The "Whole" Bible is a website which offers a brief history of the New Testament, and then provides an overview of a number of non-canonical works from the New Testament era, including apocryphal gospels, infancy narratives, acts, epistles, and apocalypses. For each work covered, a brief summary of the content is given, along with notes on theories about when and by whom it was written. The material provides a useful introduction for those not familiar with the non-canonical literature, although unfortunately sources of the information are not generally given. For those interested in learning more, however, suggestions of where to find the original texts are provided. The site is the work of amateur theologian Geoff Trowbridge.
The Accordance website provides details of a commercial software package, designed for the study of biblical texts where the searching and retrieval of terms from both primary texts and secondary works is a priority. The full versions of Accordance must be purchased on CD-ROM or via paid-for download, although the website does offer animated demonstrations and a downloadable free trial version. Accordance is designed to run on a Mac, but is also available to PC users via an emulator. A number of different packages are offered: the Starter includes the Accordance software plus a number of texts in English, and this can be supplemented by purchasing Library Collections, the Scholar's Collection (which enables the use of the more sophisticated grammar utilities), and, for those with more specialised interests, Jewish and Catholic Collections.
The Al-Mashriq Religion page is a private site run by Břrre Ludvigsen, professor at Řstfold College, Norway. It offers a rather eclectic collection of resources, including the whole text of the Bible and the Qur'an in English translation, plus a handful of articles. The site also provides links to a selection of online resources on Lebanon and Islam. Unfortunately, the lists do not seem to be particularly well maintained, with a fair proportion of broken links. The Religion page is part of the broader site 'Al-Mashriq - the Levant', Ludvigsen's collection of resources relating to eastern mediterranean countries, and in particular Lebanon. Parts of the site were constructed by Ludvigsen's students, who worked on it as a project for a software design course.
The All-in-One Biblical Resources Search is a Web resource designed to make it as easy as possible to undertake a search of or look up a reference in a variety of versions of the Bible, plus other related resources. The site is divided into five main sections, covering: Bible versions and translations; biblical resources sites; the ancient world; general academic religion resources; and email discussion list archives. Each section offers a series of input boxes that allow users to search the major Web resources in that area. By removing the need to visit each site separately, the All-in-One Biblical Resources Search has the potential to save users a good deal of time and effort.
The Amos Hypertext Bible Hypermedia Commentary is a fascinating website devoted to a commentary on the Book of Amos. Including literary and linguistic commentary (displayed by clicking on hyperlinked words), background history and archaeology, the site is designed to enrich Bible students' understanding of popular translations of the scriptures. The site offers both a literal English rendering of the text and the Hebrew version, and audio files of both of these are also available. The site is edited and designed by Dr Tim Bulkeley, and offers links to his other biblical studies resources, including notes on the books of Jonah and Ruth.
Felix Just's resource provides a succinct overview of the different periods of Israelite, Jewish, and early Christian history, ranging from 3000 BCE to the Edict of Milan in 313 CE (plus a very brief summary of the major phases of the history of Israel up to the present day). Several additional charts open up specific periods and events into greater detail. Containing Biblical genealogy as well as historical chronology, this site is intended for beginners in the field and people wanting basic information on the periodisation of Biblical history.
'Ancien Testament: méthodes d'étude' is the online version of a textbook on the study of the Old Testament, written by Dr Tim Bulkeley of Carey Baptist College and the University of Auckland, and originally published by the Protestant University of the Congo. The book, which is entirely in French, was intended for use by African theology students. Beginning with the basics (the title of the first chapter translates as 'What is the Old Testament?'), the book gives an introduction to exegesis; historic-critical study; style, rhetoric, and narrative; textual criticism; and other aspects of modern biblical study. The final chapter includes a section on readings of the Bible that are of particular relevance to the third world. A glossary is also provided, and technical terms in the main text are hyperlinked to make checking definitions a simple matter. A useful resource for those seeking an introduction to this subject.
Spinning off from a series of television documentaries, the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) in the United States has developed a helpful introductory website titled 'Apocalypse: The Evolution of Apocalyptic Belief and How it Shaped the Western World.' Complemented by a number of video and audio excerpts, these pages offer a preliminary overview of the development of end-time beliefs and the influence of the book of Revelation. The site includes a pictorial chronology of apocalyptic beliefs, a number of primary resources (some full text, some excerpts), and a fascinating collection of modern documents and reports from academics and government organisations. In addition, there is a helpful glossary of terms and an interesting antichrist quiz. Users should note, however, that as a resource aimed at a popular audience rather than a scholarly one, the site does sometimes over-simplify material, and does not always acknowledge the full range of academic views.
The website "Bibbie Atlantiche" [Giant Bibles] represents an electronic updated version of the catalogue of an exhibition on Italian Giant Bibles organized by the University of Cassino in 2000-2001. The website outlines the history of the Giant Bibles - so-called due to their oversize dimensions - which reached their peak during the period of the Gregorian Reform. Bibles are described in great detail and a selection of electronic reproductions, available in different sizes, can be viewed online. A database allows users to access comprehensive bibliographic descriptions of some the Giant Bibles part of the exhibition, each accompanied by in-depth explanatory texts. Additionally available are both a bibliography - which can be searched or browsed - and various articles being the introduction essays published in the exhibition catalogues and other studies on the Bibbie Atlantiche. Articles are downloadable as PDF files. A section of the site is dedicated to the Tuscan Bibles. Initially manufactured in the Rome region, in the spirit of the Reform movement promoted by Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085), the production centre of Giant Bibles subsequently shifted to the Tuscany region. A different section focuses on the earliest examples of Bibbie Atlantiche, including the so-called Bible of Henry the Fourth, datable to 1060-1070. A link page presents and briefly describes other related websites. Bibbie Atlantiche - available in Italian only - represents a valuable resource for the study of this specific type of manuscript and the early productions of the Bible.
Bibel Hörbuch makes available an audio version of the Lutheran Bible in German. Users can either purchase on CD or download the complete unedited Bible - over 90 hours of narration - for a reasonable price or can choose selected parts, such as the Old or New Testament, the "best" of the Bible, or individual books. The site also provides a selection of mp3 audio recordings which are available for users to download free of charge. These are: Der erste Brief des Johannes; Das Buch Ruth; Der Prediger Salomo; Das Matthäus Evangelium; and Der Prophet Joel. Information is given about the project, the speakers, and the process behind the recordings. The audio book is based on the 1912 translation of Luther's bible by the Deutsche Evangelische Kirchenausschuss. This resource is an interesting tool for teachers wishing to locate new material for language learning. It is also of value to scholars working on the Lutheran bible, as an alternative to the written text.
BiBIL is a bibliographical database of books and articles of interest to biblical scholars, with over 70,000 entries. The interface is extremely sophisticated: there are a number of different ways to search the database, and it is well worth taking some time to browse through the Help and FAQs sections to ensure one is making the most of this resource. The database is a project of the Institut Romand des Sciences Bibliques (IRSB) of the Université de Lausanne. Versions of the site in English and German are available in addition to the original French; unfortunately, the translation does not always make things as clear as one might wish, but this is a minor drawback in a resource that has the potential to be a very valuable tool for biblical scholars.
The Bible and Interpretation website aims to provide a non-sectarian platform for the study and interpretation of the Bible by supplying a wide range of material on biblical and related matters, including archaeology and textual studies from many sources. These resources include news stories and comments dating back to 2000, academic articles and Web links on matters of biblical interest as well as a comprehensive A-Z guide to archaeological excavations and sites of historic and biblical interest in Israel and surrounding countries.
The range and source of the many articles, comments and websites vary considerably, from academically sponsored research projects to popular and amateur publications. They are aimed at a wide audience ranging from committed believers and interested members of the public to students and researchers. Some of the articles are polemical in nature and aim to defend or debunk faith-based positions. The editors do not appear to endorse any particular viewpoint and merely provide a medium for discussion, leaving readers to judge the validity of the arguments for themselves. In addition to the wealth of practical information contained herein, this resource also provides an interesting insight into the relationship between religion, politics, and academic studies in the Middle East and highlights the various uses to which archaeology and textual studies in particular can be put by interest groups. Although there was a gap when the site was not updated, The Bible and Interpretation website resumed publishing in October 2008, and so news is being updated on a regular basis again.
The Bible Gateway website provides the full texts of twenty different translations of the Bible in English, and many more versions in over thirty other languages. The Bibles may be searched by passage, by by keyword or phrase, or by topic. Word and phrase searches may be restricted in several different ways, such as to the books of Moses, or to the Gospels. The site also allows direct comparisons of passages between the various translations. It features audio versions of some translations, including the King James Bible, the New International Version, and the New American Standard, as well as some non-English translations. For some books of the Bible, access to commentaries is also provided. An extremely useful resource for the biblical scholar.
Bible Pages is a remarkable site designed and edited by Wieland Willker. Although Willker is not a theologian by profession, his site offers much which may interest scholars. Bible Pages consists of a series of biblical studies resources, including: a Greek New Testament; a study of the Codex Vaticanus B/03; high-resolution images of biblical manuscripts; sections on New Testament apocrypha; and a substantial textual commentary of the gospels, discussing some twelve hundred textual variants. Excellent scholarly apparatus is available for most resources, which makes them useful for research and reference. With material in English and German, Bible Pages is a welcome resource for those working in theology and biblical studies.
Constructed, maintained and with frequent contributions by Michael Marlowe, 'Bible research: reference materials for students of scripture' is a thoughtful and well-presented site that offers a thorough introduction to the development of many of the more prolific modern English versions of the Bible. Directed primarily towards an undergraduate audience requiring an introduction to the formation of the Bible, students will appreciate the accessibility of, and summaries and external links in these pages. The discussion of the Bible's genesis into its myriad current forms is coupled with an array of material on early Greek, Hebrew and Latin versions as well as discussion on different modes of biblical interpretation. A useful smattering of related articles are provided in each section but due to copyright restrictions, some of this material is over a century old so suffers greatly from unfamiliarity with the discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls and contemporary scholarship. Fortunately, Marlowe has take care to highlight some more serious gaps in knowledge on more than one occasion. Of special note are the 'Annotated Bibliography on Textual Criticism' and the 'Bibliography to English Versions of the Bible'. The former contains alphabetical, chronological and subject indices, and is complemented by a selection of translations and commentaries from early manuscripts and papyri; the latter offers a detailed series of resources organized by version and topic. Either bibliography would admirably serve any undergraduate or seminary student in their research.
The "Bible walks" website contains a series of illustrated articles outlining major places to visit at several Levantine archaeological sites that are mentioned in the Bible. Most articles focus on visiting the sites and contain Biblical references; there are numerous photographs shot by the author accompanying the texts and these may prove useful to students. The website also contains several articles on general topics related to the Old and New Testament; a mailing list; a blog (with a section focusing on archaeology); and forums (user registration required). The blog is updated and publishes interesting news. There is also a small shop that sells mainly books and photographs. This website, written by an amateur archaeologist, may be useful primarily to students as source of simple articles and pictures.
