This is the website of The American Institute for Roman Culture (IRC), which aims to promote the culture and history of ancient Rome by running educational programs and cultural heritage projects. Details of these activities are provided here. Included is information about: excavations at the Villa delle Vignacce and Ostia Antica; the excavation of the Roman forum run in conjunction with the universities of Oxford and Stanford (a link is also provided to the official website of this particular excavation); study abroad programs in aspects of Roman culture and archaeology; voluntary opportunities at the Institute itself (which is based in Rome); other events organised for the general public by the Institute; and the people involved in running the organisation.
The Ancient Baths Resource Site is a developing online collection of material aimed at anyone with an interest in ancient baths and bathing. At the time of writing this review this website presents: a gallery of images of ancient baths; a detailed glossary of terms relating to baths; a bibliography listing publications on the topic. The section containing images also provides some additional detail, such as texts of relevant inscriptions and specific references to secondary scholarship. The site is still under construction but to date contains images of, and references to, the following ancient sites: in Tunisia, the Memmian Baths at Bulla Regia and the Large East Baths at Maktar; in Libya, the Hadrianic Baths at Lepcis Magna; in Italy, the Baths of Caracalla, in Rome and the baths of Valesio, in Puglia. The site would probably appeal most to students looking at this topic for the first time, as well as to enthusiasts of ancient archaeology.
The American School of Classical Studies has been excavating in the area of the Athenian Agora since 1931. The main focus of attention has been the Agora of the 5th and 4th centuries BC but finds from the archaeological site span the periods from the Late Neolithic to the 20th century. The website presents an extensive "Site Tour" including Quicktime panoramas. There are (section "Plans and Drawings") plans of the site at various historical phases and reconstruction models (again as Quicktime) of some of the major buildings as well as pictures of the outdoor sections of the agora ("Architecture and Topography"). Section "Excavations" contains short excavation reports which focus particularly on the artefacts. Some of the artefacts presented are still unpublished and therefore to access these artefacts in the catalogue it is necessary to have permission and registration details from the American School of Classical Studies. The rest of the illustrated catalogue is freely accessible and divided in sections "Black and Plain Pottery"; "Red Figured and White Ground"; "Hellenistic Pottery and Wheelmade Table Ware"; and "Greek Coins". The latest preliminary report can be found in section "Recent Excavations". Section "Resources" outlines the contents of the webiste. Anyone interested in ancient Greece may find this website useful.
Several publications have been made available in HTML format or through Google Books and can be freely accessed in section "Agora Publications". Among the publications are guides; a few volumes of the Athenian Agora Monographs (Vol.12 Black and Plain Pottery; Vol. 26 The Greek Coins; Vol. 29 Hellenistic Pottery; and Vol. 30 Attic Red-Figured and White-Ground Pottery); "The Birth of Democracy" (catalogue of exhibition); "The Athenian Citizen: Democracy in the Athenian Agora"; "The Games at Athens"; "Horses and Horsemanship in the Athenian Agora"; "Ancient Athenian Building Methods"; "Graffiti in the Athenian Agora"; books on coins; "Waterworks in the Athenian Agora"; "Miniature Sculpture from the Athenian Agora" and others. At the time of review access to some titles was difficult and some titles appears mixed (e.g. "Amphoras and the Ancient Wine Trade"); the alternative "list of all publications" may be used.
The Beazley Archive is a research unit of the University of Oxford's Faculty of Literae Humaniores; this is its website. The original archive of Sir John Beazley (1885-1970) included about 250,000 photographs, notes, drawings and books relating to ancient Greek and Roman art. In 1979 information technology (IT) projects began with the Pottery Database of Athenian figure-decorated vases of the 7th-4th centuries BC. Since 1992 IT projects on other aspects of classical art have been created. This website displays information about the Archive, including publications and bibliographies, and gives access to the IT projects and databases. These include: gems; pottery; sculpture; and the dictionary. For example: Pottery - The Beazley Archive text database records information about Athenian figure-decorated vases illustrated in publications available to the Ashmolean Library. Begun in 1979, it now has over 67,000 entries, with fourteen fields, including bibliographical references, find-place, shape and iconographical terms. In 1992 the Archive began to participate in a European Union project (RAMA) linking the collections of seven museums across Europe via the Internet. This project enabled the Beazley Archive to begin digitising its photographs and drawings. These include a vast collection of images of classical sites. An enhanced version of the original database is now available via the website (users may search for images according to location). The Dictionary feature of the resource is an excellent alphabetical guide to classical sites and terminology (including references to places, technical terms, buildings, people, gods and other figures from myth); each explanatory entry is accompanied by relevant images from the archive's collection. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Resource Enhancement Scheme.
