This is a biography of the Muslim thinker ibn Sina, also known as Avicenna. Born in 980 A.D. in Kharmaithen (near Bukhara), Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), Avicenna died in 1037 A.D. in Hamadan, Persia (now Iran). Avicenna sought to integrate all aspects of science and religion in a single grand metaphysical vision. With this vision he attempted to explain the formation of the universe, as well as to elucidate the problems of evil, prayer, providence, prophecies, miracles, and marvels. He also considered problems relating to the organisation of the state in accordance with religious law and the question of the ultimate destiny of man. The site is part of the MacTutor History of Mathematics archives based at the School of Mathematics and Statistics at University of St. Andrews. The site contains detailed biographical information about Avicenna, a basic outline of his thought, and links to other related entries in MacTutor. There is also a bibliography of books and articles on Avicenna, although it does not contain references dating past 1999.
The Alberti Magni E-Corpus provides online editions of the works of the medieval philosopher and theologian, Albert the Great (ca. 1193-1280). Users can download PDF image files of over 30 volumes of Albert's works, taken from the Borgnet edition. Over 20 works (including Ethica, De Morte et Vita, and Super Porphyrium De V Universalibus) have also been transcribed for online browsing and searching, and there are plans to add further works in the future. Users should note that the texts are only available in the original Latin. The site home page and search interface are available in English and French. This resource is hosted by the University of Waterloo in Canada.
This is the home page of Alfred J. Freddoso, a professor of Thomistic Studies and Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame. It contains course material, such as lecture outlines; handouts; syllabi; and study questions for a number of courses. Most courses concern aspects of ancient (including Presocratic) and medieval philosophy, and philosophy of religion, with particular attention to scholasticism and Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274). A wide variety of supplementary material, ranging from primary and secondary source texts, maps, and some of the author's own translations, can be found within the individual course pages. Freddoso's own philosophical writings, published and unpublished, are available, as is his in-progress translation of Aquinas' Summa Theologica, with commentary. Also available is the complete text of Pope John Paul II's Fides et Ratio, with accompanying commentary and study notes. This site would be of interest to undergraduates with some basic familiarity with the topics covered, who are seeking revision material or further information. It would also be of use to teachers designing courses in any of the topics covered.
This interesting resource forms part of the Jacques Maritain Center website of the University of Notre Dame, Indiana. They provide a collection of texts written by the Catholic philosopher Jacques Maritain (1882-1973) and others on various subjects, but particularly on Thomism and St. Thomas Aquinas. The works by Maritain at the site include: "St. Thomas Aquinas"; "Reflections on America"; "Art and Scholasticism"; "The Frontiers of Poetry"; "The Responsibility of the Artist"; "Moral Philosophy"; and "The Range of Reason". A section of the site headed 'The Thomistic Revival' includes texts from a number of different authors writing about scholasticism and the renewal of interest in medieval philosophy in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A list of links to external websites dealing with issues of Catholic theology and philosophy concludes the contents of the site. The texts themselves are presented as plain HTML, and are divided by chapter.
The 'Boethius in early medieval Europe' website provides an overall view of a project based at the Faculty of English, University of Oxford. The project aims to investigate understanding of late Roman culture as appropriated by Anglo-Saxons. In particular the project will focus its attention on Anglo-Saxon versions of the 'De Consolatione Philosophiae' (On the Consolation of Philosophy), by Boethius (480-c.524) and aims to publish a new edition of the Alfredian Boethius complete with glossary, commentary, and translation. The website gives details of: the project's aims; the makeup of the advisory board; and contact details for project staff. This project has received funding from the Leverhulme Trust. This site would be of interest to those researching Boethius and the transmission of his work.
This is the website of the "Center for Hellenic Traditions" established in 2004 at the Central European University in Budapest, Hungary. The site reflects the activities and publication profile of this centre. Its proclaimed aim is to "promote innovative research into the history of Hellenic culture in a number of less frequented research areas". Thus, the research fields include religion, theology, philosophy, literature, and history of art, while the geographical area covered comprises the Balkans, the Eastern Mediterranean, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Middle East and India from Antiquity to the Early Modern period. The site informs about the workshops and colloquia organised by the center and introduces the most recent publications. The center is also part of a larger project of digitisation of Syriac manuscripts in Southern India. A call for application for fellowships is posted on the site. The titles in the lecture series hosted by the centre gives a god overview of the research interests of the centre and of the good academic reputation it has acquired among specialists.