Wieland Willker's Bible-Links Web page contains a goldmine of information on biblical studies. The site is a gateway offering access to online resources in both German and English. Annotations are brief, but coverage is extensive and varied, and the site is regularly updated. The links are divided into sections for easy navigation, and categories include: newsgroups; mailing lists; online biblical texts; publishers; software and language learning tools; and online journals. Links to numerous sites on biblical history, palaeography, translation, and textual criticism are provided. Although a list of the main sections is included at the top of the website, it is well worth scrolling down and browsing through the site as a whole, as not all sub-categories are included on the main contents list. A useful resource for biblical scholars.
Bibleserver.com provides online access to over 30 translations of the Bible, in over 20 different languages. Texts can be displayed in parallel and searched by keyword, and free registration enables bookmarking and annotation. Four English versions are offered (including the New International Version and the King James Version). German translations are particularly well represented, and most major European languages are covered. Also offered are the Old Testament in Hebrew, the Septuagint, and the Latin Vulgate. The site also offers a number of reference tools (including Easton's Bible Dictionary, and Strong's Greek and Hebrew Dictionary) and biblical commentaries. Bibleserver.com is developed, hosted, and maintained by the Internet division of German broadcaster ERF.
BibleWiki is a collaborative online project to create a free, scholarly commentary on the complete text of the Bible. Each verse of the Bible has its own page: these can be browsed via a list of biblical books. There are also pages for key biblical terms and themes, which can be located via the search function. At time of cataloguing, the project was still in its fairly early stages (though growing steadily), and much of the site's content was taken from or based on out-of-copyright biblical dictionaries and commentaries. Users are encouraged to contribute additional material (either their own original work, or from other public domain sources), or to assist with tasks such as standardising existing content and creating hyperlinks within it. Bible Wiki uses the MediaWiki software originally written for Wikipedia.
Biblia Sacra : Bibles printed in the Netherlands and Belgium is a website resulting from a combined research project associated with the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Amsterdam and the Faculty of Theology at the University of Louvain. The site offers access to an extensive bibliographical database comprising texts and digital reproductions of Bibles printed in the Netherlands and Belgium in the period from 1477 to 1600. Reproductions of typographical and iconographical material are present in addition to detailed descriptions and information related to both editions and individual copies, such as collation, provenance and binding. Bibliographical information given covers: illustrations, printing types, printers, translators. The material featuring on the site originates mainly from Dutch and Belgian libraries, but Bibles preserved in the British Library and the Cambridge University Library are also included. A dedicated section provides an excursus through some highlights of the online collection which are arranged under four headings: Contents; Bibles as physical objects; Illustrations; Previous owners. The editions included within the resources available can be browsed through according to different criteria. A guide provides assistance for carrying out searches. The database - which includes over seven hundred editions - is an outstanding resource for researchers with an interest in early printing history and the early production of printed Bibles.
'Biblical Hermeneutics: an Afrocentric Perspective' is an electronic article by Professor Yorke. Its primary aim is to present a Christian Afrocentric approach to the Bible in order to counterbalance traditionally Eurocentric hermeneutics and to undermine the assumption that this western angle of biblical interpretation would be the only one valid. This resource covers a number of theological and political issues related to the place the African continent and its culture have (or have not) been given within Christian theology. Professor Yorke examines the Eurocentred viewpoint on the image of God, on biblical geography and on the figure of Christ, and sets these against a more afrocentric equivalent. Although the content of Yorke's afrocentric approach to biblical hermeneutics needs elaboration, this is a good general introduction to the development and specificity of African Christian theology.
The Biblical Studies Carnival provides a monthly showcase for the best academic blog posts relating to biblical studies and allied disciplines. Each edition of the carnival provides an overview of and links to noteworthy posts from the preceding few weeks, sometimes accompanied by news relating to blogs or other relevant online resources. The carnival itself is hosted by a different biblical studies blog each month, while the home page provides links to the current and past carnivals, plus more general information and details of how to submit entries or volunteer to host an issue. This is a valuable resource for those wishing to keep up with current discussions in the biblical studies blogosphere, or wanting to learn about new blogs in this area.
Biblical Studies on the Web describes itself as a gateway to online exegesis (that is, critical interpretation of texts, in particular scripture). It offers access to the electronic versions of three journals: the BSW Journal, Biblica, and Filología Neotestamentaria, along with a multi-library search function, and links to other relevant resources. The BSW Journal is general in scope; Biblica focuses on the Old and New Testaments and intertestamentary literature; Filología Neotestamentaria covers all aspects of New Testament philology. Biblica is the most extensive of the three, offering abstracts of articles which have appeared since 1990, and the full-text of those since 1998; the other two offer two issues each. Articles are in a variety of European languages, though the abstracts are mostly in English. Many works contain quotations in ancient languages; instructions on how to download the relevant fonts are given on the site. The Multi-Library Search theoretically allows one to search up to five online library catalogues, but some users may find it too slow to be useful (though unchecking the Library of Congress Online Catalogue search option can sometimes help). The WWW Biblical Theology Index (various sections of which are accessible via the bar immediately under the site's title) offers an eclectic collection of links of varying degrees of scholarliness. Navigation within the site is not always entirely intuitive, but users can always return to the front page for a handy list of links to the main sections.
The Biblioblogs website is best described as a meta-blog: a blog which exists to draw together information about other blogs - in this case those focusing on biblical studies and related fields. Editors Brandon Wason and Jim West provide links to and brief reviews of a wide range of weblogs which bear on this subject area. The majority of those listed relate to the Christian tradition, but Judaism is also represented. A regular Blog of the Month feature includes interviews with notable biblical studies bloggers. Readers are invited to suggest other suitable blogs for inclusion on the site. A useful resource for those wishing to explore this aspect of the Blogosphere.
The Book of Deer is a digital reproduction of the original manuscript (MS. Ii.6.32) held by Cambridge University Library. The manuscript is an illustrated 10th century gospel book, generally thought to be the earliest surviving manuscript from Scotland. Later additions, including a communion service for the sick, were made to the manuscript in Gaelic in the 11th and 12th centuries. It is thought that the manuscript was at the Abbey of Deer, in Aberdeenshire when the additions were made. The manuscript consists of 86 folios. There are two images for each folio, front and verso, and each folio is accompanied by a brief description. There is also a more general description of the entire manuscript, and a short bibliography. The resource as a whole is part of Cambridge University Library's impressive Digital Images Collection, which contains digitised versions of wight important manuscripts, including: a collection documenting Sir Issaac Newton's life and ideas; the Gutenberg Bible (the first book in Europe printed using moveable metal type); and digital images from Pascal's Thesis on the Arithmetic Triangle.
As its title suggests, A Brief Overview of each Book and Letter in the New Testament is a Web page giving information about the component parts of the New Testament. A chart is provided for each book, which gives (if known) its author, date, provenance, and language, plus a link to the full text. This site also addresses issues such as the unity, authenticity, purpose and literary genre of the individual books. Slightly fuller information about (and comparisons between) the four gospels is given on a separate page. Because its layout is so clear and the information given is concise, these pages serve as an excellent teaching or reference tool. However, users should note that other than the brief (usually a single sentence) statement of the purpose of each book, this resource does not aim to summarise the content of the New Testament books.
The British Library's Sacred Texts website provides information about the library's collection of religious books and writings. In total, 78 texts are listed, dating from the 1st century to the year 1900: the majority of these are from the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic traditions, but there are also some Buddhist, Hindu, and Zoroastrian works. Highlights include: a Gutenberg Bible; Codex Sinaiticus (the earliest surviving manuscript of the New Testament); the Lindesfarne Gospels; the Golden Haggadah (a lavishly illustrated Jewish prayer book); Sultan Baybar's Qu'ran; and the Gandharan Scrolls (possibly the oldest surviving Buddhist texts). A description giving historical and religious context is provided for each text, along with a high-quality zoomable image. More comprehensive versions of eight key texts are available via the British Library's 'Turn the Pages' feature, which uses Shockwave to simulate the experience of reading the physical book. The Curator's Choice section offers audio recordings (with transcripts) of experts talking about a number of the works. A visually attractive and valuable site.
The Institute for Antiquity and Christianity (IAC) is part of the Claremont Graduate School and is a research centre which focuses on the origins of western civilisation; its bulletin is made available online by the Claremont Colleges Digital Library. Volumes available here date from 1970 to 1997. The user may browse contents lists for each volume and then access each volume page-by-page in PDF format. Of particular academic interest are the texts of IAC public lectures, and a wide range of topics is covered by these, including: archaeology relating to Biblical sites; the writing of the New Testament; ancient Roman education; Judaism and Christianity; Alexandrian poetry; ancient magic; the synagogue; and papyrology.
The Burnet Psalter is an illuminated manuscript created in the 15th century and bequeathed to Marischal College, Aberdeen by Gilbert Burnet (1643-1715), Bishop of Salisbury: historian, theological writer, and adviser to William III. This is an online resource providing full-page colour images of the text and illustrations from a 15th century manuscript (AUL MS 25). The term 'psalter' refers to a book containing the Book of Psalms (or a particular version of, musical setting for, or selection from it) used in liturgical as well as private devotional contexts. The Burnet Psalter was composed in the first half of the fifteenth century and contains: a calendar; prayers and hymns for personal use; the Book of Psalms; and liturgies for personal use. The site contains an introduction to the manuscript, lists of contents compiled in 1932 and 1995 and digitised images of each page of the manuscript. There are also enlargements of each of the illuminated letters with commentaries. The site also has full transcriptions of the Latin and an English summary of the prayers and hymns, as well as commentaries on the writing, an editorial, and a bibliography. Pages describing the manuscript are reproduced from M. R. James, 'A Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the University Library Aberdeen' (Cambridge, 1993). A full transcription of the Latin and summaries in English of the prayers and hymns also accompany the text. This project is one of the University of Aberdeen Special Libraries and Archives' NFF projects. Intended for a wide audience, this resource is a useful teaching and research tool for undergraduate and postgraduate study.
The Case Against Q is a website compiled by biblical theologian Mark Goodacre to accompany his 2002 book of the same name. Both book and site present the arguments against the existence of 'Q', the hypothetical source proposed as a solution to the synoptic problem - that is, the problem of the relationship between the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. The site offers information about the book, including links to reviews, and a selection of supplementary material. The introductory section gives a broad overview of Goodacre's case, plus key quotations and a bibliography; there are also reproductions of five journal articles by Goodacre and other notable opponents of Q such as Austin Farrer and Michael Goulder. The site is clear and well presented, and likely to prove of interest to anyone concerned with the synoptic problem.
The Catalogue of New Testament Papyri and Codices, 2nd - 10th Centuries, by K.C. Hanson, is a brief but useful index to extant papyri fragments or texts of this period. The page contains data on the present location and date of composition of the fragments, identifies some of the major Greek codices of the Bible, and offers brief descriptions of some of the major text collections, with links to websites where available. The site is likely to be of most use to postgraduate research students beginning advanced studies of New Testament manuscripts. However, there is also a reasonably good introductory bibliography which may interest undergraduates and other readers alike. Users should note the catalogue was compiled some time ago, and so is not a source of up-to-date information about manuscript digitisation projects.
