This resource is available via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website, and can be downloaded as a zipped file in AIFF format. It is necessary to apply for approval from the OTA before download, and a link is provided to the terms and conditions of use, and a form to apply for permission. The project aims to gather a substantial corpus of natural speech from children in the early stages of acquisition of Welsh as a first language, and consists of weekly tapes of 30-45 minutes over 9 months. The project also aims to investigate the development of syntax, especially clause structure, and to map out the typical pattern of development; and to use recent work on the development of syntax to illuminate the early stages of the development of Welsh syntax. The Welsh data will be used to evaluate ideas about parameter setting and functional categories that have emerged in recent work on the development of syntax.
This is the home page of the "Argumentum", the peer-reviewed e-journal published by the Graduate School for Linguistics at the University of Debrecen, Hungary. The site is bilingual, Hungarian and English, thus being available to a wide scholarly audience. However, the introduction and the guidelines for submissions of articles are written only in Hungarian. The English version of these can be read under the "technical guide". Argumentum is published once a year. The articles in the review are written in a variety of languages. They can be accessed either through the "content" menu which directs to the latest issue or through the "archive". The first "Argumentum" appeared in 2005. The focus of the annual covers literary and linguistic studies in all areas of world literature, of various tongues and from the middle ages onward. The articles are in PDF format. The site also offers a link to the home page of the Department of Linguistics at the University of Debrecen.
The Autolexical Grammar website is an introduction to the theory created and developed by Eric Schiller and Jerrold M. Sadock, among others. It is a generative theory of language in the vein of Chomskyan theory although it has departed quite far from the origin. For example, Autolexical Grammar is non-derivational and non-transformational as opposed to classical generative grammars. One important feature is the independence of different dimensions of linguistic representation. The theory works with at least three dimensions, syntactic; morphological; and semantic. The variety described here stipulates at least two more, discourse and phonetic dimensions. Each one of these dimensions is independent and static, that is, no transformations or rewriting occurs. The different dimensions are, however, exposed to the others and what usually was handled by transformational or rewrite rules is handled by the interface between the dimensions. The site gives a theoretic and quite dense introduction to the theory with a reference list at the bottom. Still this article is a useful introduction to a modern grammar theory useful for students and researchers in linguistics.
Maintained by Michel Buijs of the University of Utrecht, this up-to-date online bibliography lists books and articles which will be of use to those working on various aspects of ancient Greek linguistics. The list is divided thematically into the following topics: clause types (participial clauses and subclauses); particles; pragmatics and word order; tense/aspect; reference works; and a miscellaneous section. There is also a list of links to other web resources for linguistics. The works which are featured on the list are written in a wide range of European languages. Most were written in the last twenty years, although reference is made to key texts from as far back as the late nineteenth century.
This is the repository of digital recordings of lectures held at the Collège de France and École normale supérieure, Paris, and contains a growing list of recorded lectures on a variety of topics. The audio and video recordings of the lectures are available in compressed MP4 format and are often accompanied by additional material in PDF format, usually handouts and PowerPoint presentations; lectures can be accessed from a list of speakers or topics as well as from a calendar. Most files are very large and should be downloaded before attempting to open them. All lectures include both the presentation and following discussion; many lectures are part of a series given by one author; most published lectures are in French.
Topics include archaeology (e.g. Chris Scarre on the megalithic monuments of the British Isles; Colin Renfrew on the Indo-Europeans; Carlo Zaccagnini on economy and society in the ancient Near East); history; art; philosophy of science (e.g. Marc Hauser on the evolution of aesthetics, mathematics, language and morality); language studies, epigraphy and linguistics (e.g. Harry Falk on the epigraphical evidence on the history of the Indo-Scythian and Indo-Parthian dynasties; Albert de Jong on the Zoroastrian text Avesta during the Sassanian period; Sheldon Pollock on Sanskrit before colonialism; Richie S. Kayne on comparative syntax; Francisco Jarauta on Cervantes' Don Quixote); music (e.g. Guerino Mazzola on musical logic); philosophy and cognitive studies (e.g. Patrick Suppes on the neuropsychological foundations of philosophy; Ian Maclean on defining nature; Richard Andersen on the evolution of brain-machine interfaces). There are also a few lectures on biology; earth sciences; mathematics; and physics.
