results, however, will vary according to individual institutions' subscription arrangements. In a similar fashion, links are provided to online biographical information on the authors cited wherever it can be found. The list of authors is broad, including amongst many others Louis Agassiz, Buffon, Robert Chambers, Georges Cuvier, Charles Darwin, R A Fisher, John Gould, Asa Gray, Ernst Haeckel, J B S Haldane, Joseph Hooker, Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson, Alfred Russel Wallace and Sewall Wright. At the time of cataloguing, a keyword index and search facility were in development.
The European Association for the Study of Science and Technology, founded in 1981, is a pan-European learned society (with some members elsewhere) covering the field of Science and Technology Studies. This site includes a full-text online archive of the Association's quarterly journal, EASST Review, dating back to 1994; an open-access email directory of present and former members; information on joining the society, and a small, unannotated collection of links to STS-related sites. The site suffers from some odd web design in places and often appears to be out of date: it is stated to be maintained regularly but infrequently, "on or about the 15th of March, June, September and December", to coincide with the publication of the journal.
This website is part of the Centre for History and New Media at George Mason University. The Research Centre is an annotated catalogue with reviews of over 5,000 websites on the history of science, technology and industry. The collection may be searched or browsed by key word, topic, content or time period. The Collecting Centre is a directory of websites dedicated to online collections of historical materials. It may be browsed by topic and offers a guide to best practice for collecting history online, with a range of additional free tools and services. It also has links to the sites of featured projects. This is a comprehensive site, generous in its resources and well-presented, but it appears to not have been updated since 2005.
This web resource, from the University of Pennsylvania library, is part of the Schoenberg Centre for Electronic Text and Image. It offers selected online reproductions of historical scientific images from its large Edgar Fahs Smith collection, which emphasises the period prior to 1850. These include images of scientists, laboratories, and scientific apparatus dating from as early as the fifteen century, as well as facsimiles of selected pages and sections from early scientific treatises. An introduction to the work of Edgar Fahs Smith (1854-1928), 'Alchemy, Metallurgy and Pharmacy: Edgar Fahs Smith and the History of Chemistry' by Lynne Farrington is included. Photographs of any of the images may be ordered using the online order form. The images are clearly indexed under general headings and the site's overall presentation is excellent.
A biography of Thomas Edison (1847-1931), produced by the Lemelson Center to celebrate the 150th birthday of the great American inventor. The website also relates the stories behind some of Edison's most famous inventions, such as the electric light bulb, the phonograph, the telephone transmitter, and the quadruplex telegraph system. A page of Edison's 'quotes and quips' reproduces some of his more famous sayings. The site also includes instructions for making one's own (rather elementary) electric light bulb. This exhibition was nominated in the competition for Best Museum Web Site Supporting Educational Use in 'Museums and the Web 2004 : Best of the Web'.
The website of the PBS programme, 'Edison's Miracle of Light', from the series 'American Experience', offers a starting point for research on Thomas Edison. It is aimed at a general audience so lacks scholarly analysis in any great depth. However, it does offer an overview, a wide range of information, points of departure for further study and some useful detail on the primary source documents used in making the programme. The site is in five sections: 'The Film and More' includes a description and transcript of the programme, a list of Edison's 1,093 patents and comprehensive further resources list; the 'Special Features' section has a simple interactive presentation, 'AC/DC: What's the difference?' and RealAudio and MP3 downloadable selections of blues and jazz songs, originally recorded by the Edison Company; the 'Timeline' charts Edison's life, while the 'Gallery' has eight pages of images relating to Edison, from inventions to advertisements. The 'Teacher's Guide' is aimed at school students but the suggestions for project work around the programme could be addressed at a higher level, and may offer some ideas for further study. This is a straight-forward, well-presented site, whose accessible approach offers an easy introduction to Edison's work.
Developed by the American Institute of Physics, 'Einstein: Image and Impact' is a website very much in the style of a general-interest museum exhibition. It tells the story of Albert Einstein's life and legacy through around 100 pages of narrative, photographs and other images. The site is likely to offer most interest to undergraduate students seeking plain-language introductory material. There is a good balance of commentary on Einstein's personal life, work and opinions, with headings including, Formative Years, World Fame, Quantum and Cosmos, and Science and Philosophy. Secondary source materials are included in a series of essays by historians. These include, 'Einstein's Worldview' by Gerald Holton, 'Einstein on the Photoelectric Effect' by David Cassidy, and 'How did Einstein Discover Relativity?' by John Stachel. The site also includes a concise chronology of important events in the life of Einstein, a short bibliography, and a selection of web links with brief annotations.
Einstein Archives Online details holdings of the manuscripts of Albert Einstein (1879-1955), the great scientist and formulator of the general theory of relativity. The website also makes available digital images of those papers and notebooks held at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Over 3,000 digitised pages of Einstein's writings may be viewed, at either standard or high-resolution definitions. These images are stored as JPG files. The larger archival database allows access to approximately 43,000 records of Einstein and Einstein related documents. The website also includes PDF versions of 39 of Einstein's published manuscripts, 22 of which have been translated into English (The originals are in German). The archives are grouped according to whether they are scientific, non-scientific, or biographical; then by whether they are manuscripts or correspondence; then chronologically. They are accessed by expanding menus. Alternatively, there is a search engine and also a page of finding aids to facilitate research. The site includes a biographical timeline of Einstein's life. This is an excellent site that is smartly presented and easy to use. It will be of great value to scholars studying Einstein and his ideas.
Einstein is an online exhibition from the American Museum of Natural History. It accompanied an exhibition at the Museum from 2002-2003, which explored the life, works, ideas and legacy of Albert Einstein, physicist 1879-1955. The exhibition is the result of a collaboration between the American Museum of Natural History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Skirball Cultural Center, Los Angeles. The images can be enlarged. There is a video of contemporary physicists discussing Einstein's legacy, which requires Real One Player. School-level education resources have been created organised around major themes in the exhibition, such as: light; time and space; energy (focusing on Einstein's ideas about energy, nuclear power on Earth, and fusion in the Sun); gravity (from Isaac Newton to Einstein to current scientific research); and Einstein's legacy.
The English theologian and philosopher Robert Grosseteste lived from around 1170-1253. The website of the Electronic Grosseteste project, originally funded by the British Academy, aims to make available electronic resources for research into Grosseteste's writings. Offered on the site are full-texts versions of those of Grosseteste's works which are in the public domain (chiefly in the original Latin), plus the facility to search and view extracts from published editions which still carry copyright restrictions. An extensive bibliography is also available on the site, along with further information about the life of Robert Grosseteste and the project itself.
This slight site is about the first female doctor in the United States, Elizabeth Blackwell. It is published by Hobart and William Smith Colleges, which claims Blackwell as one of its alumna. On the site users will find a biography of Blackwell, which focuses on her qualification as a medic in 1849, and her subsequent input into medicine and women's opportunities in this field. There is also a handful of recent articles discussing Blackwell and her impact, and wider topics like the history of the New York Infirmary, as well as a few primary sources. The site also features web links and information about the Elizabeth Blackwell Award.
The Elizabeth Blackwell, America's First Woman M.D. (Medical Doctor) website is an online version of an exhibition held at the National Library of Medicine from January to September 1999. The site provides a basic outline of the training and work of Elizabeth Blackwell, who in 1849 was the first woman to graduate from a medical school in the United States. This narrative is interspersed with a number of primary source documents held by the National Library of Medicine. The documents have been scanned and are available as facsimile images. Transcriptions of the documents are provided. The website is divided into four main sections: admission; college life; graduation; and career.
Emotions and Disease is an online exhibition from the History of Medicine Division of the National Library of Medicine. The exhibition aims to provide an explanation of the meaning and relevance of scientific developments linking neurophysiology to the functioning of the immune system. The site has an introductory section about the exhibition and a brief historical perspective on the topic. The main part of the exhibition is divided into five main parts: balance of passions; psychosomatic medicine; self-healing, patents and placebos; stress and deprivation; and frontiers of the mind. These section provide an outline of some of the issues of the topic. A bibliography accompanies the exhibition.
Published by the National Library of Australia, the 'Endeavour: Captain Cook's Journal 1768-71' website provides excerpts from the journal of Captain James Cook, which was written aboard HMS Endeavour during his epic sea voyage when he, and the English naturalist and botanist, Sir Joseph Banks, circumnavigated the world and discovered Australia. The site is advertising a CD-ROM, Endeavour: Captain Cook's Journal 1768-71, published by the library and designed with teachers and school students in mind. The site offers a sample of the material available on the CD-ROM, with an except from the journal (covering 10-13 June 1770, when the Endeavour crashed onto the Great Barrier Reef), which can be viewed as a facsimile image, or read as a transcript. In the 'Voyage' section of the website, it is possible to click on a month and see a map and a brief description of the route travelled during that time.
Created by the Natural History Museum in London, this website presents most of the botanical drawings and engravings prepared by artist Sydney Parkinson on the first voyage of HMS Endeavour (1768-1771), plus drawings by other artists in England, produced from Parkinson's initial sketches. Parkinson died on board the Endeavour shortly after leaving Java and had, prior to embarking on that journey, worked for a year at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The images on the site have all been taken from the illustrations made by Sydney Parkinson, John Frederick Miller, and Frederick Polydore Nodder in the period during and after the Endeavour's circumnavigation of the world, between 1773 and 1784. The illustrations are of plants found in a range of countries, with botanical specimens from Australia, Java, Brazil, Madeira, New Zealand, Tierra Del Fuego and the Society Islands included. In addition to these prints, the text explains the publication history of the illustrations, from their ownership by Joseph Banks to their place in the Natural History Museum collections. The site offers a clickable map of the Endeavour's journey, linking through to the images of botanical specimens from each location. The images can also be searched by keyword. Historical information about the Endeavour, the illustrations, the publication of the voyage results and the people involved is also provided.
This website contains an applet that simulates the Enigma encryption machines used by the Germans during World War Two. The user can enter text into the machine which is then displayed in its encoded state. The site also includes a history of the Enigma machine, from its commercial beginnings, through its use in the Second World War, to the attempts to decipher Enigma messages concluding in the success of the code-breakers and mathematicians at Bletchley Park. Another section of the site explains how the machine works, for the benefit of anyone else wishing to write a simulator. Links are provided to related sites. The website requires a Java applet to use the enigma machine.
"Epact: Scientific Instruments of Medieval and Renaissance Europe" is an online catalogue arising from a collaboration between four museums: the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford (on whose server the catalogue resides); the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza [Institute and Museum of the History of Science], Florence; the British Museum, London; and the Museum Boerhaave, Leiden. The 520 catalogue entries represent all the various museums' European instrument holdings from makers active before 1600. The catalogue is commendably detailed: in addition to information on maker, origins, dimensions, etc., each entry has an accompanying photograph, viewable at three levels of resolution, a summary overview (typically 130 words) and a rather longer description, with authors credited. The catalogue may be browsed by maker, place of origin or date. Particularly helpful is an online hand-list, allowing all the headings to be viewed at once. Alternatively, thumbnail images of the instruments may be used for navigation. A comprehensive search facility is also available. The instruments catalogued include armillary spheres, astrolabes, astronomical compendia, compasses, globes, quadrants, sundials, measuring rules and instruments for surveying and artillery ranging. Among the support materials are a glossary of all terms used in the descriptions, plus slightly longer articles outlining the operation of instruments; brief biographical details (with references) of the makers; notes on all the sites of instrument production featured; a general bibliography of early instruments and an essay, "Medieval and renaissance mathematical arts and sciences", putting the scope of the project in context.
Epidemic Disease in London is a digitised set of working papers published by the Centre for Metropolitan History. These were originally given at an Institute of Historical Research symposium entitled 'Epidemic Disease in London: from the Black Death to Cholera'. Edited by Justin Champion, the papers look at various aspects of epidemics in the capital from the fourteenth to the nineteenth century, and cover the Black Death, the plague, burials, epidemics and the built environment, epidemic disease in the eighteenth century, and skeletal data. There is also a bibliography of the published works cited in the various articles.
Electronic Scholarly Publishing, despite its generalist name, is a project chiefly devoted to the online full-text publication of well-known books and papers from the history of genetics and evolution. The catalogue so far includes works by Aristotle, William Bateson, Charles Darwin (The Voyage of the Beagle, On the Origin of Species, Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication), Galen, Francis Galton, Thomas Malthus, Gregor Mendel, Thomas H Morgan, Alfred Russel Wallace and others. Most of the texts are presented as transcripts in PDF format, although some are given in HTML, and a few as PDF image facsimiles: this is clearly indicated in the indexes. The presentation is a little gimmicky, with the text appearing in a relatively small window inside an onscreen "book". The circumstances of this site’s creation are unusual: it was originally a personal project of Robert J Robbins, of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, but is now supported by the US Department of Energy as part of a commitment to develop educational resources associated with the Human Genome Project. Some Department of Energy publications concerning the Project are also available on the site.
A handsomely planned and produced educational website to accompany the seven part PBS television series on evolution first broadcast in 2001 and based around Karl Zimmer's highly acclaimed book 'Evolution : The triumph of an ideal'. In addition to offering a guide to individual episodes of the television series, based around key themes such as Darwin and the history of the debate about evolution, evolutionary change, survival and extinction of animals, sex, human origins and religion (including video clip previews), there is an extensive library of hundreds of additional essays, images and weblinks to complement the contents of the broadcast series and an impressive glossary. Hypertext links are used throughout, though in a way which does not distract the reader from following a linear course through the text, though the website will make demands on your browser in the form of QuickTime or RealPlayer video plug-ins. The website is multi-layered and richly textured to appeal to a wide audience from the general public to college undergraduate level in a broad spectrum of studies from biology, biological anthropology, archaeology and the history of science and religion. It is also aimed at teachers in the form of an extensive series of FAQs and excellent educational and professional resources such as online lessons (with video clips from classroom situations) addressing issues raised by each programme. The fact that some of the educational aids address directly the on-going debate in the US between evolutionists and creationists adds an extra interest for readers from Europe interested in the relationship between science, religion and politics.
This is the website of the Exploratorium: The Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception. Primarily the education arm of the museum, the site contains many interactive resources aimed at school pupils, but also of interest to those in more advanced education. For example, there is a fascinating online multimedia exhibit focusing on biodiversity, which provides readers with an excellent introduction to the issues involved, the models used by scientists, and some of the studies that have been carried out. Online features such as this often utilise the full capabilities of the Internet, particularly favouring video footage.The site also contains links to other sites of interest.
This website is devoted to the scientist, inventor, and artist Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). Developed by the Museum of Science in Boston, the site provides a resource for teachers and students which is attractively presented and easy to navigate. Although it is designed for US schoolchildren in grades four to eight, much of its content is suitable for older students. The sister site, offered by the Science Museum in London, for teachers and students has been designed to support Key Stage 3 pupils. The website is divided into four main content sections. "Inventor's Workshop", which highlights some of Leonardo's futuristic inventions, introduces the elements of machines, lets students explore how these elements can work together to perform new functions, and gives them a chance to try analysing Leonardo's inventions and designing their own. "Leonardo's Perspective" introduces Leonardo's way of looking at the world and explores Renaissance techniques for representing the 3D world on 2D surfaces. "What, Where, When?" is a brief biography of Leonardo da Vinci with images, and "Leonardo: Right to Left" explores Leonardo's curious habit of writing in reverse. Another section of Additional Resources provides a useful glossary, elucidating terms such as Archimedes Screw. There is also a Hot List of links to other resources dealing with Leonardo da Vinci, and a Bibliography. This Web resource would be useful as a starting point for students looking at Da Vinci.
The Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences is a site composed largely of brief biographical profiles of over 150 African-American scientists and engineers, chiefly those who have worked in US universities or industry in the late-nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The site has been compiled by Mitchell C Brown, Mathematics and Physics Librarian at Princeton University. The profiles tend to concentrate on their subjects' professional careers, with details of patents received and publication histories; some present-day scientists' entries simply reproduce their CV details. Full bibliographies are given for the historical entries. The profiles may be browsed by subject area or alphabetically by name; specific indexes are given for women scientists and for the first African Americans to receive PhDs in individual subjects. The site also contains some analytical material, employing graduate study in chemistry as a case study, and substantial, though unannotated, bibliographies of print resources on the involvement of African-Americans and other minorities in professional science and technology.
The 'Finding the Right Clinical Notes' project, led by the University of Edinburgh, is intended to improve research access to personal health records in Scotland. Personal Health Records (PHRs) are defined as records that relate to the physical or mental health of an identifiable individual, made by or on the advice of a health professional in connection with that patient's care or treatment. The actual format and content of such records varies considerably according to the dictates of the period in which they were written. The website attempts to overcome the geographical dispersion of PHRs by providing a central database for researchers to locate relevant collections.Descriptions of over 1,000 record series have been added to the database, conforming to the General International Standard for Archival Description (ISAD(G), 2nd ed.) The descriptions have been indexed according to Library of Congress, National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and other relevant historical terms. Users may search for records via personal name or free text, or browse the database according to subject term or repository. Records give detailed background information and bibliographic history along with the scope and content of the archived materials and their access conditions.As well as a description of the project, information about patient confidentiality is provided on the website, and there are links to other sites related to PHRs and their usefulness to research.The project received funding from the Research Support Libraries Programme (RSLP).
Folk Medicine is a database of traditional cures for various illnesses and ailments. The database was begun in the 1940s, and now contains entries for about 210,000 distinct cures. Whilst the database is global in scope, much of the information stems from Americans and those who have recently emigrated to the United States from elsewhere. Over 3,000 published works have also been used as sources. The oldest sources date back to the late eighteenth century.Key-word searching may be conducted by ailment, reagent, or any other part of the description. Searches may be limited by application of cure, the region of origin, and the ethnicity of origin. Results are listed by subject and cure, and clicking on an entry in this list brings up the full record. Many of the records are a little short on detail, but optimally provide: the subject illness; the suggested cure; the cause (often unknown); information about who collected the record and where; information as to where the medicine originates from; and the original card number of the record.This is an impressive database that has been assembled over many years and which benefits greatly from the Internet. It should prove useful to students of the history of medicine.
The Forensic Medicine Archives Project is published by the University of Glasgow Archives with funding from the Research Resources in Medical History initiative, a partnership between the Wellcome Institute and the British Library. This is an excellent site that provides a range of useful resources for historians of forensic medicine. Firstly it is possible to search for online finding aids for records from the personal papers of John Glaister Sr. and his son John Glaister, and from the University of Glasgow Department of Forensics archival collection. Perhaps the most fascinating part of the site is the collection of digitised murder case files, filled with photographs and key documents. There is also a research guide that lists other repositories of historical forensic medical resources in the United Kingdom.
Frantext is a corpus of digital texts covering French writing from the 16th to the 20th century. There are around 4,000 texts in the main corpus, Frantext intégral, and a sub-set of around 2,000 texts in Frantext catégorisé. The main collection represents all genres: novels; poetry; drama; essays; correspondence; and scientific and technical papers. While both Frantext intégral and Frantext catégorisé have been annotated with part-of-speech and layout tags, the latter have more detailed grammatical annotations. Although texts can be browsed, the central feature of Frantext is the search engine. This supports a range of searches. Users can look for keywords and phrases, linked by Boolean expressions. For each word, the part-of-speech attribute can be specified; wildcards can be used to search for truncated words, and brackets used for nested queries. Searches can be carried out across the full collection, or restricted to individual and multiple works, authors, genres and time-periods. Results give the keyword-in-context, word-frequency values and a list of collocates in tabular form.
The Friends of Lavoisier is an organisation dedicated to promoting the reputation and achievements of the founder of modern chemistry, Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1743-1794). It also aim to disseminate information and scholarship about Lavoisier, compile details of his papers, provide a forum for discussion, and assist the Comité Lavoisier de l'Académie des Sciences in editing Lavoisier's correspondence. The website, written in French and English, provides an extensive account of Lavoisier's life and works. It also hosts a bibliography of primary and secondary texts, a page describing where his archives are held, an image gallery, book reviews, and a list of web links. The biography in particular should make this site worth visiting for students of the history of chemistry.
From quackery to bacteriology provides a basic narrative of the history of nineteenth century medical history in the United States. The site has been created by Barbara Floyd, an archivist at the University of Toledo, from nineteenth century printed works. The site is divided into the following main sections: scientific medicine, home health care, quackery, patent medicine, women's health care, mental health, physical fitness and nutrition, the public health movement, medicine in the civil war, nursing, and medical education. Each section is accompanied by a bibliography of the sources used. The text on the site is accompanied by a limited number of illustrations. The site is also a useful source for discerning attitudes towards the body, gender and eugenics.
Galileo Galilei's Notes on Motion is a major digitisation project, converting folios 33 to 196 of codex 72 of the Galilean Collection in the National Library of Florence into electronic format. These folios include text, drawings, and calculations pertaining to the theorems on motion published in the 'Discorsi'. They also include three short letters to Galileo. The folios are not in chronological order, dating from various periods of Galileo's life. This manuscript was chosen for digitisation in part because of its importance to the Discourses, and in part because the project organisers believed that it was insufficiently represented in the standard National Edition of Galileo's papers. The digital version consists of multi-definition images of the folio pages alongside transcriptions of the texts, including corrected and cancelled versions. Modern notation versions of Galileo's calculations are provided, as are English translations of theorems. There are indices of Latin and Italian words, and analysis of the deductive structures of the arguments. Technical information regarding paper and handwriting is also provided, along with scholarly work on individual folio pages and a bibliography.
The Galileo Project is an online resource documenting the life and times of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642). Much of the site has been constructed by students at the Department of History from Rice University. The site is divided into the following sections: introductory material; Galileo's villa (with individual pages for each of the rooms); resources, of which the most extensive is a database of scientists from the 16th and 17th centuries); maps and timeline and, finally, specific topics created by Rice students. There is also a more recent, and fairly substantial, section on the letters of Maria Celeste, Galileo's daughter, to her father. English translation of all 124 letters sent from 1623 to 1633 is available online, together with a number of essays. This site is well-presented and straightforward to use. It would apperar not to have been updated since 1995 however, so additional resources should be sought for information on recent research.
galton.org is a site devoted to the work of Francis Galton (1822-1911), best remembered as the founder of eugenics, author of "Hereditary Genius" and cousin of Charles Darwin, but also a noted contributor to fields including geography, meteorology, psychology and statistics. The site is the work of Gavan Tredoux, a Galton enthusiast and maintainer of Upstream, a US-based "heterodox" (libertarian and broadly opposed to liberal-academic consensus) web journal and resource. It consists mainly of electronic publications of Galton's work, plus brief biographical sections outlining Galton's activities in various fields. The primary source material is mostly in facsimile form, presented as PDF files (often large, typically up to 9Mb in size). All of Galton's major publications are available: the "Narrative of an Explorer in Tropical South Africa" (1853); "The Art of Travel" (1855); "Hereditary Genius" (1869); "English Men of Science" (1874); "Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development" (1883); "Natural Inheritance" (1889); and Galton's 1908 autobiography, "Memories of My Life", plus the multi-volumed biography prepared after Galton's death by his primary disciple, Karl Pearson, "The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton" (1913-40). "Hereditary Genius" and "Inquiries into Human Faculty" are additionally available as transcripts in both PDF and HTML form. The HTML version of each text is presented as an extremely long webpage (which may cause problems for some users); "Hereditary Genius" lacks pagination in its HTML form, although the PDF version has it. Occasional typos appear in the transcripts. Also archived are a large number of Galton's papers, short articles and letters to individuals and newspapers, including his correspondence with Charles Darwin, in a mixture of PDF facsimile and HTML transcript. There is a very substantial bibliography of Galton's writings, giving links to the digitised texts where available. The various summary pages outlining particular works and activities are also well-supplied with relevant source links. Other site features include a summary of locations of Galton papers catalogued by the Historical Manuscripts Commission, and the best archive of Galton portraits available online.