The website of the Canadian Institute in Greece (CIG), formerly the Canadian Archaeological Institute at Athens (CAIA) gives details of the Institute's research, archaeological projects, services and staff. Included here is information on membership and the facilities of CIG (including a library and a hostel for members), as well as events held by the Institute (such as lectures, colloquia and study tours). Most importantly, however, is the information given here concerning ongoing fieldwork projects. These are: excavations at Argilos (Macedonia); an underwater survey near Mount Athos; and surveys and analysis of finds on Crete, Lesbos, Euboea and in Arcadia. Details are also given of completed fieldwork at Khostia and Tanagra (Boeotia) and Kiapha Thiti (Attica), along with lists of the CIG's publications on these projects. The website also contains a section listing useful links for travellers to Greece, as well as relevant Canadian links.
Capitolium.org is an extensive and detailed website devoted primarily to the imperial fora in the city of Rome, and to the ongoing archaeological work there. A historical overview of ancient Rome, from its traditional foundation date (753 BC) to the imperial period, is given here, accompanied by a detailed chronological table of events, an index of Roman emperors and a map of the empire. Details are also given of the archaeological excavations taking place in the area of the fora, with specific information on each individual forum, its history, buildings and functions (included here are sections on the fora of Caesar, Augustus, Nerva and Trajan, and on the Temple of Peace in the forum of Vespasian, as well as Trajan's market). A section on daily life describes ancient Roman food and drink, family life and housing. Finally the website has a 'Ludi' (games) section with pages on Roman numerals, the calendar of Roman holidays, Latin phrases and sayings, a quiz based on information found on the site, and a limited list of films set in ancient Rome. The website is equally navigable in English and Italian.
The website "Chester : A Virtual Stroll Around the Walls" is an excellent and relatively informative site which provides photographs of Chester's famed historic city walls. Dating partially from the Roman era, the walls were added to through the ages and form a complete circuit around the centre of Chester, a must on any tourist's itinerary. Chester was one of the few original Roman camps, and was known as Deva. The site provides varied information on Chester from Roman times, the history of the city, its architecture and topography. There is information here of interest to both the casual tourist and inhabitant of Chester alike. Facts about Chester's long history are presented in a lively and interesting way. The site provides reminiscences and updates about other buildings of historic importance in Chester, as well as a gallery of images of Chester, old Chester and of the famous Mystery Plays. The paintings of Chester by Louiss Rayner together with a biography of the artist can be seen on the site.
This is the website of the Propylaea project of the Center for the Study of Architecture (CSA); the project concentrates on a single building, the Propylaea, which is the gateway to the Athenian Acropolis. The website makes extensive use of computer aided design (CAD) techniques; detailed information about the survey methods used is provided here. In addition to a general introduction to the building, and an essential bibliography, the website provides access to several pictures accessible through plans of the building; the plans identify the angle at which the pictures were taken and the pictures are grouped accordingly. A CAD model of the Propylaea in DWG format is freely downloadable; it requires at least a browser plug-in to translate it to a virtual reality model, but would be most useful to those with previous knowledge of and access to CAD software.
This is an online tour of the ancient city of Ephesus, one of the principal Ionian Greek cities on the west coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), which was first colonised in the tenth century BC. The virtual panoramic tour takes the viewer around the archaeological site as it looks today, with explanatory text detailing key buildings of the Roman period in particular. Included are the Sacred Way, the library of Celsus (built AD 135), the Gate of Augustus, the first-century theatre, Temple of Hadrian (second century AD) and the odeon. For a fee, users may also download a more detailed illustrated guide to the history and archaeology of Ephesus (selected extracts of the guide are available as a free trial).