English Language and Linguistics is a biannual journal which focuses on the description of the English language within the framework of contemporary linguistics. It covers a range of theoretical perspectives, including syntax; morphology; phonology; semantics; pragmatics; corpus linguistics; and lexis. The site has a link to Cambridge Journals Online, where free tables of contents and abstracts of articles, starting with volume 1, 1997, are provided. For registered users, there is the additional benefit of email alerting. The journal is available to institutions in print and electronic form, and to individuals in print only. Discounts are available to members of the European Society for the Study of English, the Linguistic Society of America, and the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language.
The website describing the project The English Noun Phrase: an Empirical Study provides an overview of the methodology of this research. There are downloadable documents detailing the project's aims and a final report outlining what was achieved. The project was run from the Department of English at University College, London (UCL) and was headed by Dr Evelien Keizer. The website is of interest to those studying or researching linguistics, and universal functions of the noun in particular. The aim of the project was to study the English noun phrase in the context of the British Component of the International Corpus of English (ICE-GB), a corpus of over one million words. There is a bibliography to the project, and an comprehensive methodological explanation, as well as examples of the usage of Fuzzy Tree Fragments. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
Entwicklung und Implementierung eines Datenbanksystems zur Speicherung und Verarbeitung von Textkorpora is an online dissertation on the design of database systems for the storage and processing of text corpora. The dissertation starts with: an introduction to corpus linguistics; and an overview of some early and modern corpora including: the British National Corpus (BNC); the Bank of English; and the German language corpora developed at the Institut für Deutsche Sprache in Mannheim. The author discusses various aspects of corpus annotation, including: the choice of part-of-speech tag sets; automatic part-of-speech tagging; disambiguation; and parsing. The chapter on corpus analysis tools gives an overview of: text analysis and concordancing software; and such corpus analysis systems as: SARA developed for the BNC; COSMAS developed for work with German language corpora at the Institut für Deutsche Sprache in Mannheim; and the IMS Corpus Workbench developed at the Institut für Maschinelle Sprachverarbeitung in Stuttgart.
Subsequent chapters discuss the encoding of texts for linguistic corpora using SGML (Standard Generalised Markup Language) and the TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) Guidelines. The discussion of corpus markup includes 'Tokenisierung' - the identification of: whitespace; words; sentences; figures and punctuation to be encoded; and the building of corpus and text headers following the guidelines for the TEI header. The rest of the dissertation describes the design and building of a text database using the corpus database system CORSICA.
This website, published by the Generative Grammar Group of the University of Geneva's Department of Linguistics, makes available research papers by its members of staff, advanced students, and researchers working in associated universities in the field of generative grammar, a theory of language proposed by Professor Noam Chomsky. Published in annual volumes, with the first appearing in 2000, the full-text papers are available as downloadable PDFs with abstracts in HTML. The papers are diverse, examining such areas as the external possessor construction in West Flemish; French adjective ordering; the architecture of the clause in Jamaican creole; the antisymmetry of Turkish; Scandinavian PF-Verb movement; and the ti/tu interrogative morpheme in Quebec French. Papers of a more general, theoretical nature also feature strongly. Most papers are written in English, although a small number are in French.
This is the website for Generative Linguistics in the Old World (GLOW), a European organisation that aims to promote the study of Generative Grammar and bring together its professional practitioners throughout the world. GLOW organises an annual conference and occasional summer schools, details of which are available on the site. A newsletter is published twice a year and the latest version available on the site as a PDF: as well as information about GLOW's activities, this document contains short scholarly articles. GLOW publishes a scholarly journal, The Linguistic Review, and a link to the journal's publisher page is included. This particular page details the journal's contents. Users will also find membership information on the site: membership offers certain benefits such as book discounts. Researchers working on generative grammar may find this a useful resource in terms of keeping up-to-date with work in the field.
The Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) project home page is a resource containing information about the theory of HPSG as well as useful links to other sites dedicated to the theory. The resource contains a manual and a short introduction to leading ideas of HPSG along with links to publications by the project and conference proceedings, many in PDF format. This site is useful for students of grammar and computational linguistics. The theory of HPSG is a lexical approach to grammar theory and is based on the assumption that the lexical heads of syntactic structures select other constituents according to both syntactic and semantic criteria.
The official homepage of the International Systemic Functional Linguistics Association (ISFLA) contains, information about the association; an introduction to the theory; links to software; and links other Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) organisation. In addition there are links to mailing lists and publications concerning the theory. SFL is a theory of language proposed by the English linguist Michael Halliday. The basic idea behind the theory is that the function of the language determines its form and that information is conveyed through systemic choices within the language. This site is a good starting point for anyone interested in SFL and functions as an introduction to the theory as well as a contact point for those interested in further research.
