This is the online presence of the Actium Project, an underwater archaeological survey concerned with examining the sea floor at the location where the naval battle of Actium was fought by Octavian against Antony and Cleopatra in 31 BC. The project was formed in 1993 and jointly undertaken by the University of South Florida and the Greek Ministry of Culture. This clear and concise website gives the historical background and details of the battle itself, accompanied by maps and images, as well as providing information on fieldwork undertaken by the Actium Project in the 1990s, including details of the finding of naval catapult missiles at the site.
Developed by Jan Willem Drijvers, the Ammianus Marcellinus Online Project introduces the fourth century AD Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus and his work. A detailed biography of Ammianus is given, and further sections of the website are devoted to providing comprehensive bibliographical lists to provide the user with a starting point for further research. These pages include details of editions, translations (into a wide range of modern languages), concordances and commentaries, as well as of articles and books on aspects of his Roman history. There is also a section on the structure of his work, and a series of essays on particular topics. Included here are papers looking at Ammianus' treatment of the following: Constantius II; Christianity; Julian; military history; geographical digressions; and barbarians and ethnography.
Contained here is information about three ancient Greek wars. The Persian Wars (499 BCE to 479 BCE) occurred when the Persian empire attempted to conquer Greece. Mostly land battles are described but it does include the sea battles of Salamis and Mycale. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) was a contest between a great sea power, Athens and its empire, and a great land power, Sparta and the Peloponnesian League. The last war described is the Trojan Wars, a legendary conflict between the early Greeks and the people of Troy in western Anatolia, dated to have happened in the 12th or 13th century BCE. There is also a paragraph about ancient types of artillery. This site is maintained by an enthusiast.
Britannia : the Roman Army and Navy in Britain 55BC - 410 AD is an excellent online resource which relates to the military history of the Roman province of Britain from the first century until the early fifth century AD. It is mainly the work of one enthusiast, with some academic input on the bibliography. There is an overview of the organisation and equipment of the Roman army which includes: explanations of some of the more common Roman military terms and unit names from the British garrison; descriptions of the types of Roman military sites with reconstructions and plans of typical fortresses, forts, watchtowers, temporary camps, depots, and industrial sites; a summary (timeline) of the major military events in the Province and their relationship to military sites; reconstructions of typical structures and drawings of soldiers; and links to other Roman websites on the Internet. A Gazetteer presents this information accessibly via the geography of the Province. Regional maps and browsable pages organise this into modern regions, and then the location of sites can be seen by counties and unitary authorities throughout England, Wales and Scotland. Detailed maps cover the northern frontiers. A searchable database of more than 550 military sites and army units includes photographs of remains still visible today. There is also a detailed bibliography of works relating to Roman military history in Britain.
De Imperatoribus Romanis (On the Roman Emperors, or DIR) is a high-quality, online scholarly encyclopaedia about the rulers of the Roman Empire from 27 BC to 1453 AD, (Augustus to Constantine XI Palaeologus). The contents of DIR have been prepared by scholars but are intended to be accessible to non-specialists as well. This is an award winning online resource based at Salve Regina University, useful for teaching and learning about the history of Roman Emperors and many other aspects of Roman life, and easy to navigate. (There are frames and non-frames versions of the site, and a search engine). It includes biographical essays on the individual emperors, and descriptions and maps of significant battles in the empire's history. Each article is rigorously peer reviewed for quality and accuracy by the editorial board (drawn from universities from the USA, Germany, Canada, and Australia) before it can be included in the DIR, and authors undertake to keep their information current. Much of this material is cross-referenced by hyperlinks to: the Imperial Index (an index of all the emperors who ruled during the empire's 1500 years); Imperial Stemmata (family trees of important imperial dynasties); the DIR and ORB Ancient and Medieval Atlas providing maps of the empire at different times; the Imperial Battle Index; and the Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins for emperors before the fall of Rome in 476 AD (sourced from Cohen's "Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire romain", 1880-1892, and from Justin Paola's online "Collection of Roman Emperors"); as well as other recommended links to related sites.