Published to accompany an exhibition on the second golden age of Byzantine art (843-1261) held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, from March 11 to July 6, 1997, this website includes examples of art from the first golden age of Byzantine art (324-730) and the later period ending with the Turkish conquest in 1453. The online exhibition includes various pieces of art (busts, caskets and medallions), which range from the time of Constantine (AD 324) to 1453. There is also a brief history of Byzantium, which is divided into the early (324-730 CE), middle (843-1261 CE) and late (1261-1453 CE) periods. The website consists of: enlargeable images of the works of art; a section on the themes in Byzantine art; a history of Byzantium; and a glossary. In addition, there is a 'teacher resources' section designed to introduce schoolchildren to Byzantine works of art, providing several examples which serve as starting points for discussions. Useful elements include a timeline of important dates and an extensive glossary. A brief description accompanies each image, and the pictures can be enlarged for a more detailed view. The images are clear and well-photographed, but the collection of images is only small (numbering only 15 items).
"Grand" is a website about the Gallo-Roman Sanctuary site at Grand, located in the North-West of France in the Vosges Department, which was first excavated in the early 19th century, when the substantial amphitheatre attracted scholarly interests. Later excavations, during the late 19th and 20th centuries, helped uncover and record the amphitheatre, the sanctuary's ramparts and several large, very well-preserved mosaics. The sanctuary's lack of water supply, in a region where drought was common, was puzzling until the discovery of over 300 wells, connected by a 15km long complex of underground galleries for running water, sometimes at a depth of over 12 metres. The website provides a description of the archaeological site itself, rather than the separate excavations undertaken. Photographic images coupled with hand-drawn reconstructions provide support to the text.
This website provides a lecture-style illustrated introduction to ancient Greek and Roman comedy, an excellent overview (by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College) of the subject for school and undergraduate level students of classics and related disciplines. The 29 sections introduce the origins of classical comedy and its role in the religious festivals of Athens, which were established in honour of the god Dionysius. It particularly relates to the Great (or City) Dionysia, one of the two Dionysian festivals (the other being the Rural Dionysia) that was probably established in the 6th century BC, but that is best documented from the 5th century BC onwards. The website outlines the form and function of the theatres and their technical equipment with reference to surviving literary, iconographic and archaeological evidence. There is much useful information on genre, aspects of performance, the role of actors and chorus, and on music, as well as a modest bibliography suitable for undergraduate reading. The text is hypertexted throughout to the Perseus digital library for convenient reference, which makes it an ideal online resource for students taking classical civilisation at an elementary level.
This online resource is a clearly-written and well-illustrated introduction to Greek tragedy aimed at undergraduates studying Classics and related subjects, by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, New York. Presented in lecture form, the course consists of 24 sections which include the following: an explanation of the origins of tragedy in the religious festivals of ancient Greece (particularly the City Dionysia in Athens); information about the locations of ancient theatres and an analysis of their architectural and technical details; a discussion of the written and iconographic sources for the Greek theatre; and sections on the actors, chorus, music and production of a play. The only drawback is the absence of a bibliography or of sources for the archaeological material such as the admirable series of painted vase scenes which reflect the origin of the text in the lecture hall. Nonetheless, the resource will benefit school and undergraduate students of ancient literature and society, as well as those interested in comparative literature and drama.
This wide-ranging and attractively produced website, 'Underwater archeology', available in French, English and Arabic, provides an illustrated introduction to the history, methods and major discoveries of underwater explorers, particularly those carried out by the research teams of DRASSM, the Départment des recherches archéologiques subaquatics et sous-marines of the French Ministry of Culture. Underwater archaeology has had a long, though sporadic, history, from the time Roman divers salvaged the cargo of amphoras from a shipwreck in the first century BC to the development of the modern aqualung by Cousteau and Gagnan in 1943. The resource features: a historical chronicle of major developments in maritime archaeology particularly since the designs of Leonardo da Vinci followed by the practical attempts to construct artificial breathing apparatus in the 17th century; an outline of the principal methods of underwater prospection and excavation of wrecks together with notes about the conservation of submerged organic materials; a major survey of shipwrecks around the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of France (a sample of some 700 known) in addition to others sites in Malta, Gabon, Martinique and the Indian Ocean; an account of underwater archaeology in Egypt, in particular the spectacular rediscovery of the submerged parts of Alexandria and of the numerous Greek and Roman wrecks off the Egyptian coast. This notable didactic resource will benefit and improve both amateurs and professionals alike, especially undergraduate students of Mediterranean archaeology and history but also anyone interested in wider issues of world archaeology, trade routes, conservation of underwater finds and heritage issues related to shipwreck sites.
