This is the site for the Centro de linguística da Universidade de Lisboa, an interdisciplinary academic research centre that focuses on fostering scholarship in the field of theoretical and applied lingistics. It hosts a range of research projects, inlcuding: the descriptive grammar of contemporary European Portuguese; psichoanalytical and phonological research; textual criticism and textual research; and others. Each of the projects has its own detailed website to introduce it and its research staff in more detail. The site also allows access to a long list of online resources that show the variety of Portuguese research into linguistics. The corpuses include that of the dialectal corpus for the study of syntax, corpus of spoken Portugues; corpus of European Portuguese, a contrastive corpus between African and European Portuguese. The site also displays a bibliography of the work of its researchers and allows access to the Centre's institutional library. This is a particularly useful and informative site for theoretical and applied linguists, and for students of Portuguese lingustics.
English Language and Linguistics is a biannual journal which focuses on the description of the English language within the framework of contemporary linguistics. It covers a range of theoretical perspectives, including syntax; morphology; phonology; semantics; pragmatics; corpus linguistics; and lexis. The site has a link to Cambridge Journals Online, where free tables of contents and abstracts of articles, starting with volume 1, 1997, are provided. For registered users, there is the additional benefit of email alerting. The journal is available to institutions in print and electronic form, and to individuals in print only. Discounts are available to members of the European Society for the Study of English, the Linguistic Society of America, and the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language.
The official website of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology presents the research carried out at the institute. There are several departments, including one in Linguistics, one in Evolutionary Genetics and one in Human Evolution (the first to sequence the Neanderthal genome). The Department of Linguistics studies "the diversity of human language and the historical processes underlying this diversity" by searching for properties that are universal to all languages. This is achieved both by researching sounds (phonetics and phonology) and words (lexical comparison). The department also is focusing its research on relating each language to the others, to form a "language tree". Despite the name, the "Department of Evolutionary Genetics" will be best known by archaeologists since it focuses on sequencing ancient DNA (e.g. the Neanderthal genome). The Department of Human Evolution instead focuses on applying scientific techniques to archaeological research (e.g. diet, climate and migration research through isotopes; dating; osteoarchaeology; etc.). Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
Onomasiology Online is an online journal concerned with the ways of expressing different concepts. The subject of onomasiology may be said to be the study of how certain concepts are expressed within a language and across languages and dialects. It is generally considered a part of lexicology. Onomasiology departs from a concept and studies ways of expressing that concept, the history of those expressions and how they vary in dialects and languages. Its counterpart is semasiology that departs from a word and studies the meanings of that word. The website contains all of the the articles published by the journal since it was founded in 2000. The articles are mostly in German and English and freely available as PDF-files. In addition there are links to other resources and a bibliography. This website is a valuable resource for researchers and students within the area of lexicology.
The Open Roget's Project is attempting to create a fully functional lexical resource, based on Roget's Thesaurus, for Natural Language Processing (NLP). The resource consists of the data from the thesaurus and is implemented in Java. There are two versions of the resource based on the two version of the thesaurus, from 1911 and 1987. The earlier version is freely available for downloading while the later is copyright protected. Besides the software the site allows the downloading of the documentation of the project. In addition there is a page with articles connected to the work with the project. The articles are downloadable as PDF-files. This is not an introductory site but is a very useful resource for anyone interested in lexicology or NLP.
Polimetrica is an Italian academic publisher that allows authors to have their publications "open access": readers can buy the printed version or read for free the full online version. This website lists the growing selection of open access volumes, which can be downloaded in PDF format. The publications can be relevant to any discipline and in any language. Most publications however are in Italian or English, and at the time of review they were largely focusing on migrations; linguistics; philosophy and archaeology. Among the available titles that may interest a humanities-focused readership are: "Open Problems in Linguistics and Lexicography" (Sica); "Topics on General and Formal Ontology" (Valore); "The De-Mathematisation of Logic" (Hartley Slater); and "La necropoli protostorica di Montagna di Caltagirone" [the proto-historic necropolis of Montagna di Caltagirone, Sicily], (Tanasi) . This website may be useful primarily to advanced students and researchers.