'Geoffrey Chaucer: a treatise on the astrolabe' is a web page hosting an electronic text of Geoffrey Chaucer's unfinished Treatise, written around 1391 and believed to be the earliest extant 'technical manual' in English. The text is in HTML format and is adapted from F. N. Robinson's 1933 edition of Chaucer's poetical works. It is presented in its original unmodernised Middle English. There is little commentary, but the opportunity to access the original text would be of use to students of Chaucer's works.
The Geometry of War, 1500-1750, is an online exhibition mounted by Oxford's Museum of the History of Science. It illustrates the use of mathematical ideas and scientific instruments in practical circumstances. An accompanying essay argues that the purported military value of precision geometric instruments also helped justify textbook geometrical problems, and enabled scientists to attract patronage. The website consists of summaries of various aspects of warfare, and the technological contributions afforded them by developments in geometry and instrument making. It contains an extensive catalogue of over 80 artefacts, each described and illustrated. There is a gallery of images depicting the use of geometric instruments in battle, and a bibliography of useful secondary reading. A name index enables users to locate artefacts and images by particular craftsmen. The exhibition provides an excellent introduction to this aspect of the history of science.
This website is published by Andrew Bamji, the curator of the Gillies archive of plastic surgery at Queen Mary's Hospital in Sidcup. The website provides details of the Gillies archive, which is one of the most complete archives of medical records from the First World War. The archive holds over 2,500 case files on facial plastic surgery performed between 1917 and 1925 on injured servicemen. Although the website is of quite a clunky design it houses some excellent resources, including digital images of the complete Macalister watercolours archive, which show a range of injuries treated at the hospital. The images are graphic, and are somewhat disturbing. Another image gallery of postcards of Queen Mary's Hospital is also on the site, as well as an extremely useful bibliography of surgery and medicine during the Great War.
The Global Project on the History of Leprosy is an ongoing project aimed at creating a database of locations where leprosy archives can be found, so as to facilitate historical research into leprosy. The site intends to cover the modern history of leprosy, post 1847 (when Danielssen and Boeck published 'Om Spedalskhed'), although there are some materials and timelines that refer to the prior history of the disease.While the database creates pathways for researchers, the project will also encourage the preservation of archives and a network of researchers. The site includes an appeal for more leprosy archives, and guidelines on how to preserve such archives.The database can be browsed according to a number of different categories, as well as searched by keyword. Results give contact details for each archive, plus a fairly detailed summary of what materials are held in the archive.This is a major global project which must already be an invaluable resource for those studying the history of leprosy, or working in the broader field of the history of medicine.
This is the home page of Göttinger Digitalisierungs-Zentrum (GDZ), the Centre for Retrospective Digitization in Göttingen, Germany. The site describes the founding of the Centre in 1997; its connection with the State and University Library of Lower Saxony; its methods of image capture and digitization; file conversion services; and GDZ events. But the highlight of the site is its impressive set of online document collections, most of which hail from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Researchers may browse the collections under the following headings: Autobiographica; DigiWunschbuch; North American Literature; Mathematical Literature; Travel Literature; History of the Humanities and the Sciences; Sibirica (Siberia); Zoologica; Varia; and Maps. This resource allows visitors to search for sources in simple and complex terms using search engines. Navigation can be a little confusing, but it improves once the documents are directly accessed. A zoom function aids closer examination of the documents themselves. Occasionally the images have problems loading; the majority however, load successfully and offer an invaluable and outstanding resource for historians and scholars in German, Russian and American Studies, as well as those working in the History of Mathematics and the Sciences. The site also provides a PDF download option to download sections of books, whole books may be transfered or saved on CD-ROM, but these must be ordered via the library for a stated price. The resource also offers an in-depth, detailed list of related digitization projects at other institutions emphasising the progress that has been made in Germany in the online posting of valuable historical documents and resources.
This website hosts a well-used email discussion list for scholars working on the history of science, medicine, and technology. Discussions are not restricted by geographical region or time period. The list was started in 1997 and had over 1,500 subscribers by 2000. It typically receives about ten emails a day, mostly announcements, calls for papers, and user queries. Archives are maintained and may be searched in several different ways. The site also features annotated lists of links to other websites that might be of interest to teachers and scholars working in the discipline.
This is the website of the science, medicine and technology division of the humanities online project (H-Net), based at Michigan State University but aiming to encompass scholars and teachers from all around the world. One of the chief functions of this project is to provide an email discussion group for the historical, philosophical and sociological study of science, technology and medicine. Accordingly, the site contains details of how to join the list, together with an archive of all previous submissions to it and a selected list of some of the more interesting exchanges it has hosted, including some concerning important recent secondary literature. In addition, for the aid of newcomers to the field, the site contains information about teaching and research resources, including bibliographies, and offers links to other relevant websites. Its presentation is straightforward and the site is regularly updated.
This website consists of a digitised version of Andreas Cellarius's 1661 'Harmonia Macrocosmica', one of the most popular celestial atlases of the seventeenth century. The book contains thirty-one beautifully illustrated colour plates and two hundred pages of text. The text is in Latin throughout and there is no English translation; nor is there a searchable version of the text as a text file. The images of the text pages are large and detailed, so a fast Internet connection is recommended. Each digitised frame is accompanied by bibliographic and technical information.
This website was funded by the AHRC to create a combined catalogue of the three different parts of the Harwood mineral collection. Collected by mineralogist and chemist Henry Francis Harwood, the collection “is one of the most important and renowned mineral collections of its time” containing over 8,000 mineral specimens from classic topotype locations (many of which no longer exist). Now split between three institutions, the database records (with images of specimens where possible) the collection in its entirety. The website also includes a fairly detailed biography of Harwood.
This website is part of a project about the Harwood Mineral Collection and Dr Henry Francis Harwood - its creator. It describes the life and work of Dr Harwood (1886-1974), particularly focusing on his interests in mineralogy. The current locations of his mineral collection are summarised. The website is hosted by The University of Manchester School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences. Mineral data can be found by searching or browsing the database.
This site from the University of Bonn, maintained on behalf of the History of Astronomy Interest Group, contains subscription details of HASTRO-L: the History of Astronomy Discussion Group. This group discusses, via email, matters arising from research into the astronomy of all cultures and time periods, whether that research be socio-historical, philosophical, archeological or mathematical. The group currently contains over five hundred members from forty countries. Although the home page has not been recently updated, the list archive is updated monthly and is current.
This is the website of the Hauck Center for the Albert B. Sabin Archives. The centre was founded in 1995 at the Cincinnati Medical Heritage Center with a grant from the John Hauck Foundation. Albert Sabin's complete correspondence, laboratory materials, manuscripts, awards and medals are held by the centre. This collection provide details of the development and testing of the oral polio vaccine as well as of the growth of virology as a discipline. The centre aims to preserve this collection to ensure that it is available for future study and research. The Hauck Center for the Albert B. Sabin Archives website provides information about Sabin and an inventory of the archive. Other features of the site include a list of related links, an on line exhibition, information about the centre and a site map. It is possible to search the site.
Heisenberg and Uncertainty is an online exhibition which is a subsite of the Center for History of Physics, administered by the American Institute of Physics. The site provides an outstanding narrative illustrated history of the life and work of Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976). The technical aspects of his founding of quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle, and his research on nuclear weapons are clearly explained; the historical context of his work -- such as his remaining in Germany for the duration of the Third Reich -- is discussed. Excerpts from his most famous lectures abroad after the War are posted in English and German. Easy to navigate, the site would be a good teaching tool and good starting point for students. A bibliography of his writings is posted on the site.
This is the website for Heriot Watt University’s Archive, Records Management and Museum Service which manages, conserves and promotes the University’s collection of art, artefacts and archives. The collections, described here in more detail, include material related to: the history of the University; the working lives of staff and students; the University's place in the history of scientific and technical education; the Scottish textile industry; artists of the Edinburgh School (including artworks by Elizabeth Blackadder, William Baillie, Eduardo Paolozzi and John Bellany); the local history of Riccarton and the Gibson-Craig family, one-time owners of the Riccarton estate. The website also includes details about the services other activities, including work to enhance access to the collections.
The Historical Metallurgy Society UK seeks to provide a forum for the exchange of information and research about the history of metallurgy and archaeometallurgy. The Society organises an annual residential conference as well as meetings and lectures. They produce the journal 'Historical Metallurgy' (published annually in two parts), a newsletter, symposium reports, and various books. The contents pages of the journal may be viewed on line, although the full-text version is only available in print to Society members. Submission guidelines are provided. Included on the website are guides to historical and archaeological resources, both online and off, and a series of archaeology 'datasheets' to download (in PDF format), which provide introductions to the various kinds of artefacts and evidential remains relevant to the study of metallurgy. The Society also offers student grants to facilitate research into historical metallurgy, details of which are posted on the website. A membership application form may be downloaded from the site.
The Historical Scientific Instrument Gallery website, hosted by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, displays images of and information about the collection that has been assembled from items used in teaching, demonstrating, and research by University staff from 1887 onward. The physical collection contains around seven hundred items from the last part of the nineteenth century and the first part of the twentieth, and a substantial sample of these appear on the website. The instruments are catalogued according to their field of use (optics, electrostatics, vacuum discharges, etc.). Brief descriptions are provided, alongside thumbnail photographs that can be clicked to view a larger image. Unfortunately, few original records remain detailing the provenance of the instruments, although the curator has recovered as much information as possible from old books and sale catalogues. This is a well-presented site that will be of interest to anyone studying the more recent history of scientific instruments or who requires images of such equipment.
The UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library History and Special Collections website provides information about their collections, has online exhibits, and details of their online projects. The site has general information about the history and content of their collections. Details of opening hours and information on using the collection are also available for anyone wishing to consult the collections. As well as providing general information about the library and its collection the website has a number of online exhibitions, including ones on the relief of pain and suffering, bloodletting, and smallpox. The History and Special Collections department of the Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library are developing a number of digital projects. Details of these projects are available from the site. The site also has a list of medical history websites and details of fellowships and prizes.
The Channel 4 website "History Heads : Royal Deaths and Diseases" was produced to accompany a documentary on the medical history of the British, English and Scottish Royal families. The website extends this investigation to royalty elsewhere in the world. The site focuses on: living by the sword (medieval and early modern monarchs who went into battle); madness; decadence (sexual indulgence, gluttony, alcoholism, and drug addiction); tainted blood; and royal childbirth. This is a fascinating mélange of accounts of how medicine, illness and addiction have all impacted on History. The range of material is broad, covering Russia, Italy, Spain, France, the UK and the Middle East. However, although the site provides basic information, it concentrates on the sensationalist side of the subject matter, offering little real historical comment.
This web page is part of the Avert website and it provides a chronological history of AIDS split into a number of sections. The sections deal with the history of AIDS - split into a number of small time frames - as well as the origins of the virus. The focus of this historical narrative is on the British experience of AIDS, and the measures and action that have been taken in this country. The global impact of AIDS is also discussed though, and the text is illustrated with adverts, statistics and images from all around the world. In addition to this there is a section that documents the history of AIDS posters and badges from all over the world. This is a simple site, but it does provide a great deal of information on the history of the AIDS epidemic in the United Kingdom and around the world.
History of Chemical Engineering is a mainly secondary resource created by Wayne Pafko, a professional chemical engineer: it began life as a project created for an introductory course on the history of science and technology at the University of Minnesota. It includes a short, jocular piece on the identity of the chemical engineer, a potted history of the origins and development of chemical engineering and of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), and pieces on more specific fields including nitrogen chemistry and petrochemicals, plus a timeline of chemical engineering (somewhat Whiggish in its inclusion of Democritus, Boyle etc, but admittedly digressive). A search facility is provided. The presentation makes it clear that this is not an academic website: the pieces may be of some use to undergraduates or those seeking a brief overview of the area, but are not detailed or analytical enough to interest researchers. Perhaps the most useful feature is a bibliography (unannotated) detailing over a hundred books and journal articles used in creating the site; unfortunately, with the exception of a short "quotations" section, none of the material is referenced back to these sources.
This website provides a history of computing, with sections devoted to software, hardware, computer companies, and influential individuals. There is also a timeline and a general reference section. The site is extensive, although it does not make any claims to offer a comprehensive history of computing. It is maintained by enthusiasts, and mostly written in a style better suited to the general public than a scholarly audience. The software, hardware, computer companies, and biographical sections each offer alphabetical lists linking to brief accounts of relevant subjects, usually with illustrations. The timelines and chronologies are detailed, if a little enthusiastic in their divisions of computing history into periods with names such as 'antiquity' and 'industrial era'. The reference section actually contains more of interest than might be anticipated, with essays on subjects such as the history of computer viruses, robotics, hacking, and binary computers. The site includes a search engine, and features a good annotated list of links to museums with collections of interest to historians of computing.
History of Mathematics is a largely bibliographic website maintained by Dr David E Joyce, a lecturer in maths and computer science. There is not much analytical content, but the site provides comprehensive bibliographies (usually unannotated) of secondary print resources, classified by subject area and by geographical region, plus a few weblinks. Also present are a substantial chronological list of mathematical practitioners, and details of organisations and journals for the history of maths. An introductory page is included, with links to an overview of the work of Euclid in ancient Greece, and the early 20th century mathematician, David Hilbert, as representing to the site's author defining moments in the development of mathemactical theory. The site has not been updated since 1998, so publications since then will not be included.
The History of Mathematics website created by, David Wilkins of Trinity College, Dublin, concentrates on mathematicians of the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The site has detailed information on George Berkeley, Sir William Rowan Hamilton, Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann, George Boole, Georg Cantor and Isaac Newton. Primary source material is included on the site. There is, for example, the full-text of George Boole's paper on the 'Calculus of Logic' and Hamilton's 'On Symbolic Geometry'. Biographies of approximately ninety seventeenth and eighteenth century mathematicians are available. A list of links to other history of mathematics websites is also maintained.
The math-history-list email list is an unmoderated forum intended for scholars working on the history of mathematics. The list is used for announcements and discussions relating to research and teaching, as well as for queries about particular issues. Instructions for subscribing and unsubscribing are provided on the web page. The searchable archives of the list are available back to its inception in 1995. The list does not appear to have been heavily used in recent months, but posts are relevant to the subject.
History of Medicine On-Line is a peer reviewed online journal from Priory Lodge Education. The journal aims to publish articles on a broad range of medical history topics. The full-text of the articles on this site are available free of charge. There are currently only a limited number of articles available, although further articles are planned. Topics discussed include: The influence of somatic and psychiatric medical theory on the design of nineteenth century American cities; Insulin coma therapy in schizophrenia; the history of Liverpool psychiatry; and the history of depression before the twentieth century. Another feature of the site under development is the creation of an annual bibliography relating to the history of medicine. Submissions to the journal are encouraged from anyone with an interest in medical history. Submission guidelines are available from the site. ISSN 1471-5279
Published by the Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences (IOMS), a history of Muslim pharmacy provides information about medieval Arabic pharmacy, which is also known as Saydanah. The site is comprised of a set of narrative essays on Muslim pharmacy, concentrating particularly on the important figures Abu ar-Rayhan al-Biruni and Abu ja'far al-Ghafiqi, and their respective works as-Saydanah fit-Tibb, and al-Jami' al-Adwiyyah al-Mufradah. The site highlights the important contribution of Middle Eastern societies to modern medicine, and early pharmacology.
This is an extensive website regarding the history of phrenology, authored by Dr. John van Whye, University of Cambridge. It contains short essays, complete with numerous links to related websites, concerning the philosophy of phrenology and critical responses to phrenology during its Victorian heyday. In addition, the site offers, amongst other things, a short list of links to electronic versions of primary texts concerning phrenology, a definitive and occasionally annotated bibliography of other relevant texts and links to various phrenological images. Lastly, the site lists and usefully describes links to other sites concerned with phrenology. The presentation is attractive and professional, although some of the text is a little hard to read on account of the colours used.
The home page for the History of Science Society offers a variety of resources to 'foster interest in the history of science and its social and cultural relations'. The site offers a directory of members and their research interests, numerous articles and classroom activities that have appeared in the Society's newsletter, and collected links to reputable sources of history of science information on the web. The site serves as a portal to the HST Database, which currently contains over 240,000 bibliographic records for publications related to the history of science, technology, and medicine. HSSOnline.org will also house the new Guide to the History of Science when that database and publication is completed in mid-2002.
This site, from the University of California, San Diego, is a guide to print-based resources in the history of science. It includes lists of bibliographic guides and handbooks, biographical sources, specialized indexes for the history of science and relevant dictionaries, encyclopaedias and chronologies. It also offers lists of guides to scientific periodicals and to archival and manuscript collections. The site's presentation is sparse but functional.
The History of Space Exploration web pages provide summaries of the more important spacecraft missions. Additionally, they include: a history of rocketry from ancient China onwards; an article on the selection and training of astronauts in the early days of space exploration; a NASA article on automated spacecraft; and a discussion of some of the 'hypothetical planets' that have been suggested over the years. The site also contains the texts of some historical publications on space exploration. These include books on the Viking Lander expedition to Mars, and the Apollo Space Program and Lunar landing. A chronology of space exploration may be displayed either according to date or by solar body. A chronology of solar system discoveries is also included at the site. The accounts of the spacecraft missions themselves are grouped by nationality, and cover Apollo, Ranger, Viking, Voyager, Mariner, Lunar, Venera, Phobos, Magellan, and Galileo missions. European and Japanese missions such as Ulysses, SOHO, Sakigake, and Yohkoh are also featured. Finally, the site includes links to the websites of current and future missions, some 'educator's guides', and additional history resources. Whilst the writing is occasionally rather florid, this is nevertheless an informative site that will provide a good introduction to the history of space exploration.
History of the Internet uses a clickable timeline to provide an introductory overview of the history of computer networking, from the birth of the ARPANET network in the 1960s, through the appearance of electronic mail and the establishment of the TCP/IP protocol which produced the modern Internet, to the creation and subsequent rise to dominance of the World Wide Web hypertext system. Some primary materials are included within the timeline section, including photographs of hardware, transcripts of policy documents (occasionally external to the site) and video clips downloadable in MPEG format: these include a discussion of 1970s network research, and reminiscences from WWW creator Tim Berners-Lee. Also present on the site are helpful brief introductory guides to the network systems discussed, a statistical survey of the Internet’s rapid growth, and an unannotated bibliography of sources used (mostly online). The site was produced by a researcher at Finland’s CSC, the organisation responsible for maintaining FUNET, the Finnish University and Research Network (analogous to the British JANET). The historical overview does place a marked emphasis on developments in Finland and specifically concerning FUNET from its creation in the early 1980s; but this is addressed alongside global events, making the site a perfectly suitable general-purpose introduction. Finnish and Swedish-language versions are also available. The site was created in 1998, and does not at present contain information on developments beyond that date.
The website "HMB Endeavour replica" hosted by the Australian National Maritime Museum gives the latest news and information about the 'Endeavour', a replica of the ship in which Captain James Cook made his first voyage to Oceania. The ship has been described by the National Maritime Museum, Greenwic, as the world's best replica of an 18th century ship. She has sailed from Australia to Britain in several voyages and is very much a functioning vessel as well as a floating tourist attraction. The Captain's and crewmembers' reports may be read at the site, along with the charts of recent voyages. Information about refits and repairs is also included. There is also a section of the site devoted to the history of the project, and information for those who wish to sail the Endeavour, or assist with her maintenance. The history of the original ship, its specifications, the aim of its voyaged to the South Seas and more resources on Captain Cook's missions are also offered on the site.
The hospital records database, from the Wellcome Trust and The National Archives, provides information on the existence and location of hospital records in the United Kingdom. The database currently contains over 2,800 records which can be searched by hospital or town name. The majority of the records in the database relate to holdings in local authority record offices. The coverage of hospital archives is limited. The database holds information on both administrative and clinical records; where they are held, what type of record is held and the date range. The database also has information on the name, management and type of hospital. The existence of other finding aids, lists and catalogues are listed, where known.
'HOST: journal of history of science and technology' is a full-text ejournal, which aims to explore... "the cultural and social dimensions of science and technology in history across the world". It is published in English - jointly by the University of Lisbon, the University of Evora, and the New University of Lisbon. At January 2009 there are two issues online, offering articles and book reviews in HTML format. Example article titles are: 'The Emergence of Early Modern Commons: Technology, Heritage and Enlightenment'; 'What Can Local Circulation Explain? The Case of Helmholtz’s Frog-Drawing-Machine in Berlin'; and 'Bringing it all back home: Portuguese engineers and their travels of learning (1850-1900)', among others. The website has details of the editors, Editorial Board, Advisory Board, and the submissions process. There is an RSS feed.
HOST : the history of science and technology 1801-1914, was a project intended to increase accessibility to library and archive collections relating to the history of science (excluding medical science) during the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. The project also included the physical conservation of items.A consortium of UK university libraries was involved with the project, and the subjects covered and collections targeted were diverse, from vulcanology at UCL, to railway engineering at Birmingham, to atomic physics at Manchester. Materials relating to scientists such as Darwin and Thomas Henry Huxley have been catalogued. The website described the projects and the general collections covered as well as providing links to related libraries, websites, and similar projects. The archives may not be searched from the HOST site itself, but records may be accessed via the A2A Access to Archives database. A link is provided. HOST received funding from the Research Support Libraries Programme (RSLP).
HTECH-L@SI-LISTSERV.SI.EDU is an email discussion forum for scholars working on the history of technology. There are over 300 subscribers to the list, which includes features such as a spam filter, bounce processing, indices, and database functions. The list includes an archive, but this is not available on the website to non-subscribers. The site includes subscription details.
This is a very large site, mainly a primary resource for the work of Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), zoologist, defender of Darwinian evolution, agnostic, educational reformer and advocate of the professionalisation of science. A comprehensive bibliography of Huxley's writings (originally prepared by Professor James Paradis, author of 'T.H. Huxley: Man's Place in Nature') is used as a medium for links to over two hundred online transcripts, mostly full text and in HTML. These include the entirety of the 1893-4 Collected Essays, plus much material, unpublished in print, held in the Huxley Archives at Imperial College London. In a similar fashion, the site provides bibliographies of nineteenth- and twentieth-century commentaries, reviews and critiques of Huxley and his work, many of which (such as the anonymous 1875 lampoon 'Protoplasm, Powheads, Porwiggles...') are transcribed in full where copyright permits. There are also numerous selections from letters written by Huxley throughout his life. The transcripts are supplemented by facsimiles where appropriate, and numerous illustrations by, of, or relating to Huxley are included in the text. These have a separate index. The material may be browsed chronologically via the bibliographies and letter index, or thematically via a series of narrative 'guides' devoted to Huxley's early marine voyages, ideas on university reform, agnosticism, his role as 'Darwin's bulldog' etc. A family tree and brief timeline are also provided. This website is the result of a collaboration between two faculty members at Clark University, Massachusetts, one a computer scientist, the other active in both English studies and biology. The design appears a little eccentric at first, but becomes increasingly easy to navigate. Historians of science may find the site's enthusiastic introduction off-puttingly presentist - judging Huxley by the standards he himself was instrumental in imposing. This cannot, however, detract from its considerable value as a primary document source.
