'A Defence of Free-Thinking in Mathematics' is an e-text version of a reply by the eighteenth century empiricist philosopher George Berkeley, originally published in 1735, to various criticisms that had been made of his earlier tract in the philosophy of mathematics, 'The Analyst'. Berkeley (1685-1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley, is most famous for 'A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge', and 'Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous'. In 'The Analyst', he argued that much of the mathematical reasoning of his day was conducive to anti-Christian practice and thought. In particular, he was keen to argue against the notion of fluxions (fluxion: the velocity of the motion that produces lines, planes, and solids). 'The Analyst' spawned a number of replies from mathematicians at the time, and in 'A Defence of Free-Thinking in Mathematics', Berkeley responds to two of them: the main body of the text tackles issues raised by James Jurin (writing as Philalethes Cantabrigiensis) in 'Geometry no friend to Infidelity', whilst the appendix contains a short reply to J. Walton's 'Vindication of Sir Isaac Newton's Principles of Fluxions'. The resource is available in 4 formats (HTML, PDF, DVI, and PostScript). The work is presented in plain text, and there are no hyperlinks within the text itself. However, the site does provide hyperlinks to e-text versions of 'The Analyst', 'Geometry no friend to Infidelity', and Berkeley's further reply to Walton, 'Reasons for not replying to Mr. Walton's Full Answer'. It also includes links to: a biography of George Berkeley; pamphlets on 'The Analyst Controversy'; and the 'History of Mathematics' website.
For those eager to locate electronic versions of major English and American literary or Western philosophical works, a good place to look is the Alex Catalogue of Electronic Texts. Developed by Eric Morgan (North Carolina State University), the catalogue is a substantial search engine offering access to writings from over 100 different western authors, primarily from the seventeenth to twentieth centuries, but with a few Aristotelian and Augustinian works thrown in for good measure. Alex has a collection development policy which in summary defines its scope as public domain texts (available in complete form), written in English, relevant to English, American Literature or Western Philosophy, and classed as great literature. On the last point the editor is guided by the inclusion of the work within such reference works as the Oxford Companions or the Norton Anthologies. Alex contains about 140 MB of texts (the actual number of distinct works is not easily available). The selection of works is eclectic at best, but it is difficult to imagine undergraduate students not encountering a sizeable portion of these authors during their academic careers. The catalogue itself may be searched by author and/or title, date, keyword, and whole volumes (which can often be very large) instantly read. Texts can be selected, built into corpora, and then further searched. Results are in the form of records which give details about the original publication date, any subsequent copyright date, subject keywords, and its location (both original and archive locations). Morgan has also gone out of his way to include additional features that make the texts more functional and portable. A number of the works are accompanied by an electronic concordance that will be welcomed by anyone trying to locate a particular theme or sentence. It is also possible to add the text to a personalised online bookshelf; create transferable PDF-files; or even configure files to read on Palm-based PDAs (Personal Data Assistants).
American Philosophy is a subsite of The Radical Academy, a privately-maintained online platform for those with a general interest in philosophy. This site will best serve students, teachers and undergraduates who are focussing on American thought from the colonial period to World War II. The site posts short explanatory and introductory essays for various themes and periods, and sourced from a variety of texts. These essays have links embedded within them to explain further the lives of philosophers and their ideas. The site also provides primary texts online, with the foundational documents of different streams of American Philosophy classified under different headings. Among these are: American Political Philosophy; the American divines (from the Puritan, Calvinist, Quaker and Anglican traditions); the Founding Fathers, with a focus on Enlightenment influences; America's Coming of Age, featuring the figures who grappled with the abolition of slavery and early civil rights debates; American Transcendentalism; Late 19th Century thinkers; Idealism in America; American Pragmatism; and Recent American Thought. Navigation of these sources is clear and straightforward. However, there is no immediate bibliography for the site, which would have been useful.
An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision (4th ed.) is an e-text version of the classic work by the 18th century Irish empiricist philosopher George Berkeley. (Berkeley's most famous works are A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, and Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous). The Essay was first published in 1709, with further editions published later in 1732. Whilst of seminal importance in the history of psychology, the Essay is also a key text in the study of Berkeley's philosophy. Much of the Essay takes the form of philosophical argument, and Berkeley in this work introduces his theses that the things we genuinely perceive by sight do not exist beyond the mind, and that the things we perceive by sight differ in kind from the things we perceive by touch. Berkeley here also investigates the perceptual processes involved in our apprehension by sight of objects at a distance. He rejects the received view of his day, and presents an alternative theory (that we learn by experience to associate certain cues within our 'flat' visual field with tactual experiences of objects existing at a distance from us). Berkeley's theory in turn became the received view in psychology for at least 150 years after the first publication of the Essay. The e-text version itself is presented in plain type, without hyperlink facilities, and it is not stated whether the text is taken from an original copy of the 4th edition, or from a more recent preparation.
'The Analyst' is an e-text version of the work of the same name by the eighteenth century philosopher George Berkeley (1685-1753, also known as Bishop Berkeley), which was his main foray into the philosophy of mathematics. Berkeley's principal works were A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, and Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous, and he is most famous for his doctrine of immaterialism (immaterialism: the theory in metaphysics that only minds and the ideas they perceive exist). However, he had his fingers in many pies, and with The Analyst he deals specifically, yet philosophically, with issues in mathematics. In particular, he argues against the notion of fluxions (fluxion: the velocity of the motion that produces a line, plane, or solid), which notion propped up a great deal of mathematical theory in Berkeley's day. The Analyst is addressed to, and is an attack on the thinking of, a certain 'infidel mathematician', identified in the first major biography of Berkeley (Joseph Stock's An Account of the Life of George Berkeley (1776)) as one Edmond Halley. The Analyst also spawned a number of replies from mathematicians of the time, some of which Berkeley replied to in turn. There are hyperlinks from the resource's home page to e-text versions of several of these replies and rejoinders. The e-text itself is available in 3 formats (HTML, PDF, and PostScript).
Animus: The Canadian Journal of Philosophy and Humanities is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal which focuses on Western philosophy. It is edited by a team of 5 editors namely Ken Jacobsen, David Peddle, Neil Robertson, Kenneth Kierans and Eli Diamond. This homepage enables free access to all pieces featured in the journal since the first volume was published in 1996. Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to access them but this can be downloaded from the site. Each volume of the journal supports a particular theme. Previous themes include: Postmodernism; Modernity; Hegel; Philosophy and Freedom; Political Institutions; War; and the Modern State. The site also contains guidelines for contributors and a search engine. The resource will appeal to anyone working in philosophy or literary theory.
The Antichrist is an e-text version of H.L. Mencken's 1920 English translation of the book of the same name by Friedrich Nietzsche. The resource is part of the Friedrich Nietzsche Society website, an extensive resource for Nietzsche scholars. Nietzsche himself (1844-1900) was a German philosopher, a radical thinker both in terms of his style and in terms of the content of his philosophy. Among other things, he criticised the traditional ways in which human beings come to form and justify the cultural beliefs they hold (especially our moral, religious and philosophical beliefs). In "The Antichrist", written in 1888, Nietzsche attacks the institution of Christianity and the value system that is its legacy. He also advocates the Dionysian tradition (the side of human nature characterised by creation and change, which Nietzsche names after the Greek god Dionysus) in art. The text itself is presented as a single page, though it does feature hyperlinks to the footnotes.
'Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694)' is a resource that provides information about the life and works of the 17th century French philosopher, Antoine Arnauld. The site's webmaster and editor is Bill Uzgalis, a professor of philosophy at Oregon State University, USA. He prepared the resource both for a past university course, and for anyone in general with an interest in the subject matter, and it forms part of Uzgalis' more general website 'Great Voyages: The History of Western Philosophy from 1492 to 1776'. Arnauld himself is best known as a forceful critic of other philosophers such as Descartes, Malebranche and Leibniz. The site provides an overview of Arnauld's life and works, a sourced timeline detailing important biographical and professional events in Arnauld's life, a brief bibliography, and a partly annotated list of secondary literature recommended by Uzgalis. This last is called 'The Captain's Choice', following the metaphor of a sea journey around the waters of the history of Western philosophy from 1492-1776, introduced on the resource's mother site. The resource is well laid-out and there is hyperlinked access to the pages covering related philosophers elsewhere within the 'Great Voyages' website.
This is the website of the Association des Amis de Spinoza - a French organisation dedicated to furthering research on Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), and promoting communication between French scholars and others. The site contains information about recent publications, editions and translations on and by Spinoza, as well as details of conferences and colloquia (the Society's own as well as others), and other organisations concerned with Spinoza. The Society works with the Groupe de Recherches Spinozistes to produce the Bulletin Bibliographie Spinozistes, details and archived copies of which are also available on the site. The language of the site is French, though links to conference information and external sites may be in other languages.
'Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677)' is a resource that provides useful introductory information about the life and works of the 17th century Dutch philosopher Benedict de Spinoza (also known as Baruch de Spinoza, or simply Benedict/Baruch Spinoza). The site's webmaster and editor is Bill Uzgalis, a professor of philosophy at Oregon State University, and this forms part of his more general website 'Great Voyages: The History of Western Philosophy From 1492 to 1776'. Spinoza's philosophy itself has been subject to various interpretations, although he is perhaps best known for identifying God with nature, and in doing so arguing that there is only one type of substance. His arguments to this end can be found in his most famous publication (albeit a posthumous one), his 'Ethics'. The site is split into the following parts: an overview of Spinoza's life and works; a sourced timeline detailing important biographical and professional events in Spinoza's life (including hyperlinked access to an e-text version of the declaration of Spinoza's excommunication from the Jewish faith in 1656); an unannotated bibliography of Spinoza's works (including hyperlinked access to an e-text version of Spinoza's 'On the Improvement of the Understanding' hosted by the site); and linked access to other Spinoza resources hosted elsewhere on the Web.
Benedictus de Spinoza, the Dutch seventeenth century philosopher, is the subject of this website by the Library of the University of Amsterdam. The resource details information about Spinoza's life and major works, special collections in Dutch libraries, bibliographies, details of the Spinoza House Association, and a list of further Internet resources which includes links to electronic versions of some of his works. Information about the library's own substantial Spinoza collection can also be obtained from here. The site is available in English and Dutch.
'Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)' is a resource that provides useful introductory information about the life and works of the 17th century French scientist, mathematician, theologian and philosopher Blaise Pascal. The site's webmaster and editor is Bill Uzgalis, a professor of philosophy at Oregon State University, and this forms part of his more general website 'Great Voyages: the History of Western Philosophy from 1492 to 1776'. Philosophically speaking, Pascal was in general a sceptic (one who holds that we have no better reason to believe a proposition than to believe its contrary, and thus we should suspend judgement on the matter). However, he famously proposed 'Pascal's Wager', according to which, although there is no other rational justification for belief in God, we would be wise to accept his existence, since the rewards involved if we are right here far outweigh the penalties if we are wrong. Pascal's best known philosophical work is his 'Pensees'. The site provides an overview of Pascal's life, a sourced timeline detailing important biographical and professional events in Pascal's life, and an unannotated bibliography of Pascal's works. There is also access from the site to e-text versions of Pascal's 'Pensees' and 'Provincial letters', as well as to other relevant pages held elsewhere on the the 'Great Voyages' site.