The website 'Catholic Church Documents Related to Biblical Studies' consists of an annotated list of links to primary and secondary sources central to the Catholic Church, such as 'Dei Verbum' (Vatican II), a number of documents by the Pontifical Biblical Commission, papal encyclicals, and the Neo-Vulgate Bible. Most texts are accessible in English; some sources are given in both Latin and English, and a few are in other languages. This site also contains a short list of printed Catholic writings, although as the author states himself, many of these are now out of print. This resource does not hide its clearly Catholic point of view.
The website "Catholic encyclopaedia : devil" is part of the extremely extensive New Advent site, which provides a collection of information on religious and theological topics. This page features an explanation and description of the various concepts that came to be amalgamated into the concept of the devil. It is a limited entry, which confines itself (unsurprisingly for an entry in a Catholic encyclopaedia published in 1908) to a rather narrow focus on biblical demonology, the ideas of St Thomas, St Anselm, and Scotus among others. Nevertheless it is a good introduction to these particular interpretations of definitions of the devil, whether named as Lucifer, a demon, or Satan. The text contains embedded links to other pertinent sections, which is very useful. This is of use as a basic resource to theologians, in particular those examining angelology or demonology and also to students of history studying witchcraft or the intellectual history of religious ideas or demonology.
The Center for the Preservation of Ancient Religious Texts (CPART), based at Brigham Young University, aims to assist scholars and others in the conservation, imaging, and distribution of ancient documents. CPART is copying significant and rare religious manuscripts to microfilm, photographic, and/or electronic media. The texts themselves are not available online (although a DVD of Syriac manuscripts from the Vatican Library is available for purchase), but the website does give information about the projects with which it is involved, including: the Dead Sea Scrolls Project; Herculaneum Project; Petra Papyrus Project; Bonampak Project; and the Middle Eastern Texts Initiative. Related audio-visual material (including recordings of lectures) is available for some of the projects. The site also gives details of the Center's plans to build an Eastern Christian Research Library. This includes bibliographical information: at time of writing, a Syriac bibliography was available, and a Coptic bibliography was planned.
The Centre for Reception History of Bible website gives information about this research centre, based at the University of Oxford. The centre aims to promote connections between scholars researching the use and influence of the Bible. Details are given of the centre's seminar series, The Bible in Art, Music, and Literature, which has been running since 2002, and of conferences organised by the centre (users should note, however, that the website does not at present offer any of the centre's research output online). Contact details for centre staff are also provided.
The Christian Apocrypha section of the Society of Biblical Literature aims to support the study of the New Testament Apocrypha by announcing meetings and congresses as well as new and forthcoming publications relating to the Apocrypha. The relatively small resource gives worthwhile bibliographical information on the Apocrypha texts and their influence on later art and literature but it might benefit from more regular updates.
The Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL) is one of the largest and best online collections of Christian theological and spiritual works. Directed by Harry Plantinga at Calvin College, the library contains an immense assortment of electronic texts ranging from the earliest of Christian theologians through to 19th century authors. Notable offerings include: the complete Early Church Fathers series (all thirty-eight volumes of the Ante-Nicene, Nicene, and Post-Nicene Fathers are available); the works of St Thomas Aquinas (English translations of the Summa Theologica and Catena Aurea are available); and a selection of works by Anselm, Dante, Walter Hilton, St John of the Cross, Martin Luther, John Calvin, John Foxe, John Wesley, and many others. The works are available in a variety of formats, and may be either read online or downloaded (downloading requires free registration). The site may be browsed by author, title, or subject, and a search engine is also provided. There are also occasional links to texts hosted off-site. Most of the texts offered by CCEL are in English (though users should note that copyright considerations mean that translations are often some decades old); a few are also in other languages. Many works on the site have been encoded in Theological Markup Language (ThML), which provides special support for theological needs such as scripture references and Strong's numberings. Music students and lovers of church hymns may enjoy perusing the Hymnary, organised both by song title and composer. In many cases it is possible both to download the score for a hymn and to listen to a MIDI file. A valuable resource for scholars and students alike.
The Christians for Biblical Equality (CBE) International website provides information about this organisation, based in Minneapolis, which believes the Bible teaches equality between both sexes, between all racial groups, all ethnic and social backgrounds, and all ages. This site holds a number of online articles on racial and gender issues within Christianity, a book store, an FAQ section, a list of current events and a statement on the equality between men and women within the church. While most articles are not primarily intended for a scholarly audience, and tend to focus on gender equality only, they contain interesting views on the interpretation of certain 'problematic' Biblical passages such as 1 Timothy 2 and 1 Corinthians 11:3.
Christological Titles in the New Testament is a straightforward Web page in which author Felix Just has collected many of the names and images used to describe God and Christ in the Bible and other Christian writings, ranging from 'Adonai', 'Messiah', and 'Logos' to animal imagery such as the pelican or the fish. Just states where and how often these names occur and adds a brief explanation of their origin. This is a quick and useful reference guide for those embarking on the study of Christology, or New Testament studies more generally.
The Classic Bible Commentaries website, produced by Wholesome Publishing, contains the complete text of a number of important works. Thirteen full or partial commentaries are available, including: the Geneva Study Bible; Martin Luther's Commentary on Galatians; the Matthew Henry Commentary on the Bible (both complete and concise versions); John Wesley's Notes on the Bible; and Charles H. Spurgeon's Treasury of David (on the Psalms). This is a reasonably comprehensive collection, containing most of the commentaries that have a good claim to be called 'classic' - certainly those in the public domain. The commentaries are divided into Bible chapters, and one can easily switch between the commentaries available for a particular passage, making comparative study straightforward. Each chapter of the commentaries also features links to the relevant Bible passages (in a choice of translations) on the Bible Gateway website.
The Classic Text: Traditions and Interpretations is an online exhibition compiled by the Special Collections departments of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, based on a physical exhibition that was on view during 1996 and 1997. The exhibition features a range of texts and authors, including the Bible, a number of classical writers, Dante and Chaucer, Shakespeare, and several poets and novelists from the 16th to the early 20th century. Each section gives historical information about the author and works under consideration, plus details of key editions, including those to be found in the Library's Special Collections. Illustrative images are also provided. The exhibition is concerned less with the content of the texts themselves than with the works as 'cultural icons', and with the question of what leads to a book becoming regarded as a classic.
Codex Gigas is a website hosting a digitisation of a 13th-century Bible, known as the 'Devil's Bible'. The Bible was made in medieval Bohemia, and is said to be the largest extant medieval Bible. The Bible is now owned by the Kungliga biblioteket (National Library in Stockholm), which created this resource. High quality images of all folios of the codex are available, each of which can be magnified in order to see detail or read the text. The images can be browsed by folio number, or highlights can be viewed by type of content (for example: names; Old Testament; New Testament; or Calendar). In addition to the images, the site provides: a history of the manuscript; a description of the codex; and a discussion of the content size and purpose of this Bible. Also helpful are the: bibliography; biographies; and glossary of manuscript terms. The site is well designed and easy to use, and would be of interest to anyone studying medieval manuscripts, or medieval theology. The site is also provided in Swedish and Czech.
This website is about the Codex Sinaiticus, one of the most important extant, handwritten copies of the Christian Bible in Greek, and the Codex Sinaiticus Project, which is a partnership made up of the British Library, Leipzig University Library, St Catherine's Monastery and the National Library of Russia in St Petersburg. The four institutions hold over 400 leaves between them of the Codex Sinaiticus. Found in Sinai in 1844, and written well over 1,600 years ago, the manuscript includes the oldest complete copy of the New Testament, and the aim of the project is undertake archival research, preserve the leaves, digitise all of them from the four locations, and establish a website that will feature images and aligned transcriptions of all extant leaves by July 2009. The website provides detailed information about the Codex Sinaiticus, its significance, history, content, and production, as well as information about the work of the project, including details about how the leaves are to be conserved, photographed and presented on the website. The 'see the manuscript' area allows you to view actual leaves from the Codex, with transcriptions along side it, with the aim of including translations as well. The project is partially supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
The Corpus Hermeticum is a set of core documents in the Hermetic tradition of the early Christian era. This website provides access to G.R.S Mead's translations of the Corpus. Texts are grouped under treatise titles, such as: Poemandres, The Shepherd of Men; The Greatest Ill Among Men is Ignorance of God; On Thought and Sense; and The Secret Sermon on the Mountain. A brief introduction to the history and significance of the Corpus Hermeticum is provided by John Michael Greer, the editor of this online version; he also supplies some useful remarks on Mead's translation. This site is good resource for anyone with an interest in early Christian writings. It is part of the Internet Sacred Text Archive, run by John B. Hare as a free, non-profit archive of e-texts on religion and mythology. All material on the website is available free of charge.
De Bijbel in de Nederlandse Cultuur (The Bible in Dutch Culture) is a website published by Amsterdam University Press, intended as a resource for all those who want to know more about the Bible and its influence on Dutch culture. The website, which is entirely in Dutch, offers the full text (including the deuterocanonical books) of a new translation of the Bible: the Nieuwe Bijbelvertaling, commissioned by the Nederlands Bijbelgenootschap and the Katholieke Bijbelstichting (2004). Biblical passages are linked to information on the visual arts; architecture; music; literature; and textual and historical background. It is also possible to search by theme and browse an online gallery of works of art related to the Bible. The site has been developed in collaboration with the Nederlands Bijbelgenootschap and with support of the VSB Fund.
The database contains 500 political and legal terms found in the Greek Bible (Septuagint). For each word, its appearances in the Septuagint and contemporary material are recorded, the earliest dated source is marked, and a discussion is provided of its distribution and significance. Each word is classified by morphology, grammatical type and semantic field. The aim of the project was to evaluate existing criteria for dating and contextualising the translation of the various books of the Greek Bible. For this purpose the database provides information on the use of political and legal terminology in the Greek Bible, including documentation of the use, context, and frequency in contemporary material of the terms chosen. This allows analysis of the time periods within which terms are used, and throws light on the Jewish translators' appropriation of political, social and intellectual constructs that have wider currency in the hellenistic world. The resource is available for download as a zipped MS Access file from the Oxford Text Archive.
For those looking for a basic introduction to the formation and selection of the New Testament texts, a useful introduction to this sometimes surprisingly complex issue can be found at 'The Development of the Canon of the New Testament'. Constructed by Glenn Davis, a self-proclaimed amateur who freely admits his heavy reliance upon the works of Bruce Metzger and Wilhelm Schneemelcher, the site contains a brief history of the Christian biblical canon and ample facts concerning the major individuals who shape the books. The site will be of greatest use to students new to the subject who will find within its pages a variety of helpful lists and tools. These include: short biographies of the major figures involved; background on, and links to, major apocryphal texts; and a table matching early church authorities with their opinions on books that were included in the Canon, as well as books that were not.