This website is a growing online database of images of ancient archaeological sites and monuments which are held in Bryn Mawr College's slide collection: these images have been digitised for ease of use and online access. This image collection has been in use since before the turn of the twentieth century, and many of the images of archaeological subjects are truly irreplaceable. Many of the medium-format glass plates (lantern slides) from late in the nineteenth or early in the twentieth century were taken of monuments that have subsequently been damaged or eroded. There are also photographs of excavations in progress and of monuments in stages of repair/restoration that provide unique information to contemporary users. The images are available here in 3 formats: small thumbnail images, medium-resolution (c. 640x480 pixels) and high-resolution (c. 1024x768 pixels). Selected images are returned in a new browser window. The collection is indexed by location and/or country, and includes some images from museum collections as well as pictures of monuments in situ. Featured locations include: Greek sites at Aegina, Argos, Athens, Bassae, Corinth, Delphi, Epidauros and Olympia; Italian locations including Capri, Herculaneum, Pompeii, Rome, Syracuse and Tivoli; monuments in Turkey located at Assos, Aspendos, Priene, Sardis and Troy; ancient sites in a wide range of other countries including Algeria, Croatia, France, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Spain, Syria and Tunisia. Each image is accompanied by catalogue details including the date when the picture was taken, although without any further information about the subject. In spite of the absence of this detail, this is a valuable teaching and research resource.
Nexus is an online journal on architecture and mathematics, which contains a number of research papers on ancient architecture. Architecture, mathematics, perspective, and landscape formation are the most frequently recurring topics. The site includes abstracts and full-text articles; book reviews; a bibliography of books related to architecture and mathematics; conference reports; a bulletin board; and guidelines for the submission of articles. Among the papers of possible interest to archaeologists are: 'Mathematics, Astronomy, and Sacred Landscape in the Inka Heartland'; 'The Education of the Classical Architect from Plato to Vitruvius'; 'The Indefinite Dyad and the Golden Section: Uncovering Plato's Second Principle'; 'Philosophy and Science of Music in Ancient Greece: The Predecessors of Pythagoras and their Contribution'; 'The Arithmetic of Nicomachus of Gerasa and its Applications to Systems of Proportion'; 'Euclidism and Theory of Architecture'; and 'How Should We Measure an Ancient Structure?' The published titles cover classical architecture and its reception during the Italian Renaissance and other modern periods, as well as ancient science and mathematics. There are general papers on architecture and applied optics that may be useful to archaeologists studying ancient art and architecture.
This is the official website of the Roman Baths in the city of Bath, England. Describing Bath as 'one of the finest thermal spas of the ancient world', this excellent resource provides detailed information about the history and features of the Roman site. One of it's most interesting features is a 'walkthrough' of the baths which contains images of and information about the different sections of the building. Detailed descriptions of the Roman site can be found here, as well as information about how its appearance has changed over time. Images of selected items from the Roman Baths Museum can also be seen on the website, with accompanying textual explanation. Items featured on the website include: a temple pediment featuring a Gorgon's head; a gilt bronze head of Minerva; and a stone inscription set up by a priest (haruspex). There is also a fully searchable database of the museum's collection, which provides images and information on its holdings. In addition, the website includes information on the wide range of educational services (from school to university level) which are provided by the museum, as well as details (such as opening times and information about facilities) to help visitors to plan their trip to Bath.
This detailed website is devoted to the study of Ostia, the principal harbour of Imperial Rome. Detailed plans and descriptions are given for 52 of the buildings of Ostia Antica, and there are many photographs of the sites as they look now. Another section describes the history of the excavations, with links to other excavation reports available on the Internet. An extensive section on current research provides up-to-date scholarly reports, and there are also summaries of recent colloquia. Reference materials include an extensive but non-annotated bibliography, maps, plans, topographical indexes, and 3D models available only as pictures. A further section provides ancient textual sources of information on Ostia. Texts include passages from classical historians, inscriptions, and graffiti found on the buildings. Another section provides information on the relationship between Rome and Ostia and the significance of the town on the Tiber. This includes more general material on Mediterranean harbours and maritime history. The website also provides links to various other sites connected with the Soprintendenza of Ostia, Rome and Roman archaeology.
This website details the archaeological research conducted in the Sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia (Ancient Korinth or Corinth, Greece) by Ohio State University. Isthmia was one of the four great Panhellenic sanctuaries, active from the Archaic period through the end of Antiquity, with a rich period of medieval use as well. This website details this work, and information can be found about: the site, including the sanctuary of Poseidon and the Roman bath; preliminary reports since 1992; the fieldwork carried out by The Ohio state University since 1987; related projects including Dokos and Agios Vasilios; bibliography and other resources; and news. This website has been identified as a model site by the staff of Archaeology magazine, an official publication of the Archaeological Institute of America.