The Cornell University Library Historical Monographs Collection website provides free access to facsimiles of over 400 historical monographs. A number are of interest to those working in ancient and modern history of philosophy. These include English translations of: Aristotle's (384-322 BCE) On Youth and Old Age, Life and Death, and Respiration; The Science of Ethics as Based on the Science of Knowledge, by Johann Fichte (1762-1814); The Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, and On the Will in Nature, by Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860); The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte (1798-1857) in three volumes; and Otto Weininger's (1880-1903) Sex and Character. There is also a facsimile of Moses Maimonides' (1135-1204) Moreh Nevukhim (Guide for the Perplexed), translated into Hebrew. As this is an historical archive, the translations and texts should not be treated as definitive or up-to-date (the Comte, for instance, is recorded as being 'freely translated' and condensed by the author Harriet Martineau); the site is primarily of historical philosophical interest. The database may be browsed or searched by author/title.
This website, which is made available by the Centre for Editing Lives and Letters, Queen Mary, University of London, is the home page of the Francis Bacon Correspondence Project. The aim of this project is to produce a new critical edition of the correspondence of the natural philosopher and politican Francis Bacon, Viscount St Alban (1561-1626). This edition will be published as part of the new Oxford edition of Bacon's works, which is supported by the British Academy. The site includes information about the project, and two papers available as PDF files: "The Design of the Francis Bacon Correspondence Project Database"; and "The Editing of Francis Bacon as a Man of all Parties". The site also makes available a calendar of Bacon's correspondence, including some 200 letters that have not previously been published. These have been located through an initial census of library and archival holdings carried out as part of the project. The catalogue can be browsed as a chronological list of letters, or using the alphabetical index of correspondents. It can also be searched by name. Each entry contains information in the following fields: date; author; recipient; first line; summary; manuscript reference; and references to printed versions of the letter. This material will be of great value to researchers working on Bacon or on the intellectual world of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, especially as it collects material that has previously been scattered.
The David Hume website provides free access to scholarly online editions of works by or about the Scottish philosopher David Hume. At the time of review, three texts were available: A Treatise of Human Nature; the Abstract of the Treatise; and An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. These are accompanied by notes on the editions used and on how the texts have been prepared for online use. The site is still under development, and there are plans to expand the collection to include other texts in the future. The project is directed by the Hume scholar Peter Millican, who also offers a selection of secondary resources on Hume: an extensive annotated bibliography (this was compiled in 2000, so may not include the most recent works), and a collection of talks and papers, some accompanied by slides. Finally, the website offers links to further versions of Hume's works available online, and to other online papers about him. This is a well presented website which should prove a valuable resource to students and researchers alike.
'David Hume (1711-1776)' is a resource that provides useful introductory information about the life and work of the eighteenth-century Scottish philosopher David Hume. The site's webmaster and editor is Bill Uzgalis, a professor of philosophy at Oregon State University, USA. He prepared the resource both for a past university course, and for anyone in general with an interest in the subject matter, and it forms part of Uzgalis' more general site 'Great Voyages: The History of Western Philosophy from 1492-1776'. Hume himself was a leading figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, and wrote widely in history, politics and economics, as well as in philosophy. His main themes include the centrality of the human mind in our understanding of our world and the limits this imposes on what we can and cannot know about the world, and his view that our belief in necessary causal connections between events is not warranted by a mere observation of the world around us. The resource contains a brief overview of Hume's life and work, a useful sourced timeline of important biographical and professional events in Hume's life and an unannotated bibliography. Although links are provided to Hume websites hosted elsewhere on the net, these sites were not in operation at the time this record was reviewed.
This website provides the online texts of three major works by the philosopher David Hume (1711-1776). This being part of the Internet Infidels website, the works chosen are those in which Hume's ideas on God and religion are most prominent. The Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1748) is the first of the three, followed by the Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1779), and Essays On Suicide And The Immortality Of The Soul (1783). The online version of the Enquiry does not state the copy text upon which it is based, but the others do give edition details. Each work is displayed on a single page. The main Web page also provides links to information on Hume in the 'Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'.
'Descartes' Meditations' is a tri-lingual (English, French and Latin) online publication of 'Meditations on First Philosophy' by Rene Descartes. It is edited by David B. Manley and Charles S. Taylor. The edition uses the John Veitch English Translation of 1901, the Original Latin Text of 1641 and the Duc de Luynes French Translation of 1647. The resource also has a brief introduction by the editors, explaining the arrangement and format of the edition. The editors have put this resource online for the use of interested Descartes scholars. They express an interest in seeing what particular functions it will serve for those in the field. Each paragraph has been numbered using the paragraph divisions of the original Latin text. There are also links at the end of each paragraph, allowing the reader to switch between the Latin, English and French versions, while keeping his/her place in the text. This page will be of use to any Descartes scholar, but especially to those interested in a deep textual analysis of the various editions. The site is quick, uncluttered and easily navigated via links placed at appropriate positions around the page.
'Diotima: A Philosophical Review' is an online philosophical journal that is published biannually by the Department of Philosophy at the College of the Holy Cross at Worcester, Massachusetts. The journal contains essays, reviews, poems, and dialogues on an extensive range of topics. The subject content is predominantly quite general in nature and is thus designed to be of interest to the educated non-specialist. This homepage contains the full contents of two issues, one published in 2000, the other in 2001. Unfortunately the site does not seem to have been updated since 2001. Hence although it has also included a number of links (e.g. to events and other journals and resources on philosophy), a number of these can no longer be accessed.
The philosophy section of EServer.org is an impressive collection of online electronic texts of some major philosophical works, both ancient and modern. Plato is particularly well-represented, with many of his dialogues, as well as longer writings such as 'The Republic', freely available. A considerable number of texts by Immanual Kant, David Hume and Aristotle are also featured. Most texts are in English, though there are a couple by Rene Descartes and Jacques Derrida in the original French. Other philosophers for whom one or more works can be found include: Epictetus; Gottfried Leibniz; George Berkeley; Francis Bacon; Blaise Pascal; Henri Rousseau; and Friedrich Nietzsche. There are also a handful of links to other sites concerning particular philosophers, philosophical movements, and philosophy organizations. In general. the site is clearly laid out and very easy to use and would be useful to philosophy scholars in general and those researching French and German philosophy in particular. At the time of reviewing, most but not all links to texts were functioning.
This is a basic plain text version of Spinoza's 'Ethics' translated into English by R. H. M. Elwes. Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677), also known as Baruch Spinoza, was one of the great rationalist philosophers of the 17th century, and his 'Ethics' is his most famous and influential work. The text is divided into five parts, each part on its own Web page. The only problem with this is that searching the text for particular words or phrases is more time consuming than if the text were in just one file. This is a very basic site, with no search engine.
'The European Enlightenment' is designed as a student introduction to the key events and intellectual developments in European history during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Beginning with a discussion of what exactly the enlightenment was and when it could reasonably be said to have begun, the site moves on to examine a number of relevant topics. Many of these topics are discussed in some detail. There are pages on: English seventeenth-century history (including the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, The Restoration, and the 'Glorious Revolution'); seventeenth-century enlightenment thought (Hobbes, Locke, and Spinoza); there are separate pages on Descartes, Rousseau, and Pascal; a page on the Scientific Revolution (Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton); eighteenth-century social developments; the French and British 'Philosophes' (Rousseau, Voltaire, Diderot, Montesquieu, Hume, Adam Smith, Edward Gibbon). There are also pages on the position of women within society, notions of absolute monarchy, and on the early stages of the industrial revolution. The site also features a selection of resources to assist students. These include a gallery of famous paintings from the period, a reader, a glossary of terms, and a list of links to other sites. The enlightenment reader reproduces excerpts from texts by Descartes, John Milton, Rousseau, Voltaire, and Adam Smith. All texts are in English. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is one of the more comprehensive units in the series. It is targeted primarily at first year undergraduate students.
These Web pages about the German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) chart the progress towards producing a complete scholarly edition of his works, unpublished writings, and correspondence. The Commission for the Publication of Fichte's Writings also intends to issue a separate series of lecture notes taken by Fichte's students, and a volume of contemporary accounts of the philosopher. Fichte, following Kant, developed his own system of transcendental idealism. He named this system "Wissenschaftslehre", which translates approximately to "Doctrine of Science". The website's section on the Commission keeps users abreast of the publication schedule for the works. The contents lists of recent volumes are provided along with release dates when confirmed. A link to the Bavarian Academy of Sciences Edition of the Complete Works of J.G. Fichte provides extensive details on all volumes currently published. Contact details of the editors are provided. The site is available in English and German.
Foundations of Political Theory is a specialist section of the American Political Science Association (APSA). This website outlines the purpose of the organization and its bylaws, and offers links to a number of online resources useful for the study of political theory. These include: journals and texts; newsletters; and course syllabi (although quite a number of the links were not active at the time of review). Access is also given to the home pages of organizations and research institutes. Details of forthcoming conferences, events and job vacancies are also provided, but the site does not appear to be regularly updated. The organization is chaired by Michael Gibbons of the University of South Florida.
The Frans Hemsterhuis (1721-1790) website, prepared by the philosophy reference librarian at the University of Groningen, provides information about the life and work of this 18th-century Dutch philosopher. The site gives a brief biographical sketch, and an overview of Hemsterhuis's philosophical thought, which focused on human beings and the relationships they have with their environment. The feature of the site which is likely to be of most interest to serious scholars, however, is the selection of Hemsterhuis's writings. These are taken from a French edition of his works (users should note that no English translation is offered), and are provided as PDF documents.
"Zur Genealogie der Moral" is an e-text version of the book of the same name, first published in 1887 by the 19th-century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). Known in English as "On the Genealogy of Morals", the e-text is in the original German. The resource is maintained by Ian Johnston, an associate researcher at Malaspina University-College, Canada, and it forms part of his general webpage "Johnstonia". Nietzsche himself was a radical thinker both in terms of his style and the content of his philosophy. "Zur Genealogie der Moral" sees Nietzsche examining how moral codes are born and develop, and he launches a fervent attack on what he sees as the negative cultural forces at play behind the central concepts involved in Judaeo-Christian morality. The resource is clearly presented, and there are hyperlinked shortcuts to the different chapters. The site would be of use to anyone wanting to access an online edition of this book in the original German, and Ian Johnston's home page, linked at the bottom of the Prologue to the Genealogie, also contains an English translation of the text by Johnston himself.
G. W. Leibniz: An Universal Philosopher [sic] is an extensive online guide to Web resources about the 17th century rationalist philosopher, mathematician, and polymath. A large collection of lightly annotated links is arranged into categories for ease of browsing; sections include: life and works; texts; research; books; articles; and bibliographies. There is also a section providing access to the work of the site's author, Markku Roinila, a researcher at the University of Helsinki. The site itself is in English, but links are included to resources in a number of other languages. This resource is easily navigable, although the chosen colour combination (yellow text on a black background) is not always particularly easy to read. As is perhaps almost inevitable for a work of this scope, there are some broken links, but this is nevertheless a useful website for anyone seeking information about this thinker.