'Die Bibel, Martin Luther Translation' is part of the Humanities Text Initiative, a unit of the University of Michigan's Digital Library Production Service, which provides online access to full-text resources. This version of the Luther translation of the Bible is derived from the edition published by the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. It was initially prepared by Jeffery Triggs of the OED's North American Reading Program, and was subsequently converted to conform to the TEI DTD (the Text Encoding Initiative's standardized rules for marking up online documents) by the University of Michigan Humanities Text Initiative. The main virtue of the site is its extensive search tools. Users can perform simple searches for a word or phrase, or proximity and Boolean searches can be used to find the co-occurrence of two or three words or phrases. One can also browse the Bible by selecting individual books, or perform a citation search, which finds a particular chapter and verse of a specified book.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
The Douay-Rheims Bible website offers the complete text, including the deutero-canonical books (Apocrypha) of the Challoner revision of the 16th and 17th century English translation from the Latin Vulgate. The original translation was first published by the English Colleges at Rheims (which was responsible for the New Testament) and Douay (Old Testament) in 1582 and 1609 respectively; the text was then revised and modernised by Bishop Challoner in the mid 18th century. Brief introductions to the history of the translation and to the HTML version used to create this site are provided. Unfortunately, however, the text does not include footnotes or critical apparatus. The site is simply presented and easy to navigate (although those seeking the deutero-canonical books should note that they are listed together at the end of the index). Users are given the choice of a version using frames, which facilitates moving quickly between books and chapters, and one without, which gives a less cluttered look and allows more space for the text itself.
'Early Christian Writings' provides online access to more than a hundred documents on early Christianity. General introductory information about the text or author is given, along with links to or details of online and/or print copies of the works in question, plus resources related to them where available. Some of the works linked to are hosted on the Early Christian Writings site itself, others are located off-site. Most of the works are in English translation, though for some a version of the text in the original language is provided. This collection includes the New Testament, Gnostic works, Apocrypha, a sub-site on theories about the historical Jesus, and a selection of texts by earlier Church Fathers, including Ignatius, Polycarp, and Clement. The focus is not just on works written by Christians, as pagan authors such as Pliny the Younger, Suetonius and Tacitus are to be found in this resource as well. This site also contains a list of recommended online books. An extensive and valuable resource for those interested in patristic theology.
The EasyEnglish Bible website is produced by Wycliffe Associates UK. It contains over a hundred translations of biblical books (or parts of biblical books), each accompanied by a verse-by-verse commentary. The texts are in EasyEnglish, a simple form of the language developed for use by those learning English as a foreign language. There are also Bible studies, resources in Accessible EasyEnglish (an even simpler form of English suitable for use with those with learning difficulties), and a collection of semantically analysed texts, which aim to make implicit content of the text explicit, and which are offered as an aid for non-native English speakers translating the Bible into their own language. Numerous people collaborate on the books, and they undergo a formal, detailed process of linguistic and theological checking. Although the language used is simple, the theological content remains uncompromised, and the commentaries deal with hotly debated interpretative issues. These texts are a valuable resource for Internet users who may not have theological texts in their mother tongue, but do have limited command of the English language. They may also be of use to those teaching students whose first language is not English.
Felix Just's Electronic New Testament Educational Resource (or ENTER) offers a detailed introductory discussion on the composition and development of the books of the New Testament. Divided into four main sections, the site begins with a review of the books of the New Testament along with related statistical and geographical information. This is followed by discussions on the Gospels, Epistles and Revelations breaking them down in turn by major structural and thematic trends. Descriptions of the books are coupled with helpful bibliographic references and a glossary. Students new to textual study of the New Testament Canon, or needing a refresher, will welcome these pages for their clear presentation of many developmental issues including the authenticity of the Pauline letters, the Synoptic Problem and textual authenticity. The ENTER site is in fact part of a much larger examination of New Testament studies by the same author, so students are encouraged to explore many of the links more thoroughly. There is a particularly extensive series of links to apocalyptic images and iconography for those interested in the book of Revelation. Users will also be able to locate an array of external resources and ejournals on the Bible from the home page.
Errancy Wiki is a website for discussion of possible errors in the Bible. Users are invited to contribute arguments for and against claims that passages contain errors of fact or consistency, or that they countenance immorality. A separate page exists for each verse of the Bible: not all pages had significant content at time of cataloguing, but categorised lists of the pages to which material has been added can be accessed from the front page. Debate can sometimes be heated, but the site has a team of vigilant administrators to ensure that it does not descend into acrimony. Contributors are also asked to be careful to maintain dual point of view - that is, not to delete or undermine arguments with which they disagree, but instead to add counter-arguments in the appropriate section. Errancy Wiki uses MediaWiki, the wiki software originally created for Wikipedia.
John Marshall's website The Five Gospels Parallels contains the full text of the four canonical gospels, plus the Gospel of Thomas and selected passages from the Pauline letters. Users can scroll through the texts and compare similar passages by clicking on the colour-coded symbols which indicate parallels in the other works. This allows for easier comparison than a print synopsis (although the site's author acknowledges that some print synopses give more detail, and suggests that this resource is best suited to introductory level study). Eight different combinations of texts can be viewed (for example, the five gospels, the four canonicals, the gospels plus Paul, and so on). The interface is not difficult to use, and a few minutes of experimenting should be sufficient to learn one's way around. Serious work on developing this project further appears to have stopped in 2001, but this remains a useful resource.
Dedicated to the study of the Johannine literature, the Fourth Gospel and John's Epistles Home Page for Research is a highly specialised but not exclusively scholarly source of information: here you will find directories enabling you to browse listings of books and journal articles, and a large selection of links to related sites. Users are invited to submit suggestions of additional material that should be included. The site also hosts a small collection of unpublished works. Resources are listed alphabetically by author; there is also a search function. This site is basic in layout, easy to navigate and is regularly updated.
The g-Megillot email list is an electronic forum devoted to scholarly discussion of the Dead Sea Scrolls and allied subjects. The list is vigorously moderated to ensure the relevance and quality of posts: subscription to the list is limited to specialists in the field - typically those with a higher degree in a relevant subject and a knowledge of the appropriate languages (Hebrew and Aramaic). However, some content is available to all: although the list's main archive is only accessible by list members, there is also a back-up archive which is publicly viewable. Posts may be in English, Hebrew, German, or French, though in practice the majority of the material posted to the list is in English. A valuable resource for advanced scholars working in this area.
The Gospel of Thomas Web page, maintained by Stevan Davies from the Religious Studies Department at Misericordia University, brings together a surprising amount of useful and scholarly information on one of the earliest works of non-canonical Christian literature. The material listed is a mixture of pieces hosted on-site and links to resources elsewhere on the Web. There is an English translation of the Gospel itself, plus details of books about the Gospel and articles discussing its content, development, and provenance. There is also some coverage of related subjects, including other non-canonical literature. Through a combination of primary and secondary sources, the site explores the important - and sometimes controversial - status of the Gospel in early Christian research.
The website of the GRAMCORD Institute provides details of a range of biblical studies software available for purchase. GRAMCORD software (available for Windows and for handheld computers) offers features including parallel English/Greek/Hebrew displays, instant parsing, and sophisticated search facilities. Tools to assist those learning biblical Hebrew or Greek are also available. A range of bundles offering various combinations of the software is available. The GRAMCORD Institute is a non-profit organisation which has been researching and developing products for the syntactical analysis of biblical texts since 1976.
The Greek Bible in the Graeco-Roman World website provides information about an AHRB-funded joint project between the Universities of Southampton and Reading. The project's aim was to provide a re-evaluation of the Greek Bible (Septuagint or LXX) as a source for Jewish interpretation of the hellenistic world - in particular the political, social, and intellectual elements thereof. This involves an assessment of the existing criteria used to date and suggest the context of the translation of the books of the Septuagint, and where possible, to develop new criteria for deducing this information from the text. One major result of the project is the Demetrios database of Septuagint Greek, containing political, legal, and administrative words. The database is still being expanded, but the current version is available online via the project site (although at time of writing only project members had access to the full search capabilities). However, although new material is still being added to the database, users should note that the main project pages are no longer being updated. For those interested in exploring the subject further, a useful links section is provided.
Published by the Lower Saxony State and University Library in 2000 to mark the 600th anniversary of the birth of Johann Gutenberg, the inventor of movable type and letterpress printing, this website provides a digital version of the two-volume vellum Bible, which was printed in 1454 and is now held in Göttingen library. The website also includes other examples of early printed books: the Göttingen Model Book (c. 1450), and Helmasperger's Notarial Instrument. There is also a section devoted to illumination, where it is possible to compare images from the Model Book and the Bible. The facsimile images are supported by a number of essays on the impact of Johann Gutenberg and letterpress printing, including: a brief biography of Gutenberg; an introduction to the copying of manuscripts; and a detailed description of the Göttingen B42 Bible. Access to the site is via acceptance of conditions for use and reproduction: essentially, the materials offered on the site are for private study only. The website, which is hosted by the Göttingen State and University Library, is available in English and German.
'Historical Jesus Theories' reviews a selection of fairly recent works on the historical Jesus. In this resource Peter Kirby examines material by more than 20 scholars belonging to various denominations and approaching the figure of Jesus from different angles. Authors include Geza Vermes, Alvar Ellegard, Hyam Macoby and Paula Frederikson. Kirby's reviews tend to be descriptive rather than evaluative, and so are useful as summaries of the works rather than for their critical content. Kirby divides the authors into groups, depending on the overall slant of their view of Jesus (categories include: Jesus the Myth; Jesus the Wisdom Sage; Jesus the Apocalyptic Prophet; and Jesus the Savior). A list of each author's relevant works is also provided, complete with links to the Amazon listing for print resources, and to the resource itself for those that are online. A valuable introduction and guide to this area of Christian theology.
The Humanities Text Initiative (HTI), based at the University of Michigan, is an umbrella organisllent resource, providing online texts for a broad range of subjects, including English literature, philosophy, theology, history and linguistics. The collection contains several versions of the Bible, a version of the Koran and texts in Middle English, as well as modern English. It is possible to search the online text collection in a variety of different manners. Browsing is facilitated by the site's inclusion of two alphabetical lists, arranged by author and also title; it is also possible to view the collection using the Dewey Decimal Classification System. Collaborative projects have resulted in the creation of a number of specialised online texts collections being developed on the HTI's main site. Examples include: the American Verse Project and the Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse. All of the collections are fully searchable.
The Hypertext Bible Dictionary offers definitions of and short articles about technical terms, names of people and places, and key concepts relevant to biblical studies. Many of the entries are illustrated with photographs or maps. The site is straightforward to navigate, and internal links make easy to jump between related entries and to discover the meaning of technical terms used in the definitions. The dictionary was compiled by Tim Bulkeley to supplement his online commentary of the book of Amos, and this influences the content to a certain extent, but the range of terms covered is wide enough for this to be a valuable resource for all those beginning biblical studies.
Images of Archaeological Sites in Israel is an online gallery of photos of areas of archaeological interest (chiefly Iron Age sites) that relate to the Old Testament period. Pictures are included of: Arad; Beersheva (sometimes spelt Beersheba); Carmel; Gezer; Hazor; Lachish; and Megiddo. For each location, a brief introduction is given (you may need to scroll down to see this), and explanatory and descriptive comments accompany the full-sized versions of the individual photos. This is a useful resource for anyone wanting to find out more about life in ancient Israel, or looking for images to illustrate presentations. The photos are made available under a Creative Commons licence, so may be used freely for non-commercial purposes.
