The ATT-Meta Project: Metaphor, Metonymy and Mental States website presents and describes a project for creating a reasoning system called ATT-Meta. The purpose is to conduct reasoning about metaphoric utterances and mental states. The reasoning is done within a general purpose framework and is rule based. The system is not able to take natural language input but works, instead, with logical representations of such utterances. The site contains a list of publications regarding the project and the subject in general where the articles are downloadable as PDF-files. In addition there is a set of pages concerned with databank and the formalisation of data within the system. This site is useful for anyone interested in computational linguistics implementation of reasoning systems and metaphors and mental states in general.
The Autolexical Grammar website is an introduction to the theory created and developed by Eric Schiller and Jerrold M. Sadock, among others. It is a generative theory of language in the vein of Chomskyan theory although it has departed quite far from the origin. For example, Autolexical Grammar is non-derivational and non-transformational as opposed to classical generative grammars. One important feature is the independence of different dimensions of linguistic representation. The theory works with at least three dimensions, syntactic; morphological; and semantic. The variety described here stipulates at least two more, discourse and phonetic dimensions. Each one of these dimensions is independent and static, that is, no transformations or rewriting occurs. The different dimensions are, however, exposed to the others and what usually was handled by transformational or rewrite rules is handled by the interface between the dimensions. The site gives a theoretic and quite dense introduction to the theory with a reference list at the bottom. Still this article is a useful introduction to a modern grammar theory useful for students and researchers in linguistics.
The Web page of Barbara Abbott, professor of Linguistics and Philosophy at Michigan State University, contains a collection of her research articles on various topics in semantic theory, pragmatics and philosophy of language, her main areas of specialisation. The topics covered include: presuppositions; indicative conditionals; proper names; definite and indefinite noun phrases; definite descriptions; language of thought; theories of quotation; analytic truth; specificity; and referentiality. Her papers, most of which can be downloaded in HTML or PDF, are grouped into four categories: articles; reviews; manuscripts; and work in progress. The section on articles collects the papers that feature in journals, books, and conference proceedings. The section on manuscripts contains papers that have not yet been published. Some of these papers, however, may have been presented in conferences or workshops. The section on work in progress simply indicates her current research interests. The papers that are available to download represent the crucial contribution that Abbott has made to the study of meaning. Full appreciation of her work and the concepts discussed, however, comes with acquaintance with the contents of some of the papers that are not available on her Web page. The Web page contains details of a seminar series on pragmatics, with downloadable papers by scholars such as H. P. Grice and Scott Weinstein. While most of the downloadable papers by Abbott are original and technical, some are of a purely expository nature. This makes her Web page a useful resource for undergraduates, postgraduates and faculty members alike.
The website of Barbara Partee professor Emeritus in Linguistics and Philosophy at the University of Massachusetts, contains some of her academic work. Her main contribution to linguistic and philosophical research is in formal semantics, in connection with syntax, pragmatics and logic, especially in the areas of compositional semantics, quantification, topic-focus structure, and more recently, in lexical semantics and the genitive construction. She is the authority in interpreting, simplifying, disseminating and developing Montague-semantics, originating with the logician Richard Montague (1930-1971), who proceeded from the assumption that for the purposes of formal analysis, there is no major difference between natural and formalised languages (first-order and higher-order languages, and programming languages). The site contains a full list of her research publications, a substantial portion of which is available in PDF, and her past and current projects. The projects (in corroboration with Vladimir Borschev) are The Russian Genitive of Negation: Integration of Lexical and Compositional Semantics, and Integration of Lexical and Compositional Semantics: Genitives in English and Russian. The descriptions of the projects and their respective bibliographies can be downloaded from the Web page in PDF. The Web page provides: a summary of her research and teaching interests; links to her lecture notes, which are lucid expositions of more technical concepts and techniques in modern formal semantics; useful links to resources in formal and computational semantics generally; and academic activities in the linguistics department. Although Partee retired in 2004, her Web page is still regularly updated.
This is the site for the Centro de linguística da Universidade de Lisboa, an interdisciplinary academic research centre that focuses on fostering scholarship in the field of theoretical and applied lingistics. It hosts a range of research projects, inlcuding: the descriptive grammar of contemporary European Portuguese; psichoanalytical and phonological research; textual criticism and textual research; and others. Each of the projects has its own detailed website to introduce it and its research staff in more detail. The site also allows access to a long list of online resources that show the variety of Portuguese research into linguistics. The corpuses include that of the dialectal corpus for the study of syntax, corpus of spoken Portugues; corpus of European Portuguese, a contrastive corpus between African and European Portuguese. The site also displays a bibliography of the work of its researchers and allows access to the Centre's institutional library. This is a particularly useful and informative site for theoretical and applied linguists, and for students of Portuguese lingustics.