'Geometry No Friend to Infidelity' is an e-text version of a book by James Jurin, first published in 1734, that was written in reply to The Analyst, a tract in the philosophy of mathematics by the eighteenth century empiricist philosopher George Berkeley (1685-1753). The e-text is based on the original 1734 publication of the print text of The Analyst. Jurin, a Cambridge mathematician of Berkeley's day, and who writes here under the pseudonym Philalethes Cantabrigiensis, takes particular exception to two strands of thought presented in The Analyst. The first is Berkeley's assertion that the mathematics of the day were conducive to anti-Christian beliefs and practices. The second is Berkeley's attack on the notion of fluxions (fluxion: the velocity of the motion that produces lines, planes, or solids), which notion propped up much mathematical theory at the time. The resource is available in 3 formats (PDF, DVI, and PostScript). It is presented in plain text, and there are no hyperlinks within the text itself. The site does, however, provide hyperlinks to e-text versions of both The Analyst, and A Defence of Free-thinking in Mathematics. The latter was Berkeley's own subsequent reply to Jurin.
This is a list of electronic resources on the life and works of Bishop George Berkeley (1685-1753), compiled by mathematician David Wilkins. There is a selection of both short and long biographies of Berkeley, and links to complete versions of Berkeley's texts, a number of which Wilkins has prepared himself for electronic distribution. There is also a separate section on the Analyst controversy -- Berkeley's attack on the method of mathematical analysis employed by Isaac Newton (1643-1727) and others. The original attack, plus various responses and counter-responses to it are all made available here, along with brief introductory comments that situate the writings in the context of the debate. This site is notable in its inclusion of important works by Berkeley, which are here often made available in different editions where they exist, and in a variety of electronic formats. Editions and versions used are clearly indicated, and the site is easy to navigate.
'George Berkeley (1685-1753)' is a useful resource that provides information about, and access to a small number of e-text copies of works by the 18th-century Irish philosopher George Berkeley (also known as Bishop Berkeley). The webmaster and editor of the site is Bill Uzgalis, a professor of philosophy at Oregon State University. He prepared the resource both for a past university course and for anyone in general with an interest in the subject matter, and it forms part of Uzgalis' 'Great Voyages: The History of Western Philosophy from 1492-1776' site. Berkeley himself was an empiricist philosopher (empiricism: the theory that all our knowledge derives ultimately from sense experience), and is famous for his doctrine of idealism (idealism: the theory that the only things that exist are minds and the ideas they have). His most important works are A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, and Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. The site is split into the following parts: a brief overview of Berkeley's life and work; a sourced timeline of biographical and professional events in Berkeley's life; an annotated list of secondary literature recommended by Uzgalis (known as the 'Captain's choice', following the metaphor of a sea journey around the waters of the history of Western Philosophy from 1492-1776, that is introduced on the resource's mother site); and an unannotated list of Berkeley's works, along with hyperlinked access to an e-text version of A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, hosted by the site, as well as e-text versions of other Berkeley works available elsewhere on the net. There is also hyperlinked access to Uzgalis' commentary on the First Dialogue between Hylas and Philonous. The resource is attractive to the eye, and there are occasional graphics.
'George Berkeley: March 12, 1685 - January 14, 1753' is a website that contains two useful resources: a list of bibliographical citations of George Berkeley's original publications and of some subsequent posthumous collections of his works, and an e-text version of Berkeley's tract in economics 'The Querist'. George Berkeley himself was an 18th century empiricist philosopher. He is also known as Bishop Berkeley, and his major publications include 'A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge' and 'Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous'. 'The Querist', although of no direct philosophical interest in terms of its content (being in fact an important tract in the history of economics), does provide an insight into Berkeley's character, giving evidence as it does of his care and concern for the welfare of others. The work is presented in the form of numbered rhetorical questions ('queries'), intended as food for thought in the pursuit of improving the economic wealth of nations. Both parts of the website are presented in plain text, and there are no hyperlinks with the text itself. The site does provide hyperlinked access to the International Berkeley Society website.
'George Berkeley and Samuel Johnson: Correspondence' is a Web page offering an etext version of four letters, philosophical in content, exchanged in 1729-30 between the 18th century empiricist philosopher George Berkeley, and the American clergyman and philosopher Samuel Johnson (who should not be confused with the British Dr Johnson, compiler of the first English Dictionary). In the letters, Johnson raises a number of queries and objections regarding Berkeley's immaterialism (that is, the theory in metaphysics that only minds and the ideas they have exist), to which Berkeley then attempts to reply. The page is simply presented, with the etexts in plain text, using a font that is comfortable to read. It is not stated which print publication of the correspondence the etexts are taken from.
'Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms' is an online glossary of the main terms and concepts employed by the 18th century German philosopher, Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). The resource is written and maintained by Stephen Palmquist, a professor in the Department of Religion and Philosophy at Hong Kong Baptist University, and was originally intended as a guide for students with little or no knowledge of Kant's work. The glossary itself is useful and informative, with simple explanations given for a wide range of Kantian terms and concepts from a number of his works. The entries are cross-referenced, and the resource is attractive to the eye. The site will be of most use, as intended, to undergraduate students new or fairly new to the writings of Kant. As with any attempt to offer succinct definitions of Kant's often arcane terminology, this resource should be treated as a guide to, rather than the definitive word on, the meanings discussed.
'Great Voyages: the History of Western Philosophy from 1492 to 1776' is a well-presented, extensive and very useful web resource that hosts amongst other things biographical information, primary texts and annotated bibliographical references concerning the philosophy and philosophers of the 16th-18th centuries. The site's webmaster and editor is Bill Uzgalis, a professor of philosophy at Oregon State University, USA. He prepared the resource both for a past university course and for anyone in general with an interest in the subject matter. Over thirty philosophers are covered, including Machiavelli; Gassendi; Descartes; Malebranche; Bayle; Rousseau; Bacon; Hobbes; Locke; Berkeley; Hume; Spinoza; Leibniz; and Kant. For each, Uzgalis provides a brief overview of the life and work of the philosopher, a sourced timeline, and often, links to e-texts of primary and secondary sources hosted both by the site itself and elsewhere, and annotated bibliographies of secondary material available off-line. The resource is attractive to the eye, and there are the occasional graphics. It is also extremely well-laid out and is easy to navigate, with extensive hyperlink facilities. This would be a useful website for undergraduates studying the history of modern western philosophy.
Groupe de Recherches Spinoziste is a French-language website devoted to the study of Spinoza. The Spinoza Research Group is based at the Centre d'Études en Rhétorique, Philosophie et Histoire des Idées (Centre for the Study of Rhetoric, Philosophy, and the History of Ideas) at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. The Dutch rationalist philosopher Spinoza (1632-1677) is best remembered for his reworkings of the basic tenets of Cartesianism. He attacked Cartesian dualism, arguing that mind and body are part of the same substance. The site contains an online catalogue of works by and about Spinoza; information about the publications of the group; details of publication projects concerned with Spinoza's texts; a seminar programme; and a text by the great Althusserian philosopher Pierre Macherey on Spinoza's Ethics.
This is the website of the Hegel Society of America, devoted to furthering the study of the philosophy of Georg Hegel (1770-1831) and Hegelianism. The greatest of the German Idealist philosophers, Hegel's dialectical thought has had a profound impact on European philosophy. The site contains a number of features: information on the Society; details of conferences; internet mailing lists; and an extensive set of links to other sites of interest. There is also information on The Owl of Minerva, the Society's prestigious journal, for which subscription and submission details are provided, along with an index of the content of past issues, dating back to 1969.
The website of the Hegel Society of Great Britain (HSGB) provides information about the organisation and its activities. The society is a forum for academics and graduate students interested in the work of the German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831), as well as the work of his predecessors and contemporaries, followers and critics. Founded in 1979 and now boasting over 200 members, the HSGB holds an annual conference and publishes on an annual basis a journal entitled the 'Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain', which features essays and book reviews relating to the life and work of Hegel and to the philosophical issues raised by German idealism. The society also publishes the proceedings of the conference. The site includes details of both the journal and the conference, and users can acquire information concerning the contents of individual journal issues, how to subscribe to the society, how to order sample and back issues, and conference registration details. In addition, there is a section for contributors to the journal, a membership directory, and a selection of links to other Hegel-related Web resources.
The History of (Modern) Ethics is a website maintained by Stephen Darwall, a professor of philosophy at Yale University. It considers moral philosophy from the period of the 17th century through to the end of the 19th century. The philosophers Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), Francis Hutcheson (1694-1746), Joseph Butler (1692-1752), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1788), and Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) are all discussed. This website provides access to extensive lecture notes, e-texts of relevant major works and links to other sites of similar interest. It is an excellent site and provides a good overview of the subject matter.
This is the home page of the Howard and Edna Hong Kierkegaard Library, a building that holds over 11,000 books and 3,500 journal articles by or about the nineteenth-century Danish philosopher and theologian Soren Kierkegaard, as well as related writers. The library is located at St Olaf College, USA. Kierkegaard himself (1813-1855) is best known as the founding father of the existentialist movement in contemporary philosophy (existentialism: broadly the doctrine that our thinking should proceed from the starting point of the realities of human existence as we encounter it, rather than from any other, more abstract consideration). His best known philosophical work is 'Fear and Trembling'. This website provides information about the library, its history, programs, collections, publications and staff, as well as a page of information on the life and work of Kierkegaard himself. Visitors can access their newsletters without charge. There are also hyperlinks to other Kierkegaard resources hosted elsewhere on the web. The curator of the library is Gordon Marino.
'The Hume Society' is the home page of the organisation of the same name whose stated aim is to encourage research into the work of the eighteenth century Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776). Hume was a leading figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, and wrote widely in history, politics, and economics, as well as in philosophy. His most famous philosophical works are 'A Treatise of Human Nature', and 'An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding'. His main themes include the centrality of the human mind in our understanding of our world and the limits this imposes on what we can and cannot know about the world, and his view that our belief in necessary causal connections between events is not warranted by a mere observation of the world around us. The site provides the schedules and calls for papers for forthcoming conferences to be held by the society, as well as summary details of past conferences. There are also links to details held elsewhere on the Internet of conferences not held by the society but that nonetheless may be of interest to its members. Further, the resource provides information on various sessions of the Canadian and American Philosophical Associations. Elsewhere on the site there is an archive of the Hume Society Bulletin, and a hyperlink to the Web page of 'Hume Studies' (the academic journal published by the society), as well as to other sites of interest to Hume scholars. Finally, there is a brief description of the Hume Society's aims and objectives, news about members, the facility to join online, a special page accessible only to members, and details of the society's executive committee. The resource is searchable by a provided in-house search engine.