This AHRC-funded project investigates the way the socio-political and theological order of Welsh life between 1825-1975 is reflected in Wales' fast disappearing biblical visual culture, to emphasise its under-recognised cultural importance and encourage its preservation. Based at the University of Wales, Lampeter, the project enjoys strong links with other major Welsh research and cultural institutions. The website describes the project's aims, which include dissemination, an image database and interpretative DVD-ROM. The project also publishes some work in progress on the website - including analyses and comparison of a wide range of vernacular religious art.
'Interdisciplinary Documentation on Religion and Science' is a website which was designed to meet the needs of those interested in the intersection between theology, philosophy and science. It is directed by Giuseppe Tanzella-Nitti of the Pontifical University of the Holy Cross, Rome; Alberto Strumia of the University of Bari; and Michelle Crudele of University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome. The site is divided into two main parts. The 'Anthology and Documents' section contains texts from works by classical and contemporary theologians, scientists and philosophers. Also offered are official documents of the Catholic Church and other Christian churces. The second section links visitors to the online database of the Interdisciplinary Encyclopedia of Religion and Science (INTERS), from where they may access approximately 60 articles on a wide variety of topics. This interesting website is accessible in English and Italian. A search engine is available.
The Internet Biblia Pauperum website provides access to an electronic version of the 'Biblia Pauperum' or 'Bible of the Poor'. The Biblia was popular in the 14th and 15th centuries and was a graphic representation of related scenes from the Old and New Testaments (with a few lines of Latin text included) as a way of explaining their content to those could not read or did not have access to books and manuscripts. The Internet Biblia Pauperum builds on a postgraduate project completed at the Univiersity of Illinois at Chicago, which initially aimed to present the Biblia to students, with the Latin text translated into modern English. The online version of the project provides a selection of the original illustrations (from medieval block books), with English translation of the Latin text revealed by rolling the cursor across the image (requires Java). Where the illustrations are not provided, diagrammatic representations of the pictures (describing the images and their position, and translating the original Latin into modern English) are provided instead. Where images are provided, sections can be enlarged for clearer viewing. Short introductions to the Biblia Pauperum and to the project itself are also provided, together with a brief bibliography. This site would be of interest to students studying medieval iconography and typology, as well as those interested in theology, bibliography and art history.
J.B. Hare established the Internet Sacred Text Archive to make public domain religious and mythological texts available to the interested reader. It brings together material collected by the archive itself with a variety of links from other primary resource sites on the Internet to form one of the largest and far reaching electronic text resources available anywhere. With a somewhat eclectic selection in content, the site includes everything from English translations of the sacred texts of African, Australian, and North American indigenous cultures to Eastern, Neo-Pagan and Occult traditions. Judeo-Christian and Islamic resources are also well represented. The archive is still growing, with new texts added on a regular basis. The need to avoid material which is still in copyright means that many of the translations date from over a hundred years ago, but the variety of resources in translation makes the site invaluable to those lacking extensive foreign language skills who wish to rapidly familiarise themselves with a specific tradition. This site is an excellent starting point for anyone who wants to locate an electronic English-language version of a significant religious text from almost any religious tradition.
The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church is an online version of the English translation of a paper presented by the Pontifical Biblical Commission on 18th March 1994. It states the Catholic Church's position on interpreting the meaning of Scripture: how it should become known to and understood by both the faithful and academia. It summarises the history of interpretation, and various interpretive methods and approaches, and also includes sections on hermeneutical questions (that is, questions about the science of interpretation), characteristics of Catholic interpretations, and the place interpretation of the Bible has in the life of the church. The site is straightforwardly presented: the paper is given as a single text document, with a short list of links to the various sections given at the beginning. This resource may be of use to those working in Biblical hermeneutics, or those with an interest in Catholic theology.
Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts is a website which aims to offer a scholarly introduction to palaeography, manuscript transmission and textual criticism of the New Testament. Hosted on the website of Earlham School of Religion, this resource contains sections on ancient writing materials, the role of the scribe in ancient and medieval times, the history of textual criticism, and problems surrounding the modern critical text. It also provides an exercise in textual criticism using an English text, a glossary, and a list of Greek manuscripts containing New Testament texts. These pages are intended for beginners in the field, and assume no knowledge of Greek.
The IntraText Digital Library is building an online library of texts across a range of subject areas. The Library has particular strengths in theology and religion, with a fairly substantial number of works relating to the history of Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam. Within Christian theology there are further collections relating to: Biblical studies; patristics; the Orthodox church; monastic life; the reformation; Vatican documents; and Thomas Aquinas. The texts are in a wide range of languages, although major European tongues feature most prominently. Each electronic text includes a catalogue record; table of contents with links to the full text (in HTML); word lists ordered by alphabet, frequency, and length; and further statistics about the text. Within the text itself, one can click on key words to see a concordance-style list of all instances of that word in context, making the site a valuable resource for those involved in close study of the texts appearing here.
The Early Gospels website is partly a gateway to other webpages, and partly the outcome of the author's own extensive project on the categorisation, wider context and significance of the so-called 'apocrypha', non-canonical accounts of Christ's life and sayings. The four biblical gospels concerning the life and teachings of Christ are not the only sources of information about Jesus that were available to early Christian communities. During the last two centuries, archaeologists, New Testament scholars, and historians of the early church have made considerable progress in recovering many of the lost gospels. This site is an online resource featuring introductions, fresh translations, and links to canonical, non-canonical and hypothetical gospels from the first two centuries. Each category discusses the different manuscripts extant (or not extant) and part of the text can be viewed in Greek transcription with interlinear translation. The site is intended for scholars, students, and laymen interested in primary texts pertaining to the life of Jesus. It contains many obscure gospel fragments, as well as the only interlinear translation presently available of the Greek fragments of the Gospel of Thomas. Unfortunately the site does not appear to be updated or maintained on a regular basis, but nevertheless this resource, which also contains a bibliography and a FAQ section explaining the author's methodology, provides a scholarly, comprehensive introduction to this area of New Testament studies.
The Jesus Seminar Forum is an online gateway to information about the Westar Institute's Jesus Seminar. Since 1985, the Jesus Seminar has been a focus of debate about the historical Jesus - in particular, the authenticity and historicity of the various sayings and actions of Jesus depicted in the gospels. This site gives an overview of the goals and methods of the Seminar, details of the scholarly works that have emerged as a result of and in response to it, plus links to related online resources. Links to further information about the Jesus Seminar on the Westar Institute's own website are also provided. The Jesus Seminar Forum is part of Mahlon H. Smith's Virtual Religion Network.
Jewish and Christian Bibles: A Comparative Chart is a single page Web resource juxtaposing information about the number and order of the Old Testament books according to Jewish, Orthodox, Protestant and Catholic tradition. It explains some of the main differences between the scriptures of these groups, including the different ways of categorising the biblical books. A colour-coded system is used to highlight books whose position varies between Bible versions. This is a straightforward and helpful little guide, suitable for those learning or teaching introductory biblical studies. Links are also provided to more detailed statistical information about the Old Testament, and a glossary of biblical terms.
The Jewish Roman World of Jesus is a high-quality introductory site describing the surrounding political and social conditions during the life of Jesus and the first few centuries of Christian development. The pages open with two substantial introductory essays on the Roman and Jewish environments into which Christianity springs and will provide a useful historical introduction for anyone unfamiliar with this period. The remainder of this resource contains a series of brief sociological sketches on topics ranging from religion, to archaeological discoveries, to New Testament origins, all complemented by historical quotations that illuminate the opinions and quality of life of early Christians.This web guide will be most useful as summary for undergraduates beginning New Testament or Early Christian History studies. While some limited bibliographic material may be derived from the internal articles, unfortunately a comprehensive bibliography of secondary source material is lacking.
'Jews and Christians Reading the Bible' is the online record of a symposium which took place at Bryn Mawr College in November 2003. The forum took as its starting point the book by David Dawson, 'Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity', using this (and scholars' responses to it) as a springboard into discussion of Jewish and Christian interpretation of sacred texts. In addition to a brief introduction to the subject matter, a copy of the conference program, and information about the participants, the site offers recorded webcasts of two of the presentations (those by Rachel Havrelock and Mark Vessey) together with the subsequent discussion. The site is attractively presented and easy to navigate, though it is perhaps a pity that the presentations and discussion are available only as webcasts: there are no transcripts or text versions of the papers. However, for those with the time to listen to the recordings, this has the potential to be an interesting resource.
Both students and teachers will benefit from The Johannine Literature Web. Billed as an academic resource for the fourth gospel and part of an excellent series of websites on the Bible and biblical resources by Felix Just (of the Loyala Institute for Spirituality), the Johannine site provides a wide variety of material for students and scholars of the fourth gospel. A mixture of Just's own work and well-maintained lists of links to resources elsewhere on the Web, site features include: introductory material and structural outlines of the gospel; several substantial bibliographies (including a list of full-text online resources); sections on art, archaeology, papyri, and manuscripts; and the results of a number of graduate student projects. A valuable site for all with an interest in John's gospel.
The website of the Journal of Religion offers tables of contents of past issues of the journal, beginning with January 1996, free of charge to all users. Subscribers can also view the full text of articles in issues from 2004 onwards. Published by the University of Chicago Press four times a year, the journal is dedicated to scholarly inquiry into the meaning and importance of religion. It is broad in scope and its articles are wide ranging in scholarly approach. Information for those wishing to subscribe to the journal and/or order back issues or individual articles is available. Guidelines for those interested in submitting articles are also offered. The site is well presented and accessible.
K C Hanson's website may be a chaotic montage of loosely connected resources, but within this eclectic host of sub-directories, there are several topics worth exploring by those interested in history, culture or religion. Dr. Hanson's primary interest seems to lie with the interactions between various ancient and classical communities spanning from the apogee of the Egyptian to the Roman Empire (in particular the relationship between the later and the early Christian communities). He has assembled a series of dynastic chronologies for both Israel and Rome, along with a selection of texts relevant to this period. With a little searching one can find ancient documents from Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Greek civilizations, along with a selection from Semitic cultures. These texts, all translated, tend to cluster between the eighth century BCE and the third century CE but there are a number which predate these.
Part of the site provides useful support resources for the textbook 'Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts', which Dr Hanson co-authored with Douglas E. Oakman. Those wishing to delve further into a particular topic may also wish to consult Hanson's robust series of web links to the ancient world and/or his bibliographic collections on rituals on ancient Greco-Roman society; Hellenic, Semitic and Anatolia Cultures; and The Old Testament. An attractive collection of images from many of these cultures has been compiled.