English Language and Linguistics is a biannual journal which focuses on the description of the English language within the framework of contemporary linguistics. It covers a range of theoretical perspectives, including syntax; morphology; phonology; semantics; pragmatics; corpus linguistics; and lexis. The site has a link to Cambridge Journals Online, where free tables of contents and abstracts of articles, starting with volume 1, 1997, are provided. For registered users, there is the additional benefit of email alerting. The journal is available to institutions in print and electronic form, and to individuals in print only. Discounts are available to members of the European Society for the Study of English, the Linguistic Society of America, and the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language.
The website describing the project The English Noun Phrase: an Empirical Study provides an overview of the methodology of this research. There are downloadable documents detailing the project's aims and a final report outlining what was achieved. The project was run from the Department of English at University College, London (UCL) and was headed by Dr Evelien Keizer. The website is of interest to those studying or researching linguistics, and universal functions of the noun in particular. The aim of the project was to study the English noun phrase in the context of the British Component of the International Corpus of English (ICE-GB), a corpus of over one million words. There is a bibliography to the project, and an comprehensive methodological explanation, as well as examples of the usage of Fuzzy Tree Fragments. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The Berkeley FrameNet project home page is an online lexical resource for English. The resource is based on frame semantics and its analyses are supported by evidence gathered from language corpora. The basic idea of frame semantics is to place each use of a word in a frame of semantic and syntactic relations that illustrates its meaning and uses. The site contains examples of the different ways of annotating words along with an extensive documentation of the theory and methods used. In addition the site contains a discussion forum, some articles and a PDF version of the book FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice. This resource is useful for researchers and students of lexical semantics and anyone interested in a lexical semantic description of English.
The Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) project home page is a resource containing information about the theory of HPSG as well as useful links to other sites dedicated to the theory. The resource contains a manual and a short introduction to leading ideas of HPSG along with links to publications by the project and conference proceedings, many in PDF format. This site is useful for students of grammar and computational linguistics. The theory of HPSG is a lexical approach to grammar theory and is based on the assumption that the lexical heads of syntactic structures select other constituents according to both syntactic and semantic criteria.
HILT (High-Level Thesaurus) is a project aiming to address the problem of cross-searching and browsing a wide variety of different communities and resource types, including libraries, museums, archives, electronic services, the DNR, clumps, the DNER, Intute, and bibliographic and numeric databases. Establishing a means by which such cross-searching might be made possible would be of obvious value to researchers. Reports on Phase I to Phase IV are available from the website. The project is now in its fourth phase. The website relates the progress made towards the project goals and also provides a number of links to various specialist thesauri, ranging from the 'Access to Asian Vegetables Thesauri' to the 'Thesaurus for Australian Transport Index'. Additionally, there is an A-Z of vocabulary resources, and a number of special reports and presentations illustrating the issues being explored. The project received funding from the Research Support Libraries Programme (RSLP), and receives ongoing funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC).
The official homepage of the International Systemic Functional Linguistics Association (ISFLA) contains, information about the association; an introduction to the theory; links to software; and links other Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) organisation. In addition there are links to mailing lists and publications concerning the theory. SFL is a theory of language proposed by the English linguist Michael Halliday. The basic idea behind the theory is that the function of the language determines its form and that information is conveyed through systemic choices within the language. This site is a good starting point for anyone interested in SFL and functions as an introduction to the theory as well as a contact point for those interested in further research.
Journal of Semantics is a scholarly forum for research into the semantics of natural languages. Its approach is clearly interdisciplinary, and the journal invites contributions from the areas of philosophical, psychological and linguistic semantics, as well as other related areas (logic, artificial intelligence, and anthropology). The site offers access to journal contents and abstracts (starting from volume 1, number 1, 1982); information for authors; content alerting service; and links to related journals. Articles are available only by subscription.