This excellent website provides a series of historical, linguistic and mythological maps of the ancient world. The site is divided into the following sections: maps of ancient Italy (from the sixth to the third centuries BC); maps of the Roman world in the republican period; maps of the Roman world in the imperial period; Latin and Romance languages (showing the geographical spread of these languages throughout Europe and under the Roman empire); the return of Odysseus (featuring an interactive map with locations featured in Homer's Odyssey; the accompanying description here is written in Spanish); and the voyages of Aeneas (this section is similar to that on Odysseus' journey). The maps are clearly annotated and easy to understand, and can be used to illustrate the changing boundaries of the territories of Europe at various points in the history of the ancient world. Most of the maps are also available in several languages: English; Catalan; Spanish; Dutch; French; Italian; Galician; and Latin.
This websitse was compiled by students of Classics at Williams College in the United States. The site is dedicated to the life and achievements of the Macedonian general, Alexander the Great, 356-323 BCE.The site provides detailed biographical information about every stage of Alexander's life. There are individual pages on his parents, Philip II of Macedonia and his wife, Olympias. The site details Alexander's invasion of the Persian Empire, his battles against the Persian King Darius, and his invasions of Egypt and India. There is also a section on Alexander and sexuality, and a discussion of his belief in his own divinity. The material on this site is written in an informal rather than a scholarly style. None of the information is referenced, making it unsuitable as a source for research at an advanced level; nonetheless it provides useful introductory reading on the topic. One major strength of the site is its images of Alexander, taken from coins, busts and other artefacts of the period.
This Web page belongs to the History of Western Civilization course page by Dr Ellis L Knox of Boise State University, and provides a chronological account of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). Written for undergraduates, the style is easily readable, if informal. The straight narrative is divided into seventeen short parts. Sometimes this leads to a glossing over of important events: the First Peloponnesian War is described as a 'nasty war' between Sparta and Athens, Sphacteria receives an undetailed mention, and the establishment of the oligarchy in 411 is discussed in the simplest terms. The account will be of most use to those requiring an easy introduction to this difficult period of Greek history. A brief reference page offers full-texts (in English) of Thucydides' history, Plutarch's Lives of Alcibiades and Pericles and a very brief bibliography.
The website "In Boudica's Footsteps" accompanied an edition of the Channel 4 programme Fact or Fiction. One of the specially created microsites, it seeks to overturn the myths surrounding the warrior queen of the Iceni, about even whose name (Boadicea, Boudicca, Boudica) there is dissent. Her revolt, led in AD 60 against the Romans, ensured her a place in British national history, and she was revived as a heroine queen in the Victorian era. The site explores the events that led the queen, humiliated by the Romans, to sack Colchester (Camulodunum), London and St Albans (Verulamium), while Suetonius Paulinus was campaigning in North Wales. The website is easy to navigate and outlines the story well, being divided into sections corresponding to the geographical progress of Boudica's rebellion (Thetford to Colchester; Colchester to London; London to St Albans; and St Albans to Mancetter). It is useful as a basic introduction to one of the most fascinating figures in British, and English, history.
This attractive website is devoted to exploring the life of Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE). It is divided into the following sections, each looking at an aspect of his life: Caesar's youth to his consulate; Gaul to the Rubicon; the Civil War; the conspiracy and his death; the aftermath of his murder; Caesar's legacy; the private man; battles and campaigns (giving detailed information about individual military campaigns); his contemporaries (with biographies of individuals such as Cicero, Brutus, Antony and Cato). The site is illustrated throughout with maps and images from ancient art, and the author makes good use of both primary and secondary source material (although specific references to passages cited are rarely given). There is also a detailed timeline of key events in Caesar's life, and an annotated bibliography of primary and secondary source material, which includes links to other Web resources. This resource provides a useful introduction to Caesar for those studying him for the first time.
The Leonidas Expedition, consisting of a group of academics from the USA, Greece and the UK, has on several occasions revisited the site of the Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC) in Greece with the aim of investigating various aspects of the ancient accounts (primarily found in Herodotus) relating to this key engagement of the Persian wars. This website is devoted to publicising the findings of the expeditions. Much of the site is dedicated to expedition reports, detailing the progress of the team in locating areas where key events of the battle took place. These reports give information about the geography of Thermopylae as it appears now (with OS co-ordinates) as compared with its appearance during Xerxes' invasion. More generally, the website also gives the historical details of the Persian invasion of Greece, accompanied by maps and photographs of the site.