The Cornell University Library Historical Monographs Collection website provides free access to facsimiles of over 400 historical monographs. A number are of interest to those working in ancient and modern history of philosophy. These include English translations of: Aristotle's (384-322 BCE) On Youth and Old Age, Life and Death, and Respiration; The Science of Ethics as Based on the Science of Knowledge, by Johann Fichte (1762-1814); The Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, and On the Will in Nature, by Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860); The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte (1798-1857) in three volumes; and Otto Weininger's (1880-1903) Sex and Character. There is also a facsimile of Moses Maimonides' (1135-1204) Moreh Nevukhim (Guide for the Perplexed), translated into Hebrew. As this is an historical archive, the translations and texts should not be treated as definitive or up-to-date (the Comte, for instance, is recorded as being 'freely translated' and condensed by the author Harriet Martineau); the site is primarily of historical philosophical interest. The database may be browsed or searched by author/title.
Corpus Thomisticum is a mammoth online project run by Enrique Alarcón of Navarra University, Spain. Its aims include: offering a complete online version of the works of Thomas Aquinas (in the original Latin, where possible following the best critical texts); providing a regularly updated extensive bibliography of Aquinas scholarship from the 13th century to the present day; constructing a database that allows users to search, compare, and sort words, phrases, and quotations, and to compile statistical information about the texts; and digitising the main manuscripts of Aquinas's work. The Corpus is still a work in progress, but there is already a great deal here, and the resource shows exhaustive, meticulous scholarship. The project welcomes contributions from other Aquinas scholars. A possible drawback for non-Latinists is that the lingua franca of this site is Latin, although a brief introduction is provided in eight other languages.
The English theologian and philosopher Robert Grosseteste lived from around 1170-1253. The website of the Electronic Grosseteste project, originally funded by the British Academy, aims to make available electronic resources for research into Grosseteste's writings. Offered on the site are full-texts versions of those of Grosseteste's works which are in the public domain (chiefly in the original Latin), plus the facility to search and view extracts from published editions which still carry copyright restrictions. An extensive bibliography is also available on the site, along with further information about the life of Robert Grosseteste and the project itself.
This informative and useful website provides online access to electronic resources relating to medieval philosophy and philosophical studies. The website is simply designed, with a number of links to the various sections of the site (including: manuscripts; edited texts; biographies; and information pages). There is, moreover, the option to search the entire website by keyword. Each of the broad categories mentioned above have a vast amount of information on online resources, with clickable direct links. This website will be of invaluable use to anyone interested in medieval philosophy in general, or specific medieval philosophers/philosophies.
The Franciscan Authors website is a catalogue of writers connected to the Franciscan order who lived between the 13th and 18th centuries. The authors can be browsed via an alphabetical index, though unfortunately there does not appear to be a search function. A typical entry will include a short biographical note, a list of works, and may also include suggestions for further reading. An extensive bibliography section provides information for those wishing to pursue the topic further. There are also sections for anonymous writers, lives, Franciscan provinces as they were around 1350, plus a substantial but unannotated list of links to related resources.
The French-language website 'Grand Portail Philosophie Thomas D'Aquin' is a vast resource devoted to the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas (c.1225-1274). With St Augustine, Aquinas is the father of modern theology. Indeed, his integration of Christian theology with Aristotelian philosophy could be described as one of the most important events in the history of Western philosophy. This extensive site provides: a detailed introduction to Aquinas' philosophy - his metaphysics, logic, politics, ethics, etc; an introduction to realist philosophy; information about other theological traditions; a discussion forum; links to articles on Aquinas; a biography and bibliography of Aquinas; and extensive links to translations of Aquinas' works into French. The site can be slow to load due to the use of large images, but the contents are excellent.