The Web page of Kai von Fintel, associative professor of Linguistics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), contains a comprehensive collection of his papers on a wide range of topics in semantic theory and pragmatics. The topics covered include: various forms of modals and modality; conditionals; tense; bare plurals; quantifiers and adverbial quantifiers; if-clauses; and presuppositions. Some of these papers appear in journals, conference proceedings, and books. Some served as handouts of work presented in colloquia, workshops and conferences in linguistics and philosophy, in USA and various countries in Europe. Other papers assume the form of: manuscripts, as they have not yet been published; and lecture notes, as they form research material for classes and seminars given at MIT and other universities. Von Fintel wrote some of his papers with Sabine Iatridou. Papers and slides are available in PDF and possibly MP3. The Web page is regularly updated, and some articles have even been revised since publication or presentation. It will prove immensely useful for undergraduates and postgraduates for its provision of clear and accessible lecture notes. Specialist researchers will also greatly benefit from the wealth of articles downloadable from this website including: papers by Barbara Partee and Achille Varzi; and papers by other authors published in other online semantics resources linked to this Web page. The choice of the colour black to indicate a visited site is unfortunate, as it makes it difficult to identify clickable resources once they have been accessed.
Kent Bach is professor in the Department of Philosophy at San Francisco State University. His personal home page includes online versions of his publications in the area of the philosophy of language, especially speech-acts and conversational implicature. Bach is also concerned with philosophical problems surrounding referring and belief-reports, and issues at the intersection between mind and world, such as self-deception and truth. Aside from articles on these topics, he has also published a large number of reviews and encyclopaedia entries, also included on the site. Also featured near the bottom of the home page is a select set of links to philosophy and other sites of interest.
The Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) home page is a collection of resources connected to the theory of LFG. The site contains articles and an extensive bibliography along with links to different projects within the LFG framework and some useful questions and answers that function as introduction to the theory. The site is created and maintained by Doug Arnold, Lecturer at the Department of Language and Linguistics at the University of Essex. LFG is a grammar theory concerned with the morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics of natural language. An important feature of this theory is that, in the description of language, there are two fundamental levels of syntactic representation: constituent structure (c-structure) and functional structure (f-structure). This site is useful for researchers and students of grammar theories.
The website of Manfred Krifka, professor of Linguistics at the Humboldt University of Berlin, contains information about his academic roles and his contributions to aspects of syntax-semantics interface. Professor Krifka has written on a wide range of languages and a variety of linguistic issues. The themes he has addressed include: modality; association with focus; vagueness; contextual dependency; pragmatics; adverbial quantification; relative clauses; polarity items; aspects of plurals; genericity; measure adjectives; and telicity. The languages he has studied include: English; German; Swahili; and Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea. The most useful part of this site is the large number of Krifka's research articles, including The origins of telicity, which can be downloaded for free from the site. Articles are in PDF format. The website is available in both English and German, with contributions appearing in one or the other language. The website will prove invaluable to undergraduates, graduates and faculty, as it contains expository and specialist contributions of the highest quality. The website is available in frames version only.
MPQA Releases - Corpus and Opinion Recognition System website contains information about and gives access to the MPQA (multi-perspective question answering) opinion corpus, which is a collection of news articles annotated for opinions and sentiments. The corpus is annotated with a system that encodes opinions and sentiments, expressed in the texts, in terms of contextual polarity. The site contains information about the corpus and the instructions used for annotating the corpus. The corpus itself is freely available and a request for downloading the texts can be sent from the webpage. A lexicon is downloadable directly from the page. In addition, the website enables the user to request downloading of OpinionFinder, which is a computer program that automatically identifies subjective sentences as well as various aspects of subjectivity within sentences. This website is a useful resource for researchers and students of corpus linguistics, computational linguistics and semantics.
Open Semiotics Resource Center is a large source of information on semiotics and related subjects. The site features: course descriptions and lecture notes from a variety of practitioners; conference proceedings and symposiums; announcements of events, conferences and publications pertaining to semiotics; a book review archive; online papers (many in PDF format); and links to related sites, including a section of research-related resources. Several papers in the Virtual Symposia section focus on cognitive archaeology and topics such as archaeological semiotics; archaeology of gestures; archaeology of memory, symbols; rituals; Palaeolithic archaeology; and lithics. There is also a link to the online Public Journal of Semiotics. The general tenor of information and discussion is high, and this site would therefore primarily be of use to advanced students, researchers and teachers with an interest in the field. The Open Semiotics Resource Center was founded by Paul Bouissac (Emeritus Professor of the University of Toronto).