'Hygiea Internationalis' (ISSN: 1404 4013) is a refereed electronic journal publishing on the history of public health. It is the official journal from the International Network for the History of Public Health (INHPH) based at Linköping University in Sweden. The INHPH aims to promote the study of the history of improvements in the health of populations from antiquity to modern times, with a particular focus on the interaction between ideas on public health, their implementation, public health organisations, and their social and demographic consequences. 'Hygiea Internationalis' was started in 1999 and published annually until 2005, but the site has details of a new pattern of more regular publication, starting in October 2006. The articles are freely available from the website as PDF files. The journal was set up with the support of the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, Swedish Council for Social Research and Swedish Council for Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Information for authors wishing to submit material to the journal is available from the site.
The International Committee for the History of Technology (ICOHTEC) was founded during the Cold War to help maintain the exchange of ideas and scholarship about the history of technology at an international level. The organisation is associated with UNESCO but functions as an autonomous body. Committee directors are listed and subscription details provided on the website. The ICOHTEC website grants access to contents pages for the Committee's annual journal 'ICON' as well as describing the aim and scope of the publication. The site also provides users with the full-text versions of the regular Committee newsletter, and monthly news pages publicising events, new books, and job opportunities. The ICOTECH statutes are reproduced online, as are the minutes of recent meetings.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers' History Center is a research facility set up to develop and maintain resources in the history of electrical and information technologies. Researchers may be particularly interested in an online archive of over 120 oral history interview transcripts, with specific sections covering workers at the MIT Radiation Laboratory and at RCA Laboratories, Japanese electrical engineers and managers, and associates of the Stanford electrical engineer Frederick E Terman. Other materials include an unannotated bibliography on the history of the computer (intended ultimately to be developed into a more general bibliography); an archive of the Center's newsletter; and a few secondary pieces on the IEEE and its predecessor organisations, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and Institute of Radio Engineering. Also provided are details of the Center's publications and catalogues to IEEE archive collections which are not available online, plus news of recent developments, a collection of links (large, classified but unannotated) and the archive of the Center's threaded discussion list, ECHOES. A recent addition is the IEEE Virtual Museum, with substantial exhibits on electricity and sound recording aimed firmly at a popular audience.
The Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement is a digitised collection of several hundred photographs, illustrations and facsimile documents from the history of eugenics and related fields, principally in the USA. The archive may be browsed by category, with sections devoted to Mendelian genetics, eugenicist pamphlets, Fitter Families contests, pedigrees (including the famous "Martin Kallikak" case), immigration policy, hereditary defects, eugenic research on circus performers, early psychometrics, religion, sterilisation laws and other topics. Items include documents from the American Breeders' Association, American Eugenics Society and Eugenics Record Office, and the correspondence of leading eugenicists such as Charles Davenport and Harry Laughlin. Each image may be viewed at normal or high resolution. A cumbersome but effective keyword search facility is also available. Associated with the Archive is a virtual exhibition on the history of American eugenics, employing images from the archive and requiring a Flash plug-in. Historians of science may feel uneasy with some of the analysis presented here, and more particularly in the preamble presented on the site's main page: an understandable but perhaps unduly presentist distinction between "legitimate" and "illegitimate" genetic research underlies much of the exposition. The exhibition may, however, be judged suitable as an introductory resource for school-age or undergraduate students, although the images in the Flash presentation are rendered to a surprisingly poor resolution. In some cases, the reader would have to trace the equivalent image in the Archive itself (easily done since each has an identifying number) in order to view it legibly. A comprehensive reference list for the exhibition is provided. The website relies very heavily on Flash technology and can be a little difficult to navigate - there is, however, an older HTML version of the website available.
The Images from the History of Medicine website, from the National Library of Medicine, USA, provides access to nearly seventy thousand high-resolution facsimiles of items held in the prints and photographs collection of its History of Medicine Division. These images include portraits, caricatures, pictures of institutions, genre scenes and works of art illustrating social aspects of medicine. The items may be searched by keyword or browsed alphabetically. The site includes copyright advice and an order facility for photographic and digital images from the site. There are also detailed 'help' guidelines and a fact sheet offering an overview of the IHM site. The site's presentation is first class and offers a high quality resource for researchers at all levels.
The In Their Own Words website is an excellent resource concerned with the history of HIV/AIDS in the United States in the early 1980s. Published by the National Institutes of Health it concentrates on the history of the epidemic from the perspective of the medical profession and scientific community. The focus is on the period 1981-1988, when the disease was first identified in the United States, and the experiences of the people involved in caring for those infected with AIDS, and those trying to establish more information about it. Included on the site is an oral history archive that houses transcripts of interviews held with health professionals involved at the time, and a collection of primary documents, which include scientific papers, press releases and memoranda. There are also some history articles written by Dr. Victoria Harden that give an overview of the period. In addition to these resources there is also a timeline, which focuses on the response of the National Institutes of Health and other U.S. department of health to the AIDS epidemic, and an image archive which offers clinical and research images, posters, and pictures of AIDS activism amongst others.The site has not been updated for a while, but all of the links seem stable and it is a very useful resource for those studying the history of the AIDS virus in the United States.
Insects, Disease and History is a history of medicine website edited by two academics. The focus of the website is on the impact insect-borne diseases have had on world history. On the site there are a handful of articles on the connections between military history and disease, with mention of yellow fever in the Mexican-American war, typhus fever in World War One, and insects as biological weapons. In addition there is reference information on various diseases and the insects that cause them, and a timeline of diseases, epidemics and historical periods. A glossary completes the useful tools that this site offers. For further research there is suggested reading, and web links.
A wide variety of historical and bibliographic resources is available from the 'Instituto Brasileiro de Filosofia e Ciência Raimundo Lúlio' on Ramon Llull (1232-1316), one of the most famous medieval scientists. Theologically, Ramon Llull was known for his dramatic visions of Christ, which lead to his conversion to Christianity and his resulting works on Christian doctrine and missions. However, in recent years, he has been the particular focus of researchers interested in the development of natural philosophy in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Likewise, the site underlines the figure of Llull as an inspiring figure for cross-religious dialogues. The vast majority of resources are found under the Studies on Ramon Llull link. From here, one can access data on the chronology of his life and details about his travels. For those looking to expand the frontiers of Llull research, there is a helpful directory of critical editions in both Latin and Catalan; as well as details of theses published in Brazil and a catalogue of pseudo-Llull works on alchemy. The Institute has also collected a series of electronic articles in Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish and English. A number of free ebooks are available, as well as a catalogue of publications which can be purchased on site. Users of these pages should note that while the site can be navigated in English, many of the documents themselves are available only in Portuguese.
The International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine was founded in Qatar in 2000 and aims to promote public awareness of the role Islamic scholars have played in the preservation and development of medical science. The Society encourages research through conferences, prizes, publications, and cooperation with other organisations. It issues a biannual journal and seeks to develop a library and museum, to be established in Doha. The website provides an overview of the Society's aims, along with news of meetings and calls for papers. A number of articles are included with the site, mostly in Arabic though with some in English. There is a list of links to other relevant online resources.
The International Society for the History of Medicine (ISHM) was founded in Paris in 1921 and has since grown into a genuinely worldwide society. It aims to assist and support the historical study of medicine, the biomedical sciences, and all aspects of the healing arts. The Society sponsors international conferences and congresses to improve communication and facilitate the exchange of scholarly research and ideas. The website contains a history of the society and its members, along with contact details of the current executive and national delegates. An international calendar of events details forthcoming conferences and activities, whilst programmes, summaries, and abstracts from past ISHM congresses may be accessed from the site. The society also maintains its own unmoderated newsgroup email list, with about 120 members. Instructions for new subscribers are included in the web pages. Finally, there are online abstracts of articles that have appeared in the Society's journal, 'Vesalius'. The journal began in 1995 and is published twice yearly.
The Internet Bibliographies of the History of Astronomy and Astronomical Instruments website has been compiled by an academic researcher seeking to help other scholars locate the best online resources in the field. It consists of annotated links to bibliographic websites and is divided into the following main pages: primary bibliographic sources; other bibliographic sources; astronomical library catalogues; online historical astronomical publications; and biographies, old books, and miscellaneous resources. Each section is subdivided for more precise browsing.
This site, from the history department of Fordham University, New York, is a sizeable directory of online resources in the history of science, both internal and external. These resources include not only electronic versions of primary sources but also secondary articles, reviews or discussions of a given topic, websites dedicated to specific issues and links to other sites which track web resources. The resources are catalogued by the tradition or epoch to which they belong (e.g. China, Enlightenment), which headings are then subdivided into numerous different topics. The site is updated occasionally and the presentation is excellent.
This website deals with the life and work of the Greek mathematician, Euclid (c. 300 BC). The site has been compiled by Donald Lancon, a freelance mathematical enthusiast who was educated at the University of Houston in the United States. The site consists mainly of an extended essay prepared by Lancon while he was a student at Houston. This includes biographical information about Euclid, which would be of general interest to classicists and ancient historians. Source references are given throughout. The site deals in some detail with Euclid's contributions to geometry and mathematics, paying particular attention to the Elements. This work by Euclid deals with topics including plane geometry, solid geometry and number theory. The site also provides a detailed bibliography of suggestions for further study relating to works on Euclid and other aspects of Greek mathematics.
This is the website for Isis, the long-running journal for the history and cultural influence of science, medicine and technology produced by the History of Science Society in the USA. Apart from detailed submission guidelines and subscription information, the site also offers access to the contents pages of all issues since 1995 and to the abstracts of all articles published since 1997. Also of use are the details of forthcoming issues and a sample issue which may be viewed online via abstracts and downloadable full-text articles. A Table of Contents Alert email system is available. This site is straightforward and regularly updated.
The Islamic Medical Manuscripts at the (US) National Library of Medicine website has been developed to facilitate research into the field and to illustrate the range and importance of these resources. The site provides an introduction to medieval Islam, along with brief biographies and suggested further reading for a large number of Islamic physicians, surgeons, and scholars. Another feature is the topic-based catalogue of about one third of the NLM's collection of Islamic manuscripts. The catalogue entries for these manuscripts include English translations of titles, shelfmarks, sample folio images, physical descriptions, and information on bindings and provenance. An extensive illustrated glossary provides a guide to both Islamic (or Arabic/Persian) terms and manuscript terminology. A list of cited works relating to the Islamic history of medicine and Arabic or Persian manuscripts is also included. This website should prove an excellent resource for scholars researching Islamic culture or the history of medicine.
The Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza [IMSS] is one of the foremost international institutions concerned with the history of science. It combines a noted museum of scientific instruments and an institute dedicated to the research, documentation and dissemination of the history of science in the broadest sense. The website offers a well constructed resource for researchers at all levels. The left-hand side bar on the home page offers links to recent events and exhibitions, as well as a news archive section. The right-hand side bar has links to interactive features, such as diagrams of an astrolabe and Galileo's compass, and a virtual tour of the museum, and a digital archive of materials of the discoveries of Galileo. The central feature of the home page offers background information on the institute and the museum and their collections, bibliographies and archives. There is extensive online material, including exhibits, searchable databases and digital library collections. Also available is information on publications, conference and projects. Users can freely subscribe to the bimonthly Institute's newsletter "Nuncius: Journal of the History of Science". The site is user-friendly and regularly updated. It may be viewed in either Italian or English, although not all of the features appear to have English translation.
The home page for the J. R. Ritman Library (Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica) provides information about the library's collections and activities. This private library (unaffiliated to any university or other institution, but freely accessible to the public) houses materials relating to the Hermetic-Christian tradition (Hermeticism is a set of religious and philosophical beliefs based on a body of writings attributed to the mythical philosopher and alchemist, Hermes Trismegistus). Topics covered include: alchemy; mysticism; Rosicrucianism; and Hermetic philosophy. It is possible to search the library's catalogue online, and a digitisation project is underway, although at time of review the works were not yet available via the website. The site also offers a series of articles on subjects relating to the Hermetic tradition, a bibliography of other relevant works, and access to the library's online exhibitions.
The Web Site Muzeum uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego (Jagiellonian University museum) provides information about the university's museum in Cracow, Poland. The site is in English and Polish, although the English site is less comprehensive. The Jagiellonian University is the second oldest in Central Europe, founded in 1364. The museum is situated within the Collegium Maius, the oldest university building in Poland. The museum houses permanent and temporary exhibitions. One section is dedicated to Nicolaus Copernicus, another houses the library, and there is an excellent collection of early scientific instruments. The textual guide to the museum is accompanied by links to images. The tables of contents of the annual published by the museum, Opuscula Musealia of all issues, since 1986, are posted on the site. A small video opens automatically in the main page, presenting the Collegium Maius with a rather distracting musical background. The most famous alumni of the university are listed on the front page. This is a good site for those interested in the material culture of Cracow, and those who are studying Polish Studies.
The Jenner Museum website provides a number of resources on Dr. Edward Jenner, the eighteenth and nineteenth century English doctor and scientist. On the site there are two well-written reference chapters. The first of which provides a biography of Jenner and highlights aspects of his career, including his interest in migration, hibernation, and fossils. The other looks specifically at his pioneering work on smallpox and vaccination, and the founding principles of immunology. Elsewhere on the site there is a chapter explaining the principles of immunology and vaccination. There is also a learning resources section, which suggests how displays at the museum can be connected to the national curriculum, interactive games, and general information about visiting the museum and its facilities.
'Jesuits and the sciences 1540-1995' offers a brief historical outline tracing the relationship between the Society of Jesus and scientific development over the last half-millennium. The site begins with an introduction and is then divided into a series of short historical sketches, each covering a few decades. The site deals with such thinkers as Clavius (1538-1612), Kircher (1602-1680), and Boscovich (1711-1787). Though this work is by no means comprehensive, it satisfactorily introduces students who are interested in the history of scientific development or the interaction between Christianity and science to a number of major figures and the arenas in which they operated. A short but useful bibliography accompanies this resource.
The website "John Gaunt (1620-1674)" is published by an academic at the Western Washington University. On it is the transcribed first edition of John Graunt's Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality, written in 1662, along with two biographies of Graunt, one by his contemporary John Aubrey, and one by the site's author. In addition there are several resources on related topics, including the Black Death, the Plague, the Great Fire of London, portraits of notable individuals, and a timeline of seventeenth century England. This is a useful website for those interested in statistical and medical history.
The Jordanus database comes from a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institute for the History of Science in Berlin and the Institute for the History of Science in Munich. Its main focus is on mathematical manuscripts of all western languages written before 1500 - they claim to now have incorporated the majority of those, more than 13,000 - but a good number of manuscripts from neighbouring science disciplines plus non-science material can be found there as well. Records can be searched for not only by name and author but also by several other fields, like the library that currently houses it, the city in which the library is situated or language or year. Even a shelfmark search is possible. The whole website interface is bilingual in German and English.
This is a definitive web resource on the life and work of Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911), botanist, traveller, close associate of Charles Darwin and President of the Royal Society. The author, Jim Endersby, is a historian of science who completed a doctoral thesis on Hooker’s work in 2002. Contents include a capsule biography (around 5000 words, substantially equivalent to the author’s entry on Hooker for the New Dictionary of National Biography); transcripts of some of Hooker’s works, and of several chapters from Leonard Huxley’s 1918 Life and Letters of Hooker; annotated bibliographies of Hooker’s own work, reviews by contemporaries, and secondary sources; and a guide to archives containing material which relates to Hooker or his correspondents. The site focuses particularly on the network of Australasian collectors with whom Hooker exchanged information: brief biographical and bibliographical details are provided for over twenty individuals, including William Colenso and Ronald Gunn. The site is searchable and provides a page of links to other sites dealing with the history of naturalism and botany. The site is no longer being updated, but remains a solid resource.
The Joseph Henry Papers Project is run by the Institutional History Division of the Smithsonian Institution. Its chief activity is in preparing a print edition of the papers of the Institution's founding secretary, Joseph Henry (1797-1878), a pioneering electromagnetic researcher and noted supporter of ethnological and meteorological work. In addition to information about the Project, this site contains a substantial collection of short biographical pieces, surveying Henry's activities and beliefs and the history of the Smithsonian during his tenure; more technical essays, discussing Henry's role in the development of the telegraph, electric motor, electromagnet and telephone; an online facsimile of the catalogue to an exhibit entitled "Joseph Henry: an Enduring Legacy", first displayed in 1997; and diverse support materials, such as a chronological survey of items (including the SI unit of inductance) named in Henry's honour. Referencing is thorough, with a classified bibliography of print resources provided. The section relating to the Papers themselves provides a brief description of contents for each of the eight volumes currently in print. Volume 8 also has a full online transcript of the table of contents and introduction, whereas for volume 7, unusually, there is a link to a "mini edition" maintained externally at the site of the Model Editions Partnership, containing the full-text of 51 documents. A small sample of letters derived from the Papers Project, presented in transcript form as a single webpage with copious annotation, also appears in the biographical section.
This site from the Australian Science Archives Project provides access to the text of the journal of Syms Covington from December 1831 to September 1836. Syms Covington was the assistant to Charles Darwin on the second voyage of HMS Beagle. The text on the website has been provided as an edited and annotated transcription of the original journal text, divided into eight chapters. Each chapter is illustrated and appendices of crew lists and Covington’s travels are also provided. A bibliography of suggested readings is available from the site, which includes references to both primary and secondary sources. This site is text-heavy, with the material presented as densely written scroll-down pages. However, while this can be tiring on the eyes, the tone is very readable and offers useful context and commentary of the main content, while the annotations provide valuable additional understanding.
This website reprints the review of Karl Popper's (1902-1994) legacy to the philosophy of science which was first published in the 'Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy'. It sets out the central tenets of Popper's thought together with an analysis of the context in which it developed and some key biographical information. The webpage was compiled as a tribute to the life and work of a scholar 'regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of this century'. The author, Stephen Thornton of the University of Limerick, is also editor of 'Minerva: The Internet Journal of Philosophy' and there is a link to this site. The page sets out Popper's problem of the demarcation between 'science' and 'non-science' in terms of his engagement with traditional empiricism and situates the argument in the context of his social and political thought and the critique of historicism. It forms a useful introduction to Popper's thought for students of philosophy of science and related disciplines. There are links to relevant webpages and a bibliography of primary and secondary sources.
This website describes the Foyle Special Collections Library at Kings College London. Built up over centuries, the library contains some 150,000 items and is particularly strong in the fields of the history of science and medicine, travel and exploration, the history of Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean, the British Empire and 20th century German and Jewish studies. The website describes the collection in detail, and provides 'canned searches' of items within the university's library catalogue.
The KLI Theory Lab originates from the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research (KLI) in Austria. It is a comprehensive database that allows users to make efficient searches for online resources in the domain of science, philosophy, evolution and cognition. The site is divided into a number of sections, in order to aid speed of search. Sections include: AI and computing; artificial life; cognitive science; cultural evolution; epistemology and philosophy of science; history and social studies of science; philosophy of biology; philosophy of mind. Each section consists of a brief introduction to the subject, and a partly-annotated list of links to periodicals, conferences, societies, institutions, personal websites, and other resources connected with the field. Searches can be performed using author name, title, or key word. Note that at the time of reviewing, certain sections were under construction, and a non-negligible number of links broken or outdated.
This is the website for the Lapworth Museum, Birmingham University’s museum of geology. Dating back to 1880, the collection is one of the largest in the Midlands (with over 250,000 specimens) and it retains its historic Edwardian setting and interior. As befits its location the Lapworth “has some of the finest collections from the Wenlock Limestone of Dudley” rich in 420 million year old fossils from a tropical sea ecosystem. Elsewhere, the Midlands Coalfields were an important source fossil plants, fish, insects, arachnids, fossil footprints and animal tracks. Further afield are palaeontology specimens from as far afield as the Solnholfen Limestones of Germany and Burgess Shale of British Columbia. Named after Charles Lapworth, first professor of Geology at the University’s forerunner, Mason College, the collection is of historical as well as scientific interest, particularly for those interested in the work of early geologists, and includes early geological maps (well described on the website with biographies of their makers), equipment, models, photographs, zoological specimens and stone axes. Additionally, the Lapworth archive is “one of the most complete records of the work of a scientist of [the] period”. Further collections include engineer and inventor William Murdoch’s mineral collection. Collections can be searched online through the University’s illustrated catalogue of its museum holdings. The Lapworth Museum recieves funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
This web resource introduces the issues surrounding the navigation of the South Atlantic Ocean and the calculation of latitude. It is divided into a number of pages covering different aspects of navigation in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. There are sections on ship design, magnetism, developments in sailing techniques, ocean currents, map-making, and several other topics. Digital images of early-modern maps illustrate the points made by the site. Links to other websites are categorised by the educational level they might be best suited to, for the benefit of teachers. The presentation of the site seems curiously arbitrary, but it is worth exploring, as it does provide a good introduction to many of the problems faced by early-modern mariners that are now easily forgotten or overlooked.
This is a complete online edition of a historical overview to commemorate the founding of what became the University of California's Berkeley Laboratory, a pioneering centre for early cyclotron research and subsequently a major research facility in subatomic particle physics. The article, originally published in 1981, by the historians of science John Heilbron, Robert W Seidel and Bruce R Wheaton, is a somewhat analytical piece focusing on the role of Ernest O Lawrence, the Laboratory’s first director, in shaping his institution. References to the sources of direct quotations only are provided. This is a readable article which might be useful to undergraduates as an introduction to the work of the Laboratory, or to the nature of twentieth-century "big science" in general.
Lawrence and the Cyclotron is a mini-exhibition which is a subsite of the Center for History of Physics, a part of the American Institute of Physics. The site gives an excellent illustrated narrative history of the life and work of the American physicist Ernest O. Lawrence (1901-1958). Known for his invention of the cyclotron, an accelerator of subatomic particles, he also won the Nobel Prize in 1939 and took part in the Manhattan Project. Like the other online exhibitions in this series, this site clearly describes technical aspects of Lawrence's research, especially his work on the development of the atomic bomb and its connection to his political attitudes during the Cold War. The site also has links to related sites and good excerpts from primary source materials. It would make a good teaching tool or starting point for those interested in the topic.
Lephalophodon is a small site, ostensibly devoted to the history of evolutionary biology; in fact, the survey is quite broad, taking in a variety of palaeontologists, natural historians and taxonomists from the approximate period 1800-1950. The site’s creator, a research palaeobiologist, describes it as "informal and incomplete": although lacking analysis, it is a useful introductory resource, including capsule biographies (with portraits) of around 50 eighteenth-, nineteenth- and twentieth-century researchers; images of more than 80 further individuals, with brief details; a brief chronology of events in the period 1749-1959, and an annotated bibliography of secondary works.
The Legendary Lighthouses website was designed to accompany an American television series and book of the same name. The site summarises the television episodes and includes historical information on lighthouses by region of the USA. Each regional section contains: about 20 photographic images of various lighthouses; information on the particularities of that region's coastal geography; accounts of particularly notable lighthouses, with historical anecdotes; information as to the state of the lighthouses today; and contact details for structures not in private hands. The photographs are unfortunately rather small. The site also features a QuickTime illustration of how a Fresnel lens operates.