'Images of Berkeley' is a website that displays a number of annotated images of, and poems by, the eighteenth century Irish philosopher George Berkeley, along with images of people and places associated with him. The resource forms part of the webpage of David Hilbert, an associate professor of philosophy at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Berkeley himself (1685-1753) is well-known for his doctrine of idealism (viz. that the only metaphysically real entities are minds and the ideas they enjoy; there are no mind-independent material objects). His most widely read publications are 'A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge' and 'Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous'. The resource would be primarily of interest for scholars interested in the biography of Berkeley, or perhaps lecturers seeking illustrations. A brief description of Berkeley's life and works, taken from Hilbert and Perry's edition of 'Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous', is also provided.
This website contains the full text, translated into English, of the Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven, by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). The 18th century German philosopher is best known for the Critique of Pure Reason, a founding text in modern philosophy. The text of Universal Natural History is provided with an number of section abstracts that summarise the contents. The site also carries a German version, and both texts can be downloaded. The translation is by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, British Columbia. The resource can also be downloaded from the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)).
'Immanuel Kant in Italia' is a mostly Italian-language website devoted to the 18th century German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is, arguably, the foundation of modern philosophy, and his Critique of Judgement, and Critique of Practical Reason still resonate with thinkers today. The primary purpose of the website is to provide information about Kantian philosophy in Italy. The site is divided into a number of sections: there is a brief outline of Kant's life; bibliographies in German and Italian; information about Kant's reading; a bibliography of studies of Kant's work; and a section concerning Kant's debt to Italian culture and writers (albeit incomplete and not very informative). There is also information on conferences and events - but at the time this record was reviewed, this section does not seem to have been updated for some time. The site is text-based and fast loading.
This site offers an online edition of Immanuel Kant's (1724-1804) great philosophical work, Critique of Pure Reason. This version is based on the 1929 English translation by Norman Kemp Smith, who produced a parallel edition of both of the original two editions of the work, published in 1781 and 1787. The online version was prepared by Hong Kong Baptist University and the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Tables of contents from the 1781 and 1787 editions are both listed. From there, site visitors can click on hyperlinks to the section of the text which they wish to read. Parts of the site, for example the Kant Gallery, are not available to the public. Navigation of the site can be a bit haphazard due to the use of frames.
'Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy' (ISSN: 1502-3923) came into being in 1958 and has since published articles on all areas of philosophy. The site includes instructions for authors, pricing details, and subscription information. It contains the table of contents of all issues published since 1958, many of which come with abstracts. A full-text sample issue is also available, although free user registration is required to view this. Articles featured include: 'Winch on moral dilemmas and moral modality'; 'Metaphysics and morality'; 'Rorty on religion and hope'; 'Foucault and ethical universality'; 'Modernity and morality in Habermas' discourse ethics'; and 'The perspectival nature of probability and inference'. The journal is published 6 times a year by Routledge and it is edited by Professor Wayne Martin of the University of Essex.
The Digital Texts Project website of the Institute for Learning Technologies (ILT), based at Columbia University, offers free full-text editions of many classic philosophical works in English. Texts available include: Aristotle's 'Nicomachean Ethics'; Plato's 'Meno'; 'Crito'; 'Protagoras'; 'Phaedrus'; 'Gorgias'; 'Ion'; 'Symposium'; 'Phaedo'; and 'Republic'; John Dewey's 'Democracy and Education'; John Locke's 'An Essay Concerning Human Understanding'; and Machiavelli's 'The Prince'. There are also texts by George Berkeley, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, David Hume, and Virgil, amongst others. Brief biographic sketch of authors are also provided, plus links to other major sites with digital texts available. However, it should be noted that this site is still a work in progress: texts are not yet available for all the authors listed on the home page, and some of those which are available are only in plain text format (HTML versions are said to be forthcoming, but site updates do not appear to be particularly frequent). Nevertheless, there is already enough material here to make this an extremely useful resource.
The website of the International Association for Scottish Philosophy provides information about this organisation, which exists to facilitate and encourage study of the Scottish philosophical tradition. The Association does not organise its own events, but instead promotes conferences and other societies which may be of interest to those with an interest in this area: lists of relevant events and bodies and available on the site. Details of how to join the Association (which is free) are also provided. Additionally, the website offers a historical survey of Scottish philosophy, plus short articles about major Scottish philosophers (including David Hume, Thomas Reid, and Adam Smith) and about the impact of Scottish philosophy around the world. The site also gives information about the Journal of Scottish Philosophy, including an opportunity to read and participate in online discussion of a featured article.
This is the website of the International Berkeley Society. The Society aims to promote and facilitate interest in the life and works of George Berkeley (1685-1753) (also known as Bishop Berkeley), whose major works include 'A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge', and 'Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous'. The site is well presented and easy to navigate, and provides a number of useful services to the Society's members (although access to and use of the website itself is free to all). In particular there are a number of external links to a variety of relevant Internet resources concerning Berkeley, including entries in encyclopaedias and philosophy dictionaries; a handful of online articles; online primary texts; and Web pages on aspects of the history of Berkeley's life, work and philosophy. The website also provides an extensive online bookshop (supplied by Amazon), a short history of the society itself, brief details of geographical sites relevant to Berkeley's life, and details of the Turbayne Essay Prize (awarded bi-annually and open to essays on any aspect of Berkeley's philosophical work).
'The International Journal of Philosophical Studies' (ISSN: 1466-4542) is an academic journal which publishes articles in all areas of philosophy. It is published four times a year, and is edited by Maria Baghramian of University College Dublin. This website makes available the table of contents for all articles published since 1993; many of which come with abstracts. The full-text of a sample issue is also available, although this requires free user registration. Topics covered include: transcendental constraints and transcendental features; ethics, postmodernism and the Enlightenment spirit of modernity; logical knowledge; theoretical paradox and practical dilemma; knowledge and power in Plato's political thought; and the nature of transcendental arguments. Instructions for authors are also provided.
This website, which is part of Dr Peter King's vast Philosophy Around the Web pages, is devoted to the philosopher John Locke (1632-1704). Aside from a brief discussion of Locke's life and work, the site consists primarily of a list of links to secondary and primary sources, including online full-text versions of some of Locke's main works. These include: A Letter Concerning Toleration (1689); and An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689). This resource will provide convenient access to these works for researchers, teachers and students. Unfortunately, a few of the links were no longer functioning at the time this record was reviewed.
'John Locke (1632-1704)' is a useful resource that provides information about, and e-text copies of works by, the 17th-century English philosopher John Locke. The site's webmaster and editor is Bill Uzgalis, a professor of philosophy at Oregon State University. He prepared the resource both for a past university course and for anyone in general with an interest in the subject matter, and it forms part of Uzgalis' 'Great Voyages: The History of Western Philosophy from 1492-1776' site. Locke himself was an empiricist (empiricism: the theory that all of our knowledge ultimately derives from our sense experience), as well as an important political thinker. The site includes the following items: a brief overview of Locke's life and work; a sourced timeline for biographical and professional events in Locke's life; an annotated list of secondary materials recommended by Uzgalis; and hyperlinked access to three of Locke's most important works, hosted by the resource (An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, The Second Treatise of Civil Government, and A Letter Concerning Toleration). Also provided is a link to an online biography of Locke hosted by the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
This website presents an e-text version of the 17th century English philosopher John Locke's tract 'Of the Conduct of the Understanding'. The resource is an electronic version of a 1966 print text edition of the same, originally edited and with an introduction by Francis W. Garforth, and published by the Teachers College, University of Columbia. Locke was an empiricist philosopher (empiricism: knowledge derives ultimately from our sense experience), and he most famously published 'An Essay Concerning Human Understanding', in 1690. 'Of the Conduct of the Understanding' was intended by Locke to form an additional chapter to a later edition of the 'Essay Concerning Human Understanding'. This, however, never came to pass, and 'Of the Conduct of the Understanding' was in fact first published posthumously in 1706. It, along with Locke's 'Some Thoughts Concerning Education', lays down principles that Locke believed would facilitate the education required by the ruling classes at the time. It is of philosophical interest not only insofar as it was intended as an addition to Locke's philosophical magnum opus (as noted above), but also because several of the sections into which the tract is divided concern methods by which Locke believes we come to a correct understanding of fallacies, analogy, ideas, observation etc. The resource itself is presented in plain text, and there are useful hyperlinks both from the contents page to the different sections of the work, and also between those sections themselves.
The John Locke Bibliography is a neatly presented and extensive online list of print publications by and about the 17th century English philosopher (1632-1704), who was the author of the 'Essay Concerning Human Understanding', the 'Two Treatises of Government', and the 'Letters on Religious Toleration', amongst other works. The bibliography is divided into various broad subject sections (for example: philosophy; education; religion; and biography) in order to facilitate browsing. Clicking on the names of authors brings up an alphabetical list. There is also an index of translations of Locke's work into foreign languages, and a useful chronology and biography. Name/title and subject indexes aid navigation of the site, though there does not appear to be a search function. A link to the John Locke Manuscripts companion website is provided. This resource will be of particular interest to the postgraduate or academic Lockean scholar.
'John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding' is an e-text version, with online search engine, of the sixth edition of the classic work by the 17th century English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704). Locke was an empiricist (empiricism: human knowledge derives ultimately from the deliverances of our senses), and the Essay Concerning Human Knowledge was his major philosophical work. Therein he proposes, amongst other things, his theories of metaphysics and knowledge. In particular, Locke was keen to offer philosophical support for the corpuscularian movement in physics, and to popularise the distinction between primary and secondary qualities of body. (Corpuscularianism: the theory advocated by Isaac Newton amongst others that the behaviour of objects is to be explained by the behaviour in turn of its minute particles or corpuscles; primary qualities: properties such as size and shape that are taken to obtain in objects independent of our perceptions; secondary qualities: properties such as colour and taste that are taken to obtain in objects only as far as we perceive them to do so). The e-text itself is presented in plain text in a window within the main resource page. There are useful hyperlinked indices that divide the text into its constituent books, chapters and sections. The resource also provides a search engine that allows the user to search the text for phrases and terms; the results being displayed in hyperlinked lists. The e-text itself is stated to be based on an original HTML version by Roger Bishop Jones, although the URL provided by the site for this version was not responding at the time this record was reviewed. It is not stated which print edition of the text the e-text is taken from.
Johnstonia is the home page of Ian Johnston, formerly an instructor at Vancouver Island University in Canada. The website offers a substantial collection of primary texts, many of which were translated by Johnston, plus many of Johnston's own essays, lecture transcripts, book reviews, and other study materials. Most of the primary texts fall within the disciplines of classics and philosophy, including works by: Aristophanes; Homer; Nietzsche; Rousseau; and several others. The lectures and other material cover many of the same authors, plus a number of literary writers: T. S. Eliot, John Milton, and Tom Stoppard are among those included, and there is a section devoted to the study of Shakespeare. The site describes itself as 'designed to provide curricular material for various courses in literature and Liberal Studies'. The works are freely available for educational and other non-commercial uses.
