This online Danish Grammar by John Madsen is a comprehensive English-language guide to the grammar of the Danish language. There are two levels of commentary, the text in black being intended for all users, while the notes in blue are aimed at those wanting more advanced knowledge. The explanations and examples are clearly laid out, and grammatical information is tabulated helpfully and with convenient links between different parts of the site. Grammar topics covered include: the subjunctive, passive and imperative voices; adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions; compound words; formation of questions; word-order and clause construction. The grammar assumes some knowledge of formal grammatical terminology and will be of greatest help to language-learners already familiar with the use of grammar guides. The grammar was begun in 1998 and the author continues to revise and expand it on an ongoing basis.
The Documentation Project provides online public access to an extensive range of digitised archives and collections relating to many aspects of Norwegian language and culture, including: archaeology; ethnography; folklore; history; medieval studies; lexicography; literature; numismatics; and place-name studies. The project ran from 1991 to 1997 as a collaborative venture between the Norwegian Universities of Oslo, Bergen, Tromsø and Trondheim to convert holdings in the form of manuscripts, catalogues, pamphlets, books and index cards into electronic format. The result is a substantial information system supporting study and research in the humanities relating to Norway, with examples of available resources including: Oslo University's Runes Archives; Oslo's collection of Norwegian ballads; Bergen Museum's archaeological records of prehistoric sites and monuments in Western Norway; and the Photographic Archives at the Section for Saami Ethnography at Tromsø Museum. The word archives and electronic dictionaries cover thousands of usages of both varieties of Norwegian, Bokmål and Nynorsk, as well as the Trøndelag dialect. The literature collection contains over 45,000 pages of electronic facsimiles of work by twenty-eight Norwegian authors such as: the folklorists Asbjørnsen and Moe; the dramatists Henrik Ibsen and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson; the poets Henrik Wergeland and Petter Dass; and the novelists Camilla Collett, Alexander Kielland and Jonas Lie. The Norwegian home page for this site is more recent and accurate than the English version. A list of the online archives with helpful notation is available in English, while the contents of archives are almost entirely in Norwegian.
The website of the English-Norwegian parallel corpus (ENPC) offers information about the ENPC project and the corpus itself. The corpus was developed at the Department of British and American Studies of the Universitetet i Oslo (University of Oslo), and consists of original Norwegian texts and translations from and into English. It is intended for contrastive analysis of the two languages and translation studies. More detailed information about the corpus can be found in the ENPC manual, available on the site. The purpose of the manual is to describe the structure and explain the markup in the corpus. The ENPC manual starts with a description of the corpus, its aims and collection development policy, and proceeds to an explanation of its markup. The document has a chapter on tags used for linguistic analysis, including the markup for direct speech and thought, and word-class tagging. The manual also provides a description of the software written for the project, namely the Translation Corpus Aligner, which aligns texts automatically at the sentence level, and the Translation Corpus Explorer, which is a browser for parallel texts. The manual offers a list of texts included in the corpus and a list of word-class elements allowed by the ENPC DTD with notes on their usage. Links to publications (until 2001) and people involved with the project can also be found on the site together with links to extensions of the project. The encoding behind the corpus is in broad agreement with the TEI Guidelines, though the ENPC DTD differs from the TEI DTD in some respects, mainly through the addition of new tags and entities (all modifications to the TEI DTD are described in Appendix 3 to the document). The chapter on markup includes a detailed description of the encoding recommended for the header, text and its divisions, paragraphs, S-units, words, headings, punctuation, highlighting and quotation, foreign elements, notes, lists, figures, editorial comments, links and other textual elements.
Although the site is no longer updated, the information remains relevant.
Finnish Grammar is an uncluttered and user-friendly website designed to help beginners grasp the rudiments of the Finnish language. The grammar topics are clearly and briefly explained, and illustrated with helpful examples. These include: pronouns; adjectives; verbs; prepositions and postpositions; and conjunctions. Difficult topics such as consonant gradation, syllable division and grammatical case are also dealt with lucidly. In addition to addressing grammar, the site provides basic information about vocabulary and usage, for example selected words with overlapping meanings are explained. The Groups of words section includes vocabulary items relating to days of the week, months, nationalities, expressions of time, colours and family members. A basic Finnish-to English vocabulary is provided along with an incomplete Finnish-Catalan lexicon. Also included are two further Finno-Ugric word lists with English translations: in Northern Sámi (over 5000 entries) and Meadow Mari (over 190 entries). The guide was written by Kimberli Mäkäräinen.
Icelandic Online Dictionary and Readings is a public-access Internet resource developed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, to complement the University of Iceland's Internet course Icelandic Online. This multi-faceted and ambitious project consists of: interactive lessons and exercises, equivalent to a one-semester course in Beginning Modern Icelandic; the unabridged content of the prestigious 1989 Íslensk-ensk orðabók (Concise Icelandic-English Dictionary); and a set of readings in modern Icelandic life, literature and culture, chosen to exemplify different usages of Icelandic and varying levels of linguistic difficulty. The dictionary, updated and expanded from its original published edition, is searchable by full entry or by headword, and includes recent data gathered at the University of Iceland on word morphology. The Icelandic Online Course pages give free access to a fully automated self-instruction course comprising a range of tasks and learning activities. The site has hyperlinks to extracts from the course reader Carry on Icelandic, and to a number of articles on contemporary Icelandic life and culture taken from the Icelandic newspaper Morgunblaðið.