This excellent website, from the Department of Art History and Archaeology at Columbia University, presents a series of plans relating to the Parthenon, the dominant temple on the Athenian Acropolis (built c. 447-432 BCE). By clicking on particular locations on each plan the user may also access a series of images which provide views of the temple, and other ancient sites around Athens, from a variety of different perspectives (QuickTime viewer is required for this feature). The following plans are provided: the ancient city of Athens, showing the location of the Acropolis and Agora with key buildings marked; the Acropolis and its buildings, also indicating the route of the Panathenaic procession; the Parthenon itself; the replica of the Parthenon in Nashville, Tennesse. There is also a section which combines the images of the Parthenon as it stands today with those of the replica. This combination of ruins and replica is particularly well-thought out as it allows the user to visualise how the temple would have looked in its original state as well as gaining a clear idea of how it looks today.
This online resource is dedicated to the marble sculptures - the metopes, frieze, and pediment statues - which originally adorned the Parthenon in Athens. It includes an image gallery of the marbles, and a history of the sculptures from their production in the fifth century BC to their removal to London by Lord Elgin in the early nineteenth century. The site's bias is towards the return of the marbles to Greece, although it provides information on both sides of this debate. This includes updates on the campaign for their return, media coverage of the topic and the arguments of the British government and the British Museum against the return of the sculptures.
This special website from the Guardian newspaper collates reports and commentary covering the debate over the Parthenon Marbles, which are currently housed in the British Museum. There are direct links to the latest stories and access to older articles in the Guardian's archive (going back to May 1999). The interactive guide to the history of the sculptures gives a brief account of the background; a link to a more complete history leads to a website from the Hellenic Electronic Center. In addition, there are reports relating to British and Greek perspectives, as well as those relating to the British government and the British museum. All reports and commentaries come from the Guardian or Observer. This site is a useful place to explore the differing perspectives on whether the marbles should be returned to Greece.
The Philodemus Project website, from the Classics Department at the University of California in Los Angeles, describes the background, problems, and progress of the ongoing attempt to piece together the texts of Philodemus from the remnants of the ancient Papyri found at the 'Villa of the Papyri' amongst the ruins of Herculaneum. Herculaneum was buried, along with Pompeii, by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. Philodemus of Gadara was a first century BC Epicurean philosopher who wrote treatises on poetics, rhetoric, and music. The site presents the historical background to the project, and provides images of the burnt papyrus scrolls from which the texts are being reconstructed. There are also pages on Philodemus's rhetoric (with images of hte relevant papyri), although the text itself is not provided at the site.
This excellent online resource is devoted to a large (70 square metres) plaster model which represents Rome in the fourth century CE (the time of the emperor Constantine). The model, originally created by the architect Paul Bigot (1870-1942) and now housed at the Université de Caen, has been used as the basis for a virtual three-dimensional model which features on this website. Here the user will find an exceptionally detailed interactive tour of the model, with maps, images and video clips of each building and area of the ancient city. This can be accessed in a variety of different ways to suit the user's own requirements, with the material organised either geographically (where each location is given a separate sub-section), historically (with sections on monarchy, republic, early empire and late empire), thematically (divided into, for example, religious buildings, baths, dwellings and so on) or via a map of the city. A scholarly bibliography is also given for each individual building/geographical area. The resource therefore has a wide range of possibilities for helping both students and researchers to envisage the architecture and geography of the ancient city.
This website presents information and photographs relating to archaeological surveys undertaken in the forum at Pompeii, which was destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79. The Pompeii Forum Project is a collaborative venture sponsored by the National [USA] Endowment for the Humanities and the University of Virginia (amongst others). A large archive of black and white images of the buildings found there is online here, along with detailed reports on the technology and instruments used to undertake the surveys. Further reports give details of a project which uses the principles of structural engineering to investigate the reconstruction of Pompeii after an earthquake there in AD 62 (seventeen years before the eruption of Vesuvius). The focus is on the urban centre of the Roman city of Pompeii, and its urban history through to modern times. There are also links to further resources on Pompeii for use by teachers and students, and a list of lectures and publications relating to the project.