'Lost Trails' is a non-commercial educational resource whose main aim is to provide an English language version of the 'Histories' or 'Enquiries' of the 5th century BC Greek historian Herodotus. The site features many high quality photographs and maps illustrating the locations mentioned in the text, which will help to elucidate the complex and wide-ranging narrative. The photographs are hyperlinked to the translation, which is divided into 48 convenient instalments. The website also features folk handicrafts and music from Greece and other parts of south-eastern Europe as well as a notice board for feedback and comments on the various items featured. Donations are solicited from individuals who wish to support the work of the project. A caveat for less experienced A level or undergraduate students of ancient history (or the general reader) is that, at present, this edition of Herodotus falls short of academic standards in that it lacks line numbers, glosses of words or unfamiliar terms, or footnotes. The project is however work in progress, and these features should be added at some point. Users should also be aware that several of the photographs lack commentary and, inevitably given later rebuilding, depict structures or objects that post-date the events recorded in the Herodotean text. Nevertheless this is a useful online supplement to existing printed or electronic resources for students of classics, ancient history or archaeology.
This website provides a brief introduction to, and English translation of, the Notitia Dignitatum, a document which was originally written c. 395 AD (and later revised in the early fifth century AD), and which lists all of the various units of the Roman army and the locations where they were stationed. together with a brief introduction. The text used here is taken from William Fairley's 1551 English edition entitled 'Notitia Dignitatum or Register of Dignitaries, which appears in his 'Translations and reprints from Original Sources of European History, Volume 4'.
The author describes an un-named monster warship, the pride of the fleet of King Pyrrhus of Epirus, which was used in battles during the 3rd Century BC. Specific battles the warship fought in are mentioned and include the Battle of Mylae in 260 BC, where she was the command ship. The importance of this ship in shaping history is noted. This paper was originally presented by the author at the American Philological Association Convention in 1996.
This website describes itself as the 'home of Alexander the Great' (Alexander III of Macedon, 356-323 BC) on the Web and features pages on all aspects of this historical figure. The articles here are primarily narrative accounts without scholarly analysis or reference to primary sources, yet the scope of the information included makes this resource a useful introduction to the topic. Key themes which are covered include: Alexander's life and his family; art and legends relating to Alexander; his horse, Bucephalus; wars, campaigns and battles; the geography, culture and religion of Alexander's world; other key historical figures of the period; Alexander's sexuality; his death; and movies relating to Alexander. There is also a 'showcase' of summaries and extracts from new Alexander novels and books (some of which are still works in progress), and an extensive range of reviews of both scholarly works and fiction on all aspects of Alexander. The site also has a discussion forum.
Forming part of the author's Johnstonia Web pages, this online resource is the text of a lecture on the fifth-century BCE Greek historian Thucydides which was written for an undergraduate Liberal Studies class by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Vancouver. As its title suggests, the lecture provides an introduction to Thucydides and his history of the Peloponnesian War. The author concentrates primarily upon some of the issues raised by Thucydides in the opening to his historiographical work. After a brief introduction the lecture is divided into sections on the following topics: the methods of history; history and myth; the forces of history; the shape of history; the Hebrew and the Greek imagination; and the Peloponnesian War as a dramatic structure. This would be a good starting point for anyone studying Thucydides for the first time.
Contained here is chapter six of the author's dissertation The Rhodian Navy : The Proper Application of Limited Force. In it he records the wars of the Rhodian Navy against both Philip V (the Macedon King) and his rival Antiochus III the Great (King of Syria). He also writes about the island's alliance with the imperialist Roman Republic.
This small but neatly presented website relates to an important Roman military diploma found on a river bed in Croatia in 1997. Military diplomata, bronze documents testifying to the honourable discharge of a Roman soldier, survive in large numbers; few, however, are as well preserved as this, which dates from 71 AD. The text is beautifully preserved on both the inner and outer faces of the diploma, and the witnesses' seals survive beneath a removable wooden cover. The text provides interesting evidence for Roman activity in the then province of Pannonia, and constitutes the first written evidence of a town in the modern Slavonski Brod region. The English section of the website offers a series of good-quality photographs of the artefact with transcriptions of the text and some notes on its provenance and significance. The quality of both the diploma itself and of the Museum's presentation of it make this site worth a visit for anyone with an interest in Roman military history or this type of epigraphy.