The website for IGLO (Intercomprehension in Germanic Languages Online) aims to foster cross-linguistic comprehension (rather than production) among the Germanic languages, and their teaching to people who already speak closely-related languages. The language of instruction can be selected from the IGLO course interactive map, and include: Danish; Dutch; English; German; Icelandic; Norwegian; and Swedish. Once a language of instruction has been selected, simple instructions in that language guide the user through further material, including histories of the Germanic languages, and comparative Germanic. For the Germanic languages listed, users will also find information on spelling and grammar, glossing-tools, and encyclopaedic facts. At the time of cataloguing, a page of sound-spelling correspondences was under development. Further links on the site provide access to three reference grammars for each language (a mini grammar, a reader's grammar and a reference grammar), a glossing device, links to dictionaries and other tools of use to the student, as well as to general information on the IGLO project, which is a collaboration between the Universities of Tromsø, Hagen, Lund, Salzburg, Iceland, and Antwerp, and the Copenhagen Business School. IGLO should be of use to those interested in the relationships between Germanic languages, and for those hoping to improve their comprehension abilities. At the time of review the coverage seemed somewhat patchy and the site hadn't been updated since 2003. This may still be a useful resource.
Mímir is an online, quick-reference grammar book for the Icelandic language, covering the key areas of adjectives, adverbs, definite articles, conjunctions, nouns, pronouns, prepositions, verbs and numbers. Each section has hyperlinks to the other topics on the site and links to related subtopics. Mímir will assist those wishing to read, and particularly to write Icelandic, by making available at a touch tabulated information about the case inflections and verb conjugations that can make Icelandic a challenging language to learn. There is also some further explanation of certain grammatical topics, for example the formation of tenses, the Middle Voice, and the use of prepositions. The site author, John Tebbutt, has drawn on Stefán Einarsson's Icelandic and P.J.T Glendening's grammar, also called Icelandic, to create this clear and helpful electronic notebook.
This resource is the website of the Norwegian Researchers and Teachers Association of North America (NORTANA), a non-profit educational organisation aimed at supporting study of Norwegian language, literature and culture whether this takes place in the context of universities, language schools, community education or self-study. There is information about the activities of NORTANA along with links to Scandinavian Studies Departments and online syllabuses in Norwegian at North American Universities. The usefulness of the site extends well beyond its target North American audience however. There is discussion of teaching methods, language learning materials and technology for the benefit of teachers, while details of grants and opportunities for study in Norway are provided for students. The online grammar explanations and web exercises include information on Norwegian vocabulary and usage, reading exercises and language lessons. There are also links to a wide range of sites arranged under the subject headings of: arts, culture and entertainment; history and language; news and media; business and economy; and geography, nature and environment.
Norwegian Grammar is a website jointly maintained by St Olaf College, Minnesota, and the Norwegian Teachers Association of North America, an educational organisation aimed at supporting students and teachers of Norwegian at all levels. This brief guide to Norwegian grammar covers key topics such as: word order; noun forms; definite and indefinite adjectives; possessive, demonstrative and relative pronouns; and verb tenses and voices. The explanations and examples are clear and easy to use, and there are short quizzes to allow users to self-test their knowledge. The site provides hyperlinks to other more detailed sources of information about Norwegian grammar and pronunciation, and further web lessons in Norwegian.
Online resources for the study of Norwegian, maintained by Tom Nichol, is an extensive and up-to-date collection of links to websites covering Norwegian language and culture. Most of the links are annotated in English but a few descriptions are in Norwegian. Users may access electronic dictionaries in both varieties of Norwegian, Bokmål and Nynorsk; an illustrated Norwegian-English dictionary; and the Skandinavisk Ordbok which contains approximately 10,000 terms in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish. There are also sources of information about Norwegian grammar, pronunciation and linguistic usage, and a hyperlink to Eyvind Fjeld Halvorsen's essay explaining the background to Norway's development of Nynorsk and Bokmål. Other resources include: details of online and distance Norwegian language courses; Norwegian-language news sources; and radio and television broadcasts. For those interested in Scandinavian literature, there are a number of links to Norwegian literary resources online, as well as information about libraries and book shops in Norway.
Språkbanken (the Swedish Language Bank) holds a large, comprehensive electronic corpus of written Swedish. It is based on works of fiction, legal texts, official reports and daily newspapers. The corpus runs to about 75 million words. Information is given for all words on frequency of use through the whole corpus, and within individual texts. Encoding includes annotations on parts-of-speech for all words.The collection is searchable through the Web or Telnet. Individual words can be analysed, and there is limited support for multiple word and phrase searching. Results show frequency of use, the keyword-in-context (the length of surrounding text can be altered), and citations. Results can be saved as a file and obtained through anonymous FTP from the Bank of Swedish.Included in the corpus are the collected works of C. J. L. Almqvist, C. M. Bellman, and August Strindberg. There is also a historical corpus of Old Swedish, consisting of about 2 million words, and a corpus of 19th century novels consisting of about 3.7 million words. This is a valuable resource for anyone interested in Swedish or corpus linguistics.