This website presents the results of the Pylos Regional Archaeology Project (PRAP), which investigated the history of land use and landscape development around the Late Bronze Age palace (the so-called Palace of Nestor) near Pylos in Messenia, south-western Greece. In addition to preliminary reports of fieldwork between 1992-1997 and a bibliography of research by PRAP members, the site also provides detailed reports on the re-examination of finds from 1998-2005. The site also contains the following: a gazetteer of archaeological sites with accompanying thumb-nail maps; pottery and small finds databases, with images and descriptions of finds; a three-dimensional tour of the Palace of Nestor (this requires Quick Time); and photographs of the study area. This resource will be of particular use to undergraduate students and researchers interested in Mediterranean landscapes and survey methodology and in the long-term economic and social history of south-western Greece.
This is the website to accompany Guy de la Bédoyí Ã‚Â¨re's Television series "The Romans in Britain" telling the story of the Roman occupation and its lasting impact - "The Romans helped shape the modern world, but as we are entering a new millennium their influence seems to be waning. How wide is the gap between our perceptions of the Romans and what we actually know about them?". This was broadcast on BBC2 and as part of the Open University's Open2 presentations. Contributors to the series in support of the prolific writer (and now presenter) de la Bédoyí Ã‚Â¨re are archaeologists Gustav Milne (Museum of London), Professor Martin Millett (Southampton University), Simon James, Stewart Ainsworth (Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, and Channel Four's "Time Team"), Lindsay Allason-Jones (Museum of Antiquities, University of Newcastle upon Tyne), Bill Griffiths (Tyne and Wear Museums); Gerald Brodribb; Sally Grainger ; David Rudkin (Fishbourne Roman Palace ) and Eugene Fraser (Butser Ancient Farm), and the prolific and respected writer, and director of the Vindolanda Trust - Robin Birley. The website is separated into the 3 episodes: Fact and Fable; Coming Of Age; and Hadrian's Wall. The full transcript of the programmes are available under "Script" and they are the most interesting part of the website. The left navigation provides links to: a timeline; details of the main locations visited in the series; an extensive reading list, links to other sites; and more information about the Open University courses that the programmes support.
This is the highly detailed and well thought-out website of the Sphakia Survey, an interdisciplinary archaeological project whose main objective is to reconstruct the sequence of human activity in a remote and rugged part of Crete (Greece), from the time that people arrived in the area, by c. 3000 BCE, until the end of Ottoman rule in AD 1900. The project's research covers three major epochs, Prehistoric, Graeco-Roman, and Byzantine-Venetian-Turkish, and has involved the work of many people using environmental, archaeological, documentary, and local information. The website includes: photographs of Cretan landscapes, objects and archaeological finds; illustrated versions of the project's preliminary articles; a searchable database of the site catalogue; a case study based on one period (Graeco-Roman) in one of the eight regions surveyed; and a description of the project's research methodology. This resource is a joint project between the Sphakia Survey project and the Humanities Computing Development Team at the University of Oxford. The website is part of an online course for adult learners; an educational video based on research at Sphakia is available. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
This website describes the University of Chicago's excavations, since 1989, of the sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia near Corinth; this was one of the most important religious centres of the ancient Greek world and the location of the pan-Hellenic games. In addition to reports for the 1989-2007 field seasons, the resource includes a number of articles on various aspects of ancient Isthmia as well as a bibliography of publications by the project team. The resource offers numerous useful maps, plans and photographs of the sanctuary. Particularly attractive is a series of 3D views and contour plans illustrating the architectural development of the sanctuary of Poseidon from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BCE. Ability to view large images (using Adobe Acrobat) is required. This site will be of value both to undergraduates and to those initiating research into the archaeology of Greek religion and social life.
Vindolanda is a Roman fort and civilian settlement lying just to the south of Hadrian's Wall. The Roman Army Museum, adjacent to the Roman site of Carvoran, 8 miles to the west, (one of the best preserved sections of the Wall), offers an insight into the garrisons of Hadrian's Wall. Roman Vindolanda and The Roman Army Museum are both part of the Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site. Presented in this website is essential visitor information and background to the museum and the Vindolanda Trust (that provides research, education and the public display of the monument and finds from the Vindolanda excavations) and the Trust's base in the country house of Chesterholm. There are also preliminary reports (news) of all the archaeological excavations carried out since 1997 (the most interesting section), a bookshop, tourist information and a growing Roman and general history links page.