This website, developed and maintained by Gyula Klima, a professor of philosophy at Fordham University, makes available the lecture notes he used whilst teaching an introductory philosophy course for Yale's Directed Studies Programme from 1991 to 1993. Topics covered are as follows: 'Plato on immortality in his "Phaedo"'; 'Isagoge'; 'De Bono: Boethius' "De Hebdomadibus"'; 'St Thomas on Boethius' "De Hebdomadibus"'; 'St Thomas Aquinas on being and essence' (lecture notes and handout); 'Causa prima'; 'The last scholastic: Descartes'; and 'The vanishing of substance'. This resource is suitable for those seeking a user-friendly introduction to these subjects. Anyone wishing for a more in-depth discussion of some of these topics is directed to Professor Klima's list of publications, which can also be accessed from this site.
This is the website of the International Boethius Society. This society is dedicated to the study of the life, works, and times of Boethius (c.480-c.525 CE), the Roman philosopher, poet and politician. The society is a non-profit organisation, and this website is hosted by the English Department of the Middle Tennessee State University. Conference information and membership details are provided online along with a link to details of the society's journal 'Carmen Philosophiae' - essentially only a call for submissions, and a guide for submissions.
This website was founded in 1996 as an online source of medieval texts. Content scope is broad, covering a wide range of medieval studies. The majority of the sources are organized into one of three major categories: selected sources; full-text sources; and saints' lives. Additional categories include selected secondary resources, medieval legal history, and maps and images. The selected sources section offers an index to facilitate finding texts for particular periods or topics, and deals with material dating from the end of the classical world through to the reformation and renaissance. Topics listed include: economic life; the crusades; church history; intellectual life; Jewish life; and sex and gender. The full-text resources are arranged by document type, including: church councils; historiographical works; literary texts; spiritual writings; and legal documents. The saints' lives are presented in broadly chronological order, beginning with the apostolic era and going through to the post-medieval period. Saints of Byzantine, Western European, and Celtic origin are included. The site is part of the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies project (ORB), developed by Paul Halsall, the ORB sources editor, and located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.
The Iter project offers a series of online bibliographic databases pertaining to the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (400-1700). Access to the databases is available only to members of subscribing institutions and individual subscribers: subscription information is available from the site. The main Iter database contains more than a million bibliographic records for books, journal articles, reviews, and other scholarly material, and is updated daily. Lists of journals and essay collections indexed are provided. Other resources accessible via the Iter interface include a John Milton bibliography; Iter Italicum, a catalogue of Renaissance humanistic manuscripts; Baptisteria Sacra, which offers descriptions of fonts from the early Christian period to the 17th century; and the International Directory of Scholars. A number of journals can also be accessed through the site.
The home page for the J. R. Ritman Library (Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica) provides information about the library's collections and activities. This private library (unaffiliated to any university or other institution, but freely accessible to the public) houses materials relating to the Hermetic-Christian tradition (Hermeticism is a set of religious and philosophical beliefs based on a body of writings attributed to the mythical philosopher and alchemist, Hermes Trismegistus). Topics covered include: alchemy; mysticism; Rosicrucianism; and Hermetic philosophy. It is possible to search the library's catalogue online, and a digitisation project is underway, although at time of review the works were not yet available via the website. The site also offers a series of articles on subjects relating to the Hermetic tradition, a bibliography of other relevant works, and access to the library's online exhibitions.
The Medieval Logic and Philosophy website is the work of Paul Vincent Spade (Professor of Philosophy at Indiana University). Through a compilation of PDF-files (often from Spade's own teaching resources), this site offers a solid introduction to major philosophical discussions of the Middle Ages. A wide range of topics are addressed including, but not limited to: universals; metaphysics; and the trinity. Spade also touches upon such authors as: Richard Rufus; Aquinas; and Boethius. Texts by these authors and others (located under 'Stuff to Download') will be of considerable interest to undergraduate students coming to grips with a specific question in medieval philosophy. However, both postgraduates and lecturers may benefit from the many primary resources available or be interested to observe how Spade has structured and selected his own teaching materials.For those really struggling with a particular issue or requiring more information on a particular topic, there is an extensive collection of annotated links on medieval resources and materials. As of March 2007the site will no longer be updated, but the existing information remains available for use.