This online course in English grammar, written in 1996-1998, was designed at the Survey of English Usage, a research unit based at University College London, and is funded by Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). It contains sections on word classes; phrases; clauses; sentences; form and function; a glossary of linguistic terms; grammar exercises; and a bibliography section. It is intended for university graduates and anyone interested in the English language (including teachers of English as a foreign language and learners). It is freely available to users from UK educational institutions. It is also available on CD-ROM.
This website is an introduction to traditional grammar for students of medieval literature. Written and edited by Dr Bella Millet of Southampton University, the site seeks to present the varieties of medieval grammar in an historically contextualised manner. The site is divided into two main sections: basic grammar (that is, modern grammar) - for example, syntax and parts of speech; Old English - basic grammar equivalents in Old English.There is also a very useful index of grammatical terms, complete with links to explanations and examples.
The KPML (Komet-Penman multilingual) one-point access page serves as a Web portal for the free and downloadable KPML software which is a text generation and grammar creation platform. It allows researchers or students to work with grammars within the framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics (a theory of language created by M. A. K. Halliday, which is based on the assumption that the function of language determines its form). The framework is language independent and may be used for descriptions of any language. The site gives access to partial descriptions of a number of languages, such as English, Chinese, Czech and Russian. The platform is designed for three types of users; grammar developers, linguistics students and researchers within the field of natural language generation. Different distributions of the software are provided for different uses of the framework.
This online version of Edward Sapir's famous book presents his views on language, 'its variability in place and time', and 'its relations to other fundamental human interests - the problem of thought, the nature of the historical process, race, culture, art'. The book discusses important linguistic issues such as language and form; grammatical concepts and grammatical processes; the elements of speech; the sounds of language; language contact, variation and change; language, race and culture; language and literature. The book is a must for every student of linguistics. A detailed alphabetical index makes the online edition easy to use as a reference source.
The Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) home page is a collection of resources connected to the theory of LFG. The site contains articles and an extensive bibliography along with links to different projects within the LFG framework and some useful questions and answers that function as introduction to the theory. The site is created and maintained by Doug Arnold, Lecturer at the Department of Language and Linguistics at the University of Essex. LFG is a grammar theory concerned with the morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics of natural language. An important feature of this theory is that, in the description of language, there are two fundamental levels of syntactic representation: constituent structure (c-structure) and functional structure (f-structure). This site is useful for researchers and students of grammar theories.
Linguistic Discovery is a freely available electronic journal devoted to the description and analysis of primary linguistic data with particular attention toward lesser-studied languages and linguistic phenomena. The publications cover topics in syntax, phonology and morphology focusing on rare and endangered languages. Users will find studies on languages such as: Krio in Mexico; Hellenistic Greek; Itelmen in Kamchatka peninsula in Russia; Kaqchikel in Guatemala; Oroqen in China; Paumari in the Brazilian Amazon; and many others whose names are hardly heard. The articles can be viewed in PDF or HTML format. The website contains several sections: the current issue of the journal; the archive; submission information; and registration for membership for those who want to be notified of new issues. Users may browse articles by title, author, language, or the key words in the abstract or document. The journal was launched in 2002, and is published twice a year by the Dartmouth College Library (USA). Manuscripts incorporating original data coming from any sub-discipline within linguistics especially dealing with endangered or lesser-studied languages are considered for publication. The site is an interesting resource for linguists, both undergraduates and researchers.
Linguistik Online is a peer reviewed e-journal for linguistics, published by the University of Bern, founded in cooperation with the Europa Universität Viadrina in Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany). It covers discourse analysis; history of language; language acquisition; history of linguistics; theoretical linguistics; morphology; syntax; pragmatics; semantics; sociolinguistics. 2-5 issues a year have been published since 1998. Articles are mainly in German or English, some are in French or Spanish. The introduction to the journal is in four languages (German, English, Frech, Spanish).
The website of Manfred Krifka, professor of Linguistics at the Humboldt University of Berlin, contains information about his academic roles and his contributions to aspects of syntax-semantics interface. Professor Krifka has written on a wide range of languages and a variety of linguistic issues. The themes he has addressed include: modality; association with focus; vagueness; contextual dependency; pragmatics; adverbial quantification; relative clauses; polarity items; aspects of plurals; genericity; measure adjectives; and telicity. The languages he has studied include: English; German; Swahili; and Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea. The most useful part of this site is the large number of Krifka's research articles, including The origins of telicity, which can be downloaded for free from the site. Articles are in PDF format. The website is available in both English and German, with contributions appearing in one or the other language. The website will prove invaluable to undergraduates, graduates and faculty, as it contains expository and specialist contributions of the highest quality. The website is available in frames version only.