The website of the Spanish organisation for the promotion of linguistics offers both information about the different languages and dialects within the Iberian peninsula, and information about a vast number of languages and dialects throughout the world. The site offers colour-coded maps to indicate the regions in which a particular language is spoken, and for most of the languages featured, the user may read a brief history, details of its relation to other dialects, the number of speakers, facsimiles of original manuscripts, summaries of the grammar structure, examples of the written language and alphabet: in short, substantial introductory information for students of linguistics. There is a special section dedicated to historical and modern alphabets throughout the world. This allows the user to search for writing examples and alphabets according to genealogical; geographical; or alphabetical classifications. The organisation is also undertaking projects, and information about these can be found on the website. Some examples are: teaching sign language to hearing-impaired young people; translations into Aragonese; and sociolinguistics in Ecuatorial Guinea. A number of articles written by the organisation's collaborators are available on the site, on themes such as: linguistic theories of humour; sociolinguistics; and the evaluation of dictionaries. The site gives great importance to the translation of religious texts, such as the Bible and the Qumran manuscripts, and there is also a database of Bible translators throughout history. This impressive site is recommended for students of the history of the Spanish language and Spanish linguistics in particular, although anyone interested in world languages will find material of worth here.
The online resource for Realiter offers information about the organization and its activities. Realiter is a pan-latin network, bringing together people and institutions from countries where the romance languages are spoken, who work in particular within the field of terminology. Realiter seeks to explore the relationships between the romance languages, establish linguistic research methodologies applicable across the languages, develop multilingual terminologies, and undertake and exchange comparative research. The organization is engaged in a number of major projects including the development of a pan-latin terminological lexicon for the environment and new technology, and research into romance neologisms within economics. The site's contents may be read in Spanish, Italian, French, Portuguese, Romanian, Catalan or Galician. This site will be of interest to researchers in the field of linguistics, particularly involved in comparative research into the romance languages.
Sankt-Peterburgskii korpus agiograficheskikh tekstov [Saint Petersburg corpus of hagiographical texts] is a searchable database of medieval Slavic saints lives, constructed by the department of mathematical linguistics at the University of St Petersburg. It contains more than 50 manuscripts, with around 500,000 catalogued word usages. The word index may be searched in Old Slavic using an online keyboard, and results show the desired word (and lexical derivatives) in context. Unfortunately it is difficult to indentify the manuscript from which the results have been selected, and it is not possible to search only within selected manuscripts. The site is easy to navigate but requires a font download and works in Internet Explorer but not Firefox. A particularly pleasing feature is that the transcribed saints lives (dating from the fifteenth to the seventeenth century) can be downloaded in PDF or XML format. There are also several pages explaining: manuscript transcription, construction of the word index (accounting for multiple spelling variants; omission of superscript marks etc.); morphosyntactic mark-up; XML mark-up. This is a wonderful resource for researchers in the field of Slavic linguistics, palaeoslavistics and medieval Slavic culture.
WordReference.com makes available free online translation dictionaries for English-Italian; English-Spanish; English-French; and Spanish-French. Each of the main dictionaries has between 200,000 and 250,000 translations and if users cannot find the word they are looking for, they can search or ask in one of the forums. Similarly, queries about language usage can be answered in the forums and users can search an archive of hundreds of thousands of previous queries. The forums are divided initially by language and then by themes, such as: general vocabulary; grammar; specialized terminology; and resources. Statistics showing the number of threads and posts in each category are given. The forums cover other languages, including: German; Dutch; Arabic; Hebrew; Greek; Turkish; Japanese; Chinese; Romanian; and Latin. Users can download a toolbar onto their Web browser to facilitate searches. Of use are also English and Spanish monolingual dictionaries, and a thesaurus of over 200,000 Spanish synonyms and antonyms. This resource is extremely valuable as a tool for language learning and translation. It would also be a good resource for researchers in linguistics.
WordNet is a lexical database of American English, containing approximately 200,000 word forms. These are divided into four categories: noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. Words are primarily organised semantically (as synonyms and antonyms), rather than alphabetically by word-form. In addition, WordNet uses a hierarchical structure based on hyponyms (e.g. a canary is a bird, which is a vertebrate, which is an animal, which is a living organism, and so on), and meronyms (e.g. a bone is a part of an arm, and also of a leg). The database can be searched for single and multiple words, and results give the keyword(s) with synonyms, multiple meanings (where present) and examples of use. WordNet may be searched over the Internet, although queries taking over 30 seconds are timed out, so as to prevent over-use of the facility. Those wishing to make more complex or frequent searches can download the database to their own computer free of charge. The database is also available on CD-ROM. As well as the American WordNet project, there are also two similar databases under development in Europe. Euro WordNet currently supports Dutch, Spanish, and Italian. A German WordNet project is working on a similar German, French, and Estonian lexical database. Links are provided to these parallel undertakings.