The website 'Medieval and Modern Thought Text Digitization Project' is the homepage of this database run by Stanford University Libraries and Academic Information Resources. This ongoing project makes available digital versions of texts from the collections of Stanford Library and its partners. The main areas included at the time of review are: the medieval Church and its law and organisation; language, grammar and linguistics; reference works; and philosophy. Subjects covered range from Ambiguity and Anaphora to Theology and Trees. Many of the texts are lecture notes published in collaboration with Stanford University's Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI). Others are editions of early works on the Church, and secondary works covering its development. Notable items include Matthew Paris' 'English History', in both English and Latin, and Roger Bacon's works in Latin. The expansion of the collection is likely to be governed by local research needs. The resource will be most useful for scholars and students researching in all the areas it covers, and will increase in value as the collections continue to develop. The archive of texts may be searched using a simple or advanced query, and the site includes a page of search tips for researchers. The collection may also be browsed by author, title or subject. Each record includes brief bibliographical information. The texts are available in full as PDF files, and may be viewed or downloaded. They are digitised in their original languages, which include: Latin; French; German; and English.
One of the many results from decades of study and work by Professor L.M. de Rijk (Universiteit Leiden) on logical texts of the Middle Ages, is the Medieval Logical Manuscript website. The database itself contains hundreds of entries listing the incipit, location, title, number of folios, and a host of other details. Searches can be conducted by medieval author, country, library holding, and even by content. The amount of information displayed by each search is at the discretion of the user, who may select from a variety of different fields to suit their needs. It is also possible to quickly scroll through the list of authors available and this method is probably the most efficient in beginning any search. All of this results in a fast and easy to use catalogue that will be of value to anyone conducting advanced studies of medieval philosophy in Latin. The catalogue entries are, of course, primarily limited to the research of Professor de Rijk, and so do not contain every available relevant Latin manuscript. However, the extent and number of entries is so great that it would be unlikely to not find some resource on a given medieval author. Users should take note of the introductory background material, which clarifies certain restrictions, and organizational features of the search facility. Moreover, the database cannot be browsed from the main page.
Medieval Philosophy and Theology is a freely available online peer-reviewed journal. The time period and subject area are interpreted broadly: everything from the patristic period to the neoscholasticism of the 17th century is within the journal's remit, and all areas of medieval philosophy and theology are covered, including logic and the natural sciences, and the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic traditions. The journal began publication in 1991, and has since then produced one or two issues per year, each containing six to eight articles. These appear on the website (which is supported by Cornell University's Digital Publishing Initiative) in PDF format. At time of cataloguing, not all volumes were available online, but further issues are promised in the near future. This resource will be of value to those with an interest in medieval thought.
This is currently one of the best internet resources in English on the great Andalusian mystic and philosopher Ibn ‘Arabi (1165-1240), also known as the Greatest of Spiritual Masters (Shaykh al-Akbar). The subjects covered include Ibn ‘Arabi’s works, theological and philosophical discussion of themes in his writings, later commentators, and the spread of his teachings. The Muhyiddin Ibn ‘Arabi Society was founded in 1977, and is based in Oxford, with a branch in the United States, and has organised numerous events and publications relating the Ibn ‘Arabi not only addressed to an academic audience, but also a wider group of Ibn ‘Arabi enthusiasts and admirers of his teachings. Information about related events and publications are found here, as well as free podcasts of lectures. Many of the contributors to the website are Ibn ‘Arabi scholars well known in the West, such as Michel Chodkiewicz, William Chittick, Claude Addas and James Morris. These authors and others have contributed original essays and articles for this website, but reproductions of articles from books and journals can also be found here in very readable format. Unfortunately, there are hardly any articles that provide information on his background and historical context, as well as the negative reaction his teachings provoked in some quarters of the Muslim world. Also, works by Ibn ‘Arabi and his commentators are found only in translation, and not in their original languages.