This website, authored by a freelance enthusiast, concerns the life and work of the nuclear scientist, biophyscist and 'scientist of conscience', Leo Szilard (1898-1964). Amongst the items included are various biographical articles, secondary articles about his work, the most recent being by Valentine Telegedi and William Lanouette, and assorted pieces regarding the atom bomb and Szilard's opposition to its use. These include a copy of the petition he sent to President Truman in 1945. In addition, the site contains an audio version and transcipt of the speech Szilard gave at Harvard in 1961, called 'Are We on the Road to War?', which lead to the foundation of the Council for a Livable World. There are also links to other relevant sites. The presentation is a little busy but functional enough, although it has not been updated recently.
This Web resource is a series of three online exhibitions devoted to the innovations and genius of key Renaissance figures, including Leonardo da Vinci, Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti. It is likely to be of interest to researchers at all levels in many aspects of history. The exhibitions are titled 'Leonardo da Vinci', 'Sienese Engineers' and 'Brunelleschi and the Dome of Florence Cathedral'. Each one is accessed through a series of icons which lead to a page on the life, work or methodology of the subject, with Windows Media 9 or QuickTime 6 playable files available also for further detail. The site is available in both Italian and English. Sub-headings in the exhibitions include 'Biography', 'Models' and 'Manuscripts', as well as sections on 'Major Achievements' and 'Key figures', which cover all three features. The site includes a huge amount of material, with lists of manuscripts and images of machines, sculptures, models and works of art. Most of the images are rather small and although they can be opened in a new window, they are enlarged only slightly. However, the detailed analysis of the manuscripts and the range of material included offers valuable access to primary source material. The site is hosted by the Institute and Museum of the History of Science at Florence and is under ongoing development.
This website, part of the BBC Science & Nature section, looks at Leonardo da Vinci as an all-round genius, thinker, artist, scientist and engineer. The site includes online galleries of paintings, sketches and works by other artists, providing additional information and high-quality images. An interactive area presents Leonardo's 'studio' which, by navigating around select items in the studio, links to additional biographical and historical information about the artist and the Renaissance period, covering Leonardo's designs for flying machines, the materials used by Renaissance artists, camera obscura, anatomy and the unfinished work 'Adoration of the Magi'. In addition, there is a link to an illustrated timeline of his life with a series of 12 questions to test your Leonardo knowledge, plus an interactive 'what kind of thinker are you?' quiz. The site is exciting to explore and allows a closer look at masterpieces such as the Mona Lisa, Lady with Ermine, The Last Supper, and drawings and sketches. Experts in the fields of art history, architecture, and engineering share their opinions on the website.
The Leonardo da Vinci Society provides a forum for scholars interested in the art, science, and times of the great Renaissance artist and inventor. The website provides an introduction to the Society, along with committee and membership information. It contains a biography of Leonardo and details of the annual conference and annual general meeting. Book reviews and a list of recent publications are also included. Online copies of the Society newsletter provide more detailed information about events and recent research.
"Leonardo's Codex Leicester, A Masterpiece of Science" is an online exhibition from the American Museum of Natural History. It accompanied an exhibition at the Museum from 1996-1997, which used a manuscript (The Codex Leicester, written circa 1506-1510) in private hands in America to illustrate the scientific thoughts and amazing drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, the Renaissance artist, scientist, and thinker. The Codex Leicester is a record of Leonardo's thoughts, from astronomy to hydrodynamics, and includes Leonardo's observations and theories related to rivers, the moon and the oceans, and the properties of water. The online presentation includes an annotated image of one folio of a single sheet of the 300 page manuscript.
The website of the Liebig-Museum in Giessen offers a useful introduction to study of Justus Liebig, who taught at the Giessen University as Professor of Chemistry from 1824 to 1852. The site is in German and English, with a wider range of information available in German, but the English material offering a background to his work and a selection of further material and links. The site reflects the museum's aim to be accessible to the general public and academic researchers. Liebig's most important innovations are detailed, his primary discoveries being those which influenced developments in agriculture chemistry. Also, information on the museum is included for those planning to visit the collection, which includes rooms left as Liebig would have used them and apparatus dating from that time. A series of links is available to other sites for further detail. For researchers who can read German, this site is a much richer resource, with a biography of Liebig and a range of material on his work and discoveries.
The Linda Hall Library of Science, Engineering, and Technology holds a significant history of Science collection, some of which is available online. Based in Kansas, Missouri, the library has amassed rare books from the fifteenth century onwards. They have also acquired long runs of scientific and technical society journals dating from the seventeenth century. The site includes the Library's electronic catalogue as well as a document ordering service and a reference service. The online exhibitions are all interesting and quite extensive, introducing visitors to particular subject areas in some detail. They are well illustrated with drawings and pictures taken from the books upon which they are based. The site explains the legal restrictions on reproducing these images. Exhibitions include 'Centuries of Civil Engineering', which looks at significant historical examples of canals, bridges, viaducts, lighthouses, monuments, and water supply infrastructure. The second exhibition is called 'Voyages : Scientific Circumnavigations 1679-1859)'. There is an exhibition of early printed material on dinosaur discovery, called 'Paper Dinosaurs 1824-1969'. Another section, 'Out of this World: The Golden Age of the Celestial Atlas', looks at the history of celestial atlases from the fifteenth to nineteenth century. Finally, there is the exhibition 'The Face of the Moon: Galileo to Apollo'. These are all interesting presentations in their own right. This site should appeal to students of the history of science.
'Linus Pauling: A Centenary Exhibit' is an online exhibition hosted by the Special Collections and University Archives of the Oregon State University Libraries. It honours the life and work of Linus Pauling, the only individual winner of two Nobel Prizes. The material, which has been developed from the on-site exhibition at the University in 2001, is drawn from the Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers and various photographic collections. A detailed biography of Pauling is included, which traces the many areas of his interest from molecular research to his resistance to war, including details of his colleagues, different stages of his work and the suspicions aroused against him by his commitment to peace. This exhibit is well presented, with many images of primary source material and a very detailed picture of the way in which his life and work interacted. Unfortunately, it cannot be searched or accessed via a specific page except through a series of very small thumbnail icons at the top of the title page. These are only likely to be useful once the user is already familiar with the content. Alternatively, the exhibition can be viewed by starting at the beginning and working through a page at a time, although it is possible to go back one page at any time. Each page is divided into several columns, which are then viewed in detail by zooming in, when a link to the next column becomes available. This makes viewing a slow process, but it is comprehensive in terms of the material included and the extent of detail, which should make it a useful resource at all levels of research.
This website commemorates the 2001 centenary of the birth of Linus Pauling, the Nobel-laureate chemist, geneticist and pacifist campaigner who died in 1994. The site is maintained by the Special Collections department of Oregon State University Library, home to the Pauling papers collection. It provides a chronology of Pauling's life, contributed by Pauling's official biographer, Dr Robert J. Paradowski, details of several relevant print publications, and information on the Pauling Heritage Committee. Also hosted at this site is "Linus Pauling: a Centenary Exhibit", an online version of an exhibition display presented in 2001, aimed at a general audience and including numerous photographs and other primary documents; note that the functioning link for this exhibit is found in the "what's new" box on the home page.
Complete online publication of 47 laboratory research notebooks kept, over the course of his career, by the influential US chemist Linus Pauling (1901-94). The notebooks begin in 1922 and continue until the year of his death, covering work on inorganic crystallography, protein structure, superconductivity, the research which led to the controversial publication "Vitamin C and the Common Cold", and countless other fields; there is also more personal material, including references to his wife and collaborator, Ava Helen Pauling, and indications of Pauling's pacifist stance, such as the draft of a 1991 open letter to President George Bush opposing war in the Gulf. The online presentation has been prepared by Special Collections staff at Oregon University Library, which holds the Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers archive. Each page of each notebook (7680 pages in total) is displayed as a facsimile image, viewable at two levels of resolution. No transcripts are provided, but contents lists and a very thorough alphabetical subject index are provided, plus a guide to "selected highlights".
The London museums of health and medicine site, created by the London Museums of Health and Medicine Group, provides information on over twenty health and medical museums in London. The type of information available for each museum listed includes: a brief description of individual collections, opening hours, addresses, location details, email addresses, and a link to the museum's website (if available). An interactive map of London displays the exact location of each institution. Additionally, the site offers a news section and maintains a news archive. The list of museums includes amongst others: the Chelsea Physic Garden; Freud Museum; Florence Nightingale Museum; Old Operating Theatre; Veterinary Museum; Worshipful Society of Apothecaries; and the Wellcome Trust.
This is the website of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine's archive, which is currently being surveyed, sorted and catalogued to enable greater access to the material held there. The archive holds a range of records - the letters and personal papers of scientific, medical and public health professionals engaged in searching for cures and treatments for diseases such as malaria, cholera, filariasis and leprosy, the administrative records of the School itself, and photographs, ephemera and artwork. Currently users can access collection level descriptions of the personal papers through the AIM25 website, and brief descriptions of the holdings for each individual - including Patrick Manson, Major General Sir Leonard Rogers, Sir Ronald Ross, and Edwin Chadwick are available on this site.Along with access information for the archive, which lists opening hours, the access policy and guidelines of use, the site also provides a chronology of the history of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and biographies of all of the people named on the building of the school.
The "Lunacy Commission, A Study of its Origin, Emergence and Character" is a somewhat busy, but extremely useful, website is published by an academic at Middlesex University. It is an online monograph on the history of the Lunacy Commission in England and Wales. The book features an introductory chapter, which outlines the establishment of the Lunacy Commission as a government department in the mid-nineteenth century, and its evolution over the years, as well as examining its predecessors in full too. The subsequent chapters look at the individual commissions that preceded the Lunacy Commission, with a chapter each on the organisation and development of the Physician, Metropolitan, and Inquiry Commissions. The two final chapters provide a directory of commissioners, with biographies, and a list of relevant statutes with reference information.
This is the website of Australia's Macleay Museum, a history of science at the University of Sydney. There is a profile of the Macleay family and the eponymous museum, as well as downloads of scanned exhibition catalogues and recordings and transcripts of public lecture series. The museum's anthropology and taxonomy exhibitions are listed here, but navigation requires exploring the University's parent site to understand the full extent of the Macleay Museum's latest exhibits and online presentations devoted to scientific instruments, invertebrates, vertebrates, historic photographs and ethnography. Researchers should take note of the subpage on applications for the affiliated Macleay Miklouho-Maclay Fellowship.
This site, from the University of St Andrews, is a very useful resource in the history of mathematics. As well as chronologies and birthplace maps, the site contains biographies of hundreds of mathematicians, from ancient times to modern, indexed alphabetically. There are also around forty articles on disparate topics in the history of mathematics, and numerous diagrams and histories of famous mathematical curves. Some of the curves analysed include, Cayley's Sextic, Involute of a Circle, Newton's Parabolas and the Witch of Agnesi. An interactive exploration of the curves is possible. A keyword search of the archive is available and while the site's presentation is fairly basic, it is straightforward and user-friendly. This site received a Britannica award for quality.
The Magic Mirror of Life website stems from the personal passions of two photographers interested in the history and prehistory of photography. The camera obscura (Latin for dark room) is an important discovery in the development of the photographic camera. Many of the obscuras built in Britain are relics of the Victorian era. The site offers background and historical information on the camera obscura. Links and bibliographic sources provide further points of reference. The personal collection of the site's authors display a very good collection of images of camera obscuras in the UK and the US, plus images of books, cartoons, postcards, encyclopaedia pages and vintage instruments. The authors' visits to obscuras are detailed with maps and personal accounts.
Making the Modern World is an impressive website that charts the development of modern industrial society, and the changes in science, technology and medicine from the eighteenth century onwards. It is published by the Science Museum, in partnership with Peter Symonds College, Winchester and Mackensie Ward Research, and with funding from the ISB Fund. It features a wide number of resources, with a stories timeline, interactive presentations on particular people or inventions, an exploration of artefacts and learning modules for students and educators. There are also guided tours of particular topics, such as women in the modern world, conflict and technology, modern health, modern life and modern work. Users will find a wealth of information on the site ranging from the inventions of Richard Arkwright, to the development of the contraceptive pill.
This bilingual (Spanish/English) website, created by researcher and teacher Martín Pozzi of Buenos Aires University, is devoted to the study of the first century AD Latin poet Marcus Manilius, whose best known work is the Astronomica, a 4500 line hexametric poem which combines astrology with Stoic philosophy. The site offers links to online editions of the text (Loeb and Intratext) as well as commentaries, articles, secondary literature and reviews. A useful and extensive bibliography of works on Manilius also provides a list of publications on ancient astrology and the zodiac. Much of the secondary material referenced in the bibliography is in English. There is an excellent range of links including ones on the wider history of astrology. There is also a discussion group to which readers can subscribe. This resource will benefit researchers and teachers in classics and related subjects, including the history of science and religion.
This is the award-winning website of Canada's Manitoba Museum. A science and natural history museum and planetarium, the museum specialises in space and space exploration. The site contains many attractive and informative features. Apart from articles about previous exhibitions (on the Northern Lights, for example), browsers can take a virtual tour of a bat cave; view the night sky; read about telescopes; investigate the history of expeditions to Mars; order education kits; take a virtual tour of the entire museum. The site also provides information about membership, special tours, lists of collections, and an online shop.
The Margaret Cavendish Society, launched in 1997, is an interdisciplinary forum for scholarship on the work of Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle (?1623-1673). Cavendish's writing covers fiction, poetry, letters, plays and essays on natural philosophy. This site provides details (including abstracts of papers presented) of the Society's biannual conferences; a copy of the Society's membership directory; full-texts of its newsletters and links to Cavendish-related writings and primary sources held at other sites, plus a couple of on-site recordings of relevant interviews, provided as RealMedia audio files. Of particular importance is an off-site link to a substantial (though unannotated) bibliography of print sources on Cavendish. Subscription details for the associated MARCAV-L discussion list are also provided.
Todd Hammond's (Truman State University) impressive Mathematics and the Liberal Arts site, is a substantial list of annotated resources focused on the relationship between the mathematical sciences and their impact and interaction with other non-scientific disciplines. Directed towards advanced students and teachers on the history and philosophy of science, the bibliographic citations listed here are organized by geography, but can be restricted into increasingly specific categories by selecting the appropriate link at the head of the page such as nation, epoch, mathematical subset, and even individual philosophers and/or mathematicians. While the annotations are extremely helpful in locating good resources on the history of mathematics, navigation of the site is not as accommodating as one would hope. The citations are not stored in a larger database but pre-set into different web pages and no search utility has been provided which would allow users to quickly locate references. To find information on a specific topic one must move through the geographical links at the top of the page. Users should also note that the link above leads to the section on European mathematics, for the specific starting page to this resource, if it exists, has proved to be elusive. If you are struggling to locate a reference and comfortable navigating by using the file directory, it can be found at the following address: http://math.truman.edu/~thammond/history/.
Published to accompany an exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution, from September 26, 1997 to January 4, 1998, “Mathew Brady’s Portraits” is an online exhibition of photographic portraits by American Civil War photographer Mathew Brady. Brady photographed many important figures from the 1850s until his death in 1896. The website presents a virtual tour of the exhibition, providing enlargeable images and information about the pictures, and a technical glossary. There are also sections on photographic techniques during Brady’s time, which contain a number of animations, his relationship with the art world, his Civil War work, and a detailed biography. This resource can be navigated via the gallery or by a full index of sitters. The index is organised by theme, including gems of the collection, illustrious Americans, the civil war period, and imperial prints. Each portrait image is accompanied by notes on the sitter and the context in which the photograph was taken. Overall, this is an excellent and detailed website about Mathew Brady and his role in nineteenth century America.
The website of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science offers valuable online access to research into the ways 'new categories of thought, proof, and experience have emerged in the centuries-long interaction between the sciences and their ambient cultures'. The layout of this site makes it very accessible for researchers and its content offers resources at all levels. Alongside the information headings on the Institute, its staff and news, the section on research is particularly valuable. Within three departmental headings, research projects may be searched by Research Units, Name of Project or Names of Involved Scholars. The information contained within these headings is comprehensive. This site is plainly laid out, efficient and accessible. It may be viewed in English or German.
'The Measurers' is a painting formerly attributed to Hendrik van Balen but now simply agreed to be by a Flemish artist of the late sixteenth century. It displays a number of people engaged in common activities, and represents the usefulness of mathematics in a range of everyday situations. The painting formed the focus of a special exhibition at the Museum of the History of Science in Oxford during 1996. This website was written to accompany the exhibition. The website is divided into three main sections: the mathematicians, the measurers, and the collectors. The first section looks at Renaissance concepts of art, science, and nature; the second examines the mathematical elements of each activity displayed in the painting; the third discusses the connoisseurs who developed collections of mathematical instruments. Each section links to relevant entries in the museum's catalogue, with images of manuscripts and artefacts. A separate page lists the figures accompanying the exhibition. The images and figures have been scanned at high resolution, and may be magnified at two levels. The website also contains a bibliography.
MedHist is a gateway to evaluated, quality Internet resources relating to the history of medicine and allied sciences. Its content spans all aspects of the history of health, health care, and the development of medical knowledge. MedHist is affiliated to the Intute: Health and Life Sciences subject group, but is developed and managed by the Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine at the Wellcome Trust. The site descriptions, typically running to 150 words, provide useful overviews of the sites and are sensibly classified for ease of browsing. There are options to browse by period, locality, or speciality, and there are specific sections on diseases, education, reference material, and electronic publications. There is a complete surname listing of sites relating to individuals, and an inevitably disparate "miscellaneous" section. A search box allows quite complex text searches. This description is based upon that provided by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) Resource Guide for the Arts and Humanities.
'Medica: the Society for the Study of Healing in the Middle Ages' is an academic association designed to explore the relationship between medicine and other scientific disciplines during the middle ages, while providing a forum for those interested in this topic to share their views and research. The site offers two main resources that may interest a wide array of students and scholars. The first is the Medica mailing list, which may be joined by contacting its operator. The second is a helpful bibliography of medieval medicine, divided into primary and secondary sources, and organized alphabetically by author. The site also features listings of upcoming events and calls for papers (although unfortunately these are not always up to date), a list of links to online medieval medicine resources, and PDF or MS Word versions of past editions of the Medica newsletter.
Medicina Antiqua (ancient medicine) is a website hosted by the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at University College London and intended as a central resource for researchers in the history of ancient medicine. The site contains: online transcripts of English translations of several works by Galen, with links to a few other transcript sites; a small collection of short analytical essays on aspects of ancient medicine (topics covered include poisons, Hippocrates, dreams, and Galen); and external links to other relevant resources on ancient medicine.
'Medicine and Madison Avenue' explores the relationship between medicine and advertising in the United States between 1910 and 1960. The site consists of a database of advertisements categorised by product type. In addition, there is a timeline of significant developments in advertising from the 1840s to the 1960s, and some suggestions for using the site in classroom activities.Adverts may be accessed by browsing or searching. The site's search engine allows searches to be conducted in combinations of various fields such as: publication type; manufacturer; advertiser; target audience; illustration subject; and date. Results are listed by product category and after this by advertisement headline. Individual records feature digitised copies of the advertisements, which may be enlarged.
The Medieval Manuscripts at the National Library of Medicine website is an online version of an exhibit held by the National Library of Medicine from 18th May - 15th August 2000. This exhibition was designed to celebrate the medieval manuscripts holdings of the National Library of Medicine in general, and in particular their twelfth century manuscript 'Treatises on Medicine'. The site has been divided into the following main sections: Treatises on Medicine, The Articella, Arabic Legacies, Salerno, and English Leechcraft and Physick. Each section has a narrative on the topic and is accompanied by facsimile images from medieval manuscripts illustrating the topic. The resource would be of value to anyone seeking an accessible introduction to manuscripts with medical themes.
Constructed by James McNelis (Wilmington College), the Medieval Science Page is a quick-reference online gateway to a host of topics related to scientific development, primarily between the fifth and fifteenth centuries. The gateway focuses predominantly on European discoveries and innovations, and includes links to sites dealing with such topics as alchemy, astronomy, botany, calendrics, cartography, mathematics, physics and scientific instruments. The site is best used as a general starting point for students interested in a specific scientific discipline during the Middle Ages, as it does not provide a comprehensive list of electronic resources currently available, nor resources focused on methodological or philosophical issues that affected scientific development. However, by following the many links, one should be able to move to increasingly specific resources off-site.
The Medieval Technology Pages website was created by Paul Gans of New York University. The site aims to provide accurate, referenced information on medieval technological innovation and covers a period from 500 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 1600. The information on the site can be accessed through a subject index which lists items alphabetically, or via a timeline. Subjects include: Agricultural Tools; Cannons; Peasant Houses; Horse Shoes; Spectacles; and Windmills. The timeline is divided into two and three hundred year epochs, with highlighted links to information on key developments during those years, such as the importing of silkworms to Byzantium, the use of the heavy plow, the spread of the use of soap and the first use of the horizontal loom. There is also a reference section which takes the form of an alphabetical list of all the sources used to obtain the information for the site. Each reference links through to the relevant information on the site. This site is comprehensive and well-presented, offering a useful resource for all levels of research.
MendelWeb is an online resource on Gregor Mendel's work on plant hybridization in 1865, based around his paper of that year and the English translation by C. T. Druery and William Bateson.
The resource is focused on the 'origins of classical genetics, introductory data analysis, elementary plant science and the history and literature of science'. It arose out of an undergraduate programme at Brown University, making it suitable for early research, though its high quantity of primary source material may also make it useful at a more advanced level.
Full text versions of Mendel's 1865 paper are included in the original German and in English, alongside essays and commentary articles, bibliographies and reference materials. Also available are glossaries, notes, discussion exercises and links to further sites of interest.
Devised and maintained by Roger B. Blumberg, a Fellow of Brown University, this site is the modest presentation of a large amount of material. Use of the site is well guided, but its layout, being something like a college handout, makes it appear a little complicated. It does not appear to be regularly updated, but as the material is not date sensitive, this is unlikely to offer any difficulties to users.
This is the website for Mersenne, an informal email discussion group for the history, philosophy and sociology of science, technology and medicine. The site is the responsibility of JISCmail, the provider of electronic discussion lists to the UK higher education community. Apart from information about how to join or leave the list, the site contains archives of previous submissions which may be browsed by author, date or thread, or searched by keyword. The volume of postings is low: most messages consist of job advertisements, calls for papers, and announcements of meetings, new websites or seminar series. All postings are archived at the JISCmail site, and it is thus possible to keep up to date without subscribing to the list by regularly checking this address. The archive contains all messages posted since September 1998, a significant proportion having been imported from the mailbase facility which formerly handled UK academic discussion lists. The site's presentation is simple but eminently clear.
Mining History Network is a website established to aid communication and the sharing of resources in the history of mining and related subjects throughout the world. It is maintained by Roger Burt, Professor of Mining History in the Department of History, University of Exeter. The site contains a list of mining history researchers (numbering some 500 members at the time of cataloguing) with contact details and notes of specialisations; a collection of very comprehensive print bibliographies (unannotated, and in some cases hosted on other sites), with specific listings for mining in Britain, North America, Africa, etc.; a large collection of links (unannotated) to other relevant sites; news of forthcoming conferences and symposia; and a link to the archive of the Mining History email discussion forum (based on JISCmail). As an international centre for mining history online, the site also contains the web presences of the Exeter Mining History Research Group; L'Equipe d' Histoire des Mines et de la Metallurgie (Paris); the Japan Mine Research Society (Tokyo); the Earby Mining Research Group (Yorkshire Dales); and the Bristol and Somerset Coalfield Web Site, a sub-domain maintained independently by Keith Ramsey, containing bibliographic and other information.