Richard (Dick) Hudson is Professor of Linguistics at the Department of Phonetics and Linguistics at University College London. His research interests are mainly in syntax and grammar, and his non-research interests are in sociolinguistics and educational linguistics. The site offers rich and freely accessible resources for linguists working in related areas. It provides an overview of Word Grammar, Professor Hudson's theory of language structure; an annotated list of main publications; an Encyclopedia of English Grammar and Word Grammar which can be viewed online or downloaded in various formats; a number of annotated downloadable papers (in compressed format); lecture handouts from Word Grammar; and a list of other professional interests and activities (such as linguistics at school). Links to other useful documents (such as the National Curriculum for English, or the Nuffield Enquiry into Language) can be found under the Linguistics and Education section.
The website of Richard Larson, professor of Linguistics at Stony Brook University, contains: a collection of his publications and presentations on semantics and syntax; descriptions of his research and teaching projects; and details of his contribution to the development of computer application software, Syntactica and Semantica, to accompany the educational projects. The topics covered include: events; modification in nominals; time measure; possessive DPs; light predicate; quantification; control theory; adjunct clauses; double object construction; indefinite and emphatic pronouns; adverbs; and Ezafe construction. Larson's publications deal predominantly with the grammar of English. However, construction types from other languages are also studied both in their own right and to shed light on the grammatical principles underpinning the corresponding English constructions. The languages have included: Farsi; Fongbe; Japanese; and Haitian Creole. The research projects in which Professor Larson has participated are Adjective interpretation, and The comparative grammar of intensional transitive verbs. He has also participated in the educational project The grammar as science (GAS) and the writing of the corresponding book, whose aims include facilitating the acquisition of certain basic analytic skills through a scientific study of grammars of natural languages. Syntactica, the companion to GAS, allows the user to construct a grammar of a language through interacting with the computer, and Semantica interactively generates a semantic theory of a language. The project associated with Semantica is under development. Some of the articles and details of the projects are available on the site in PDF or HTML. The website is useful for undergraduates, graduates and faculty.
Rutgers Optimality Archive is a free access, online archive of articles concerned with research within the Optimality Theory. Anyone can post an article to the archive and the moderators will only refuse articles that are deemed to be not relevant to the goals. There is no reviewing or assessment of quality of the articles but they have to be in and about Optimality Theory (OT). OT is a theory that states that a grammar of a certain language is determined by a set of ordered constraints that will decide which of all possible input will be grammatical in that language. Although the set of constraints is universal and common to all grammars, the order of them are what decides what is grammatical and what is not. OT is considered an extension of Generative Grammar. This site is useful for anyone researching Optimality Theory.
SMULTRON (Stockholm MULtilingual TReebank) is a parallel treebank initially developed by the Computational Linguistics Group at the Department of Linguistics, at Stockholm University. There are around 1000 sentences from a novel and some reports, in three languages, Swedish, English and German, that have been part of speech and syntactically annotated. The site contains a list of publications regarding the project, the articles downloadable as PDF-files, information about the project, the tag schemes and methods used. The obtain the corpus, free of charge, an application form can be filled in on the site. The site is somewhat confusing but this is still a valuable resource for anyone interested in Swedish, English or German grammar or translation studies.
Snippets is a peer-reviewed, online journal that publishes very short articles, snippets, that, for example, point out inconsistencies in theories; assumptions that are needed for a theory; empiric data that doesn't fit or support a certain theory; or point to less well known literature relevant for the subject. Snippets publishes articles that contribute to the study of syntax and semantics in generative grammar. The archive contains all articles from issue 1, 2000 and the articles are downloadable as PDF-files. This site is a valuable resource for anyone interested in generative grammar or linguistics in general.
Studia Linguistica is an international forum providing original research on theoretical linguistics, primarily in the fields of grammar, cognitive semantics, and language typology. The site offers journal contents and abstracts (dating back to 1997); a sample article (full-text); information for contributors; and a contents alerting service (Select). Full-text access is available to members of subscribing institutions; online subscription is also available. Alternatively, individuals may purchase single issues or articles.