"Nazianzos", the website of the Centre for the Study of Gregory of Nazianzus, based at the Université catholique de Louvain in Belgium, is devoted to the life and work of the fourth-century Cappadocian theologian, Gregory of Nazianzus (c.325-390). For the most part delivered in French (although a number of sections have English versions), the site includes a brief essay on textual transmission, online databases for finding manuscripts of Gregory's Orations, bibliographies of editions and translations, and information about the Centre's activities and projects. Through an international collaboration, the Centre is also building a critical edition of Gregory's texts, while evaluating the impact of his thought on the Oriental Christian cultures. Their results can be observed through a series of annual reports (available in French only). The site also functions as a gateway to some of the material on the early church fathers available on the Internet. Directed primarily towards professional academics and research students, Nazianzos will be of use to those interested in early church history, theology or biblical hermeneutics, and particularly anyone working at the advanced level on Greek Orthodox Christianity in the fourth and fifth centuries, Gregory of Nazianzus himself, or the impact of his writings.
'Neoplatonism' is an unmoderated discussion list that has been set up by Dr Cosmin I. Andron. The list is intended to provide a forum for interested scholars to discuss all aspects of Platonism, including Neoplatonism. It contains a mixture of reviews, notices, and academic discussion on all matters Platonic. Although posts are also invited in French, Italian, and German, the vast majority are in English. This list would be of interest to advanced researchers in the field. Instructions on how to join the list are given, though current and past postings since June 2002 can be viewed without registration. There is also a link to the home page of the International Society for Neoplatonic Studies.
ProQuest's online edition of Minge's 'Patrologia Latina' is a major resource for scholars working on patristic and medieval theology. The original work was a series of over 200 volumes, first published in the mid-19th century by Jacques-Paul Migne, and contains the entire corpus of Latin Christian writing from around the 3rd century until 1216. The Patrologia Latina Database includes all prefatory material, critical apparatus, and indexes, and offers a full-text search of the entire corpus. However, as the site offers only the Latin originals of the texts, without English translations, this resource is likely to be of most interest to advanced students and researchers. Access to the database requires a subscription.
David Chalmers, professor of philosophy at Australian National University, has compiled a simple, but useful, page listing contemporary philosophers who have made available their research papers online. The materials are organised into different sections, and headings include: philosophy of mind; philosophy of language; metaphysics; epistemology; philosophy of science; philosophy of logic; mathematics; philosophy of religion; applied ethics; philosophy of consciousness; value theory; and history of philosophy. There are also sections on Medieval philosophy; 17th and 18th century philosophy; Asian philosophy; Ancient Greek philosophy; and 19th and 20th century philosophy.
The Peter Auriol home page aims to disseminate recent research into the life and works of Peter Auriol (c.1280-1322, sometimes also spelt 'Aureol', 'Oriol', or 'Aureolus'). The site provides information about current research relating to Auriol; an extensive bibliography of primary and secondary texts; links to preliminary editions or translations from his works; and annotated links to other online resources. The site is maintained by Russell L. Friedman from the Institute of Philosophy at the Catholic University of Leuven.
'Philosophers' Criticisms of Anselm's Ontological Argument for the Being of God' is a compilation of fully sourced e-text versions of extracts from the writing various philosophers put forward in response to St. Anselm's ontological argument for the existence of God. The resource was compiled by Paul Halsall, a professional historian and editor of the Internet Medieval Sourcebook, of which this site is a part. This Sourcebook itself is hosted by the website of Fordham University, USA. St. Anselm (1033-1109) proposed the ontological argument as an attempt to prove by reasoning that God exists. In broad terms, the argument states that since God is defined as the greatest conceivable being, and since a being that exists in reality is greater than a being who exists merely in the imagination, God must therefore necessarily exist. A similar version of the ontological argument was later put forward by French philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650), and this is also provided by this resource. In total, the resource provides responses by nine philosophers. They are: René Descartes; Benedict Spinoza; John Locke; Gottfried W. Leibniz; Immanuel Kant; Georg W.F. Hegel; J.A. Dorner; Lotze; and Robert Flint. The site is easy enough on the eye, with medium-size black type on a white background, and is simple to navigate, with hyperlinks to the individual responses. Those new to the subject should note that this site offers the primary texts only, without additional exposition or commentary. Nevetheless, this site would be of use to any student or scholar studying the ontological argument who wants quick access to some of the major responses to Anselm.