Moments of Discovery is a subsite of the Center for History Physics and administered by the American Institute of Physics. This is another in a series of online mini-exhibitions devoted to the history of science, this one to the discovery of fission, the detection of the first optical pulsar and superconductivity. The site has a well-developed online teachers' pack, with downloadable material, as well as teaching material that can be ordered. The subsite devoted to fission provides a straightforward history of the discovery of nuclear fission, illustrated with pictures of relevant scientists and supported by sound files recording interviews with them. The section on pulsars -- defined for site visitors as "a highly magnetised neutron star, with a radius of 10-15 km, having somewhat greater mass than the Sun" --includes a link to an interesting site with files of sounds emitted by different pulsars. There are also sound files of interviews with various scientists who discovered the phenomenon of optical pulsars. Over-reliance on the interview format dominates this section. This site, more than others in this series, is devoted in diction and content quite explicitly to teaching over and above interest from the general public or undergraduate students. In its exhortation, "Don't try to learn about pulsars from this exhibit. Try to learn about science itself, and the people who practice science. Pay attention to the procedures, not the particular facts." it suffers perhaps from some oversimplification to achieve its aim.
This website, from the Department of Astronomy at the University of Bologna, sets out the Museo della Specola's extensive collection of historic scientific instruments. The information would be of use to history of science and astronomy researchers at all levels in locating primary source material. The site also includes: an introductory essay written for the printed catalogue by Gerard L'Estrange Turner of the University of London; detailed background information to the study of astronomy at Bologna; online analysis of the museum's catalogue; an extensive list of publications and a list of exhibitions where items from the museum's collections have been on display. One of the most useful features for undergraduate and early stage research will be the comprehensive listing of scientific instruments, with details of their use and purpose. These include: astrolabes; gnomons and sundials; mural instruments; armillary spheres; marine chronometers; and celestial and terrestrial globes. This site is straightforward to use and though some pages are available only in Italian, the major part can be accessed in English translation.
This is the website of the Museum of Physics, which is based at the Federico II University of Naples. Crucially the museum is not only a collection of objects, but also an archival centre for research. The website aims to introduce the museum's collections of antique scientific instruments. It provides a brief introduction to the museum and its collections, and then more detailed sections on the museum's three main collections: the Bourbon collection; the physics cabinet; and the Melloni collection. The Bourbon collection was accumulated by Carlos (of Anjou-Bourbon), who reigned as King of Naples (as Carlo VII) and Sicily (as Carlo V) (both from 1735 to 1759), and as Charles III of Spain (1759-1788). He collected four crates "of different mathematical machines" during his time in Naples. The collection has been added to since then, and it now includes instruments relating to mathematical physics and chemistry, (divided into astronomy, geodesy, mechanics, statistics and dynamics), and experimental physics, (divided into pneumatics, heat, electrical studies, magnetism and meteorology). Macedonio Melloni (1798-1854) was an Italian physicist, who under the patronage of Ferdinand II, King of the Two Sicilies (1810-1859) ran the Meterological and Vesuvio Observatory in Naples; the Melloni collection contains instruments that he used in his research conducted in Naples, on infrared radiation and other subjects. The Physics Cabinet is a teaching museum that was set up in 1812. The website provides an introduction to each of the three collections, and contains images of some of the collections' instruments, with detailed historical notes. Straightforward and user-friendly, it is a useful introduction to historical scientific instruments, relating to physics.
This is the very sophisticated site of the National Museum of Science and Technology Leonardo da Vinci, in Milan. At its heart is a virtual reality tour of the large section of the museum devoted to the work of Leonardo da Vinci. The simulation allows viewers to explore the beautiful architecture of the museum as well as the many machines, constructed from Leonardo's drawings, that have been built. Among the reconstructions both at the museum and online are Leonardo's armoured car, glider and revolving crane.The museum also has sections containing locomotives and air & sea transportation. Images of the exhibits can be viewed via the website, and there are links to a number of Italian libraries and archives.
The Museum of HP Calculators (MoHPC) is an extensive website covering all models and aspects of Hewlett-Packard calculators from 1968 to 1986. It also contains a good history of slide rules and calculating machines from 1614 onwards. The site explains the technologies and innovations that have driven the development of the modern calculator, as well as descriptions of the specific models produced by Hewlett-Packard during the years covered. Each model is illustrated with a number of good quality photographs. The site features a section of Hewlett-Packard advertisements, journal articles, and technical comparisons. There are a number of discussion forums and a classifieds section for sellers and collectors of old calculators. Links to other sites, and to journals and associations, are also provided. The author of the site is not affiliated with the Hewlett-Packard company. This site is likely to prove an excellent resource for collectors and anyone interested in the history of calculator technology.
This website is written by a professional historian and is published as part of the Science Museum of Minnesota website. The Museum of Questionable Medical Devices Online features a mixture of primary and secondary resources on quack medicine and its practitioners in the United States. On the site readers can browse through several examples of quack devices, including devices for bloodletting and breast enlargement. Elsewhere users can access advertisements and magazine covers related to health and quackery, biographies of well-known U.S. quacks, and a digitised copy of Samuel Hopkins Adams book The Great American Fraud, which helped to change food and drug laws.
The Museum of the History of Science, which reopened in 2001 following a three-year refurbishment, effectively serves as a centre for History of Science studies in Oxford, and this website offers several resources likely to be of use to researchers in the history of instruments. A fully searchable collections database is currently in development, providing catalogue information and, in some cases, photographs of instruments; the Museum’s collection of images, including many portraits of scientists and instrument-makers, is also in the process of being digitised; and the site also hosts a full searchable index for rete, the mailing list for the historical study of scientific instruments. A page of links to other institutions with significant instruments collections is maintained. There is also a collection of well-produced, atmospheric ‘online exhibits’ on diverse themes, including: early-modern Biblical metaphors of knowledge; the application of geometry in warfare; portrait images of the astronomer Tycho Brahe; early photographic processes; and the scientific history of Oxford, which may interest students and general readers. The site also provides general information about the Museum, its library and staff, online copies of its newsletter, Sphæra, and details of its Master’s-level postgraduate course.
The Muslim Scientists and Islamic Civilization web page attempts to redress the perceived imbalance in Western education that promotes European science and invention whilst ignoring the contributions and achievements of Islamic scholars. It contains accounts of Muslim scientists, scientific references in the Qur'an, quotations from historians of science, and a section called 'putting the record straight', which takes scientific accreditations in works such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica and places them alongside earlier Muslim thinkers and inventors who made the same discovery. The site contains more than simply articles on the history of science. There are also accounts of Islamic civilisation by geographic area, a section about the Qur'an, a group of essays about Western perceptions of the Prophet Muhammad, and a miscellaneous group of writings, many of which concern conflicts between Christianity and Islam. Islamic thinkers listed on the site include: Ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi (Alkindus, 800-873); Al-Farabi (Al-Pharabius, 870-950); Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037); Al-Ghazali (Algazel, 1058-1111); Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya (Ibn Bajjah, 1106-1138); Ibn Rushd (Averroes, 1128-1198); Ibn Khaldun (1332-1395). Whilst this is in many ways a fascinating site, it should be noted that some of the accounts are rather more controversial than the site flags (such as the account of the Gospel of St. Barnabas to name but one).
MuslimHeritage.com is a website dedication to improving knowledge of the contributions to science, technology, and the arts made by Muslims, particularly during the European (so-called) Dark Ages period. The site features articles explaining how the Islamic world both kept alive earlier technologies and ideas whilst developing new ones and promoting science during the period after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. It also argues that this period of intellectual history is not given the attention that it deserves.The site features: an interactive timeline; biographies of Muslim scholars and scientists; and features covering fields as diverse as medicine, agricultural technology, conflict between science and religion, and architecture.This is a site with a point to prove, and it contains a lot of fascinating information. Some of the articles do, however, fail to flag points that might be considered contentious, and sometimes one suspects that words such as science or agricultural revolution are being used rather loosely. Nevertheless, students of the history of science would be well advised to have a look at the perspectives here offered.The site does not appear to function properly in Netscape browsers, but its presentation under Internet Explorer is clean and effective.
The Navigational Aids for the History of Science, Technology and the Environment project website is hosted by the University of Edinburgh. The project, which was completed in 2002, set out to make available the outstanding archive and manuscript resources held by Edinburgh, Glasgow and Heriot-Watt Universities. The website is primarily a search facility, offering open access to the online databases of these institutions. The resources it offers are exceptional in their importance to understanding the history of science in Scotland, especially in recording the 'whole range of national and international firsts in scientific advance and technological innovation'. The site also contains essays, biographical details for key individuals from the collections, images and sound-clips, and suggestions for research uses of the resource. This is a well-planned and comprehensive project, easily usable and with full guidelines for best use readily available. Links are also available to related records in other collections.
The website of the Prague Technical Museum offers a useful introduction to a key location in the Czech Republic for the study of the history of science and technology. The site has full details of the Museum's background and remit, as well as up to date information on current events, exhibitions and news. The site lists the collections in the Museum, which include Acoustics; Architecture and the Building Industry; Chemistry and Biotechnology; Consumer Industry; Food Industry; Foto-Cinematography; Industrial Design; Mechanical Engineering; and Transport. Each collection is introduced with an overview and links to details on key artefacts or figures featured. A glossary of terms mentioned in the collections pages is also included. The 'Activities' section of the website includes information about current scientific projects and publications, as well as updates on the restoration work undertaken since the flooding of the Museum in 2002. This site offers a vital preparation for any researcher planning to visit the Museum and useful basic information for early research on science and technology generally. The site is in Czech with an English translation available. Aside from a few syntax confusions, the standard of the translation is good.
Since its establishment in 1979, the National Association of Mining History Organisations has supported the study of mining history and archaeology in the United Kingdom and Ireland from the prehistoric period to the present. This valuable website provides practical guidelines and research advice to individuals and groups wishing to study the history of mining and to explore the sites of former mining activity. It aims to connect the many local and national groups interested in mining remains, from industrial archaeology enthusiasts to cavers to academic and commercial bodies, and provides a full list (with weblinks) of its members. The Association's newsletter is provided online from 2001 and there are details of an email discussion group to which interested parties can subscribe. The guidelines, which can be downloaded as PDF files, include detailed essays on recording the underground archaeology of mines and on removing artefacts as well as advice on library and archive research. Also provided is information on practical matters such as insurance and how to establish and maintain good relations with landowners and custodians of mining sites as well as an extensive series of weblinks to societies and institutions from all over the world. The links section lists the mining history associations and organisation in the UK. This resource will benefit a wide constituency, from the interested amateur to academics studying the history and archaeology of extractive industries.
The National Library of Medicine: History of Medicine Division website provides access to a variety of resources relating to medical history. The website presents a wealth of resources and information on a wide range of medical history topics. Perhaps of greatest benefit will be the 'Historical Collections' section of the website, which presents a number of sub-themes (including 'books and journals', 'archives and manuscripts' and 'digital collections'). The information presented here is excellent laid out and will prove to be of significant interest to those interested in the history of medicine.
The National Museum of Civil War Medicine website provides general information on the Museum, together with a brief overview of the various aspects of medicine practised during the American Civil War (1861-5) and select bibliographies for further reading and research on the subject. It offers a useful starting point for researchers in Civil War history and the history of medicine. The National Museum of Civil War Medicine, located in Frederick,Maryland, is an independent corporation which collects, exhibits and preserves medical artifacts, manuscripts, books, documents and other materials related to the Civil War. It is the national centre for study and research of American Civil War medicine. The website features an exhibits section, which provides a short guide to the exhibits housed at the museum accompanied by images of featured objects and reconstructed scenes of camp life, evacuation, field hospital, etc. The research section provides suggestions for further reading on nurses and women, diseases and drugs, hospitals and prisons, surgeons, soldiers, medical definitions and medical equipment and information on records held at the National Archives in Washington. It also gives details for researchers wishing to use its library. The site also features an online shop and details on opening hours, location, events and news.
The website of the United Kingdom's National Railway Museum in York provides access details, corporate information, special exhibitions, and details of many of the exhibits and features of the museum itself.The site includes: information and details of the photographic archive held at the museum; collections of railway posters, many of which can be viewed in an online exhibition; a gallery of the work of railway photographer Eric Treacy; another gallery devoted to the work of the illustrator John Cooke Bourne; and an 'exhiblet' on the Japanese 'bullet train', the Shinkansen. There are fact files for many of the locomotive engines held by the museum, from Robert Stephenson's 'Rocket' onwards. Photographs showing the interior of the Museum give potential visitors a taste of what to expect. There are lists of the engines and rolling stock housed in the collections. Whilst designed more for the general public than historians, this site provides a colourful general introduction to British railway history, and useful information as to the museum's holdings.
This website offers the work of John Baptist Porta (Giambattista della Porta), "Magiae Naturalis" ("Natural Magick") in the original Latin and in the 1658 English translation. The Neapolitan playwright, alchemist, and general Renaissance polymath, Giambattista della Porta (1535-1615) claimed that the natural philosopher could learn to manipulate the world through practical experiment, and stated in his great work what could be achieved. "Magiae Naturalis" covers subjects as diverse as the generation of animals and plants, home economics, alchemy, cosmetics for women, cooking, cryptography, and mechanical experiments. The main Web page is a little untidy, but links to the two texts, and to several shorter biographical and critical sketches of the author and his works. The English translation features hyperlinks to a glossary of terms. The website is a labour of love by a former US Army officer who inherited a 1584 edition of della Porta's work from his grandmother. The site should prove a useful resource for those studying the history of scientific ideas during the early modern period.
This website describes the 250 year old collection of scientific instruments at the University of Aberdeen. Originally used for teaching and demonstration, these historic instruments offer a tremendous insight into the evolution of scientific methods. The collection, numbering over 2500 instruments and associated objects, is partially displayed at locations around the university, but the intention is to make as much as possible accessible through this website – currently the website describes the history and scope of the collection and provides a searchable illustrated database of key items.
The Needham Research Institute is a 'recognised global centre' for the study of East-Asian science, technology and medicine. It is also the home of the Science and Civilisation in China Project, and the East Asian History of Science Library. Its holdings offer a unique reference collection of primary and secondary source material and are open to all scholars. Full details for visiting are on the site, which acts as a comprehensive introduction to the Institute, with information on all aspects of its materials. The site may be searched though links on the home page for information on: research opportunities and studentships; Joseph Needham; the Library holdings; the SCC project; seminars; publications; and the Institute newsletter. Of most direct online use to advanced researchers may be Christopher Cullen's complete translation of 'The Suan Shu Shu'. These are the earliest known Chinese writings on mathematics and are translated with an introductory essay and full commentary, which may be downloaded in its entirety free of charge as a PDF file. This site is clearly presented and offers both an accessible introduction to the collection of the Needham Institute and valuable online material also.
The Newcomen Society is the principal British organisation devoted to the history of engineering and technology (with a particular focus on railway and other transport engineering, but also including fields such as computing and electronics). This site provides contact details for the Society's officers and organisers; listings of meetings organised by its various regional branches; links to pages announcing conferences in which the Society's members are involved; and details of publications, with some material downloadable in PDF format. Particularly useful is a full contents list to articles published in the Society's journal, Transactions of the Newcomen Society, since its foundation in 1920: this includes an author index and is presented as a single webpage. An online membership application form is also available.
This is the website of the Newton Project, which aims to provide an online scholarly edition of Isaac Newton's manuscript collection. Based at the University of Sussex (formerly at Imperial College, London), the Project has so far published a catalogue of all Newton's surviving theological, alchemical, and administrative papers, and developed a transcription and markup policy (drawing on the Text Encoding Initiative Guidelines). Manuscripts made available include: 'Seven statements on religion'; 'A Short Schem of [the true] Religion'; 'Twelve articles on religion'; 'Three paragraphs on religion'; and 'Twenty-three queries regarding the word omoousios'. Digital images of the original manuscripts themselves are not provided, although the electronic texts show all deletions and corrections made in their sources. The website also provides an introduction to the life and achievements of Sir Isaac Newton; his extant archives; the transcription and tagging policy; and an introduction to the manuscript transcriptions. The Project has received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme and through the Cultural Heritage Language Technologies group. The resource can also be downloaded in XML format from the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)).
Nicholas Copernicus's 'De revolutionibus orbium coelestium' was the revolutionary work in which the astronomer proposed his theory of heliocentric cosmology. The treatise was not published until just before its author's death in 1543. It had existed in manuscript form, however, for some time before. The autograph digitised here is intermediate between a rough copy and a fair copy. It consists of over 200 leaves and is written in Latin with various tables and illustrations. Copernicus' handwriting is generally fairly clear and is unlikely to cause distress to palaeographers. In Internet Explorer, the digitised images might automatically be scaled down to fit the browser window, but holding the pointer over the bottom-right of the image will bring up an icon enabling the user to enlarge the page. The website also relates the history of the manuscript, and a linked table of contents in English and in Latin. The resource as a whole would benefit from more annotation on individual pages, but as a whole is an impressive digitisation project.
The Web Site Nicolai Copernici Musaeum Fromborcense is the home page of the Copernicus Museum in Frombork and is available in French, Polish, English, German and Russian. The site provides information on the museum, the life of Copernicus and on the city of Frombork. There is also information on permanent exhibitions, with a few illustrations of the exhibits and local stained glass. There is a detailed timeline of the great scientist's life and of the writing of De Revolutionibus, and a good collection of portraits, as well as a Jan Matejko painting from the nineteenth century. The museum also consists of the Hospital of the Holy Ghost, the Cathedral Hill, and the Planetarium and Observatory.
The Niels Bohr Archive website contains details of the archives held at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. Niels Bohr (1885-1962) was awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for physics for his investigations into atomic structure and his work on radiation. He is perhaps best known as the father of quantum mechanics. As well as describing the available archives, the site contains: an early photograph of Bohr; an article on the historical sites of physical science in Copenhagen; annual reports; news of new document releases and other developments; summaries of past and forthcoming seminars; and links to other relevant sites. There is also a short account of the life of Hilda Levi.
Nineteenth Century Studies is a journal dedicated to interdisciplinary studies in American, British, European, and Imperial colonies' nineteenth-century history. Essays and reviews in literature, architecture, visual arts, music, science and ideology can be found within this journal. To read the articles a subscription is needed. However, the user is able to search the tables of contents (dating back to volume one in 1987). Topics come from many scholars in subjects areas such as Charles Dickens, Imperialism, Cholera, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Nonconformists, Classicism, Tennyson, Comic Strips, Art Nouveau, Impressionism, and many more.
In addition to publishing a Call for Papers for the annual conference of the Nineteenth Century Studies Association (NCSA), this website offers information on the NCSA's history, ordinary membership and board members, the programmes of past conferences, and details on how to subscribe to its newsletter and email discussion list. A brief note introduces the public to the main aim of the organisation, namely to bring together researchers from various disciplines working on aspects of nineteenth century British, American and European culture. The site also contains a section dedicated to 'Nineteenth Century Studies', the yearly interdisciplinary journal of the NCSA. This section gives a brief description of the publication, lists the table of contents for all issues from 1987, and offers subscription information and short guidelines for submissions.
This is an online exhibition examining the legacy of the great Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) through images. The exhibition was assembled by the Museum of the History of Science in Oxford to celebrate the restoration of Eduard Ender's 1855 painting of Brahe with Emperor Rudolph II in Prague. The online gallery introduces the painting, as well as offering a critical examination of whether the figure it portrays really is Tycho. The website includes a large number of other images of the Dane, from contemporary likenesses to eighteenth-century shop signs. Images of other early modern astronomers, and astronomical instruments, are also included. Special attention is given to Johannes Hevelius and John Flamsteed, and there is a section on how Tycho Brahe's influence stretched all the way to China thanks to the Jesuit missionary Ferdinand Verbiest.
The National Cryptologic Museum holds a large collection of machines, books, and other artefacts relating to cryptography and code-breaking. Situated in Maryland, USA, the Museum is dedicated to 'the exploitation of enemy cryptology and the protection of American communications'. Exhibits include German Enigma machines used in the Second World War, a cipher-wheel that may or may not have been connected with Thomas Jefferson, early computers, and a collection of rare books. There are also several special exhibitions described and illustrated at the website. The site provides an interesting overview of some of the technologies used in the intelligence industry.
This is the full text of an article on the role nurses played in the Nazi's euthanasia programme during the 1930s and 1940s. Written by Professor Susan Benedict from the College of Nursing at the Medical University of South Carolina, it outlines the euthanasia programmes that were established by the Nazis to kill handicapped and mentally ill children and adults, such as the T-4 adult euthanasia programme, and the 'wild' programmes. It also focuses on the women who participated in these events as nurses, and their motivations for doing so. This is a useful resource for a topic not much documented on the Internet and will complement historians' related work in Holocaust Studies.
This is the website of the Old Operating Theatre Museum and Herb Garret, a London museum that explores the history of medicine, surgery and herbal medicine at St Thomas Hospital. On the site there are several online exhibitions tracing the history of the hospital from its medieval foundations, through the Reformation and Age of Enlightenment, to the nineteenth century. There are also panoramic tours of the operating theatre, which is the oldest one in Britain, the herb garret, and St Thomas Street. In addition to this the site provides information about the museum, such as opening hours, bookings and events.
"Old Style and New Style Dates and the Change to the Gregorian Calendar" is an online article by Mike Spathaky that provides a summary for genealogists of the complexities of the calendar changes that took place in England in 1752. It is published on the website of GENfair (an online family history fair and genealogy bookstore). This valuable explanation shows how historians specify a date 'with precision and without ambiguity', and why researchers (as well as archives administrators and local history librarians) need, not only to understand the notation used, but also to use it themselves to avoid misunderstanding. While the presentation of this article makes it suitable for a general audience, the level of detail involved makes it useful for academic researchers, offering a clear and accessible explanation for an important aspect of historical accuracy.
Old-computers.com is a website devoted to mapping the history of now-defunct computers, exploring their development and offering a forum for enthusiasts. While aimed primarily at latter, the site would also be of interest to those researching the history of computing or history of science. The site is divided into several sections: News (regarding additions to the site, related events and any other items of interest); Museum; History; Magazine; Forums; Collectors; and 'Fun'. The online museum contains images and detailed descriptions relating to almost 1000 computers, with full technical information, and can be searched by: name of computer; manufacturer; or year of production. The history section begins at 1915 and goes through to 1979, with: news; product details; and significant developments for each year. The online magazine (not updated since 2006) has: interviews; reviews; and articles available for open access, while the forum and 'Collectors' sections offer users of the site the opportunity to make contact with other researchers and enthusiasts. This site is very well presented and easy to use, offering a detailed range of information.