The Preposition Project website describes a project that is designed to describe English prepositions suitable for use within the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The descriptions cover 334 prepositions and in total 673 senses. Each sense has been given a syntactic and semantic description along with sample usages from Oxford Dictionary of English. The use of prepositions is by no means straight forward in English and is a problem for NLP applications. This project aims at providing information that is useful for such applications. For the most common prepositions, examples from the FrameNet database were collected and analysed. The website is simple in its design but contains important information about the project. The database can be searched online or downloaded and there is a collection of articles in PDF-format. This site is valuable for researchers and students within the areas of semantics and NLP.
This website constitutes a comprehensive bibliographic resource on Relevance theory containing a list of mainly print documents, some made available online, divided into thematic sections. The thematic sections are preceded by an authors' index comprising Spanish- and English-speaking scholars. Some of the titles can be downloaded either as full-texts in PDF format or abstracts. Included are works on: semantics; pragmatics; grammar and literature; textual analysis and stylistics; figurative language; translation and interpretation; phonetics and phonology; anthropology and sociolinguistics; language acquisition; communication disorders; and second language teaching. Also featured are: pre-1986 research on relevance; reviews; criticism and compilations. Latest additions and links are clearly marked. As a highly comprehensive bibliographic resource and a basic secondary source, the site should prove useful to students of Relevance theory.
Richard (Dick) Hudson is Professor of Linguistics at the Department of Phonetics and Linguistics at University College London. His research interests are mainly in syntax and grammar, and his non-research interests are in sociolinguistics and educational linguistics. The site offers rich and freely accessible resources for linguists working in related areas. It provides an overview of Word Grammar, Professor Hudson's theory of language structure; an annotated list of main publications; an Encyclopedia of English Grammar and Word Grammar which can be viewed online or downloaded in various formats; a number of annotated downloadable papers (in compressed format); lecture handouts from Word Grammar; and a list of other professional interests and activities (such as linguistics at school). Links to other useful documents (such as the National Curriculum for English, or the Nuffield Enquiry into Language) can be found under the Linguistics and Education section.
The website of Richard Larson, professor of Linguistics at Stony Brook University, contains: a collection of his publications and presentations on semantics and syntax; descriptions of his research and teaching projects; and details of his contribution to the development of computer application software, Syntactica and Semantica, to accompany the educational projects. The topics covered include: events; modification in nominals; time measure; possessive DPs; light predicate; quantification; control theory; adjunct clauses; double object construction; indefinite and emphatic pronouns; adverbs; and Ezafe construction. Larson's publications deal predominantly with the grammar of English. However, construction types from other languages are also studied both in their own right and to shed light on the grammatical principles underpinning the corresponding English constructions. The languages have included: Farsi; Fongbe; Japanese; and Haitian Creole. The research projects in which Professor Larson has participated are Adjective interpretation, and The comparative grammar of intensional transitive verbs. He has also participated in the educational project The grammar as science (GAS) and the writing of the corresponding book, whose aims include facilitating the acquisition of certain basic analytic skills through a scientific study of grammars of natural languages. Syntactica, the companion to GAS, allows the user to construct a grammar of a language through interacting with the computer, and Semantica interactively generates a semantic theory of a language. The project associated with Semantica is under development. Some of the articles and details of the projects are available on the site in PDF or HTML. The website is useful for undergraduates, graduates and faculty.
The online peer-reviewed academic journal 'Semantics and Pragmatics', published since 2007 (pilot issue), is affiliated to the Linguistic Society of America, and its target audience includes academics in the fields of psychology, philosophy and computer science as well as linguistics. Abstracts and complete articles, the latter in PDF format, can be accessed from the site, and there is also a search function, although only a few articles had been published at the time of cataloguing. Information for authors (submission guidelines), readers (who are encouraged to register to receive notification of newly published content), and libraries is also provided on the website.
This site, created by the University of Denver, contains a large array of links concerning the subject of semiotics. Of relevance to undergraduates are the links to various introductory courses and papers in semiotics. Researchers, meanwhile, will find useful the numerous annotated links to papers by both celebrities and active writers in the field of semiotics. The site also offers access to further readings, resources, journals, conferences and book announcements. It is relatively well presented and easy to use.