Philosophia Medii Aevi is an online directory of resources, conferences, and people and publications relating research on medieval philosophy. The site is hosted by the Information Systems and Knowledge Management Lab at the Università degli Studi di Milano. Specific sections include: institutions (detailing research centres, societies, and other organisations); scholars (mainly Italian scholars, with links to other directories); a diary of international conferences on medieval subjects; and research tools. The last is one of the more substantial sections of the site, and includes not only details of academic Web pages but also of electronic text corpora, journals, and printed text series. Most of the site is in Italian, although some headings are also given in English.
This is the website of the Plato Centre (formerly the Centre for the Study of the Platonic Tradition), which is part of the School of Classics at Trinity College Dublin and which aims to further the study of the history of Platonism (including Christian, Jewish, and Islamic Platonism). The site offers details of the Centre's undergraduate and postgraduate degree programmes in Platonic studies, as well as giving information on Centre members and faculty (with details of their research and publications). The site also provides information on lectures, conferences, visiting scholars, and the activities of the Centre's members, as well as details of conferences held elsewhere on themes relating to the Centre's work. There is also a list of links to other relevant online resources of interest to those studying the Platonic tradition.
Politics, Philosophy, and Medieval Studies is a website compiled by John Kilcullen of Macquarie University, Australia. It offers introductory material on various aspects of political thought, philosophy, and intellectual history. These take the form of essays, lecture notes, reading guides, and other teaching materials, accompanied by copies of a few of the primary works under discussion (some of which are in the original Latin). The site covers a wide range of authors and topics, with section headings including: Australian Politics; Epistemology, Religion, Ethics and Political Philosophy; History of Political Thought; Medieval and Early Modern Intellectual History; William of Ockham as a Political Thinker; and Medieval Philosophy. This site is likely to be of interest to undergraduate students, and perhaps also to instructors searching for examples of content, structure, and teaching methodology.
This is the website of the Dutch Research Group John Duns Scotus, which studies the work of this medieval theologian and philosopher. The site offers a short biography of Duns Scotus (1266-1308) plus a discussion of his significance. There is also a brief history of the research group, which is attached to the Franscican Study Centre in Utrecht, and a list of its current members. Details of books and articles by research group members are also given, although users should note that most of the works listed are in languages other than English. Finally, there is a list of links to other academic institutions and scholars engaged in study of Duns Scotus, which may be helpful to those looking for further information about this thinker, or to researchers seeking potential collaborators.
The Richard Rufus of Cornwall project is a scholalry undertaking to produce critical editions of the complete extant works of this important medieval scholastic philosopher-theologian who taught at the Universities of Paris and Oxford between 1231 and 1255. The project website provides an introduction to the life of Richard Rufus, a complete list of his works, the manuscripts where his texts can be found, and the incipits. Each listing is annotated with a shortdescription. A section is dedicated to his works - which have been translated into English, French, German, Italian and Spanish. Users will find an impressive bibliography, a search facility, and help with abbreviations used in the resource. There is also a brief outline of the purpose of the project, and the profile of the editors and sponsors.
The Saint Anselm Journal is a refereed online journal that publishes original articles, discussion papers, and book reviews that examine the life, thought, teachings, and influence of the Medieval Christian philosopher and theologian Saint Anselm of Canterbury. The journal is published by the Institute for Saint Anselm Studies, an academic research centre based at Saint Anselm College, New Hampshire, and it is intended to further the aim of the institute, which is to bring Saint Anselm into living contact with the culture of the 21st century. Many of its articles first appeared in colloquia or conferences hosted or sponsored by the institute. The journal was first published in Autumn 2003, and since 2005 it has appeared biannually, in spring and autumn. Current and previous editions are freely available without subscription as PDF files, and require Adobe Acrobat Reader software to be viewed. The site, which is simply designed and easy to navigate, contains information on journal editorial policy and submissions, and an index of authors published by the journal.