The Sparta Pages form a website designed to appeal to enthusiasts who are interested in the history of ancient Sparta. Although the site does not profess to be a scholarly resource, there is much here to interest Classics students or researchers, particularly those looking for information on the modern reception of Sparta and the battle of Thermopylae (480 BC). Among other things the site features: a wide range of images relating to the movie 'The 300 Spartans'; a purchasing guide for those interested in reproduction Spartan armour; reviews of recent works on Sparta, including Frank Miller's graphic novel on Thermopylae, '300'; English translations of ancient poetry on Sparta from the seventh to the fourth centuries BC (including Tyrtaeus, Simonides, Pindar, Alcaeus, Alcman and Terpander); texts of modern writers' literary responses to Sparta (Golding, Cavafy, Byron and Housman). A basic reading list on Spartan matters is provided. This includes: ancient sources; academic texts; and details of novels and films set in Sparta. The site also has an online discussion group, the Phalanx, to which users may subscribe.
This online resource provides edited transcripts (with illustrations) of the television series 'The Spartans', which was first broadcast in 2002 by Channel 4. The Spartans were celebrated in classical antiquity for the austere and militaristic lifestyle which helped them to dominate the Peloponese and much of Greece in the archaic and classical period, particularly after their defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars in the late 4th century BC. The three programmes of the original series examined the myths and reality behind the ancient sources, many of which date from much later than the period of Spartan military supremacy. The style is colloquial, as one would expect from a television programme, and the text, which can also be read as a PDF file, is a useful overview of a complex historical issue. The website also provides further information on the Spartans in the form of weblinks to relevant sites and a short bibliography.
This website is a very basic description of a series of AHRC-funded workshops which brought together scholars from different disciplines to discuss the way ancient Greek historian and thinker Thucydides “has been read, studied and reinterpreted since the eighteenth century”. The workshops were held in 2007 at the Universities of Bristol, Oxford and Cambridge.
This website provides the complete text of 'Thucydides and the Ancient Simplicity', a 1998 monograph by Gregory Crane which is also published in paper format by the University of California Press. Thucydides, the great Greek historian of the Peloponnesian War in the fifth century BC, is renowned for his apparent rationalism and 'political realism', a trait which Crane analyses as a propensity to view the course of the war as the logical product of the self-centred pursuit of each player's own interests. Athens, in Thucydides' history and Crane's reading of it, emerges as a new power-house, disregarding Greek precedent and custom to meet with initial military success and then catastrophic political failure. Crane argues that Thucydides' political realism is too often taken for granted by modern readers, who can fail to realise that what they view as commonplaces of political thought were, in fact, deeply radical when Thucydides first introduced them: the ruthless pursuit of self-interest, the domination of the strong over the weak and the constant turbulence of interstate relations add up to to what GEM de Ste Croix called Thucydides' 'moral bleakness', an outlook that seems natural in modern political historical scholarship. Crane's contention, though, is that Thucydides 'wrote to shock', and his book is an elaboration of this argument. The site presents the whole book in an easy-to-use format, divided by chapter headings. Footnotes are hyperlinked for ease of reference, and the presence of a search function offsets the lack of index. There is also a complete bibliography.
The website Thucydides at Peithô's Web brings together a range of useful resources on the fifth-century BC Greek historiographer Thucydides and his History of the Peloponnesian War. It includes the full-text of Benjamin Jowett's 1900 English translation, which may be viewed as single chapters, series of episodes, or diverse chapters side-by-side for comparison. Jowett's appendix to his first (1881) edition of Thucydides, in which he compares the Greek historian's account of the Athenian plague with accounts of other great plagues, is also given here. The site also presents R.C. Jebb's chronological tables of speeches in Thucydides with links to the relevant passages in the text, as well as the text of Gilbert Murray's essay on Thucydides from 'A History of Ancient Greek Literature' (1897). In addition, there is an English translation of Dionysius of Halicarnassus's letter on the language of Thucydides.