Semiotics for Beginners is an online book by Daniel Chandler, a lecturer in media and communication studies at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. It was originally written to assist his undergraduate students and to address the need for a clear, understandable introduction to the subject. The book largely succeeds in this respect, offering a readable and accessible guide to semiotic theory and its application to various fields. The online text is conventionally divided into chapters, with some light hypertextual features such as links between chapters and to external sites. Chapters cover issues such as: the nature of signs; paradigms and syntagms; denotation, connotation and myth; rhetorical tropes; encoding and decoding; and intertextuality. There is also a section covering the strengths and frequent criticisms of semiotic approaches. The book concludes with some advice to students regarding the interrogation of texts via semiotic analysis. This should act as a useful introduction for undergraduates studying critical theory, media studies, literature, or linguistics. A glossary, messageboard, chatroom, suggested reading list, and links to other sites of interest are also provided. The site makes use of frames.
This site, created by Pascal Michelucci at the University of Toronto, contains an extensive, well annotated list of links to sites of relevance to research in semiotics. It contains, amongst other things, links to pertinent dictionary and encyclopaedia entries, periodicals, research groups, conference proceedings and calls for papers. The site also offers numerous links to papers, books, courses and other resources concerning issues in semiotics and its interactions with other subjects such as cognitive science. The site is clearly presented and can be read in either English or French.
Snippets is a peer-reviewed, online journal that publishes very short articles, snippets, that, for example, point out inconsistencies in theories; assumptions that are needed for a theory; empiric data that doesn't fit or support a certain theory; or point to less well known literature relevant for the subject. Snippets publishes articles that contribute to the study of syntax and semantics in generative grammar. The archive contains all articles from issue 1, 2000 and the articles are downloadable as PDF-files. This site is a valuable resource for anyone interested in generative grammar or linguistics in general.
This is the home page of the Systemic Meaning Modelling Group at the Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. It contains information about the research activities and projects by the group along with more general information about Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), the linguistic theory founded by M. A. K. Halliday. SFG is based on the belief that language is about meaning and that its main function is communication. The theory suggests that the study of grammar should make use of empirical data such as language corpora. The site is divided into two parts. The first part is concerned with the group itself and contains information about the members and their research. The second part contains more general information about Systemic Functional Grammar. It is aimed both at prospective students and curious readers. Although the Virtual Library contains some dead links at the time of review it also contains some useful articles about the theory. The article 'Systemic functional grammar: a first step into the theory' by Christian Matthiessen and M. A. K. Halliday is a good and quite comprehensive introduction to the most important elements of SFG and is recommended for anyone interested in getting to know the theory.
Word Grammar is a part of Richard 'Dick' Hudson's personal homepage. On this site he gives an introduction to his theory of language structure. Hudson has worked with linguistic theory for thirty years and his theories have developed during this time. What began as a variety of Systemic Functional Grammar went through Daughter-Dependency Grammar to what is now known as Word Grammar. Language is a network of knowledge that is a part of a general network of knowledge, although still quite distinct but not separated from it. Linguistic representation is expressed in dependencies and relations between words, and to some extent morphemes, and although phrase structures are implicit in this hierarchy it is not as such a phrase structure grammar. It is an attempt to simplify linguistic representation, or rather, the representation of linguistic knowledge, and is thus monostratal and prefers flat structures. This is to some extent a reaction to Chomskyan Generative (Transformational Grammar) with its abundance of hidden and not realised structures. The website contains besides an introduction to his theory a bibliography of works, mostly by Hudson, some handouts for courses and links to articles that explain his theory in more detail. This is a good introduction to modern grammar theory and useful for researchers and students alike.
WordNet is a lexical database of American English, containing approximately 200,000 word forms. These are divided into four categories: noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. Words are primarily organised semantically (as synonyms and antonyms), rather than alphabetically by word-form. In addition, WordNet uses a hierarchical structure based on hyponyms (e.g. a canary is a bird, which is a vertebrate, which is an animal, which is a living organism, and so on), and meronyms (e.g. a bone is a part of an arm, and also of a leg). The database can be searched for single and multiple words, and results give the keyword(s) with synonyms, multiple meanings (where present) and examples of use. WordNet may be searched over the Internet, although queries taking over 30 seconds are timed out, so as to prevent over-use of the facility. Those wishing to make more complex or frequent searches can download the database to their own computer free of charge. The database is also available on CD-ROM. As well as the American WordNet project, there are also two similar databases under development in Europe. Euro WordNet currently supports Dutch, Spanish, and Italian. A German WordNet project is working on a similar German, French, and Estonian lexical database. Links are provided to these parallel undertakings.