This web page attempts to collate the bibliographic details of all journals devoted to eighteenth-century studies extant in the world. In practice, this amounts to over twenty publications in various languages covering most humanities disciplines. For each journal, the following information is given where available: the date of the journal's inception; the address at which it may be contacted; its current editors; its size, scope, and price; the frequency of its publication; the number of subscribers; the countries where it is distributed; the language(s) in which it is written; whether or not the journal includes book reviews; and an email and web page address. The website is written in both French and English, and is of obvious value to anyone wishing to publish an article on an eighteenth-century subject, or find a relevant journal in a particular field.
Kant on the Web describes itself as the Internet's "most organised and comprehensive" list of electronic resources on the 18th century German philosopher Immanuel Kant. The site was compiled by Stephen Palmquist, an associate professor in the Department of Religion and Philosophy at Hong Kong Baptist University, and provides access to a large number of online primary and secondary resources of use to Kant scholars and students. The website itself hosts etext versions of Palmquist's own preparations of Kant's writings, as well as lexical aids, books, and journal articles by Palmquist in the area of Kantian scholarship. The site also provides a comprehensive list of links to resources hosted by other websites, including: Kant's works in both the original German and in English translation; electronic versions of books and articles on Kant by a wide range of authors; email discussion groups; multimedia resources; teaching resources such as transcripts of various university's lecture note packages; and miscellaneous other resources. The website is generally well maintained (despite a few broken internal links) and very comprehensive indeed, although it might perhaps have been easier on the eye without the omnipresent background of Kant's head.
This website is devoted to English translations of lesser-known works by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716), the German philosopher, mathematician and physicist. The site contains translations of various previously untranslated papers and letters, with emphasis on works concerned with theology and metaphysics. The translator is Lloyd Strickland, a Leibniz scholar. The following works are amongst the many on the site: The Philosopher's Confession (1672-73); The Author of Sin (1673?); The Distinction of the Mind and Body (Early 1677?); Middle Knowledge (November 1677). Full information on the original source of the translations is provided. There are also lightly annotated links to other Leibniz resources. This website uses frames, though the option of viewing texts in PDF is also given.
Living Philosophy is a website created and maintained by a Scottish production company which calls itself "The Radicals". The company seeks to bring classical philosophers alive through playreadings and docudramas at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. This website, developed with the assistance of a grant from ScotlandUnltd, contains information about these plays. It also has sections dedicated to David Hume (1711-1776), Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), Socrates (470 BCE-c.399 BCE) and Adam Smith (1723-1790). Materials offered include: brief overviews of their lives; and commentaries and bibliographies of their work. The site also provides general information about philosophy and why it should be studied. Accessible and interesting, this resource would be useful for undergraduate use.
This Open University website accompanies a series of BBC Four television lectures delivered by Mark Steel, stand-up comedian, journalist and political satirist. The series is an adaptation of Steel's earlier broadcasts on Radio 4 and presents the left-wing comedian's own opinions on the lives and works of "people with a passion" (including Aristotle, Byron, Cromwell, Darwin, Descartes, Marx, Newton, Paine, and Pankhurst). The television lectures were well-researched, and are forcefully and clearly delivered. They avoid comical lecturing, but comedy pervades every episode. Genuine historical comment and insight captures the attention of all - including the "MTV generation". Although obviously accessible for the general reader, the website will be of interest for school and undergraduate students. As well as information about the presenter, the site includes brief essays by Open University tutors on the Steel's lectures and their subjects: Aristotle (by Jon Pike); George Gordon, Lord Byron (by Hamish Johnson); Charles Darwin (by Paul Underhill); Sigmund Freud (by Richard Stevens); Karl Marx (by Sue Hemmings); Isaac Newton (by Robin Wilson). There is also the opportuntiy to follow the history of thought and philosophy further with links to Open University courses, and an email discussion forum about the lectures.
The website 'Medieval and Modern Thought Text Digitization Project' is the homepage of this database run by Stanford University Libraries and Academic Information Resources. This ongoing project makes available digital versions of texts from the collections of Stanford Library and its partners. The main areas included at the time of review are: the medieval Church and its law and organisation; language, grammar and linguistics; reference works; and philosophy. Subjects covered range from Ambiguity and Anaphora to Theology and Trees. Many of the texts are lecture notes published in collaboration with Stanford University's Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI). Others are editions of early works on the Church, and secondary works covering its development. Notable items include Matthew Paris' 'English History', in both English and Latin, and Roger Bacon's works in Latin. The expansion of the collection is likely to be governed by local research needs. The resource will be most useful for scholars and students researching in all the areas it covers, and will increase in value as the collections continue to develop. The archive of texts may be searched using a simple or advanced query, and the site includes a page of search tips for researchers. The collection may also be browsed by author, title or subject. Each record includes brief bibliographical information. The texts are available in full as PDF files, and may be viewed or downloaded. They are digitised in their original languages, which include: Latin; French; German; and English.
This is an e-text version of the French philosopher Rene Descartes' classic work Meditations on First Philosophy (sometimes simply called The Meditations), taken from the 1911 edition of "The Philosophical Works of Descartes" (CUP, tr. Elizabeth S. Haldane). In his Meditations, Descartes directs the reader through his own thought processes that lead from an initial global scepticism (for all we know there may be a malicious demon who systematically leads us to falsely believe that the real world exists, that 2+2=4, etc), via an attempted demonstration of one infallible certainty (I think therefore I am) and his "proofs" for the existence of God, to a conclusion that the correct use of our God-given faculty of reason allows us access to know as certain those beliefs he formerly doubted (that the real world exists, that 2+2=4, etc). The Meditations are one of the seminal works by the thinker regarded by many as the Father of Modern Philosophy (modern philosophy: roughly 17th-18th century). This electronic version is easy on the eye, and provides hyperlinks within the text to the beginning of each of the 6 Meditations, as well as to the Dedication, translator's notes and so forth. At present the e-text itself does not immediately seem to give access to, or to be accessible from, its host, the main Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy website.
'Neoplatonism' is an unmoderated discussion list that has been set up by Dr Cosmin I. Andron. The list is intended to provide a forum for interested scholars to discuss all aspects of Platonism, including Neoplatonism. It contains a mixture of reviews, notices, and academic discussion on all matters Platonic. Although posts are also invited in French, Italian, and German, the vast majority are in English. This list would be of interest to advanced researchers in the field. Instructions on how to join the list are given, though current and past postings since June 2002 can be viewed without registration. There is also a link to the home page of the International Society for Neoplatonic Studies.
'Nicholas Malebranche (1638-1715)' is a useful online resource that provides information on the life and work of the French philosopher Nicholas Malebranche. The resource's webmaster and editor is Bill Uzgalis, a professor of philosophy at Oregon State University. He prepared the resource both for a past university course and for anyone in general interested in the subject matter, and it forms part of Uzgalis' 'Great Voyages: The History of Western Philosophy from 1492-1776' site. Malebranche himself was a Cartesian philosopher (Cartesian: in the tradition of the great French philosopher Rene Descartes, 1595-1650). Perhaps his most famous doctrine is that of 'occasionalism', a proposed solution to the problem of how the mind relates to the body, whereby mind and body do not interact with each other, but rather God merely guarantees that certain bodily events always occur at the same time as related mental events. The site is divided into several parts: an informative overview of Malebranche's life and work; a sourced timeline detailing biographical and professional events in Malebranche's life; an annotated list of off-line secondary literature recommended by Uzgalis; and a brief bibliography of Malebranche's works. The resource is attractive to the eye, and there are occasional graphics. It is also well laid-out and is easy to navigate, with hyperlink facilities.
Nietzsche: A Selected Annotated Bibliography is a research guide compiled by Jack Sherefkin of the New York Public Library. While it is based on the library's own holdings, it is detailed enough to be valuable to all scholars with an interest in the controversial 19th-century German philosopher. It contains information about both editions of Nietzsche's own works (in German and in English) and works written about him and his thought. The latter are grouped by theme (for example, Nietzsche's Epistemology, or Nietzsche and Women); sections are also provided for secondary literature on each of Nietzsche's major works. For those seeking further material, there is a section listing bibliographies, and a short list of links to websites offering online versions of Nietzsche's works.
'Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil' is a website consisting of three lectures by Ian Johnston, prepared for a past university course. The lectures primarily focus on the content of Beyond Good and Evil, a book by the 19th century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), and on the context in which it was set. Beyond Good and Evil (written in 1886) is one of Nietzsche's best known works. In it he describes, among other things, the processes by which societies, and in particular Christian societies, gradually cease to be culturally productive and become morally stagnant. The lectures themselves provide a general overview of Nietzsche's overall philosophy, by way of setting the context for the themes contained in Beyond Good and Evil. Johnston also constructs an analogy which he hopes will allow his students to better understand what it is that Nietzsche is trying to say. Further, there is some discussion concerning Nietzsche's use and criticisms of language in his philosophy as a whole. The lectures are a mine of useful information, and would be of particular interest for any undergraduate students looking for secondary sources in their study of Nietzsche in general, and of Beyond Good and Evil in particular.
The Nietzsche Channel is an extensive Web resource dedicated to the life and works of the 19th-century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). The site hosts electronic versions of a large number of Nietzsche's publications, plus selections of unpublished works from his school days, correspondence, and notebooks. There is also a section titled 'Friedrich Nietzsche's Library', which is an attempt to construct an online collection of works which Nietzsche read, bought, borrowed, and referred to. At time of writing, the site was still under development: there is already a considerable amount of material in German, with plans to add both more German material and English translations in the future. Unfortunately, however, there is a lack of information about those responsible for the site.
The Nietzsche Society website is the home page of the organisation of the same name, whose stated aim is the promotion of the study of the philosophy of the 19th century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), primarily from a Continental perspective. The resource provides details of the aims and activities of the Society, including its annual conference, as well as hyperlinked access to the website of the Society's journal "New Nietzsche Studies". There is also linked access to a useful array of Nietzsche resources hosted elsewhere on the Web, including other Nietzsche societies and various research tools dedicated to the study of Nietzsche. The resource is easy to navigate with its hyperlink facility, though employs sometimes quite distracting (especially on the journal's call for papers page) large-scale graphics. Unfortunately, the Society's information pages do not appear to have been updated for some time; however, the links are still current and the journal's Web page is up-to-date.
The Nietzsche Source website provides online scholarly editions of the works of the German 19th-century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche. The works are available in two forms: an electronic critical edition, and digital facsimiles of manuscripts, proof copies, and early printed versions of Nietzsche's writings. Key works include 'Thus Spake Zarathustra', 'On the Genealogy of Morals', and 'Twilight of the Idols'. The site's introductory material is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian), though the works themselves are only in German. The material is made available under a Creative Commons licence, so may be reused for non-commercial purposes free of charge. A valuable resource for serious Nietzsche scholars.
The North American Fichte Society (NAFS) is devoted to promoting the study of the German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814). Inspired by Kant, Fichte developed his own system of transcendental idealism, the 'Wissenschaftslehre', loosely translated into English as the 'Doctrine of Scientific Knowledge'. The Society's website includes an archive of the Society's newsletter 'Fichteana'; a bibliography of Fichte's work in German and in English translation; a picture gallery of portraits of Fichte and his contemporaries; and links to websites of interest.