The 'Out of this world' website was based on a library exhibition of rare books at the Linda Hall Science Library in Missouri. The exhibits consisted of Celestial Atlases dating from 1482 to 1851, many of which were spectacularly illustrated. Plates from the books are reproduced on the website. The online version of the exhibition consists of forty-three separate exhibits, each of which has its own page. In addition to providing illustrations, the historical, artistic, and scientific importance of each atlas is remarked upon. Some pages include extra links to pages comparing and contrasting the styles and formats of the various Atlases. All five of the 'Grand' celestial atlases are included: Johann Bayer's 'Uranometria' (1603); Julius Schiller's 'Coelum Christianum'; Johann Hevelius's 'Firmamentum' (1690); John Flamsteed's 'Atlas coelestis' (1729); and Johann Bode's Uranographia (1801). This is a fascinating site that should prove of interest to historians of astronomy and possibly those studying the history of the book. It will also appeal to a more general public.
This is the website for the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Located in an iconic, Grade 1 listed neo-gothic building, the museum is a working resource for the University’s teaching and research. The Museum’s collections are divided into four areas: entomology; geology; mineralogy and petrology; and zoology. The Museum also accommodates a number of research libraries and an environmental archaeology unit. As well as its obvious interest to those studying the natural sciences, the Museum’s collections have wider cultural and historical interest, and include: rare specimens such as the most complete remaining single Dodo in existence (immortalised in Lewis Carroll’s ‘Alice in Wonderland’); much of Charles Darwin’s Crustacea collection from The Beagle; the collections of (or related to) pioneering scientists such as Thomas Bell, William Burchell, Robert Plot, Edward Lhwyd, William Buckland and Lawrence Wager. The website includes learning materials based on the museums collections, as well as access to the museum’s online collection database. The Museum receives funding from the AHRC.
This website is part of a wider site on pain, published by the Wellcome Trust as a companion to an exhibition held at the Science Museum. The site looks at concepts and approaches to pain in different historical eras and the discourses that surround pain in medical history. Featured are three articles written by academics on pain and medieval medicine, pain in Victorian England, and pain and surgery in the early twentieth century. In the first the spiritual and religious contexts of pain are explored, in the second the reassessment of pain in the light of medical and scientific advances, and the third discusses Unterschenkel-amputation, surgical film footage from the early twentieth century.
Palaeontologia Electronica, published biannually since 1998, is the first exclusively electronic journal devoted to palaeontology. Its attractive and innovative layout is designed to appeal to a wide constituency from professional palaeontologists and research students to school teachers and the general public. While it publishes technical academic papers, it also offers a range of summaries, letters, news items and reviews (of technical books, popular works and items of interest to children and teenagers) which will appeal to anyone with an interest in fossils. One important feature of this online journal is the inclusion of abstracts not only in French, German, Italian and Spanish but also in a 'plain English' version for non-specialists and, in some cases, an audio summary. Each issue also features a selection of online teaching resources which will be of use to teachers of all didactic levels. These sections, which features themes such include as climate change, dating, dinosaurs, palaeoenvironments, and the relationship between evolution and the philosophy of science, have been validated by the editors as scientifically accurate though the reader will have to judge for themselves the value of the didactic presentations of individual weblinks. The website is hosted by a series of worldwide archives; it is necessary to choose one.
Panopticon Lavoisier is the result of a project to develop a comprehensive catalogue of the life and work of the pioneering French chemist, Antoine Lavoisier (1743-94) by representing incidents, writings, artefacts and bibliographic citations as elements in a relational database, which may be searched or browsed by the user. This site is hosted by the Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Florence, and edited by Marco Beretta, a Lavoisier specialist based at the University of Bologna. One standard interface system is used, but the stupendously extensive database is divided into the following sections: a chronology, detailing (with exact dates wherever possible) individual occurrences in the life of Lavoisier; a complete catalogue of the 5000 Lavoisier manuscripts held at the Archives de l'Académie des Sciences, plus many manuscripts held elsewhere (in continual progress); a listing of Lavoisier's instruments (whether extant or not), with digital photographs of around 60 items; a catalogue of the contents of Lavoisier's library, including items newly discovered in 1998; comprehensive primary and secondary bibliographies, continually updated and more exhaustive than any print source; and a section on the iconography of Lavoisier, including numerous digital reproductions, available at various resolutions, of portraits and statues of the chemist and his wife, Marie Anne Pierrette Paulze Lavoisier; and a chronicle of Lavoisier's experiments. Further to this, the site includes a complete digital facsimile of the standard six-volume French edition of Lavoisier's collected works (1862-93), available to view page by page. Transcription of the entire text to allow publication in a more manageable form was in progress at time of cataloguing. The actual database front-end takes time to get used to and is not very intuitively laid out; it also uses multiple windows which can be difficult to navigate. However, while this is by no means an introductory resource, higher-level researchers will find it a powerful investigative tool. A French-language version of the site is also under construction.
The 'Papers of Twentieth-century British Scientists' website has been put together by the National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists (NCUACS) at the University of Bath. The project describes the life and works of five of the most important scientists of the last century, and provides access information for those wishing to use their papers for research. The featured scientists are: R. V. Jones; George Porter; Kathleen Lonsdale; N. F. Mott; and Geoffrey Wilkinson. The scope and content of each scientist's papers is described in some detail on each page. This web resource should provide a useful starting point for scholars investigating the history of science in the twentieth century.This project receives funding from the Research Support Libraries Programme (RSLP).
Paracelsus and the medical revolution of the renaissance web pages are based on an exhibition organised by the United States National Library of Medicine to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the birth of Paracelsus (1493-1541). Paracelsus (Theophrastus Phillippus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim) revolutionised the theory of medicine with his controversial occult system of analogous microcosm-macrocosm relations between substances. He rejected the old notion of the humours derived from Galen, and turned towards chemical medicines for practical treatment. The website describes Paracelsus's theories and influence upon the history of medicine.
The 'Parnassus Scientiarum', named after a lost work by Descartes, is the online catalogue of the Waller Collection of History of Science and Medicine. Collected by the Swedish surgeon, Erik Waller, the collection includes letters, manuscripts, printed texts and artefacts. The size of the collection is a feature of its value, as its acquisition immediately doubled the number of volumes in the catalogue of the Uppsala University Library, where it is housed. As an example of a private library, it is considered to be unique, containing around 110,000 items. The database may be searched by object type (eg. book; engraving; photograph), or thematic group (eg. Danish Collection; Bibliography on the Waller Collection; Baglivi's Correspondence), as well as by details including shelfmark, person or date. A search may also be made by a guided access feature through samples from the catalogue, some of which include digital texts. This is an ambitious and ongoing project, laid out for easy use of a complex collection and should be of use to researchers at all levels.
The Physicians Handbook is an electronic resource based on an English medical and astrological compendium written in the middle of the 15th century, and currently held by the Wellcome Library in London [WMS 8004]. The digital facsimile of the manuscript can be viewed online on the Wellcome Library website. Each scanned image displays two folios in sequence in the manuscript book. The images can be browsed in thumbnail form, then viewed individually in two larger formats. There is a good navigation system and the image quality is high. Users will find an introduction to the text, along with catalogue information, and a copyright statement. More annotation of images would be welcome, but this resource still remains an extremely user-friendly one.
Urbino University's Physics Laboratory and Museum of Scientific Instruments holds several collections containing over a thousand objects in total. The museum is open to the public, with access details available from the website. The site presents a history of physics in Urbino from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries, and a history of the collections held at the museum, which began at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Many of the instruments are pictured online, with catalogue details and notes provided in English and Italian. The instruments are grouped according to their field of application. Some of them may be viewed in '3-D', the user being able to rotate the view of the instrument through 360 degrees. The website also features a list of the laboratory's publications, links to online resources about scientific instruments and the history of science, and a guide to online museums and exhibitions around the world. The guide presents the user with a map of the world, which links to a list of resources geographically located in the selected continent.
The Physics Museum of the University of Coimbra in Portugal houses a collection of scientific and didactic instruments from the 18th and 19th centuries. They consist of rare instruments used in the Physics Cabinet of the University of Coimbra since its origin in 1772. Many of the instruments have considerable artistic as well as historic value. This website includes the ability to browse the online catalogue and view 150 instruments through pictures, schemes, texts and animations. There is a Virtual Museum that contains a set of Virtual Reality films enabling visitors to pan around the Museum exhibition rooms and to virtually interact with selected Museum instruments. There is a Digital Library on the History of Physics under development on the site to put 18th century books online. The first work available is Pierre van Mussenbroek's 'Cours de Physique Experimentale et Mathematique' in 3 volumes. This site has been 'under development' for some time. It may be viewed in Portugese or English.
This website, from the University of Frankfurt, contains hundreds of photographs and drawings of famous physicists, mostly from the twentieth century, including over sixty of Einstein. The images are indexed both alphabetically, according to the depicted physcist's name, and under general headings such as 'pioneers of quantum theory' and 'Nobel Prize winners since 1991'. Images include family photographs, portraits and what are wittily described as 'clusters of physicists'. There is also a large selection of reproductions of physics-related postage stamps. The collection offers both insights into the lives and working relationships of these key figures in the history of physics, but also offers interest to students interested in the history of photography. The images are of a high quality and the site is generally well presented.
This website, which charts the role of the contraceptive pill in United States history, has been devised in tandem with a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) film dealing with the same subject. The website includes material directly related to the film, such as a description and transcript, but it also provides resources on scientific and medical history, the women's rights movement and gender relations in the United States of America during the twentieth century. Available are video clips of interviews, which can be viewed with QuickTime and RealPlayer, a timeline tracing the history of birth control from antiquity until the twentieth century, and transcripts of primary source material, including correspondence between Katherine McCormick and Margaret Sanger who were responsible for the advent of the oral contraceptive pill. In addition to this there are biographies of key individuals, encyclopedic entries on key events, and a gallery of pill packets and designs from the 1960s onwards. There is also a teacher's guide, with classroom activities and suggestions of how to use the resources on the site.
Pinakes is a non-commercial modelling environment for scientific heritage database applications. The Pinakes website is likely to be of interest to librarians and database technicians as well as researchers in the history of science and technology. It aims to transform 'the traditional approach to the primary sources of the history of science into a sort of archaeology of scientific knowledge', by bringing different classes of items and artefacts into one environment. The site is divided into four sections: What is Pinakes?; Current Hosted Projects; Proposed Projects; and Pinakes Group. The first of these offers a detailed explanation of the system and its application, while the remainder of the material explores ongoing and forthcoming projects, and gives information about the people working on Pinakes. Links are available to current projects, allowing users to view examples of databases using Pinakes, with a full list of current users available.
The introductory section of this site briefly outlines the bubonic plague in Renaissance Europe. The introductory section also outlines the original aims of the project, which were to create a 'hypertext archive of narratives, medical consilia, governmental records, religious and spiritual writings and images documenting the arrival, impact and response to the problem of epidemic disease in Western Europe between 1348 and 1530'. The site currently provides access to some primary source material on Florence, Pistoia and Lucca in 1348. It will be interesting to see whether the site will fulfil its original aims as it has been a while since the content was last added to.
PubMed Central is a free Web-based archive of journal literature for all of the life sciences. The JISC Digitisation Programme funded the Medical Journals Backfiles Project in the UK to digitise and make available a selection of medical journals through PubMed. Some of these date back to the early 19th century, e.g. 1809 (the first edition of the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine). Historical discoveries are obviously part of these papers: Sir Alexander Fleming's use of penicillin to fight bacterial infections; Thomas Hodgkin’s description of lymphadenoma (Hodgkin’s disease). Moreover, current issues can be understood through the study of earlier literature - the example given by the Project is that in order to understand the recent MMR scare, researchers can turn to the discussion surrounding autism in the 1940s and 1950s. Medical journal backfiles digitised in this way have had to be indexed and new xml citations are being created and added to PubMed Central. You can search the site by journal title, or by keyword across the range of journals included.
This is the home page of Quirks and Quarks, a long-running and award-winning popular science radio programme produced by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). There are archives of past shows on the site with excellent transcripts, links, images, and sound files. Archives go back to 1989, although audio files are no longer available for older shows, and the earliest entries provide programme logs only. Recent shows are available in MP3 or Ogg format, and a podcast of the current show is updated weekly. The site covers an enormous range of topics related to technology, medicine and science and their connections to social issues. Quirks and Quarks has addressed subjects of interest to philosophers such as animal consciousness. The site's extensive bibliographies may appeal to those working in philosophy as well as the history and philosophy of science, since they include references to relevant biographies, books on cosmology and evolution, the human place in the environment, and problems in understanding the biological aspects of perception. The site has a newsletter, its own search engine, and a questions section which allow users to ask questions of the site's host, who then posts his answers. The friendly tone and accessibility of the site will also make it useful and informative for teachers, students and members of the public.
The Brazilian Institute of Philosophy and Science Ramon Llull has made available a fair number of resources on the Majorcan philosopher and mystic. Author of over 250 works in Catalan, Arabic, and Latin, Lull devoted much of his life to converting the Saracens to Christianity through a unification of theology and philosophy. His most important work is the 'Ars Magna', which involved a mechanical logic machine. The front page of the site is available in English, German, or Catalan, but most of the actual content is in either Catalan or Portuguese. There is a biography and chronology of Lull's life, along with a map of his last voyage. Another section details the current state of research into Lull and the progress towards compiling a complete critical edition (in Latin and Catalan). There are links to a good number of primary and secondary texts. A catalogue is provided of the alchemical works of the Pseudo-Lull (there has been a long tradition of crediting Lull with an extensive body of occult works on alchemy). Links are provided to other sites that may be of interest to scholars studying Lull.
The Renaissance Connection website explores innovations from that period using artwork from the Allentown Art Museum, Pennsylvania, and humorous sound effects and Flash animation that owes much to the work of Terry Gillian and Monty Python. The resource is an exemplar of how a museum can grab the attention of secondary school students, and support the work of their teachers. It was a finalist in the competition for Best Museum Web Site Supporting Educational Use in 'Museums and the Web 2004: Best of the Web', and was awarded an honourable mention Muse Award in the Art category, 2004. 37 art works from the Museum's Samuel H. Kress Collection of European art, teaching resources such as secondary school lesson-plans for teachers and links to Internet resources, an interactive timeline and maps, are all arranged into themes of the Renaissance such as: The Quest for Knowledge; The Arts and Architecture; Patrons and Lifestyle; Everyday Life; Science and Technology; Trade and Exploration. For example, in the "Be a Patron" activity, students can role-play the commissioning of an artwork, while "Time Telescope" allows them to trace today's innovations, such as digital cameras, back to their Renaissance roots. The site also includes links to relevant Web resources and a glossary. A simplified HTML version of the site provides access to all of this, although the whistles-and-bells of the Flash site are more dynamic and eye-catching.
The Research on Wren website was created by Dr. James Campbell at the Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban Studies, University of Cambridge. The site provides a helpful outline of the life and works of Sir Christopher Wren in four main sections: a biography on Wren, details of his scientific work, details of his architectural works and a bibliography. The biography of Wren gives details of both his professional and personal life. The scientific works section provides a list of Wren’s papers and experiments. The architectural works section lists Wren’s works by date of construction, by location, by type of building and by current state of the building. Other features of the site include a list of relevant links and a list of the latest updates, the most recent being in 2002.
The website "Resources in the History of Idiocy" is published by an academic at the University of Dundee and provides a number of resources for those interested in the history of learning disabilities and mental health. On the site users will find two lengthy bibliographies of secondary and primary sources, as well as a handful of online articles and a selection of transcribed historical texts spanning 1797 to 1882. Also on the site is a selection of links to relevant websites and to other historical documents. The contents are mainly concerned with American and British history, although some European material is also included. The site seems to be archived now since it was last updated in 2004.
'Rete' is an email discussion forum for those interested in the history of scientific instruments. The forum is hosted by the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford and is open access after free subscription. It encourages questions on scientific instruments, as well as notices of events, conferences and meetings,and printed or online publications. Those wishing to subscribe to the email list may choose several different options for receiving message updates. Non-members and members alike are free to search the list archives, which date back to June 2003. Messages may also be browsed and may be sorted by subject, date, or author.
The Robert Boyle Project is a website devoted to one of Britain's most significant scientists, Robert Boyle (1627-1691). Boyle was a prolific and influential writer who published across a range of scientific disciplines and is credited with the invention of the modern experimental method. The site features a detailed introduction to the man and his works, including his chemical experiments, his use of scientific instruments such as the air-pump and his views on the relationship between science and religion. An online gallery of images illustrating Boyle's life, together with a 17th century timeline contextualizing Boyle's work, may be viewed on the site. Also of interest will be the site's section devoted to the current field of Boyle Studies, with details of new publications and research currently being undertaken. Furthermore, users may download PDFs of corrections, emendations and supplements to the Correspondence of Boyle and to his Works. There is an extensive bibliography of writings on Boyle since 1940 and a link to the online version of the Workdiaries of Boyle, now held at the AHRB Centre for Editing Lives and Letters website. Basic teaching materials are provided, including lesson plans and pathways for the study of digitized Boyle manuscripts. These manuscripts, scanned images of the core volumes of the Boyle papers held at the Royal Society, are accessible via this site. Overall, this is a substantial, crucial resource for researchers at all levels teachers working on Boyle and the history of science.
This Web page introduces the life and achievements of the mathematician George Boole (1815-1864), now regarded as one of the founding fathers of modern computing. Boole gave his name to Boolean logic, a binary system used in digital technology and familiar to all modern programmers. The text is taken from a guidebook to Lincoln Cathedral, where there is a memorial stained-glass window to Boole, paid for by the dignitaries of the town. The site owner has added a short bibliography to the account of Boole's life, which includes a link to his seminal paper, 'The Calculus of Logic'.
The Royal Observatory and the National Maritime Museum have teamed together to create this comprehensive subsite dedicated to the holdings and activities of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich. The information on the site is manifold. The history of the Royal Observatory and events related to the International Year of Astronomy 2009 are present on the main page. Sections on the site are: Planetarium Shows; Peter Harrison Planetarium; Meridian line; 28-inch telescope; Time ball; Camera obscura; Observing evenigs; Astronomy galleries; Time galleries; and For schools. Each section has subsequent chapters with background information; history; aspects of physics or astronomy explainedl or answers to various questions related to time or observation of the skies. Photographs on the site and on Flickr! and 360 degrees panoramas accompany the text. The online learning resources were stil under development at the time of review. This site introduces an exciting place to visit and offers a great deal of information to anyone interested in astronomy, physics and time reckoning.
The Rutherford Journal is an online journal that publishes invited articles, and critical notices, from leading international scholars in the history and philosophy of science and technology. It is edited by Professor Jack Copeland of the Philosophy Department of the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The journal has been published annually since December 2005, and the full texts of the articles of this and subsequent volumes are freely available as HTML files. The articles include original contributions from: Rom Harré; Alan Chalmers; Margaret Boden; and Alan Musgrave. Many of the articles include JPEG images which, although welcome and often instructive, can pose a problem for printing.
This website hosts the Archives of Ryerson University in Toronto. The site describes the archive's holdings, with records from 1783 to the present, but most from the second half of the twentieth century. The institution holds vital statistics; photographs; records of the university; private papers and documents; speeches; sound recordings; and oral interviews, among many other sources. Names of specific files are posted in an alphabetical index. These focus mainly on the past life of the university, but several of the fonds - ranging from aboriginal issues to papers on the Canadian film director Norman Jewison - will be highly relevant to researchers working on a variety of topics in Canadian History and Cultural Studies. This resource is generally useful, although it could have been strengthened by a more detailed description of fonds within the index itself. This problem is partly mitigated by the site's essays describing the history of the university. There is also a subsite with a good virtual exhibition of archival photographs, particularly helpful for those studying the History of Computing in Canada. Other mini exhibits are posted in the What's New section. The site is further complemented by a good, mainly Canadian, archival links page.
This is the website for Salomons Museum, the onetime home and estate of the Salomons family. The Salomons included Sir David Salomons, Member of Parliament, equality campaigner and the first Jewish Lord Mayor of London and his son, the scientist and road transport pioneer Sir David Lionel Salomons. As well as the family's historic home and estate (one of the earliest buildings in the country be powered by electricity and including Sir David Lionel Salomons' purpose-built Science Theatre) the museum is cares for the various collections built up by the family: badges; ballooniana; Jewish history; London; electrical/scientific; estate and family; transport; medals; World War I. The collection’s illustrated catalogue is available online, and the website includes a virtual museum tour and information about public access. Salomons Museum has received AHRC funding.
The Morse Papers collection, held at the Library of Congress, is the principal source for primary documents relating to the inventor, artist, politician and telegraphic pioneer Samuel F. B. Morse (1791-1872), best remembered as creator of the signalling code which bears his name. This online version, produced as part of the National Digital Library Programme, provides free access to digitised facsimiles of almost the entire archive, comprising some 50 000 images: these are mostly manuscript correspondence but also include print materials, drawings, maps and other materials. The collection can be browsed by series, for those following bibliographic citations; a limited keyword search facility is also provided. Beyond its obvious value to the specialist researcher, the site will be useful to those seeking general background information on Morse: also included are a chronology of his life, family tree, bibliography (unannotated) of relevant print and online sources, and a neat collection of "highlights" from the digital archive. These are arranged in sections devoted to Morse's telegraphic work (including the paper tape record of the first telegraph message, received in 1844), his family life, and careers as artist and photographer. The less well-known sides of Morse's activities are addressed specifically in one of several short secondary pieces.
Sandretto are an Italian company that supply plastic moulding processes and machines. In 1995 they opened a museum devoted to the history of plastics. This accompanying website presents a brief history of plastics, along with images of many of the artefacts housed at the museum. It also includes a number of art images inspired by the chemistry of plastics. The site offers guided online tours of the plastics museum and the art museum, both of which have searchable catalogues. There is also a glossary of the various types of plastics, and an industrial history of Pont Canavese, the town in which the museum is situated.
Science, the Occult, and Religion is part of the online facsimile archiving project at the Schoenberg Center for Electronic Text and Image (SCETI) of the University of Pennsylvania Libraries. It offers a small collection of digital facsimiles of printed texts and manuscripts from the 15th to the 18th centuries, relating to natural philosophy, magic, alchemy, and religion. The works reproduced include: Robert Boyle's 'Sceptical Chymist' (1661); Joseph Priestley's 'Disquisitions Relating to Matter and Spirit' (1777); Samuel Clarke's 'Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God' (1706); and Elias Ashmole's 'Theatricum Chemicum Britannicum' (1652). The scanned images are finely detailed and carefully produced; background information is provided where appropriate, although there are no transcripts. Access is also provided to the Edgar Fahs Smith Collection of online scientific images. Unfortunately, this part of the SCETI site is no longer being maintained, but it nevertheless remains a useful resource.
Science and Technology Resources on the Internet: Selected Web Resources in the History of Science is a critical bibliography of web resources in the history of science, technology and medicine. Written originally for the journal 'Issues in Science & Technology Librarianship' by Marianne Stowell Bracke and Paul J Bracke, subject librarians at two Texas universities, it is presented as a long, single-page document. The guide covers relatively few sites, but the commentary is thorough and often raises worthwhile analytical points about the nature and usability of the sites catalogued and of web resources in general. The guide is divided into sections dealing with 'gateway' sites, overviews of the field, journals, biographical resources, centres of research, bibliographies, professional organisations, primary texts, and sites devoted to specific disciplines. The number of records catalogued is seldom large enough to be representative, but the way the guide is structured may in itself be of interest to anyone planning to develop a similar resource. The guide was first compiled in January of 1999: since that point the page has been updated only to take account of site moves and disappearances. Important sites created subsequently therefore do not appear.