Squashed Philosophers is a website offering abridged versions of some classic philosophical texts. Significant works of several dozen well-known philosophers can be found here, and classical and early modern philosophy are particularly well represented. Also included are some political, psychoanalytic and scientific texts at the margins of philosophy. The abridgement has been carried out by Glyn Hughes (who has performed a similar task for some religious and literary texts). Each text is introduced with an "extremely squashed" synopsis, along with an indication of the original and the abridged length of the text. The home page contains an estimated reading time for each abridged version. Some texts are more severely condensed than others. Whilst the site suggests that squashed texts contain all the student needs for the purposes of exams, the wary undergraduate will recognise the potential pitfalls of abridgement and not abandon the original works. Squashed Philosophers would stand as a helpful summary, introduction, or refresher of the main points. Squashed Philosophers is available in a print version and purchase details are provided on the site, as is a brief guide to how best to use the site, and an invitation to recommend alterations or suggest new texts ripe for squashing.
'Summa Theologica' is an online version of St Thomas Aquinas's (c.1225-1274) influential 13th century treatise on theology and philosophy. The copy text is the 1920 revised edition translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province. The online version has benefited from the addition of links between the various sections, as well as to encyclopaedia entries. The parent site, New Advent, is the work of a Catholic layman. The resource is freely accessible, but does display advertisements around its borders. Theologians and those studying medieval philosophy should find the site of interest.
'Teaching Materials on Medieval Philosophy' is a website which offers a series of detailed guides on leading medieval philosophers and thinkers, as well as their classical precursors, and their early modern heirs, both Rationalist and Empiricist. Fundamental ideas as well as close readings of specific texts are presented. Some of the figures discussed include: Aristotle (384-322 BCE); Boethius (c.480-c.525); St. Anselm (1033-1109); al-Ghazali (1058-1111); Thomas Aquinas; John Duns Scotus (c.1266-1308); and William of Ockham (1285-1347). The guides were developed in conjunction with a series of courses and taped lectures on the medieval intellectual tradition given by the author, John Kilcullen, at Macquarie University and the University of Sydney. Descriptions of related courses can also be found on the site, and they include reading lists and essay topics. This is part of John Kilcullen's larger 'Politics, Philosophy and Medieval Studies' site, and would be of use to undergraduates seeking basic or further information on medieval and related philosophy.
'Thomas Aquinas in English: A Bibliography' is a website maintained by Thérèse Bonin. It contains a useful bibliography of works by and about the medieval Catholic philosopher and theologian St Thomas Aquinas (c.1225-1274). The list is divided into the following categories: theological syntheses; commentaries on scripture; commentaries on Aristotle; commentaries on neoplatonic texts; disputations; polemical writings; other authentic works; works of uncertain authenticity; and spurious works. There are links to online editions where available. Further links are provided to other websites of interest (e.g. on early Christian writers; medieval authors; the middle ages; and Islamic philosophy).
The Thomas Instituut te Utrecht is a collaborative organisation founded by theologians and philosophers in the Netherlands for the study of St Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274). The Institute has the status of an interuniversity institute of the Catholic Theological University at Utrecht and the Tilburg Faculty of Theology. The site provides an online database of bibliographic information relating to the works of Aquinas. The tools section of the site is especially useful for researchers new to Aquinas, where an online essay contains links to primary and secondary literature or resources, together with printed and electronic aids. The Institute also maintains an online news service.
Thomistica.net is primarily a news website devoted to the medieval philosopher and theologian, Thomas Aquinas. The site hosts news items, a newsletter (available both online and for download in a number of formats), and also offers an RSS newsfeed. The frequently updated news items are presented in blog format, and include information about new publications, conferences, and online resources. Some other resources are also provided: the documents section contains a small selection of short articles and translations relevant to Aquinas and his works, and the picture gallery offers photos of places which in some way relate to him. There is also a useful annotated links list. A valuable resource for those engaged in the study of this thinker.
The Ockham: Dialogus site presents an online edition of William of Ockham's Dialogus, funded by the British Academy as part of the Auctores Britannici Medii Aevi series. The Dialogus, written soon after 1328, purports to be a discussion between student and teacher on matters of heretics and heresies. The text can be found in a large number of manuscripts and printed editions. This online edition of the Dialogus presents a new edition and translation of the text together with extensive collations of selected sections. These include completed texts for books 1-5 of the first part which are available with drafts and completed texts for parts 2 and 3. Books in parts 1 and 3 also include draft critical editions prepared using Critical Edition Typesetting, delivered in PDF, and intended for printing. The site includes background and explanatory essays.