Syntax is a scholarly journal which provides a forum for debates on topics concerning syntactic research. Discussion topics include: historical antecedents of current ideas; methodological, interdisciplinary and philosophical issues; issues for undergraduate and graduate teaching of interdisciplinary syntax. The journal is published three times a year. It can be accessed online by members of subscribing institutions (ask librarian for more details). Alternatively, individual issues or articles can be purchased online (there is a link to the Ingenta Pay-Per-View service). The site has a clear structure and is easy to navigate. It offers a general overview of the journal; a link to contents and abstracts; a free sample article in PDF format; submission information for contributors; and a link to Ingenta Journals offering online access to subscribers.
Syntax of natural language is an online version of a textbook about natural language syntax. It is an introduction to the theory of generative grammar that is useful for students and researchers not familiar with the theory. Created and developed by Noam Chomsky, generative grammar is concerned with the generation and learning of natural language in accordance with an innate language faculty often referred to as universal grammar. The textbook addresses some important topics within the general theoretical framework, such as, x-bar theory, wh-movements, case and binding theories. In addition, the resource also contains an online introduction to a computer program for drawing syntactic trees, the Trees program.
This is the home page of the Systemic Meaning Modelling Group at the Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. It contains information about the research activities and projects by the group along with more general information about Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), the linguistic theory founded by M. A. K. Halliday. SFG is based on the belief that language is about meaning and that its main function is communication. The theory suggests that the study of grammar should make use of empirical data such as language corpora. The site is divided into two parts. The first part is concerned with the group itself and contains information about the members and their research. The second part contains more general information about Systemic Functional Grammar. It is aimed both at prospective students and curious readers. Although the Virtual Library contains some dead links at the time of review it also contains some useful articles about the theory. The article 'Systemic functional grammar: a first step into the theory' by Christian Matthiessen and M. A. K. Halliday is a good and quite comprehensive introduction to the most important elements of SFG and is recommended for anyone interested in getting to know the theory.
This is the website for the Tycho Brahe project, based at the University of São Paulo. The project aims to research the relationship between prosody and syntax in the process of language change that led from Classical Portuguese to Modern European Portuguese. As well as linguistic and mathematical research, the project is also producing the Tycho-Brahe Parsed Corpus of Historical Portuguese, and a Comparative Tagged Corpus of Spoken Modern European Portuguese and Brazilian Portuguese. The former comprises texts written by Portuguese authors between 1550 and 1850, made available electronically for educational and research purposes. The user must complete an access-request form to download the texts and a link to the Tycho-Brahe Corpus is available through this site. The latter Corpus consists of categorized recorded registers of speakers of both dialects. The main website features all the papers, downloadable in PDF or Word format, written as part of the project between 1998 and 2003. Abstracts of the papers are also available. The user may also access details of the sub-projects in HTML, and information about the project's meeting and seminars. Although this site seems no longer to be updated it will be of interest to anyone working within the field of Portuguese linguistics.
The UAM (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid) corpus tool site gives access to software for downloading that enables the annotation of text corpora. The tool allows the creation of an annotation scheme within the framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics and may be used to annotate text according to the scheme. The annotation is done in XML and is saved in separate files which allows for overlapping analyses. The annotation uses system networks to describe the texts. The software allows searches of the texts according to features coded in the analysis. The site contains a manual for running the software and designing and using the annotation schemes. This tool is useful for researchers and students that need to annotate and analyse texts according to the theory of Systemic Functional Linguistics.
Word Grammar is a part of Richard 'Dick' Hudson's personal homepage. On this site he gives an introduction to his theory of language structure. Hudson has worked with linguistic theory for thirty years and his theories have developed during this time. What began as a variety of Systemic Functional Grammar went through Daughter-Dependency Grammar to what is now known as Word Grammar. Language is a network of knowledge that is a part of a general network of knowledge, although still quite distinct but not separated from it. Linguistic representation is expressed in dependencies and relations between words, and to some extent morphemes, and although phrase structures are implicit in this hierarchy it is not as such a phrase structure grammar. It is an attempt to simplify linguistic representation, or rather, the representation of linguistic knowledge, and is thus monostratal and prefers flat structures. This is to some extent a reaction to Chomskyan Generative (Transformational Grammar) with its abundance of hidden and not realised structures. The website contains besides an introduction to his theory a bibliography of works, mostly by Hudson, some handouts for courses and links to articles that explain his theory in more detail. This is a good introduction to modern grammar theory and useful for researchers and students alike.