The Department of Science and Technology Studies at University College London offers both research and teaching expertise across the full breadth of STS/History and Philosophy of Science-related disciplines, with a notable specialisation in the field of science communication. This website contains contact details and general information about the department; full details of undergraduate, taught postgraduate and research programmes; listings for the STS Speakers seminar series; and individual pages for staff and researchers, giving details of courses taught, recent publications, research areas and administrative responsibilities. A particularly welcome addition is a parallel collection of pages for postgraduates, giving details of research in progress. The Department's online provision for undergraduate students is at the time of cataloguing the most advanced in any British HSP/STS-based unit. Detailed course lists, timetables, syllabi and, in some cases, lecture notes are available as PDF files or downloadable Word documents. The section "notes for guidance", containing such information as staff responsibilities, the departmental plagiarism policy, pastoral care announcements, marking criteria and essay guidelines, is altogether exemplary.
The Science in the Nineteenth-Century Periodical (SciPer) is an interdisciplinary initiative that charts the relationship between science and literature, and specifically the representation of science in the British periodical press, in the years 1800-1900. The project was run in the years 1999-2007 by the Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies in the Department of English Literature, University of Sheffield, and the Division of History and Philosophy of Science in the Department of Philosophy, University of Leeds. The product of this co-operation is an electronic index to articles concerning science, technology or medicine in sixteen selected general-interest journals of the period. The index 'contains entries for over 14,000 articles and references to more than 6000 individuals and 2500 publications'. It can be browsed by references: to people; authors; illustrators; books; periodicals; and institutions, societies, and companies. Various search options are also available. Also included are notes on the project's editorial policy and details of its personnel. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Innovation Awards scheme.
The Science Studies Unit at the University of Edinburgh is a small research and postgraduate teaching unit well known for pioneering the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (SSK) approach in the UK. This website provides details of staff associated with the Unit, including, in some cases, full-texts of publications and conference papers; brief information on the Unit's current research; and details of research postgraduate programmes. At the time of cataloguing, parts of the site were considerably out of date, with a section on current postgraduate students' projects unchanged since March 2000. Also slightly outdated, yet still useful, is a collection of links to other departments offering SSK- or science and technology studies-based courses.
The Scientific Instrument Commission (SIC) seeks to encourage scholarly research into the history of scientific instruments and to help preserve and document collections of such instruments. To this end, it organises an annual symposium, sponsors workshops, and publishes a newsletter. SIC is a constituent organisation of the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science (IUHPS). The website provides contact details for the organisation, hosts an online version of the current newsletter (along with back issues from 1998), and publicises forthcoming conferences. A bibliography section provides basic annotated lists of recent publications, including journal articles. The newsletters are available as PDF files.
This is the website for the University of Cambridge’s renowned Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences. With collections of geology and palaeontology, the museum traces the development and composition of the Earth and of life through minerals and fossils. Of particular interest to the humanities is the ‘Woodward legacy’ the collection of Dr. John Woodward (1665 – 1728) which formed the nucleus of the Museum, comprising some 10,000 specimens of housed in their original purpose built cases in a reconstruction of his study. Of further interest to those studying the history of science is the Darwin Collection, which includes many objects related to Charles Darwin’s early training as a geologist (which was closely connected to the University). This collection will be extended in 2009 to include an exhibition of the geological specimens collected by Darwin on HMS Beagle. The website also includes information about the Museum’s research and educational activities. The Sedgwick Museum receives funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council and is designated as an outstanding collection by the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council.
'Seeing is Believing' is the website complementing an exhibition of the same name, which took place in 2000 at the New York Public Library, devoted to the illustrations 'essential in spreading new scientific and medical ideas', and also the way in which 'new developments in the sciences were accompanied by corresponding developments in illustrative technique'. The online exhibit takes a detailed and comprehensive look at these techniques, offering information for all levels of research. The layout of the site's main page gives a concise summary of the whole content, which may then be accessed in full either page by page, or via the highlighted terms or thumbnail icons to specific study areas. Subjects include the different ways of recording scientific material through images, the equipment needed and the four basic processes: relief printing, intaglio printing, planographic printing and photography. Each technique is illustrated itself by very beautiful examples, which may be viewed as a small-sized complete image, or as a part image in greater detail. The quality of the images on the site is high and examples come from texts between 1543 and 1896. This is a very attractive and fascinating site, well presented and giving considerable detail.
This web page consists of an extensive bibliography of secondary source works concerning the history of Chinese medicine and science. The bibliography is divided into chronological sections covering such subjects as: mathematics and divination; astronomy; science and society; science and philosophy; materia medica; encounters with Europe; and reference works. These sections are subdivided by publication type. Entries are lightly annotated, giving evaluative summaries. It is possible to jump to each section through links after each initial heading. Although the website really consists of one main page, it is a useful, convenient reference source for anyone interested in the development of medical practice in China from Imperial times to the twentieth century.Users will find an explanation of the project at the top of the page, although it should be noted that the gateway to The University of Pennsylvania's Department of History and Sociology of Science is no longer active. There is a link, however, to the author's own departmental homepage.
Selected Papers of Great American Physicists is a subsite of the American Institute of Physics. This collection of papers written by famous American physicists includes a brief online preface by William A. Fowler, President of The American Physical Society. The collection offers brief illustrated biographies of, and downloadable papers by, Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) ; Joseph Henry (1797-1878) ; Albert Abraham Michelson (1852-1931) ; Henry Augustus Rowland (1848-1901) ; Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903) ; Robert Andrews Millikan (1868-1953) ; and Arthur Holly Compton (1892-1962). The site would make an excellent teaching tool, as well as informing those interested from the general public. There is a link to a good external links site ; a sample bibliography of suggested secondary reading ; and an outstanding link to a History of Physics Syllabi site, also invaluable for teachers.
This Web page, entitled "A Selection of Web and other Internet Sources For the History and Philosophy of Science, Technology and Medicine", is a large single-page collection of web links with occasional brief annotations. It is regularly updated and its summary of relevant discussion lists, with subscriber information, archive addresses and home page details, if available, is particulary useful. The main catalogue is subdivided by resource type: the sections on general-purpose and subject-specific sites, journals and primary texts are perhaps not large enough to be representative, but those on professional institutions and museums are extensive, covering a variety of countries. The website is based at the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, in Florence, and is partially available in Italian translation.
'The Serendipity of Science' was a three-part BBC Radio 4 series considering the element of chance in scientific discovery. This BBC Web page offers users the opportunity to listen to the programmes: 'Material Milestones and Fantastic Plastics', about attempts to manipulate natural materials and create new ones; 'Going with a Bang' about explosives; and 'From Venom to Viagra' about serendipity in the field of medicine. The series was written and presented by Simon Singh, and originally aired in 2002. The site has a text overview of each programme, plus links to full-length RealPlayer audio-recordings. While aimed a at general audience, these programmes may be of use to early research in the history of science and also offer interest at all levels, due to the variety of subjects under discussion, drawing links and connections across several fields. As this is part of the BBC range of websites, a large number of links is available, some of which are science based.
This is the website Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry. Founded in 1937, the SHAC covers all aspects of the history of chemistry and its precursors. The Society's website offers: instructions for joining the Society; news of forthcoming meetings and reports on papers read at previous meetings; a list of members of council; information on the Society's Partington Prize; and the full text of the SHAC constitution. The Society also publishes a thrice-yearly journal, Ambix. Besides editorial board details and authors' guidelines, the website includes the full text of the editorial (in PDF) and abstracts for papers in the current issue. The presentation is straightforward and the site is regularly updated.
The SHiPS (Sociology, History and Philosophy of Science) resource centre serves science teachers requiring materials and ideas for education projects. Aspects of the history and philosophy of science are increasingly being taught in science lessons in secondary and further education, hence the perceived need for such a centre. The site describes itself as 'an online library, a repository of information for teachers to plan lessons and to learn more deeply about science studies'. The website is extensive, offering news of publications and educational developments, a reference section with projects and papers, and a guide to American standards in science teaching. The site features online curriculum modules (adapted for particular age groups) and essays on scientists and scientific discoveries. There are sections on educational issues such as gender stereotyping and the presumed conflict between science and religion. There are also modules and case studies on science and culture, and scientific ethics. Reading lists are suggested for teachers new to the history of science. The reference part of the site includes biographies and portraits of important figures and links to original papers and online projects or exhibitions. The proceedings of the Third International History, Philosophy and Science Teaching Conference may be purchased from the site.
A Short History of the Development of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology provides a chronological overview of technological developments in this field since the nineteenth century. Much of the information on the site has been written by the site creator, Joseph Woo, although links to external sites are also used where appropriate. As well as providing a chronology the site has an index which divides the information into the following categories: Early developments in ultrasonics; Short histories of the developement of medical ultrasonics in pioneering countries; Biographies and mentions; Gray scale and scan converter; The Real-time Scanner; The Transvaginal Scanner; Early Doppler ultrasound; Applications; Amniocentesis; Three dimensional ultrasound; Tissue characterization; Bio-safety; and Others.
Sigmund Freud: Conflict and Culture is a travelling exhibition produced by the US Library of Congress, which uses primary materials such as photographs and manuscripts (mostly from the Library itself, supplemented by items from the Vienna and London Freud museums and elsewhere) to display the work and cultural context of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), founder of psychoanalysis. This associated website consists largely of a presentation featuring most of the narrative material, and images of many of the items, from the physical exhibition. The narrative treatment is relatively brief (a few thousand words in total) and aimed at a popular audience: it would be suitable for beginning undergraduate students, but -- excepting some discussion of Freud's Jewish identity -- there is nothing which would not be found in any of the standard print introductions. The site is of more interest for its many illustrative images. These include several portraits of Freud and his family, photographs of patients such as Bertha Pappenheim and Ida Bauer; images of hysterical and epileptic cases under treatment at Salpêtrière; a 1911 group photograph of the International Psychoanalytic Congress; title pages of well-known publications, and facsimiles of extracts from Freud's letters in manuscript. Although these are of little research use, they would be ideal as illustrative material in lectures -- although the site's copyright statement should be noted. In the case of the manuscript and print facsimiles, usually only a single page is reproduced, although this varies: one 1896 letter to Wilhelm Fliess is produced in full, although the transcript, translation and commentary cover only a brief passage. The illustrative material is not limited to static images, but includes a number of "home movie" clips of Freud, shot between 1929 and 1937, available in RealPlayer format.
The website for the Sigmund Freud Museum in Vienna commemorates the life and ideas of the founder of psychoanalysis. The museum itself is situated in the former living quarters and office of Sigmund Freud in the house at Berggasse 19 in Vienna's ninth district. It has been gradually expanded and now hosts a library, an art gallery, and a lecture hall. The website provides information on accessing the museum and gallery, along with news about special exhibitions and installations. The library collects literature on Sigmund Freud and on the theory, technique, and history of psychoanalysis. It contains over 30,000 volumes in total. New accessions and journals are reported on the site. The archives are accessible by appointment only. The website also provides information about the Fulbright Scholarship for students wishing to conduct research at the museum. The Sigmund Freud Society, and the Society of Friends of the Sigmund Freud Museum, are both represented here. Membership details are explained and names of committee members provided. There is also a press section and a dedicated news section. The final part of the site is the 'Sigmund Freud Online' feature. This gives biographical information about the psychoanalyst and discusses important places, themes, and events in his life. It also includes some multimedia videos of Freud at home. This nicely presented site may be accessed in German or English.
'Sir Thomas Browne' is a website that provides a wide assortment of texts by Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682), the 17th-century physician and writer best known for his reflective treatise 'Religio Medici'. That work is available here, both as a searchable electronic text and as a facsimile for readers to download (as a PDF file). Most of Browne's other major writings are also presented, among them: 'Pseudodoxia Epidemica' (1646); 'Hydriotaphia' (1658); and 'A Letter to a Friend' (1690). The site, maintained by James Eason of the University of Chicago, also offers valuable supplementary materials including: contemporary responses to Browne's writing; correspondence; and Samuel Johnson's Life of Browne. The site contains about a dozen or so 17th-century texts not directly related to Browne, including works by: Henry Peacham; Richard Jobson; and the translator Philemon Holland. Students and researchers would find this site of interest.
The U.S National Library of Medicine publishes this well-illustrated web exhibition on smallpox, as part of their exhibitions on the history of medicine. This site looks at the history of smallpox from the advent of widespread variolation in the eighteenth century through to its world eradication in the late twentieth century, due to the efforts of the World Health Organisation's Smallpox Eradication Unit. This is not a particularly in depth site, but it features a number of interesting images and provides a well-structured introduction to the history of smallpox, useful to many students.
The Society for the History of Natural History, founded in 1936, is concerned with all aspects of the history of botany, zoology and geology; its scope is international, although it maintains close links with the Natural History Museum, London. The Society's website includes announcements concerning its biennial conference, details of meetings and events; membership information; details of awards and bursaries; and a brief history of the Society. The Society produces a thrice-yearly journal, Archives of Natural History: the website usefully includes a complete chronological listing of papers published in Archives and in its predecessor, the Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History. No full-texts are provided here, but the site does provide links to those papers (at the time of cataloguing, only two) which have been electronically published elsewhere. For the current issue, abstracts are provided subject to individual authors' consent. Another helpful addition is a provisional contents listing for the next issue to be published, plus details of other papers accepted for publication.
SHOT - the Society for the History of Technology, is an interdisciplinary organisation involved with promoting scholarship into all aspects of technological history. This includes the relations of technology to science, politics, social change, the arts and humanities, and economics. The society has a large number of international subscribers. It organises conferences, publishes regular newsletters, a series of books, and its own journal, 'Technology and Culture'. The website contains membership details, information on the Society's committees and constitution, and pages for each of the special interest groups within the organisation. Details of the prizes and grants that the Society offers are also presented. The most recent SHOT newsletter may be read online (in HTML or PDF format), but subscription is required for access to Technology and Culture. A reference section contains links to universities with history of technology graduate programmes and course syllabi. There are also links to other websites and an introduction to the History of Science and Technology database (HST).
The website of the Society for the Social History of Medicine (SSHM) includes information on the activities of the organisation. It provides details of their conferences, prize competitions, and publications (including the journal "Social History of Medicine" published by Oxford University Press, and the SSHM's book series published by Routledge). From these pages you may download (PDF-file) a report on the one-day symposium on "Medical Practice around the Year 1000", held at the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, Oxford, November 2000. A recent addition to the site is an online version of the organisation's newsletter, the "SSHM Gazette", each issue downloadable as a PDF-file. Other features include links to seminar series in the history of medicine, lists of officers of the Society, and the Society's constitution. The site is regularly updated and contains details of the programme for the coming year, as well as significant past events.
This web resource offers a comprehensive list of naturalists from 1950 back to the eighteenth century, with a biographical sketch, overview of work and suggestions for further research. It has been set up by Charles H. Smith, Professor of Library Public Services and Science Librarian at Western Kentucky University, to support his websites 'Early Classics in Biogeography, Distribution and Diversity Studies', to which links are available. The list may be searched by name, country or discipline, with the prime focus on biogeography, but including names better known as, for example, botanists, climatologists, ecologists, oceanographers, palaeontologists or zoologists. The selection of names included on the list tends towards displaying, as the author notes, 'a decided Anglo-American bias', and some of the most famous names, such as Louis Agassiz, Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Darwin, are not covered, as comprehensive information on them is available elsewhere on the web. The site is very straightforward and, aside from the content which is useful in putting each name in context, the large number and range of interests offers a fascinating overview of the development of research in natural history. The secondary authors are Joshua Woleben and Carubie Rodgers.
The hydraulics of Roman aqueducts website is written by a professor in civil engineering, hydraulic and applied fluid mechanics at the University of Queensland. Offered on the website is, therefore, a civil engineer's perspective, rather than that of an archaeologist, which provides a basic introduction to the subject of Roman aqueducts. As well as focusing on aqueducts, the author also includes information on other water management systems (such as various types of modern dams) including a history of arch dams. Detailed photographs of a limited selection (about half a dozen) of Roman aqueducts are shown. These are are largely confined to aqueducts in France (such as the Gier and Brévenne aqueducts in Lyon), as this is where the finest examples are to be found. A select, but useful introductory, bibliography on Roman aqueducts is included, as are a handful of links to other websites relating to specific aqueducts (such as the Mons and Gorze aqueducts).
This simple site is webpage of STAMA, the science, technology and medicine subdivision of the International Council on Archives. Based in Australia, it aims to bring together people from all over the world who are interested in science, technology and medicine archives by offering them the chance to subscribe to an electronic mailing list providing 'a supportive, informative, creative and tolerant environment for the discussion, publication and promotion of issues relating to science, technology and medicine archives'. Previous postings to the list are archived on the site. They generally consist of various types of announcements, including announcements of forthcoming conferences, as well as information about various archives around the world.
This site, from the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge, is a sizeable reference resource for students studying the history of astonomy from ancient times to the Sixteenth Century. The database is divided into three main sections: Instruments, Themes and Personalities, within which are numerous subdivisions, including Early Modern Books, Celestial Globes, Calendar Reform, Weather Prediction, Tycho Brahe and Kepler. Each individual entry contains a short essay together with a brief bibliography and, where appropriate, relevant images (which may be viewed full-page). The quality of presentation is excellent and an index and keyword search facility are also contained on the site.
Steam Engines of the Eighteenth Century is a website tracing the development of steam technology from Thomas Newcomen's pioneering Dudley Castle Engine, built in 1712, to the beam engines of the nineteenth century. Seven engines are discussed in detail, illustrated by photographs of scale models. Besides Newcomen's engine, the site describes the construction and mechanics of: James Watt's Smethwick and Lap engines, James Pickard and Matthew Wasbrough's engine, Francis Thompson's Arnold Mill Engine, and Richard Trevithick's Lambeth Engine. The website also promotes two of the author's books on steam engine history. This is a good introductory Internet resource for students looking at the history of technology and the birth of the Industrial Revolution.
The Steno Museum for the History of Science and Medicine website offers a useful introduction for researchers planning to visit the Museum. Based in Århus, Denmark, the museum houses exhibitions on the history of science, astronomy and medicine, with a planetarium and a medicinal herb garden based on a 16th century model. The website, which may be viewed in Danish, English or German, offers sufficient information on the different aspects of the museum to enable a thorough understanding of what is available. The museum's exhibitions have original objects, reconstructions and 'hands-on' features to give a view of the development of science, with a particular reference to the Renaissance, but also focusing on modern discovery. The 'Virtuseum', which has text in Danish only, takes a virtual tour of the Museum with high quality images from the collection. The site is well presented and provides detailed information on a large collection of primary source materials.
The 'Strange Science' website details some of the discoveries of palaeontologists and biologists now regarded as somewhat less than accurate. The site provides a timeline history of palaeontology, and biographies of many of the more influential figures in natural history and geology through the ages. A gallery of images includes some of the more ridiculous mistakes and misconceptions made about biological life. The gallery is particularly rich in portraits of monsters, mythological beasts, and misconstrued mammals, such as a mammoth whose tusks protrude from its eye-sockets. One section of the gallery deals with deliberate fabrications and forgeries.The site contains a wealth of information, but does not attempt to explain in any depth why it was that many early, and perfectly intelligent, palaeontologists came to their erroneous conclusions. The site is however rich in terms of bibliographic references, and would make an excellent starting point for those researching this interesting facet of the history of science and scientific ideas.
This site, available in both English and Swedish, concerns Athanasius Kircher, the seventeenth century author, scientist and inventor. The English section currently contains a biography with a list of significant owrks, a translation of Kircher's letter to Prince Carl Gustaf and 'Ars Magna Luciset Umbrae', an essay on The Magic Lantern, as well as a MIDI version of one of his organ compositions. The Swedish section has a greater range of content. Perhaps most useful to the English-speaking researcher is the annotated list of links to other sites concerning Kircher or his works. The site is very attractively presented and it is indicated that further material is English will be added in the future.
The website of the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit provides information about the Unit's manuscript collection and research. Based in Cambridge University Library, the Unit holds 140,000 fragments of Hebrew documents from the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo. Much of the material dates from the 11th to the 13th centuries. The main scholarly resource accessible from the site is the Genizah Online Database, which offers cataloguing and bibliographic information, together with images of selected fragments. The database has particular strengths for the study of Targumic and medical manuscripts, for which high resolution images are available. A brief bibliography is also provided, together with an online newsletter, and details of the research interests of the Unit's staff.
The Web Site "The Garden, the Ark, the Tower, the Temple : Biblical Metaphors of Knowledge in Early Modern Europe" is an online exhibition curated by the Museum of the History of Science in Oxford. It explores interpretations of symbolism derived from biblical sources in the sixteenth century. The exhibition has an introduction written by Cambridge scholar Dr Scott Mandelbrote, and the focus is on the intellectual group around Samuel Hartlib (c.1600-1662). Biblical themes influenced this circle greatly, in their discussion of linguistic, agricultural, theological and botanical matters. There are selected highlights of the exhibition and its images on the site, together with commentaries on the works. A search facility makes the site easier to navigate, and the user needs to be able to view large images. An excellent site for all those interest in intellectual history, the history of science, and the ealry modern period in Europe.
The Thin Blue Line is an online exhibition published by the Stetton Museum, Office of National Institutes of Health (NIH) History in collaboration with the Centre for History and New Media. It looks at the history of the home pregnancy test kit in the United States, and the researchers who contributed to its release in 1978. On the site are interviews with Judith Vaitukaitis and Glenn Braunstein who worked at the NIH during the 1970s on reproductive hormone studies and hCG research, and were instrumental to the development of the pregnancy test. A timeline on the site charts pregnancy testing over the centuries, and the advertisements section features digitised images of several 1970s and 1980s magazine ads. Along with the glossary and suggested reading, there is also a forum where people can submit their own stories of using home test kits, building up an archive of first hand accounts.
This is the website of a project to organise and publish the papers of Thomas Alva Edison (microfilms, book editions, and a digital edition), which in all number over five million pages. It is sponsored by Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; the National Park Service; the Smithsonian Institution; and the New Jersey Historical Commission, and supported by over 60 public and private foundations, corporations and individuals. The site makes available a searchable document database linked to document images for Parts I-III of the Thomas A. Edison papers (1847-1898) and some of the editorial materials from the image and text publications, with continual additions. The project intends that in its final form the full digital edition will include the text of the print volumes. The website has a series of headings through which the material may be accessed: Edison Papers; Thomas Alva Edison; Outreach and Search. Each of these has several sub-headings, which include Edison's patents and companies; chronologies; bibliographies; details about the microfilm and book editions of the project; maps and images, and related resources on the Web. There are also details about the Thomas A. Edison papers, and the project (history, staff and funders), as well as a Latest Edison Papers News sidebar. This is a huge project and the website reflects the comprehensive nature of the endeavour in a way which makes a large amount of material easily accessible.