This is the website of the North American Nietzsche Society. The Society was formed in 1980 to encourage dialogue among scholars working on Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), foster exchange of ideas and collaborations, and encourage other Nietzsche-based productions. Philosophers and researchers in German literature constitute the majority of Society members. The site contains calls for papers, previous conference programmes, information about joining the Society, and a brief message from the Society's director, the Nietzsche scholar Richard Schacht. There is also a section devoted to the correct citation of Nietzsche's texts.
'Notes on the Women Philosophers of the 17th and 18th Centuries' is a partially-annotated bibliographical resource, compiled by Peter Suber, a senior research professor of philosophy at Earlham College. There are bibliographical listings of various general histories and anthologies of writings by and on women philosophers of the 17th and 18th centuries, as well as sections individually covering bibliographical material on twelve women philosophers of the period. The philosophers presently covered are: Ann Bradstreet (1612/13-1672); Elisabeth, Princess of Bohemia (1618-1680); Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle (1623-1673); Anne Finch, Viscountess of Conway (1631-1678); Damaris Cudworth, Lady Masham (1659-1708); Mary Astell (1666-1731); Catharine Cockburn Trotter (1679-1749); Mercy Otis Warren (1728-1814); Catherine Macaulay (1731-1791); Judith Sargent Murray (1751-1820); Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797); and Lady Mary Shepherd (1777-1847). The resource is fairly easy on the eye, and there are hyperlinks to each of the three main parts.
This is an e-text version of the essay "Of the Standard of Taste", first published in 1757 by the Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776). The resource was placed on the web and is maintained by Julie Van Camp, a professor of philosophy at California State University, and it forms part of the larger site "Philosophy of Art and Beauty", which itself was provided as an online module for a past university course. It is not clear which print version of the text the e-text is based on. Hume himself was a leading figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, and wrote widely in history, politics and economics, as well as in philosophy. In the essay "Of the Standard of Taste", he argues that despite our knowledge of beauty and our judgement of works of arts being informed exclusively by our own experiences, we can nonetheless come to some universal or objective agreement as to which works are truly great. He holds that this is possible because humans all have the mental capacity to exercise, and the potential to develop, a common sense of taste. Given this shared capacity and potential, we can all ultimately make the same judgements of taste. The resource itself is fairly easy on the eye, with the text, as in the original, divided into numbered paragraphs. Professor Van Camp also provides a number of useful discussion questions on the text, and there is linked access to other Hume resources hosted elsewhere on the web.
'On Hobbes' Leviathan' is a website consisting of two lectures by Ian Johnston, prepared for a past university course. The lectures focus on the content of "Leviathan", a book by the seventeenth-century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), and on the context in which it was set. Hobbes himself was, along with Rene Descartes, primarily responsible for the transition in Western philosophy from Scholasticism (the philosophy taught in the universities at the time, heavily influenced by the work of Aristotle) to the period now known as Modern Philosophy. "Leviathan" is his most famous work. The resource itself focusses primarily on Hobbes' political philosophy contained in the "Leviathan", and is a mine of useful information for the undergraduate wanting a decent introduction to the themes in this book, and to the context and culture from which Hobbes' thought emerged, and in turn radically influenced. The resource is presented in fairly short paragraphs, and without hyperlink facilities.
This website presents an electronic version of the essay 'On Nature' by John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). Published posthumously in 1874, the work was the first of three essays in a volume on Essays on Religion. The other essays were 'The Utility of Religion' and 'Theism'. The version featured here is taken from the 1904 edition by Watts & Co., for the Rationalist Press. The full-text of the essay is presented on the same webpage. The page numbers and page breaks of the print version are nevertheless helpfully indicated. The site is maintained by the Philosophy Department at Lancaster University.
On the Genealogy of Morals is an e-text version of the book of the same name, first published in 1887, by the 19th century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). The resource is maintained, and the text is also translated from the original German, by Ian Johnston, of Malaspina University-College, Canada, and it forms part of Johnston's general Web page "Johnstonia". Nietzsche himself was a radical thinker both in terms of his style and in terms of the content of his philosophy. On the Genealogy of Morals sees Nietzsche examining how moral codes are born and develop, and he launches a fervent attack on what he sees as the negative cultural forces at play behind the central concepts involved in Judaeo-Christian morality. The resource has hyperlinked shortcuts to the different chapters. There is also a useful link to an e-text version of the book in the original German, again maintained by Ian Johnston. The site would be of use to anyone wanting access to an online edition of this book in English.
This website contains on online text of 'On the Improvement of the Understanding' (Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione), by Benedict (a.k.a. Baruch) de Spinoza (1632-1677), one of the greatest of the rationalist philosophers. His 'Ethics' is generally considered to be his masterwork. The incomplete treatise 'On the Improvement of the Understanding' is a brief but important statement in which Spinoza sets down his reasons for turning to philosophy. The text reproduced here is from R. H. M. Elwes' 1883 translation. It is hyperlinked and can be accessed without charge.
This site provides access to the text of Nietzsche's essay On the Use and Abuse of History for Life, 1873. The essay has been translated from German into English by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University College in Canada. It was originally translated in September 1998 and revised in April 2000. This essay forms part of a larger collection of texts on a variety of topics (for example: history of science, works from Kafka, Homer, Bunyan and miscellaneous essays written by Ian Johnston). The site was mainly designed as a source of instructional material for Liberal Studies and English courses at Malaspina University College but is also useful for a wider audience. It is also possible to download the resource from the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)).
The Paideia Project On-Line is dedicated to the Proceedings of 20th World Congress of Philosophy at Boston University, held between 10 and 15 August 1998. The most substantial aspect of the site is the Paideia Archive, which makes available almost a thousand papers presented at the conference. The archive arranges papers by subject matter in an orderly and user-friendly manner, and the coverage is fairly comprehensive. Beyond the traditional philosophical categories, there are sections on the philosophy of sport, education, children, gender, and literature, plus regional entries focusing on African, Asian, American, and Latin American philosophy. The papers themselves are in printer-friendly HTML format and, with a few exceptions, are in English. They are written by professional philosophers and graduate students who attended the Congress. There is a sophisticated search function for finding particular topics in the archive. This resource will be of primary use to research students and faculty members, especially those investigating the less conventional or widespread areas of philosophy.
The Peirce Edition Project was established in 1976 and is based at Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis. The aim of the project is to document the manuscripts of, and produce a scholarly edtition of, the work of Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914). An indirect aim of the project is also to be an international centre of excellence for Peirce studies. The project has published, in printed form, six volumes of Peirce's work. A parallel electronic edition is in the process of being produced. The project's website includes the following sections: an introduction to the life and works of Charles S. Peirce; electronic companions to the printed volumes (the complete text of volume two is online), including a textual apparatus for the two-volume Essential Peirce; electronic versions of the project's newsletter; a guide to the critical methods employed by the project; and information about the staff and research interests.
This website allows access to an electronic text of Blaise Pascal's 'Pensées' of 1660. The 'Pensées' is the French mathematician and philosopher's published thoughts on several topics, predominantly religious, which mostly take the form of short aphoristic statements. The work is perhaps best known for 'Pascal's Wager', where the author reasons that it is wise to believe in God as one loses nothing thereby, whilst one stands to lose all by not believing. Biblical references within the text are hyperlinked to footnotes providing the source of the reference, but otherwise the text is presented without additions. The translation used is that of W. F. Trotter, first published in 1904.
The website Philosophers of the Arabs, a project of the Egyptian Philosophical Society, introduces modern Arab thought and philosophy and aims to facilitate dialogue between Arab philosophy and philosophy more generally. It is aimed at specialists in the Arab world and beyond, but contains much content that will be of interest to non-specialists as well. The site is organised into five main categories: philosophers; research; discourse; news; and services. It is available in both English and Arabic, with some differences in content.
The philosophers section includes brief biographies of modern (19th- and 20th-century) Arab philosophers; a list of contemporary philosophers; as well as lists of important professors, non-Arab Muslim philosophers and Orientalists. The research section lists recent publications on both Arab philosophy and non-Arab philosophy. The English version of the site provides links to many of the publications in Western languages and reviews of some of the publications in Arabic, while the Arabic version provides links to publications in Arabic as well. Also of interest will be the services section, which provides links to websites related to Arab and Islamic philosophy as well as information on publications and research centres. Although the site was still in development at the time of review, it already contains much information that will be of interest to students and researchers interested in the philosophy or history of the Arab world.
The Philosophy of Benedictus de Spinoza (1632 - 1677) is a website compiled by Rudolf W. Meijer. It offers electronic editions of a number of works by Spinoza: his Ethica; the Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione; the Tractatus Politicus; and a selection of relevant correspondence. The Latin text is based on Carolus Bruder's 1843 edition, but also makes some use of the edition published by Carl Gebhardt in 1925. The electronic editions reproduce both the content and also, as far as possible, the appearance of the print version. Users also have the option of viewing the original text alongside an English or French translation. The works have been enhanced by the inclusion of hypertext cross-references, also collected together in an index. A glossary provides an index of technical words and phrases with hyperlinks back to the main text. Also offered are a brief biography of Spinoza, an essay by the site author, and links to other relevant resources.
Philosophy Online is a website offering a set of study resources for philosophy students. The site covers two key texts, Descartes' 'Meditations' and Nietzsche's 'Beyond Good and Evil', plus three themes: theory of knowledge; philosophy of religion; and philosophy of mind. Annotated versions of the texts are offered, plus summaries, study questions, and links for further reading suggestions. The thematic sections are divided into a number of sub-topics, each of which provides a brief overview of the main concepts and ideas. At time of review, some sections were still under construction. This site is structured around the AQA A level philosophy syllabus, but would also be of use to university students approaching these topics for the first time.
'Philosophy Since the Enlightenment' is an online resource which provides an introduction to philosophers and philosophical themes from the eighteenth century (e.g. Hume and Kant) to the present (e.g. post-structuralism, Derrida and Foucault). Each section comprises an introductory essay divided into short pieces about relevant philosophers and philosophies. Apart from the above two themes, other sections include: Romanticism; analytic philosophy; existentialism; God; mind; science; and moral philosophy. The author of the site is Roger Jones and the resource has been developed with the adult learner in mind. The site uses frames.
This site is devoted to the seventeenth-century French philosopher, Pierre Bayle (1647-1706). Bayle was a defender of French protestantism and attacked religious intolerance, promoting the 'rights of the erring conscience'. The Pierre Bayle Home Page contains a brief biography of Bayle with hyperlinks to other relevant areas of the site and links to other sites of interest. There is a bibliography of works in English and French on Bayle from 1900 through to 2003, with some direct links to texts. A bibliography of Bayle's own work can be found separately, and is usefully subdivided into original editions, and recent editions and translations. A number of papers on Bayle, the majority in French, are also available. Some documents are in PDF. At the time of reviewing, this site was in considerable need of updating, with many of the links to external sites no longer functioning, and the news section outdated.
'Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655)' is a useful online resource that provides introductory information about the work of the 17th century French philosopher Pierre Gassendi. The website's editor and webmaster is Bill Uzgalis, a professor of philosophy at Oregon State University. He prepared the resource both for a past university course, and for anyone in general with an interest in the subject matter, and it forms part of Uzgalis' more general site 'Great Voyages: the History of Western Philosophy from 1492 to 1776'. Gassendi was a contemporary of René Descartes. A moderate sceptic (scepticism is the theory that we cannot attain certain knowledge, either within a given subject area, or sometimes globally), Gassendi questioned our ability to attain scientific knowledge on the basis of our sense experience. He also proposed a version of atomism (the theory that the world, or at least the physical part of it, is composed of atoms). The site itself consists of a brief overview of Gassendi's philosophy, a sourced timeline of important biographical and professional events in Gassendi's life, an unannotated bibliography, and an annotated list of secondary literature recommended by Uzgalis. This last is called 'The Captain's Choice', following the metaphor of a sea journey used on the mother site.
The Readings in Modern Philosophy website provides access to electronic versions of philosophical works from the 16th to the 19th century. Compiled by J. Carl Mickelsen of the University of Idaho, the site covers almost 50 authors, ranging from the major names in the field (for example, Descartes, Locke, and Kant) to the more obscure (such as Pufendorf, Condillac, and Condorcet). A mixture of locally hosted material and links to off-site resources is offered. In addition to the primary texts, there are links to secondary sources and miscellaneous related material. Unfortunately the external links do not seem to be updated with any frequency, but at time of review the proportion of broken links was relatively low. A valuable collection of resources for those studying philosophy from this period.
'Reasons for not replying to Mr. Walton's Full Answer' is an e-text version of the print text of the same name by the eighteenth century philosopher George Berkeley (1685-1753, also known as Bishop Berkeley, his most famous works are A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, and Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous). It is Berkeley's response to criticisms made in 'Cathechism of the author of the Minute Philosopher Fully Considered' by J. Walton, a mathematician of the day, of Berkeley's tract in the philosophy of mathematics, 'The Analyst'. In 'The Analyst', Berkeley had argued that much of the mathematical reasoning of his day facilitated anti-Christian practice and thinking; in particular he argued against the notion of fluxions (fluxion: the velocity of the motion that produces lines, planes and solids). Several replies to 'The Analyst' were written by mathematicians at the time. One such reply was James Jurin's (writing as Philalethes Cantabrigiensis) 'Geometry no Friend to Infidelity', to which Berkeley responded in his subsequent 'A Defence of Free-Thinking in Mathematics'. In the appendix to 'A Defence of Free-Thinking in Mathematics', Berkeley had written a brief, 4-paragraph reply to Walton's 'Vindication of Sir Isaac Newton's Principles of Fluxions', and it is with 'Reasons for not replying to Mr. Walton's Full Answer' that a more detailed response to Walton is given.The resource is available in 4 formats (HTML, PDF, DVI, and PostScript), and it is presented in plain text in the original 21 numbered paragraphs, without hyperlinks within the text itself. However, the home page does provide hyperlinked access to e-text versions to both 'The Analyst' and 'A Defence of Free-Thinking in Mathematics'.
'The Rejection of Abstract Ideas in the Metaphysics of George Berkeley' is an electronic article by Allan F. Randall. The article criticises certain aspects of the metaphysical picture put forward by the eighteenth-century empiricist philosopher George Berkeley (also known as Bishop Berkeley). Berkeley is most famous for his doctrine of idealism (the metaphysical theory that only minds and the ideas they have exist). His best known works are 'A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge', and 'Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous'. Relevantly here, Berkeley rejects the existence of abstract ideas (i.e. ideas of, for example, triangles in general, as opposed to thoughts about this or that actual triangle), on the basis that all our ideas are drawn ultimately from what we perceive, and that we can only perceive particular, individual items. He also rejects the existence of mind-independent matter, mainly on the grounds that the concept of matter invokes the existence of such abstract ideas. In particular, Randall argues here for three theses: 1) that Berkeley's idealism is flawed due to Berkeley's assertion that ideas themselves are essentially passive in nature, whereas minds alone are essentially active (i.e. minds do the thinking, ideas are the things thought about); 2) that ideas in fact can be active, insofar as they can represent action, and that this concession means that Berkeley's rejection of abstract ideas is unfounded; 3) that Berkeley's idealism is incoherent as the arguments that Berkeley uses to demonstrate the inconsistency of matter apply just as much to a concept he requires, namely that of spiritual substance, or mind. The article is presented in plain text, with an abstract, and there are hyperlinks within the text to referenced citations.
'Rene Descartes (1595-1650)' is a useful online resource that provides information on, and access to etexts of works by, the 17th century French philosopher René Descartes. The site's webmaster and editor is Bill Uzgalis, a professor of philosophy at Oregon State University. He prepared the resource both for a past university course and for anyone in general interested in the subject matter, and it forms part of Uzgalis' 'Great Voyages: The History of Western Philosophy From 1492-1776' site. Descartes himself was a rationalist philosopher (rationalism is the view that at least some of our knowledge derives from the use of our faculty of reason alone, without recourse to information gathered from sense experience), and often credited with being the forefather of modern philosophy. The site is divided into four parts: an informative overview of the life and work of Descartes; a sourced timeline of biographical and professional events in Descartes' life; a list of secondary material recommended by Uzgalis; and hyperlinked access to etext versions of two of Descartes' most important works (Discourse on Method, and Meditations on First Philosophy) that are hosted by the site. The resource itself is attractive to the eye, and there are occasional graphics. It is also well laid-out and is easy to navigate, with hyperlink facilities.
'René Descartes and the Legacy of Mind/Body Dualism' is a web resource that provides a useful and informative overview of the reaction in the 17th-19th centuries to the French philosopher René Descartes' (1596-1650) theory of mind/body dualism. According to Descartes, the mind and the body comprise two distinct substances, the mind being mental (and, for example, unextended in space and indivisible), and body being material (and as such, extended in space and divisible), and the two substances interacting with one another. This particular resource takes the form of an introductory article by Robert H. Wozniak, professor of psychology at Bryn Mawr College. The article is divided into six sections, starting with Descartes' theory itself, and progressing through reactions to it in the 17th-19th centuries, to the beginnings of work in neuroscience and neurophysiological accounts of the mind that are more common today. There are hyperlinks to the start of each section, as well as to bibliographical details of cited references. The resource would be of most use to an undergraduate wishing to appreciate the impact and importance of Cartesian dualism (Cartesian - of Descartes), both philosophically, and also in terms of its place in the history of the scientific view of the relation between the mind and the body. The resource forms part of the Serendip website, which is a forum for an exchange of information between members of various academic disciplines, as well as businesspersons and educators in general.
'Russian Philosophy on the Intelnet' is an English-language online resource which gives detailed information about Russian philosophy of the 19th and 20th century. It is authored and maintained by Mikhail Epstein, a professor of Cultural Theory and Russian Literature at Emory University. The website provides an introductory essay on the history of Russian philosophy, and summaries of the principal ideas of the Russian thinkers Vladimir Solovyov, Nikolai Fedorov, Vasily Rozanov and Nikolai Berdiaev. A virtual gallery contains the photographs of major Russian thinkers from the 19th century to the present. Epstein's essay 'The Phoenix of Philosophy: On the Meaning and Significance of Contemporary Russian Thought' is available online. The site also provides links to other relevant Internet sites and to Symposion: A Journal of Russian Thought and to The Society for the Study of Russian Religious Thought. This online resource provides a good introduction to Russian major thinkers and philosophical ideas for students of Russian philosophy.
The Society for Philosophy in Practice (SPP) (formerly the British Society of Consultant Philosophers) is a professional organization which seeks to promote philosophical consultancy, Socratic dialogue, philosophy for children, and the use of philosophy in general. This website gives details of the courses they offer; an events diary; information on membership; and a 'Code of Practice for Consultant Philosophers' drafted by the organization. The site also gives full-text access to 'PipTalk' - the society's newsletter. It is published annually and contains short articles and interviews. Users are likewise directed to the home page of 'Practical Philosophy' - the society's official journal which is published twice a year. It contains book reviews and articles on philosophical counselling, Socratic dialogue, philosophy for children, and other aspects of practical philosophy.
'Some Texts From Early Modern Philosophy' is a website created and maintained by the eminent scholar, Jonathan F. Bennett. Here he has taken key primary works of early modern philosophy and made them more accessible through slight modifications of the texts. These modifications include, for example: a basic updating of language; limiting convoluted syntax; numbering points; adding occasional bracketed commentary of his own; and the like. Among the texts Bennett includes are: Berkeley's 'Principles of Human Knowledge'; Descartes' 'Meditations on First Philosophy' and 'Discourse on the Method'; Hobbes' 'Leviathan'; Hume's 'Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding' and 'Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion'; Kant's 'Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysic'; Locke's 'Essay Concerning Human Understanding'; and Mill's 'On Liberty'. This site should prove invaluable to students of early modern philosophy.
This is the website of Spinoza Kyôkai, the Japanese Spinoza Society. The society was established in 1989 and describes itself as a "voluntary association of Spinoza readers". It is a fully academic society, however, with a distinguished executive board. The site includes the contents lists of the society's journal, Spinozana, but does not allow access to the full texts of the articles therein. The Journal is in Japanese, but with English abstracts. Also available from the website, and of special note, are facsimile images of the Latin first editions of Spinoza's works. Users may browse the works by title and chapter or proposition number. Page images have been scanned at a reasonable resolution, and are quite readable. The site also includes a good list of links to other online Spinoza resources, grouped according to type.
This is the homepage of the 'Spinoza Research Network', an Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC)-funded project based at the University of Dundee. It is a 2-year programme which spans from October 2008 to September 2010 under the leadership of Dr Beth Lord. The project seeks to bring together researchers from different academic fields who use the ideas and texts of the 17th century Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) in their work. This website informs visitors about the project's aims and the conferences they organise. It provides the project's discussion blog and links to relevant online resources.
Squashed Philosophers is a website offering abridged versions of some classic philosophical texts. Significant works of several dozen well-known philosophers can be found here, and classical and early modern philosophy are particularly well represented. Also included are some political, psychoanalytic and scientific texts at the margins of philosophy. The abridgement has been carried out by Glyn Hughes (who has performed a similar task for some religious and literary texts). Each text is introduced with an "extremely squashed" synopsis, along with an indication of the original and the abridged length of the text. The home page contains an estimated reading time for each abridged version. Some texts are more severely condensed than others. Whilst the site suggests that squashed texts contain all the student needs for the purposes of exams, the wary undergraduate will recognise the potential pitfalls of abridgement and not abandon the original works. Squashed Philosophers would stand as a helpful summary, introduction, or refresher of the main points. Squashed Philosophers is available in a print version and purchase details are provided on the site, as is a brief guide to how best to use the site, and an invitation to recommend alterations or suggest new texts ripe for squashing.