Trajan's Column is an online collection of images and background material on the Roman monument, a 100 foot stone column recording the military victories of the Roman Emperor Trajan (reigned 98-117 CE) over the Dacians and the Germans in the second century CE,which is one of the most remarkable and best preserved survivals of monumental art from classical antiquity. This website provides a searchable database of over 500 images focusing on various aspects of the design and execution of the column's sculptural decoration as well as several introductory essays on the historical background, subject matter and wider physical context of the monument within the Forum of Trajan in Rome, presented throughout within a hypertext medium. This highly user-friendly resource is designed to be accessible to individuals at varying levels of knowledge and experience of the subject. An elaborate search engine allows you to explore highly specific aspects of the monument while Claudio Martini's interactive cartoon of the entire column provides an excellent introduction to the overall design and layout of the monument and contextualises the individual details provided by the database of images. The site can also be explored through the use of indices organised according to: subject; sculptural technique; and scene number or location. The high quality images (slides and drawings) were generated by sculptor Peter Rockwell, over the course of his study of Roman stone-carving practices, and can be viewed at three different resolutions. Technical information on all the imaging and programming details (including the programming code) is also provided. This detailed, stimulating and attractively presented website will interest archaeologists and classicists as well as art and military historians at many levels from the general public and novice undergraduate to the more experienced researcher.
This is the websit of the Trireme Trust, which was formed in 1982 to investigate the design and performance of triremes, Greek warships of the classical and Hellenistic periods. It has achieved this primarily through sea trials involving the rowing of Olympias, the reconstruction of an ancient trireme built by the Hellenic Navy and Greek Ministry of Tourism. The Trust's website presents both pictures and information relating to Olympias as well as newsletters, details of press coverage, conference reports, texts of relevant academic articles and a bibliography. These pages may be of interest to scholars of ancient maritime history and archaeology.
Diane Thompson of Northern Virginia Community College has created a fascinating web resource reflecting on the central role of the story of Troy and the Epic Cycle in Greek, Roman and European culture based on the content of her 2004 book 'The Trojan War: literature and legends from the Bronze Age to the present' (McFarland). She takes the reader on a 3,000 year journey from the archaeology of Troy and Mycenae and the Bronze Age origins of the epics, to the establishment and dissemination of the Homeric texts as seminal books in Greek and Roman times, to their transformation into Christian and later European literature during the Middle Ages, to the Renaissance and the Enlightenment periods and finally down to the reinvention of the tales in the 20th century by James Joyce, Wilfred Owen, Derek Walcott, Jean-Paul Sartre and the generation of writers who reflected their experiences of the Vietnam War through the poetry of Homer. One major section, focusing on the role of women in the Epics and how they have been central to recent feminist discourse, is also used to introduce important bibliographical material on ancient and modern interpretations of goddesses, powerful ancient women and gender roles generally, from both academic and literary authors. Each chapter, arranged in roughly chronological order, contains a summary of the historical context and links to etexts, images, film references and background material, including very useful bibliographic material. A linked series of pages provides a course guide to the module Myths and stories of the Trojan War taught by Thompson to college level students. The website is ideal for students of classics and ancient history (or European history generally), but also for those interested in the evolution of Western literary and artistic models.
The website "Vindolanda Tablets Online" is an excellent site which provides an online database of the Vindolanda Tablets found at the Vindolanda fortress near Hadrian's Wall dating from the first century of the common era. The site is extremely easy to navigate and features a help section. The database is intended to be used as a learning tool for teaching Latin and Classics at all levels; primary school (there is a link to the Latin course for primary schools, Minimus), A and AS levels, undergraduate, postgraduate and for research purposes. The website is based on the publication of three volumes of materials on the tablets, but obviously offers many more facilities than the printed form. There is a section on the background history to the fort of Vindolanda, where the tablets were found. The tablets provide information on the social, cultural, and military history of the fortress. There is an online exhibition of the tablets, which features sections on people, places, documents, reading the tablets, and forts and military life. An excellent reference section provides information about Roman systems of dates, measures, currencies, military units and ranks, and Roman nomenclature. The tablets themselves can be viewed individually, and through an image zooming viewer. The tablets are arranged as a fully searchable set of digital materials with information included that is related to the tablets. The texts of the tablets can be searched by document type, people, places, military terms, archaeology, and other terms. A comprehensive links page provides information on over 70 websites and a bibliography of printed material. The project is based within the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University and is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The initial capture of the digital images was supported by an Arts and Humanities Research Board grant.