The Keio Gutenberg Bible website makes available a digital facsimile of the first volume of the Gutenberg Bible acquired by Keio University in 1996. Also offered is information about the provenance of the copy, details and images of the book's external appearance, illumination and text style, and the paper on which it is printed, plus a select bibliography. Additionally, users can compare pages of the Keio Gutenberg Bible with that owned by Cambridge University Library. There are, however, no transcripts of the Bibles. The site is, by its very nature, image heavy, and hence may be slow to load for some users; the interface can also sometimes be a little cumbersome to use. The text of the site is available in English and Japanese. A valuable site for anyone with an interest in the Gutenberg Bible, or indeed in incunabula (early printed books) more generally.
'La Septante' offers a French translation of selected books of the Septuagint (Greek Old Testament), presented in parallel with the original Greek. The whole of the Septuagint (including the deutero-canonical books) appears on the site, but unfortunately no complete French translation exists in the public domain; consequently, for those books where no French version was available, the site's editors have provided an English translation instead (this applies to a little under half the books included). The bulk of the French translation is by Pierre Giguet, while most of the English is by Lancelot Brenton. Some individual books are the work of other translators: full details are given on the site's preface page. The Greek text is taken from the edition prepared by Alfred Rahlfs. The site is attractively presented and easy to navigate, with a useful list of books and chapters on the left-hand side of the screen allowing one to move around within the Septuagint at will. Those wishing for their own copy of the text are invited to download one, in either HTML or PDF format. The Greek font needed to view the Septuagint text correctly is also available for download from the site.
The website of the free and full-text Liber Annuus journal publishes papers on Biblical archaeology and theology and other Biblical studies, including linguistic ones. The papers are available in PDF format and are published in English, Italian, French or German. The journal is published by the Franciscan Printing Press of Jerusalem (Studium Biblicum Franciscanum) and therefore the papers follow the theology of the Roman Catholic Church. The website published at the time of the review all volumes dated between 1991 and 2006. The excavations reports include sites in Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria and Egypt. The excavated sites reported in the papers are often ecclesiastical properties and religious buildings and therefore there is a strong focus on the archaeology of Christian religious areas. Researchers in particular may find this journal useful.
The Lindisfarne Gospels site provides a general introduction to the contents of the Lindisfarne Gospels manuscript (British Library, MS Cotton Nero D.iv) and its cultural and historical context. Written by Michelle Brown, Curator of Illuminated Manuscripts at the British Library, it is divided in four sections, or "seminars", on the following topics: The Lindisfarne Gospels and the Early Christian World; Eadfrith and the Making of the Lindisfarne Gospels; The Lindisfarne Gospels in Use; and A Display Opening of the Lindisfarne Gospels. Designed for the non-specialist and assuming no prior knowledge, the site gives a lively introduction to Anglo-Saxon England and early Christian Europe to place the codex in its religious and cultural setting. It is illustrated with a selection of images from the manuscript which, although not as clear as they might be, provide the reader with a valuable accompaniment.
The Lindisfarne Gospels website is the work of the British Library, and gives a brief introduction to the Gospels manuscript. The manuscript was created between 715 and 720 on the island monastery of Lindisfarne, and is written in Latin but also includes the oldest surviving translation of the Gospels into Old English. The site gives a brief overview of the Gospels and their history, and some contextual historical information. There is also a link to the British Library's 'Turning the Pages' Web pages, where users can access high quality images of some pages from the Gospels. This last involves the use of Shockwave, and knowledge of connection speed in order to work effectively. This resource would be of interest to beginners studying medieval manuscripts, or the more general reader.
The Logia Translation Hypothesis Home Page outlines a theory (abbreviated to LTH) which supposes that the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke each independently relied on the same Greek 'notes', called the 'Logia'. These Logia in turn go back to an older Aramaic source, compiled by the apostle Matthew (who is not, according to this hypothesis, the author of the gospel of that name). The site offers a diagram reflecting the influence of the different 'Logia' according to the LTH, followed by thirteen frequently asked questions, explaining the relationship between the Logia Translation Hypothesis and other existing theories on the subject. This resource is clearly written. A number of related papers by the site's author (Brian E. Wilson, who sadly died in 2002) are also available for download as MS Word or RTF files.
The Lost Gospel of Judas is a website from National Geographic Society, focusing on the Coptic manuscript discovered in the 1970s and eventually restored and translated in 2006. The Gospel of Judas is believed to have been written before 180 A.D. by an unknown gnostic writer, possibly in Egypt, and was regarded as heretical both for its gnostic content and its favourable treatment of the eponymous disciple, traditionally held to have betrayed Jesus. This site offers background information about the manuscript, its discovery, and the work to conserve it, along with images of the pages of the codex, plus a complete transcription of the Coptic text and an English translation. This is a useful resource for those wishing to learn more about this important discovery.
'Metalogos: the Gospels of Thomas, Philip and Truth' is a website of 'The Ecumenical Coptic Project', whose aim is to 'distribute scholarly editions of the Nag Hammadi Gospels to the academic and religious communities'. The material on this site, while of obvious use to theology researchers, has a wide interdisciplinary application, due to the broad influence of these early texts. An introduction is given to the finding of the Nag Hammadi texts, criteria for dating them and their importance in the consideration of the New testament canon. This includes links to essays considering, for example, 'Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity' (Walter Bauer), and details of significant scholars in this area, as well as definitions of terms and texts mentioned. Scholars include Bob Schapiro, Chris Wesson and Pedro Chamizo, and some of the references offered cover the 'Epistle of Barnabus', the 'Apocalypse of Peter' and the 'Council of Trent'. The texts of the three gospels may be accessed in English or Spanish, in HTML or as an MSWord document. There are also instructions for downloading Coptic and Hebrew fonts, access to J. M. Plumley's 'Introductory Coptic Grammar', and a hypertext interlinear of the Gospel of Philip. Another interesting feature of the site is information on studies of the Shroud of Turin, with links to ongoing research findings. This site is updated weekly and is comprehensive and informative with great attention to detail. It is easy to use, well-presented and while the subject may at first seem to be highly specialised, it offers insights into a wide range of related areas.
The NET Bible website offers the online edition of a new Bible translation (released in 2005), featuring over 60,000 translators' notes. The text can be read online, or downloaded free of charge. Access is also provided to Greek and Hebrew versions of the text (fonts are available to download), to the King James Version text annotated with Strong's Bible numbers and links to concordance entries, and to an extensive list of biblical cross references. Additionally, links are provided to a large collection of Bible study materials and articles on a variety of aspects of church life - though users should note that these are predominantly aimed at believers rather than academics.
The New Advent website offers a valuable collection of resources related to Catholic theology. The site's most important feature is an online version of the Catholic Encyclopedia, based on the 1913 edition. This offers over 11,000 articles on notable theologians, doctrine, and history as it relates to the Catholic Church. Also available is an extensive collection of primary texts, including the complete Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas, the works of dozens of Church Fathers (mostly dating from the 3rd to 5th centuries, although some earlier and later works are also included), accounts of church councils, apocryphal works, and the Douay-Rheims translation of the Bible, presented in parallel with the Latin Vulgate text. The library section offers a variety of church documents, including papal statements. There are some adverts on the site, but these are not unduly intrusive. Overall, this is a key resource, most obviously for those with an interest in Catholicism, but also for Christian theology more generally.
The University of Michigan's New Testament website gives the complete text of the mid-18th century Challoner revision of the Rheims New Testament of 1582. The individual books can be browsed, and the site also allows simple, proximity, boolean, and citation searches. However, this resource does not include footnotes or other critical apparatus. This version of the text was prepared by Jeffery Triggs of the OED's North American Reading Program, and was subsequently converted to conform to the TEI DTD (text encoding initiative document type description) at the University of Michigan Humanities Text Initiative. Part of the Douay-Rheims Bible, the Rheims New Testament is a translation from the Latin Vulgate. Bishop Challoner's revision remained the standard Bible version for English-speaking Catholics for around two centuries
The New Testament Gateway is part of a larger collection of online material authored and compiled by Mark Goodacre, associate professor in the Department of Religion at Duke University, USA. The gateway is an extensive annotated catalogue of Web resources for the study of the New Testament. Sections include: the Greek New Testament; textual criticism; the ancient world; the early Church; art; Jesus in film; the synoptic problem; and women and gender. Users wishing to stay informed of new resources as they become available may subscribe to the onsite email list. The gateway is frequently updated and each month the site includes a selection of featured sites. Readers are encouraged to submit sites to the author for inclusion. The gateway, together with other New Testament pages created by the author, is fully searchable.
The format may be somewhat bland, but the Noncanonical Literature home page, organised by staff from the Wesley Centre for Applied Theology, is an extremely useful online resource for students and scholars desiring biblical apocryphal and pseudepigraphal texts. Divided into categories of Old Testament, New Testament and Other Noncanonical Early Christian Literature, a wide cross-section of resources can be accessed and read in English translations. Some of the offerings found within these pages include: the Gospel of Thomas and other Nag Hammadi texts; Maccabeean books; the Wisdom of Solomon; the Didache; the Epistle of Barnabas and the Epistles of Ignatius.
NT Blog is an academic blog by Mark Goodacre (Associate Professor of New Testament at Duke University, and creator of the NT Gateway) for material relevant to New Testament studies. Frequently updated, the site features substantial posts on current issues in New Testament scholarship, conference reports, news items (including information about new books in the field), and links to other online biblical studies resources. Goodacre also provides a list of other scholars' blogs which may be of interest. One of the longest-established and best-respected theological blogs, this website has much to offer those engaged in the academic study of the New Testament.
The Old Testament Gateway is an annotated academic directory of Internet resources on the Old Testament. It is produced by Tabor College, Victoria, Australia, and is sponsored by Tendai Travel. The site is meant to complement the New Testament Gateway maintained by Dr Mark Goodacre. It provides a search engine and information about its contributors. Students and scholars of the Old Testament will find this resource useful for their work.
Old Testament Life and Literature is an online edition of a book by Gerald A. Larue, originally published in 1968. The work provides a basic introduction to the history contained within the pages of the Hebrew Bible. The electronic version has not been updated and contains a few textual errors. It does, however, include all the maps and images that were in the printed edition. Chapters include the major periods of Israelite biblical history and some discussion of the formation of the Hebrew canon. It is assumed that the reader will have a Bible to hand to refer to where the text indicates, as the text is not hyperlinked to an online Bible.
The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha Website is a resource created to accompany a course taught at the School of Divinity of the University of St Andrews. The pseudepigrapha explored in the course are a loose collection of writings attributed to biblical characters and/or set in the Old Testament period: although quasi-biblical in character, they are not part of the official canon of either Judaism or Christianity. The most valuable part of this site is the sizeable collection of lecture notes (ranging from abstracts and summaries to complete texts), which together provide a useful introduction to this subject. Suggestions for further reading are also given. Unfortunately, a reorganisation of the university's website has resulted in some broken internal links, but there is still sufficient information here to make this a helpful resource.
Online Critical Pseudepigrapha is a website which offers scholarly electronic versions of Old Testament pseudepigrapha and related literature. For each work, the site aims to provide a critical edition of the text in its original languages, with other ancient translations where applicable (English translations are not generally offered), plus other relevant information such as the text status and contents, details of manuscripts, and so forth. The project is ongoing, and at time of cataloguing not all texts had the full critical apparatus. Scholars with relevant expertise are invited to get involved with the project by digitising, tagging, or proof reading texts. A valuable resource for researchers working in this area.