"Søren Kierkegaard Research Center" is the home page of the project/organisation of the same name, based at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, whose stated purpose is to carry out and promote research into the work of the Danish philosopher and theologian Søren Kierkegaard, and also to compile a new edition of Kierkegaard's complete writings. The project's director is Dr. Niels Jørgen Cappelørn. The resource gives information about various Kierkegaardian publications, events, courses, projects, etc, including those volumes of the complete edition of Kierkegaard mentioned above that have been published so far. The site also features list of links to Kierkegaard sites hosted elsewhere on the Internet. Kierkegaard himself (1813-1855) is perhaps best known as the founding father of the existentialist movement in contemporary philosophy (existentialism: broadly the doctrine that our thinking should proceed from the starting point of the realities of human existence as we encounter it, rather than from any other more abstract consideration). One of his best known philosophical works is "Fear and Trembling". Selected sections of the site are available in English, but the main language is Danish. The site is fairly easy to navigate, with hyperlinked access between different sections.
'Teaching Materials on Medieval Philosophy' is a website which offers a series of detailed guides on leading medieval philosophers and thinkers, as well as their classical precursors, and their early modern heirs, both Rationalist and Empiricist. Fundamental ideas as well as close readings of specific texts are presented. Some of the figures discussed include: Aristotle (384-322 BCE); Boethius (c.480-c.525); St. Anselm (1033-1109); al-Ghazali (1058-1111); Thomas Aquinas; John Duns Scotus (c.1266-1308); and William of Ockham (1285-1347). The guides were developed in conjunction with a series of courses and taped lectures on the medieval intellectual tradition given by the author, John Kilcullen, at Macquarie University and the University of Sydney. Descriptions of related courses can also be found on the site, and they include reading lists and essay topics. This is part of John Kilcullen's larger 'Politics, Philosophy and Medieval Studies' site, and would be of use to undergraduates seeking basic or further information on medieval and related philosophy.
'Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)' is a useful online resource that provides access to information on, as well as a small number of etext versions of works by, the 17th century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes. The site's webmaster and editor is Bill Uzgalis, a professor of philosophy at Oregon State University. He prepared the resource both for a past university course and for anyone in general interested in the subject matter. It forms part of Uzgalis's more general site 'Great Voyages: the History of Western Philosophy from 1492 to 1776'. Hobbes himself was, along with Rene Descartes, primarily responsible for the transition in western philosophy from Scholasticism (the philosophy taught in the universities up until this time, heavily influenced by the work of Aristotle) to the period now known as Modern Philosophy. Amongst other things, he sought to demystify concepts such as perception and causality, believing that there was solely a material, rather than any spiritual, component to such processes. The resource itself is divided into a number of parts: a brief, one paragraph overview of Hobbes' life and work; links to electronic biographical resources useful to the Hobbes' student or scholar; a sourced timeline of important biographical and professional events in Hobbes' life; and an unannotated bibliography of Hobbes' works, along with hyperlinked access to etext versions of Hobbes' The Leviathan, and The Elements of Law Natural and Politic, hosted by the resource's mother site. The resource is attractive to the eye, well laid-out, and is easy to navigate, with hyperlink facilities.
Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous is an e-text version of the classic work of the same name (often called simply "Three Dialogues") by the 18th century empiricist philosopher George Berkeley (1685-1753). This particular electronic version is based on the 1910 Harvard Classics edition of the same work. First published in 1713, the Three Dialogues are maybe best viewed as a popularised version of what for many was Berkeley's magnum opus, his Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710). They are a superb expression of writing in dialogue form. The Three Dialogues provide a full exposition of Berkeley's doctrine of idealism (the theory in metaphysics that only minds and the ideas they perceive exist). The resource itself is easy on the eye, without hyperlinks within the text, and the editor gives the proviso that it is a working draft, inviting reports of errors to be sent.
Thus Spake Zarathustra is an e-text version of the book of the same name by Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), and features English and German renderings of the entire text presented in parallel columns, in order that they can be read side by side. This particular resource was prepared from files made available on Project Gutenberg's website, although it is not clear who is responsible for the translation into English. Nietzsche was a German philosopher, a radical thinker both in terms of his style and the content of his philosophy. Among other things, he criticised the traditional ways in which human beings come to form and justify the beliefs they hold (especially our moral, religious and philosophical beliefs). Nietzsche had it that each of us should create our own values, and in doing so go beyond what human existence normally amounts to. Many of these themes are the focus of "Thus Spake Zarathustra". The resource itself is simple to navigate, with hyperlinked access to each chapter of the text. The resource will be of especial use for Nietzsche scholars looking for an e-text version that allows them to readily compare the English and German renderings of the text. Likewise, it would be useful as a teaching resource for German to English translation.
Transcendentalists is a comprehensive gateway to websites dealing with the American Transcendentalists. It includes links to biographies, portraits, works and criticism of figures in the Transcendentalist movement, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, Louisa May Alcott and W.H. Channing. There are links to sites related to the Transcentalists' communal living experiment, Brook Farm, and to The Dial magazine. There is also a brief introduction to the aims and concerns of the Transcendentalists.The site features figures connected with the Transcendentalist such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Walt Whitman, Frederick Douglass and Thomas Carlyle. It also features some actual texts, including works by Thoreau and Douglass.The site is easy to use and an excellent starting point for finding online resources related to the major and minor figures in the Transcendentalist circle.
'A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge' is an e-text version of the classic work of the same name (often called simply 'The Principles') by the 18th century empiricist philosopher George Berkeley (1685-1753). This particular electronic version is stated to be based on the 1734 edition published by Jacob Tonson. The Principles was perhaps Berkeley's magnum opus, first published in 1710 when the philosopher was just 25. It is certainly the fullest expression of Berkeley's doctrine of immaterialism (immaterialism: the theory in metaphysics that only minds and the ideas they perceive exist). The Introduction to the Principles almost stands apart from the rest of the work; herein Berkeley argues against the possibility of abstract/general ideas. In the main body of the Principles, Berkeley argues, amongst other things, against i) our ability to have knowledge of, ii) the existence of, and iii) the logical possibility of, objects existing independent from minds and ideas. He also argues against his opponent John Locke's (John Locke: English empiricist philosopher, 1632-1704) distinction between primary and secondary qualities (primary qualities: properties such as size and shape, taken to obtain in objects out there in the real world; secondary qualities: properties such as colour and smell, taken to obtain in the mind of the person perceiving a given object). The text is, as in all print publications, divided into numbered paragraphs (commonly referred to in this instance as 'sections'). The resource also provides hyperlinks to the webmaster's main Berkeley webpage, and to his more general History of Mathematics webpage.
Twilight of the Idols is an e-text version of the book of the same name by Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), here in English translation. The resource is made available on the Internet through Bruce MacEvoy's mercurial site handprint.com, and although there is no indication as to who is responsible for the translation of the e-text, it is stated that it is based on the original German and on the print translations by Walter Kaufmann and R. J. Hollingdale. Nietzsche himself was a German philosopher, a radical thinker both in terms of his style and in terms of the content of his philosophy. Among other things, he criticised the traditional ways in which human beings come to form and justify the beliefs they hold (especially moral, religious and philosophical beliefs). The resource is easy to navigate with hyperlinked access to the various sub-sections of the text.
This internet resource is the home page of the Bentham Project which is based at University College, London. The initiative aims to produce a new edition of the works of the influential Utilitarian thinker, Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). The site, which is well-designed and easily navigable, provides an extensive range of information about the project and about Bentham himself. In addition to coverage of the project's aims and current work, visitors can access a number of interesting and useful resources like the Bentham Papers Database; the Bentham newsletter; journal articles; a list of FAQs; and information on news and events. Also, there are links to Bentham's works currently available online and a wide range of links to other Bentham-related resources on the web. Overall, this is an attractively designed website that is informative and very easy to use. The project has received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) within the Resource Enhancement scheme.
The University of Adelaide library ebooks website offers free access to the library's collection of over 1,200 Web books including the novels, plays and poems of writers as varied as George Gissing, Ovid, Henrik Ibsen, David Hume and W. B. Yeats. The strength of the collection lies in its selection of classical, European and English literature, but also includes classic works of philosophy, history, and science. The collection can be searched alphabetically or chronologically by author, alphabetically by title, or by theme. A short biography is given for most writers, plus links to relevant websites. There are also excellent links to other etext resources, collections, and archives, such as Project Gutenberg and the Oxford Text Archive.
The Miniature Library of Philosophy website provides a large collection of primary source readings which together trace the history of the modern intellectual climate, beginning with Galilei Galileo (1564-1642) and ending with contemporary post-modern theory. While ostensibly the history of modern western philosophy is the main linking theme between the texts chosen, there is a strong bias towards Marxism and socialism, which is not surprising given that this collection is part of the vast Marxist Internet Archive. Other topics covered include the philosophy of mathematics, psychology, science, epistemology, social science, existentialism, and phenomenology, and post-structuralism. The readings are indexed by theme, and alphabetically by author, and a site search facility can be found at the bottom of the home page. A broad spread of philosophical topics is addressed, and there are links to biographical information on some of the philosophers, along with analysis and a glossary. Also available is a set of links to other pages of interest, including resources on ethics, politics, feminism, Marxism, and Hegel. While the site uses frames, a no-frames version is provided. This site was compiled by Andy Blunden, an independent scholar from Australia. It would be of use to students and researchers looking for key texts in the history of western philosophy.
This Dutch-language web page introduces the Spinoza House Association and the houses in their possession. These consist of a cottage in Rijnsburg, in which the rationalist philosopher Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677) lived and worked from 1661 to 1663, and the house in which he died, located in the Hague. The Rijnsburg house has been converted into a public museum, with Spinoza's library recreated and other period adornments. The property in The Hague hosts the Association's library, consisting mostly of nineteenth and twentieth century works about Spinoza. These may be consulted by appointment. The website also provides a bibliography of the Association's publications, news and information on events of interest to Spinoza scholars, and links to selected other Spinoza sites on the Web.
The Victorian Web provides a comprehensive general overview of nineteenth century British history and literature. The site is divided into sections: on political, social, and economic history; gender matters; philosophy; religion; science; technology; genre and technique; authors; visual arts; and Victorian design. Within each section commentaries present a useful introduction to the topics, abstracts from primary sources, links to other web resources and a bibliography. The Victorian web was created under the direction of George Landow, Professor of English and Art History at Brown University. The site was originally designed as a resource to aid in the teaching of courses in Victorian literature. All the material is in English and is available free of charge.
Based at Oxford University, the home page of The Voltaire Foundation serves as a useful starting point for introductory research on Voltaire (1694-1778) and the French Enlightenment, while promoting academic interaction and scholarship. In addition to supplying traditional paper publications of Voltaire's works, the foundation offers access to an electronic database of bibliographic resources relating to Voltaire and the Enlightenment. Two correspondence databases are also available through the e-projects link, one on Voltaire the other on Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (1737-1814). Academics looking to network with other scholars in this field may wish to consult the International Directory for Eighteenth Century Studies, or visit the research centres and libraries linked listed in the Institution pages.