Published by the Archives of Ontario, the Thomas and John R. Connon website charts the careers of father and son, Thomas and John R. Connon, who were innovative panoramic photographers, working in Elora, Ontario, Canada, at the turn of the twentieth century. The website traces the development of their cycloramic panoramic camera, which was first patented in 1887, as well as other experimental photographic processes. The site is simply laid out as an overview with a series of links to further information. Definitions are given of the processes favoured by the Connon partnership, including collodion, gelatin glass negatives, tintypes, early gelatin prints and lantern slides. Also available are: individual biographies of the father and son team; an explanation of the panoramic camera; a collection of panoramic images (which may be viewed in high resolution); an explanation of stereo photography; John Connon's images of life in Elora, a collection of portrait photographs; and a list of sources and resources for further research. This is an attractive site with many primary source images, and useful accessible information on techniques and processes. It is likely to offer interest to researchers in the history of photography at all levels. The site may also be accessed in French.
This is the website of TIMS - The International Molinological Society, the only society devoted to the study of mills on a worldwide scale. Windmills, watermills, and animal-driven mills are all included in the Society's remit. It promotes research into the history of mills, and campaigns for the preservation of important mills and mill-sites. The website provides membership details for the Society, and advertises forthcoming symposia. Contact details of council members and national representatives are also given. It holds online abstracts of the Society's biannual journal, 'International Molinology', and a listing of other publications. A comprehensive glossary of terms relating to mills and molinology is included with the site, as are a large number of links to other websites, grouped by continent and country, plus a table of multi-lingual mill terminology, intended to facilitate Web searches for relevant non-English websites.
"To fly is everything..." is a an online virtual museum giving access to resources relating to the invention of the aeroplane. The site has been compiled by Gary Bradshaw (Mississippi State University) and traces the history of the aeroplane from the Treatsie upon the Flight of Birds by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) through to the first flight by the brothers, Wilbur and Orville Wright, in December 1903. Notable sections include: an introductory essay on the development of the aeroplane; the digital library of primary sources which can be browsed by publication source or by chronology; a listing of US patents relating to aircraft from 1799-1909; a gallery of images and video clips; a listing of inventors, some with brief biographies; and a short annotated list of further resources. The digital library includes online editions of the Aeronautical Annual (1895-1897); articles from Scientific American (1896-1911) and other periodicals or newspapers; the full-text and illustrations of Progress in Flying Machines by Octave Chanute (1894); the correspondence between Octave Chanute and Louis-Pierre Mouillard on the subject of aeronautics (1890-1897); and correspondence between Wilbur Wright and Octave Chanute (1900-1901). Whilst links to and within the core sections work, readers may encounter broken links or images elsewhere on the site which has not been updated recently.
The Transistor is an online exhibition on the history of physics which led to the development of the transistor. The site is a joint production of PBS broadcasting, the American Institute of Physics and ScienCentral. Beginning with the discovery of electrons, this extensive site covers a series of developments in illustrated and documented short essays: vacuum tubes; conductors; quantum mechanics; semiconductors; the use of germanium; and diodes. These developments collectively contributed to the invention of transistors in their various forms. The history of the invention, which made modern computerised technology possible and eventually led to the microchip, is described at length. Descriptions are clear and comprehensive and would serve as an excellent teaching tool. Perhaps one of the best parts of the site, and not to be missed, are the hyperlinked histories of various scientists, especially the well-written history of the life of the difficult figure, William Shockley. This subsite implicitly provides further commentary on the history of corporate America, particularly the companies AT&T and Intel. A historical timeline, online video clips from contemporary news footage, online copies of scientists' lab notes, links, bibliographies, a site search engine, interactive pages -- and a sitemap -- all combine to make this a thorough and effective site ideal for teachers, students and those interested among the general public.
Tuberculosis: the enduring enemy is published by the Digital Collections Program and the Osler Library at McGill University. The Osler Library houses a large collection of historical texts on tuberculosis, the core of which were collected by Dr. William Osler. Some of these have been digitised and page images and transcriptions can be accessed on this site. The texts are fully searchable, but currently cannot be browsed. Also on the site is background information on how physicians and researchers have worked to understand tuberculosis, also known in the past as phthisis and consumption, over the past two hundred years, and a brief chronology of the disease.
This website contains a digitised version of the 1602 edition of Tycho Brahe's 'Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanica'. The great Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) designed scientific instruments and built the best observatory of his age. The Mechanica, first printed in 1598, was intended as a showcase for his designs, and as a (successful) attempt to acquire patronage. The 1602 edition is largely the same as the 1598. The website provides a short introduction to Brahe's life and to the text of the Mechanica. Large digitised images are available of each page. The original text is in Latin, and no English translation is given. There is a brief bibliography of further reading.
The "US Centennial of Flight" website provides resources for museums and teachers (supplemental materials, projects and research tools) to use to "celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Wright brothers' first powered flight at Kill Devil Hills (near Kitty Hawk), North Carolina, on December 17th, 1903. This is the work of the U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission who also promote awareness of 100 years of aviation history through the website. The top-navigation bar points to main sections of the site such as: the Wright Brothers (Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright); the History of Flight; Sights and Sounds (multimedia); Education (resources for teachers) and Links (a gateway of links to more than 50 educational information sources arranged by category and the sponsoring Organization). A timeline and a dictionary are also available. The whole site can be navigated as-is, or by clicking on a link in the left-navigation bar the presentation changes to meet the needs of "kids, educators, enthusiasts, or the media". The images, films, audio files, educational posters, essays, and other media are extremely well presented, easy to identify on the site, and there are excellent notes and indicators to the memory sizer and anticipated download times.
The National Archive for the History of Computing opened in 1987 to preserve documents and pictures relating to the history of British computing and to encourage research into computing history. The Archive is based within the Centre for the History of Science,Technology and Medicine, University of Manchester. The Archive's website provides further information about the contents of the Archive and how to visit it. The online catalogue documents manuscripts and secondary sources held by the Archive including papers relating to: the Admiralty Computing Service; United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; Dr Andrew Booth; Cambridge University Computer Laboratory; Ferranti Ltd, 1948-63; Douglas R. Hartree (1897-1958); International Computers Ltd (ICL), ca. 1907-80; Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Ltd, ca. 1958-70; Dr D.G. Prinz (b. 1903); and Alan Turing (1912-1954). The catalogue also provides a brief guide to relevant material held at other UK locations and bibliographies relating to the history of computing. A small exhibition consisting of four virtual rooms provides a sample of the materials held together with brief notes. The four rooms relate to the programming notes of Alan Turing; life in a British punched-card business; Lyons electronic office; and the notebook of Geoffrey C. Tootill which records the first stored computer program to be run in Britain (21st June 1948, University of Manchester). The Archive runs an associated email list (firstname.lastname@example.org).
The US Patent and Trademark Office database is an invaluable resource for historians of technology, providing direct online access to virtually every patent granted in the United States since 1790. These are available in full-text only from 1976 onwards, but all the patents are available as facsimile images. Unfortunately these lack associated keywords, meaning that the search facility provided cannot be used to find historical patents which mention particular terms; it is necessary to know the number of a pre-1976 patent in order to view it. A handful of patents are missing from the database; these are listed on the site. The facsimiles, which include both text and diagrams, are provided in TIFF format, which means that additional software will be required for viewing: suitable free plug-ins are available for most browsers, but may need to be registered before use.
The website 'University of Bristol Special Collections' describes the special collections held by the University of Bristol Library. Covering a wide range of subjects the collections derive from a wide range of subject-specific personal and institutional libraries donated to the university. Particular strengths are in the history of architecture, non-conformist Christian movements, science and medicine as well as rare books, political pamphlets and social history. Other collections include various family archives, often related to the history of Bristol and the nationally important collection of material relating to Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The site informs about catalogues and archives and gives guidance regarding library policy and practical things to know for users.
This website brings together the various artefact and archive collections held at the University of Dundee. Accredited by the Museums, Libraries & Archives Council, the collections include botany; chemistry; dentistry; civil, electrical and mechanical engineering; ethnography; fine and applied art; mathematics; medicine; physics; physiology; psychology and zoology. Objects within the collections would obviously be of interest to those studying the history of these disciplines and the website describes the origins of each collection and includes illustrated highlights, as well as information on viewing objects, through regular exhibitions in University premises, which are archived here.
The University of Iowa Healthcare medical museum website provides information about the museum and has a number of online exhibitions. There are nearly thirty exhibitions in total covering both historical and more contemporary topics. The online exhibitions are on a range of topics including: 'The Beat Goes On: A History of Cardiology', 'Nature's Pharmacy: Ancient Knowledge, Modern Medicine', and 'The Trail of Invisible Light: A Century of Medical Imaging'. Each exhibition provides a narrative which is illustrated by items or photographs held by the museum. The website also has basic information about the museum; its collections, opening hours, collection policies, and their mission statement. A list of links is also available from the site.
The University of Michigan Historical Mathematics Collection contains the digitised texts of a large number of nineteenth and early twentieth-century maths books by various authors. Each book has been scanned and stored page by page in PDF format. The site allows complex full-text searching of the entire collection, as well as browsing by author name. Full bibliographical details of each work are included. As a bonus, the site also contains a recording of satirist Tom Lehrer singing about Lobachevsky.
This website describes the special collections held at the University of Sheffield Library. Built up since the University’s foundation these extensive collections encompass a wide range of material and subjects supporting the University’s research interests, including architecture, through history, literature, international studies, local studies, politics, music, law and geography. Each collection (listed both alphabetically and by subject) is accompanied by a detailed description of its contents, together with item finding and access arrangements.
The website of the Vatican Observatory is the work of the Vatican Observatory Research Group (VORG) in Arizona. The Vatican Observatory (Specola Vaticana) was founded in 1891 by Pope Leo XIII. It has its roots in the papal reform of the calendar in 1582. The observatory itself was originally located within sight of St Peter's in Rome, later moved to the papal summer residence at Castel Gandolfo. By 1981 the work of the observatory was being hindered by the growing Roman urban sprawl, and a second research centre was located at Tucson, Arizona, with access to an international centre for astronomy. The website gives information about the history and location of the observatory, current research priorities and publications, the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, and related links.
The Victorian Web provides a comprehensive general overview of nineteenth century British history and literature. The site is divided into sections: on political, social, and economic history; gender matters; philosophy; religion; science; technology; genre and technique; authors; visual arts; and Victorian design. Within each section commentaries present a useful introduction to the topics, abstracts from primary sources, links to other web resources and a bibliography. The Victorian web was created under the direction of George Landow, Professor of English and Art History at Brown University. The site was originally designed as a resource to aid in the teaching of courses in Victorian literature. All the material is in English and is available free of charge.
The Virtual Guide to the History of Russian Science and Technology is an Internet resource guide to websites for scholars in the field. It also includes a categorised bibliography of printed works (some of which are also available online) in English and Russian. The site is divided into sections on archives, institutions, journals, people, news, courses, societies, Russian studies, and science studies. It should provide a useful starting point for researchers.
The Virtual Laboratory (VL) is a digitalization project at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin. It 'collects and presents texts and images concerning various aspects of the experimentalization of life'. These include 'instruments, experiments, sites and people', with the main focus being the interaction between the life sciences, arts and architecture, media and technology. It also offers a platform for researchers at all levels to publish and discuss their work. The site is divided into the Laboratory and the Library. The Laboratory has an Encyclopedia which provides information on significant material in the VL collection, to enable cross-referencing between researchers, ideas and publications. It also has an Essays section focused on the history of experimental physiology and psychology in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The essays are presented in an innovative format 'somewhere between abstracts and articles and make intense use of images'. They seek to place the research within its cultural context and full submission guidelines are included. The Library has scans of books, journals, laboratory notes and catalogues, with bibliographic information. The collection can be searched by author, title, year or keyword. The site also has material under the headings Technology, Experiments, Objects, Sites, People and Concepts, with a news feature and regular updates. Also planned is a 'myLab' section, to enable researchers to customise a personal area of the site for their own work. This site is complex, with a large amount of information, but it is highly sophisticated and well designed. It offers a valuable virtual resource for researchers at all levels, with the promise of further development.
'The Vital Science: Biology and the Literary Imagination, 1860-1900' is the online full text of Peter Morton's 1984 work. Morton, an Associate Professor in English at Flinders University, South Australia, writes that the confusion and chaos in the biological sphere following the publication of Darwin's 'The Origin of Species', proved fertile ground for writers such as: H. G. Wells; Thomas Hardy; W. H. Hudson; and Samuel Butler. Morton examines their imaginative responses to such theories as: evolutionism; degeneration; eugenics; and ideas of heredity. The online layout is very easy to navigate, via chapter headings, with notes and references listed separately. Unfortunately there is no index or search facility. An impressive bibliography on Darwinism and literature is appended to the book. This site would interest students of English and also of history of science.
This online exhibition published by the Natural History Museum is an interactive exploration of the voyage of the Endeavour in the eighteenth century. Using Flash, Quicktime, or the Cosmo VRML viewer, the exhibition uses a range of multimedia to help users engage with the material, and the history of the Endeavour expedition. The exhibition features an introduction to Cook's voyage, noting the impact it had on astronomy, botany, geography, navigation and medicine, a plan of the ship, brief biographies of Captain Cook, Joseph Banks, Sydney Parkinson and Daniel Solander, and illustrations and specimens that were gathered from around the world during the voyage.
Internet for History and Philosophy of Science is a free "teach yourself" tutorial on the Web, covering Internet information skills for this subject. The tutorial is aimed at students, lecturers, and researchers who want to improve their knowledge of the best Internet resources for the history and philosophy of science. Internet for History and Philosophy of Science is one of a set of tutorials which make up Intute's Virtual Training Suite. The tutorials may be used in the course of independent study, or to support teaching and training courses. Each tutorial consists of: a tour of some key sites; techniques for discovering additional Web resources; guidelines for critically evaluating such resources; and a set of success stories giving concrete examples of how the Internet can be used by students, researchers, and teachers. Each tutorial is written by subject specialists. The Intute Virtual Training Suite receives funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC).
The homepage of the Warburg Institute Library provides information on the collections of this impressive library that specialises mainly in the History of Art; Religion; Science; Philosophy; and Social and Political History. The library is particularly renowned for its holdings on the Renaissance and Humanism. With holdings of over 350,000 volumes, the Library, based in Central London, also has around 2,500 runs of periodicals. There is a complete microfiche edition of 4,800 pre-1800 volumes of the Cicognara collection in the Vatican Library. Another significant collection is the Holkham Hall Manuscripts, from the library of the Earls of Leicester, which contains classical, patristic and humanistic texts. The libraries of the Royal Numismatic Society and the British Numismatic Society are also housed at the Warburg. The website lists the subjects covered in the collections, links directly to the School of Advanced Study catalogue listings in that subject and displays the items held at the Warburg. Practical advice and information on using the library and access to collections are also provided.
The Websters' Instrument Makers Database was compiled by former curators of the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum in Chicago. The database lists the signatures of the makers of scientific instruments, giving details of their full names, dates, and nationality where known, along with information about the types of instrument they constructed, their geographical location, and any additional comments. References are also provided. The site includes a bibliography, a location cross-reference table, and an acknowledgements page. The database may be browsed alphabetically or searched by keyword. The database should provide a useful reference resource for those studying historical scientific instruments.
The Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine is one of the largest medical history libraries in the world. As the leading national resource in the history of medicine this website is accessed by international academics, historians, students and the general public. The site provides a comprehensive guide to the library's collection of books, journals, manuscripts, pictures, archives and films. Though somewhat confusing to navigate, packed as it is with information, the online catalogue itself is simple to use with searches made by keyword, author, title or subject. Although none of the holdings are available to download there is information on a photocopying and inter-library loan service. Online access to a collection of over 130,000 digitised images from the Wellcome Trust's Medical Photographic Library are available for searching. The site is regularly updated and includes recent news and details of developments on the website and in the Library itself.
The Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine (formerly the Wellcome Institute) is now a research centre attached to University College London's Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, although it maintains its undergraduate and postgraduate teaching programmes. This site offers news about the Centre, profiles of teaching and research staff, course details and news of public lectures and symposia, plus detailed information on recent works published by individual staff members and by the Centre's research groups. A page is devoted specifically to the activities of the Centre's History of Twentieth Century Medicine Group. The website presents a wealth of information on various aspects of the history of medicine and the academic projects currently on-going in the department.
The Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine at the University of Oxford, a subdepartment of the Modern History Faculty, operates as a centre for research and postgraduate teaching in most areas of the history of medicine. This website provides a brief overview of the Unit; news of its seminar series, occasional conferences and recent publications; profiles of researchers and staff attached to the Unit (with publication histories in many cases); library information; a collection of relevant links, and details of current research projects and (at an external site) the Global Project on the History of Leprosy.
The Whipple Museum of the History of Science houses a large collection of scientific instruments and texts belonging to the University of Cambridge. Its collections cover all branches of science from the sixteenth century to the 1980s. The website provides an introduction to the museum and some of its special collections. There are features about current exhibitions such as "An University Within Ourselves", which takes a look at the sciences in Cambridge during the eighteenth century, and a page of case studies, which gives summaries of single display-case exhibits assembled by students and staff. An extensive annotated list of the Museum's publications is provided, along with a selection of links to other museums in Cambridge and history of science museums worldwide. The website is informative, but does not include an online catalogue of the Museum's holdings.
Whole Cloth is an American Web project providing three teaching curriculum units aimed at schools, examining the history, technology, science, production, and consumption of textiles. Each unit includes hands-on activities, handouts for students, lesson plans and notes for teachers, glossaries, and bibliographies. The units cover early industrialisation, colour and synthetic fibres. Further units are in production. Additional features of the site include: a tour of textile invention, covering industrial machinery, the cotton gin, dyeing, and nylon; and the Student Zone, which contains additional activities and documents about the history of cloth and clothing in America. Whilst the units are only really suitable for the school classroom, educational professionals may find the means of delivering the teaching materials of interest, together with the teachers' forum and annotated related resources. The site is the creation of the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT), and is hosted by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.
"Whonamedit.com" is a biographical dictionary of medical eponyms aimed at the general user. However the information presented here for some of the entries can be so comprehensive, and so well hyperlinked throughout the database that "Whonamedit.com" [Who named it?] might be of use to school and higher education users. To find a particular person, use the function "List persons by last name" (always visible in the top navigation bar of every page) by clicking on the first letter of the name. Alternatively you can find all persons linked to a particular eponym listed at the top of the eponym description. Biographies can also be displayed by country. To find a particular eponym, you can either browse through the categories or perform a free text-search. In addition, all eponyms relevant to a particular person are listed in his or her biography.The intention is to present a complete survey of all medical phenomena named for a person, with a biography of that person. Currently over 5,700 eponyms have been described in over 2,700 main entries. These eponyms are linked to over 2,300 persons (of whom 68 are female - and there is a category to facilitate access to these). Correction and additions are solicited by the editor.
The Wilbur and Orville Wright papers are housed in the Manuscript Division at the Library of Congress. The library aims to provide online access to many of its collections through the American Memory Project. The project provides online access to primary source materials relating to the culture and history of the United States. The Wright Brothers collection is a successful example of this. The online collection comprises of about 10,121 library items and approximately 49,084 digital images. The site documents the lives of the Wright Brothers (1881-1952) following the development of their pioneering work which led to the first powered, controlled, and sustained flight. The collection includes: correspondence; diaries; notebooks; scrapbooks; and drawings, as well as the brothers' collection of glassplate photographic negatives. The collection has also been extended to include the brothers' letters to aviation pioneer and mentor Octave Chanute. The site requires no special viewers for most of the collection, however advice is given to users to view specific items.
The World Health Organization (WHO) historical collection was established in 1995 in association with the Institut Louis Jeantet d'Historie de la Médecine of the University of Geneva. The collection includes: administrative documents; information on the foundation of the WHO; official records; International Sanitary Conventions; and rare books dating from 1507. A programme to scan selected works and the rare historical collections is currently being undertaken by the WHO. The facsimile images of these works are being made freely available from the website as PDF files. Documents currently available include: rare books on plague, smallpox and epidemiology; material relating to the History of the World Health Organization; and the League of Nations malaria documents. The WHO's Historical Collections website also provides full details of the scope of the collection and on how to search the collection. Information for researchers wishing to use the collection is also provided on the site.
The World of Athanasius Kircher functions as a portal to the online resources published by a major international research project aimed at bringing the manuscript correspondence of the seventeenth-century Jesuit polymath Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680) to the Web. The website introduces the project and directs users to the searchable interactive digital archive. To access the manuscript images themselves, it is necessary to download Luna Insight software. This is available free of charge from Stanford University, though installing it is a somewhat tedious process. (Other Stanford digital collections can be viewed via the Web version of Luna Insight, which requires no downloading, so it may be hoped that this facility will be extended to the Kircher correspondence collection in time.) Kircher was a scholar and inventor who wrote on such subjects as cryptography; Egyptology; optics; music; magnetism; universal language; and alchemical transmutation. He also devised pneumatic, hydraulic, catoptric and magnetic machines. He wrote in a number of languages (but predominantly Latin), and had a great many correspondents including scientists, physicians, Jesuit missionaries, two Holy Roman Emperors, popes, and potentates from around the world. The project editors encourage user feedback.
This is the website of a TV documentary about the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright, the pioneers of flight. The show was originally broadcast in 1996 as part of the series 'The American Experience' by the PBS network.The site contains a complete transcript of the original programme, along with a separate article explaining the brothers' background, achievements, and the obstacles they had to overcome. The site also features a QuickTime movie of a flight made by a replica of the Kittyhawk, the plane in which the brothers made their first flights. RealAudio interviews with historians about the Wright brothers may be heard and read at the site, and there is a short bibliography of suggestions for further reading.
The Yellow Fever Collection website has been developed by The Claude Moore Health Sciences Library at the University of Virginia. The site has two main sections, the first of which outlines major themes and personalities in the United States Army Yellow Fever Commission’s search for a yellow fever vaccine. The second part of the website provides information about and access to the Philip S. Hench Walter Reed Yellow Fever Collection from the Historical Collection at the University of Virginia Health Services. This collection includes correspondence, notes, reports, photographs, negatives and artifacts from the Walter Reed Series, Jesse Lazear Series, Henry Rose Carter Series, Jefferson Randolph Kean Series and the Philip S. Hench Series. It is possible to browse by date, series and subject. It is also possible to search the collection by keyword. Other features of the website includes a list of links, a who’s who, a collection guide and help on navigating the site.
This website provides a detailed introduction to the library special collections, archives, museums and digital resources held at the University of Aberdeen. These collections have a distinctly Scottish flavour, although their quality is said to be of international significance, and range from the archives of the University’s own five centuries of history, through family and estate records, to items associated with the history of science and medicine, Jacobitism and the Enlightenment. These records can be searched via the library catalogue. The website also acts as a portal to the University’s eight museums, all leaders in their field, ranging from ethnography to zoology. The website also details the various digitisation projects which have taken place, a set of useful resources derived from key collections. Of particular note is the archive of "Collection Highlights" which showcase particular collections or achives as well illustrated online exhibitions.
This website describes the special collections and archives held by the University of Bradford Library. Built around the University’s research interests, the collections cover areqa including: archaeology; local history; history of science and medicine; literature (notably the JB Priestley Archive); religion and peace studies. As well as describing each collection in some detail, the website also explains how to find and access material.
This website lists the special collections held at the University of Kent, Templeman Library. Of particular interest are important collections relating to: the theatre (books, play texts, playbills, programmes); wind and watermills (photographs and archives); Early printed books; Renaissance literature; ballads and songs; the history of science; local history; political history (papers from former speaker of the House of Commons Bruce Bernard Weatherill) and Charles Dickens. As well as detailed descriptions and links to resources related to the collections, the website also includes access information.