The Online Database of New Testament Manuscripts has been developed by Michael Jones (Cambridge University) and published by the Stoa Consortium. The database enables searching by both biblical passage (returning manuscripts containing that passage) and by manuscripts (whether majuscule or papyrus). Catalogue data returned includes the manuscript Gregory-Aland number; type; earliest and latest dates; and location (including shelfmark). The data has been compiled from a variety of printed sources. This is designed as a simple lookup tool and there are not, for example, hypertext links from the manuscript references to further information held elsewhere.
Part of the British Library's website, 'Turning the Pages' presents digitised texts of books, missals, psalters, atlases and other important documents that are held at the British Library. Based on the award-winning interactive display system used within the library itself to provide virtual public access to these rare texts which include: Leonardo Da Vinci's notebook; the Lindisfarne Gospels; the Sherbourne Missal; and Sultan Baybars' Qur'an. To view the books that are listed, a Macromedia Shockwave plug-in is required - although there are alternative versions for some of the texts. The Shockwave versions provides interactive animation that allows the user to turn the pages digitally, and also use zoom features to look at sections in detail. An introduction is provided for each book, along with audio descriptions of each page, which requires the use of a Real Audio player. Also of interest is a "highlights" tour of the texts, and a showcase of other manuscripts housed at the British Library.
An even more sophisticted version of Turning the Pages is available online now on the british Library website, for users who have fast broadband and Windows Vista.
OSIS Website is an online collection of resources on the work of the Bible Technology Group, which was formed to develop a common XML format for biblical texts. The Group is sponsored by the American Bible Society and the Society of Biblical Literature. The chair of the Group is Steven DeRose, Brown University. The Group's website includes: information about the members and structure of the Group; details of development of the Open Scriptural Information Standard (OSIS) for encoding biblical texts in XML; and information about the annual Bible Technologies conference. The Group also maintain an email discussion list, the archives of which are available online.
An Overview of New Testament Geography is an online resource compiled by Felix Just, giving a brief outline of the locations where the main events described in the four gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and the epistles took place. Maps of Palestine in Christ's time, the Roman Empire, and key places in Paul's ministry are provided, and a link is also given to the larger collection of maps at the New Testament gateway website. This resource is intended for students beginning study of the field.
The papyrus Egerton 2 is a fragment of an unknown gospel, dated between 150 and 200 CE and found in Egypt in the 1930s. This home page is a private site published under the University of Bremen Web pages, containing high quality images of the Egerton 2 papyrus, with full transcription and translations into English and German. The author has also provided a brief history of the papyrus and the scholarly debate it has provoked, information on its palaeography and a discussion of its canonical parallels. Finally, this resource holds an extensive bibliography and a number of online secondary sources.
This resource contains the Vulgate version of the Psalter in Latin, presented alongside the Douay English translation. You can browse the Psalms according to their number or via their Incipit (first verse); there is also a search function. Straightforward and easy to navigate, this site is excellent for teaching or research purposes. However, as it does not include a critical apparatus nor any grammar tools, it is less useful for scholars of textual transmission or people needing explanation of the Latin text.
The Quartz Hill School of Theology website provides online courses on a wide range of theologically related subjects. Classes are offered as shareware, meaning that students don't have to pay unless they choose to (though certain advantages, such as gaining academic credit for the courses studied, are only available to paying students). Courses include seminars devoted to the close reading of a single Old or New Testament book, but also broader surveys of apocalyptic literature and introductions to biblical textual criticism. An online library of useful texts hosted both on- and off-site is provided. The School also publishes the Quartz Hill Journal of Theology - also available online for free - a journal devoted to Christian readings of the Bible (the site as a whole is unashamedly Christian in approach: its aim is stated as being 'to train believers for more effective ministry'). There is much here that may be of use to anyone interested in (or perhaps starting to teach) biblical studies, or Christian theology more generally.
The University of California Press has made available online 'A Radical Jew: Paul and Politics of Identity' by Daniel Boyarin, first published in print in 1994. 'A Radical Jew' takes as its starting point the Pauline verse, "There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male or female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus", and is a study of gender and ethnicity in the letters of Paul. The author is a self-professed talmudist and postmodern Jewish cultural critic who desires to reclaim Pauline studies as an important part of the study of Judaism in the Roman period and Paul himself as a Jew. The list of chapter headings is as follows: Circumcision, Allegory, and Universal "Man"; What Was Wrong with Judaism?; The Spirit and the Flesh; Moses' Veil or The Jewish Letter, the Christian Spirit; Circumcision and Revelation or The Politics of the Spirit; Was Paul an "Anti-Semite"?; Brides of Christ; "There Is No Male and Female"; Paul, the "jewish Problem," and the "Woman Question"; Answering the Mail. The full-text of the book is available together with notes and bibliography. The entire work may be searched though help for using the search interface is not easily available. The work has been encoded in XML and is made available via Dynaweb. The presentation makes use of frames (though these may be switched off to ease printing). An extra Unicode font may need to be installed to ensure Greek text displays properly.
This website provides annotated links to various online resources on religion and Religious Studies. These include electronic journals; the homepages of research and data centres; Bible study guides; and theological resources. There is also a section on the Creation-Evolution debate and one on the religions of the world which connects readers to Internet materials on the Bahai Faith, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism and Sikhism. The site is maintained by the Iowa State University Library.
This website provides study notes on the biblical book of Ruth. The notes begin with an overview of plot, structure, and narration, covering characterization and dialogue. There is also a brief discussion of genre and historico-critical issues. Following this, there is a detailed verse-by-verse commentary on the text, paying particular attention to narrative technique, and highlighting devices such as repetition of key words, unusual phrases, and so on. Internal links to related sections are provided, and clicking on technical terms opens a pop-up window giving a definition (although unfortunately at time of review not all of these were functioning). A useful resource for those embarking on study of this book of the Old Testament.
The Rylands Papyri website gives online access to the extensive collection of papyri held at the Manchester University, John Rylands University Library. The collection contains some seven Hieroglyphic, 19 Hieratic, 166 Demotic papyri along with numerous Coptic, Arabic and Greek texts. It is one of the largest collections of its kind in Britain. The collection contains the so called Rylands Library Papyrus P52 or St John’s fragment which is thought to be the earliest extant copy of New Testament canonical writing. The website gives access to images of the papyri and the interface allows the user to zoom in and study the texts in detail. The website is instructive and easy to access. This is a valuable resource for students and researchers alike.
This website reviews the 'Sacred: Discover What We Share' exhibition which took place at the British Library between the 27th April to the 23rd September 2007. It focuses on the holy books and practices of the three 'Abrahamic faiths' namely Christianity, Judaism and Islam. This home page provides detailed information about the exhibition, and allows access to audio and video recordings of several themes connected to the exhibition like the evolution of the sacred texts; holy sites; and weddings in the three faiths. It also lists 67 of the sacred texts on display (chronologically and by faith) - each of which accompanied by a short commentary and a zoomable high-resolution image.
'The Septuagint online' is an extensive guide to Internet resources about the Septuagint or LXX, the 3rd century BCE Greek translation of the Old Testament. The author (Joel Kalvesmaki, an editor at Dunbarton Oaks and a PhD student at the Catholic University of America) provides a useful introduction for those new to the subject, but the chief resource the site offers is the well-maintained, annotated lists of links to texts, translations, and studies and other secondary literature. Information is also given about research in progress, upcoming conferences, and scholars specialising in the field. Those who would like to make contact with others working in this area may wish to subscribe to the email discussion list. The site is easy to navigate, and will be a valuable resource to anyone working in Septuagint studies.
This Uppsala University website is devoted to the Codex Argenteus, the "Silver Bible", which was written in silver and gold letters on purple vellum in Ravenna in about 520 CE. It contains fragments of the four gospels in the 4th century Gothic version of Bishop Ulfilas (Wulfila). The Web page for the Codex includes a digitisation of the 1927 photo facsimile edition. This includes supplementary images from other codices, plus the 'Alphabeta Gothica' (which compares the script alphabets of several different codices, including the Codex Argenteus), but is somewhat lacking in descriptive or explanatory material. The site also provides links to a small number of papers, and other research material relevant to the study of this Bible and its early medieval historical context. Navigation of the site is unfortunately not always intuitive: for example, a bibliography for the Codex Argenteus is listed under the heading 'Database of the Gothic language' in the Books and Links section.
This online resource on New Testament criticism almost fulfils the role of a good introductory textbook: it starts with an explanation of the meaning and purpose of textual criticism, followed by a brief overview of the types of manuscripts and printed texts extant and by an outline of the possible problems a biblical scholar might encounter while trying to interpret the texts. The main body of this site consists of an alphabetical list of topics and articles surrounding New Testament textual studies and, although not always poured into a user-friendly format, the information it holds is well-structured and concise. It is therefore a pity the author has failed to add an extensive bibliography. These pages would benefit beginning textual scholars and teachers of biblical studies but should probably be used in conjunction with more scholarly, peer reviewed resources.
The website Slavonic Pseudepigrapha Project is an online resource and gateway devoted to the Second Temple Jewish literature preserved in the Slavic milieux. In addition to a general introduction to the subject, this website provides original texts and translations (some into English, some into other languages including Russian and Ukrainian), bibliographies, and a collection of research articles on a variety of apocryphal and pseudepigraphical material preserved in Slavonic. There are links to electronic texts from sites of Russian and Ukrainian libraries or publications where these were available. Some of the documents available on the site are in HTML format; others can be downloaded as PDF files. Also offered is a small selection of other relevant electronic resources, and a short links list. The site is the work of scholars from the theology department of Marquette University (Milwaukee, USA). A useful resource for specialists working in this area.
The Society for the Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (SSBMA) provides a forum for the discussion of ideas and themes relating to medieval biblical studies. The Society's website includes: a bibliography of papers presented at conference sessions sponsored by the Society (1993-1999); news of upcoming conferences, with calls for papers; and a directory of society members. The directory gives details of members' research interests and publications, as well as contact details. The site also provides links to related web pages.
The Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) seeks to promote the study of biblical interpretation with emphasis on the Bible in the Mediterranean and the Near Eastern World. It also publishes printed and online resources for students, teachers and scholars. Its website contains a bibliography of recently published monographs and journal articles. Some articles are fully available online for non-members but most are by subscription only. The society also organises an annual conference and gives bursaries for scholars outside North America. This site might interest students of Christianity, Judaism and Islam but the stress lies on Christianity.
The SP Fonts Home Page (formerly the 'Scholars Press') contains several TrueType fonts that may be downloaded and used free of charge. The alphabets available are Greek, Hebrew, Coptic, and Syriac. The site includes two Greek fonts: SPDoric and SPIonic. Three Hebrew fonts are featured: SPTiberian; SPDamascus; and SPEzra. SPEdessa is a Syriac Estrangela font. SPAchmim is a Coptic font. Finally, SPAtlantis is a transliteration font that includes diacriticals and other special characters that allow the representation of numerous Indo-European, Semitic, and other languages. SPAtlantis is available in both Roman and Italic type. The Greek and Coptic fonts are largely based on the 'Thesaurus Linguae Graecae' encoding, with additional codes for Coptic characters not represented in the Greek encoding. The Hebrew and Syriac fonts follow the Michigan-Claremont encoding scheme.The fonts may be individually downloaded, and are compatible with PC and Mac computers. Each font has a .readme file explaining the standard keyboard mapping used by the font. Although the fonts are free to use, the website requests that permission be sought from the copyright holder before including the typefaces in commercial electronic products.
The 'Statenvertaling' or bible translation ordered by the States General, is the first Dutch bible translation from original sources, dating back to 1637. This website in Dutch with an introduction in English, provides the full text with comments of all bible books (chapters) including the apocrypha, made searchable and browsable. The words that are commented on, are highlighted in the text and are clickable. Short introductions refer to the possible author and origin of each book. A concordance completes the search options: all different words are listed alphabetically and counted. One click takes the reader to the bible verses in which the word occurs.
The history of the 'Statenvertaling' itself is introduced with references to its historic context including the 1619 Dordt Synod that decided to the bible translation and to the translators Johannes Bogermann; Willem Baudartius; Gerson Bucerus; Jacobus Rolandus; Festus Hommius; Antonius Walaeus. Also the translation process is discussed. The Statenvertaling was used as the main translation until 1951 when a new translation was published. Hence, it had considerable influence on the Dutch language, shown by references to proverbs.
In addition to this, paintings of biblical themes by more than 90 different masters from Pieter van Aertsen to Rogier van der Weiden are visible and made browsable by painter or subject and searchable by title. Biographies of the painters complete this part of the website.
This website is an excellent resource for theologians and linguists and interested general audience who want to study the text or linguistic features of this influential bible translation. Art historians will find the references to biblical themes in paintings useful.
These study notes on the Old Testament Book of Jonah look at the text from a primarily literary perspective. A section on Hebrew narrative defines the term and introduces some theoretical aspects of narrative in general. The issues discussed in this section are then applied to Jonah. The author provides short pages on the plot and structure of the story, the characters it involves, and several topics particular to the book. These include Jonah's questioning; the presence of ironic humour; generic considerations; and the historicity of the events described. Short commentaries are provided for each of the four chapters of the book.
The online PDF document "Studying the Greek Textual Tradition of John's Gospel: the Principio Project" provides three pages of information about research on John's Gospel, conducted by the Institut für Neutestamentliche Textforschung, Münster and the International Greek New Testament Project. Based at the University of Birmingham, the project has two aims, to establish manuscript groupings in the Gospel of John and to establish and analyse the textual history of the manuscripts. The project will also produce a critical edition of the Byzantine text of the Fourth Gospel with regard to specific textual interests of the orthodox churches. The project will work on producing transcriptions and plates of manuscripts and an "apparatus criticus" containing all variations of the extant materials. Textual manipulation will be facilitated by the use of Collate, an electronic encoding programme. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The Synoptic Gospels Primer has been designed for undergraduate students new to the synoptic problem. The website explains the various theories as to the literary relationship between the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke, and a possible common source. The traditional opinions of Papius, Clement, Jerome, Irenaeus, Origen, and Augustine are concisely summarised, along with the more modern hypotheses proposed by Weisse (the two-source theory), Griesbach, and Farrer. The site includes a number of sample synopses that compare the gospels side-by-side, with colour coding indicating variations and parallels between texts. Links are provided to other sites concerned with the synoptic question, and to essays supporting or critiquing one or more of the common hypotheses. The English translation of the Gospels used on the site is the Revised Standard Version, with some emendations to make the texts as 'literal' as possible. Parts of the site require Greek fonts, which may be downloaded for free. This is a clear, well-structured resource that provides an excellent introduction to its subject.
Joel Kalvesmaki's 'Table of Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament' is a welcome online work tool for those who want to trace the exact place of all Old Testament passages referred to throughout the New Testament. This website, consisting of a single page in the form of a three-column chart, provides the New Testament verse, the Septuagint version and the Masoretic text, all in English translation. It does not intend to discuss any linguistic ambiguities in the Greek or Hebrew nor does it seek to offer an analysis of the discrepancies in the translations displayed. The author makes it clear that this is purely a basic guide intended for those with no Greek, but as such, it performs a useful function.
TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism (ISSN 1089-7747) is a peer reviewed electronic journal that publishes scholarly articles, project reports and book reviews relating to the study of the Jewish and Christian biblical texts. All contents, beginning from the first volume which was published in 1996, are freely available from here. The home page contains details about its submission policy and other TC projects. Links to other Internet resources dealing with textual criticism are also provided. The journal is sponsored by the Society of Biblical Literature and edited by James R. Adair of the Baptist University of the Americas.
Theologica is a lively discussion and blogging site, focused on Christian theology. The most active part of the site is the forum, which features threads on a range of topics, including conversations about points of doctrine and church practice. Users who locate themselves within the historic Christian tradition are also invited to create blogs, for longer, more reflective pieces. Thirdly, the groups section allows individuals with an interest in a particular topic to congregate for discussion. This is not primarily an academic site, but it does offer an interesting range of perspectives on a wide variety of theological topics.
Theology on the Web is an online portal which serves as the entry point to a collection of interlinked websites providing bibliographic suggestions for students of Christian theology. The sites are primarily designed for those training for or in ministry, but are broad enough to also be of use to others. The main topics covered are: biblical studies; theological studies; the early church; the medieval church; and missiology (to be launched in 2010). Within each section the references are arranged thematically, with a wide range of sub-headings, including: applied theology; philosophy; Old Testament; New Testament; doctrine and practice; heresies and sects; and history. A significant quantity of material is hosted on the sites themselves; there are also links to works elsewhere on the Web, and details of print resources.
The TITUS (Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien) project Web page is a multilingual online text retrieval system for Indo-European languages. The project started in 1987 with the creation of a digital collection in ancient Indo-European languages. The site contains texts in the following language families: Vedic; Sanskrit; Middle and Modern Indic; Old, middle, and modern Iranian; Anatolian; Tocharian; Armenian; Baltic; Slavic; Germanic; Greek; Italic; Celtic; Caucasian; Uralic; Proto-Cretan; Semitic; and Dravidic. Some material needs special software which is freely available from the site. The site also makes available: teaching material, such as detailed language maps and audio materials; news related to the area of study; the FAQ section; information about jobs in this area of research; an events diary; links to external related projects and institutions; Indo-European courses, mainly in Germany and in Austria; and a bibliography. Technical information, such as Unicode documentation and relevant software, is also available from the site. A number of the texts may be of interest to scholars of religion, including a selection of Buddhist and Hindu works, Avestan (Zoroastrian) texts, and multiple Bible versions, including the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Old Testament.) The user should note that the site uses split frames, which can sometimes complicate its navigation.
The British Library website's Treasures in Full feature offers two digitised copies of the Gutenberg Bible, the first major book printed in the West using movable metal type (ca. 1454-1455). The site offers images of each page of the British Library's two copies of the Gutenberg Bible - one on paper, the other on vellum - which can be compared side by side. Information on the history and background of Johann Gutenberg and the printing of the Bible is also available, along with further reading suggestions, and a small number of links to relevant external resources. The British Library has collaborated with researchers from Keio University in Japan to provide these electronic versions to improve access to scholars around the world. It is hoped that this will result in less wear and tear on the originals.
The Tyndale Society is dedicated to the biblical translator and Reformation theologian William Tyndale (1495?-1536). The Society's website provides information about the organisation's aims and events, especially the conferences, lectures and social activities which it organises. Helpfully for the historian and student of theology or religious studies, the site provides a search facility for the Tyndale Society and Reformation journals; and for the complete text of the Wycliffe Bible. This beautifully-designed site is divided into sections on: events; Tyndale's genealogy; links; membership details; publications; and an introduction to Tyndale's life and work. A distinguished panel of trustees and editors ensures the quality of material contained in the site.
The website Vetus Latina: Resources for the Study of the Old Latin Bible details a project carrying out research into the first translations into Latin of the Bible, made prior to the 4th century - that is, those which preceded St Jerome's Vulgate. These translations were known as the "Old Latin" or "Vetus Latina". The website aims to be a tool for those studying the early church and the history of the Bible: the Vetus Latina cast light on lost Greek versions of the New Testament, and are of great significance to the study of the early church. Information is available on published editions of the Vetus Latina. Also available are listings of Old Latin Bible manuscripts, complete with images.
Additionally, the website gives details of the Verbum Project, on the Old Latin translation of the Gospel of St John. A list of links to related online resources is also provided. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
VulSearch 4 is a freely available open source software program which enables the viewing of the Clementine edition (i.e. the version formally approved for use in the Catholic Church in 1598, during the pontificate of Clement VIII) of the Latin Vulgate Bible alongside the Douay-Rheims translation. It is made available for download as part of Michael Tweedale's Clementine text project, which also offers a searchable online version of the Latin text. The VulSearch program includes a search facility, bookmarking, and also a Latin dictionary. Other texts, including the Stuttgart edition of the Vulgate, are also available for downloading. The website also offers information on the digitisation process, including details of the base text from which the digital text has been derived, and the overall editing and proof-reading process. The resource can also be downloaded in XML format from the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) website.
One of the treasures of the National Library of Wales, William Morgan's 1588 Welsh-language Bible has been made available online. This website explains the circumstances behind the translation and publication of the Bible, presents images of each page, and provides a biography of its translator, Bishop William Morgan (Prys Morgan). The Bible itself is a folio volume and includes the apocrypha. It was intended for church use rather than private study. The site includes an English translation of the dedication to the Bible. However, the images of the Bible are large and may take some time to load over a slow Internet connection. Furthermore, the Bible may be browsed by book and chapter, but is not searchable. Overall, this is a well-presented and informative resource that will be of interest to those studying the history of religion in Wales.
The William Tyndale Home Page is a website devoted to the 16th century Protestant reformer and scholar who was responsible for one of the first translations of the Bible into English. The site offers an overview of the life and work of Tyndale, including his clashes with the religious establishment of the day (who did not favour a vernacular Bible translation), which eventually led to his death. There are also excerpts from various relevant primary source texts, including sections from Tyndale's own works, from Foxe's Book of Martyrs, and from J. C. Ryle's book Five English Reformers. A timeline helps set the events of Tyndale's life in context, although users should be wary of relying too heavily on this, as it contains one or two errors. The site provides a useful introduction to Tyndale, and is generally well-presented - though some users may prefer to mute the accompanying midi file.
'Zechariah and Jewish Renewal' offers a verse by verse translation and commentary on the book of Zechariah. While the level of detail makes this a potentially useful resource, readers should note that the author of this commentary takes a very specific theological standpoint. As the author states in his introduction, the approach taken here is one of strong belief in the prophetic (Christological) nature of the book. The site concludes with seven chapters on the historical background to the Zechariah commentary and on the significance the author (a Christian) believes Zechariah's prophecy might have for the development of Judaism.