This online resource consists of a substantial miscellany of items relating to the ancient mathematician and technologist Archimedes of Syracuse (?287-212BC); it was compiled by Dr Chris Rorres, a member of the mathematics department at Drexel University (Philadelphia, USA) who has a strong amateur interest in Archimedes' life and work. The site is illuminated throughout by translated extracts from the works of Polybius, Livy, Plutarch, Cicero, Vitruvius and other writers, discussing familiar episodes such as the siege of Syracuse - the defence against which is traditionally held to have relied on Archimedes' mechanical ingenuity - and Archimedes' subsequent death and burial. The site includes: a summary timeline of Archimedes' life; a narrative account of the siege; some historical background material, including information on the ruling family of Syracuse; discussions of Archimedes' known or supposed mathematical concerns, including the 'cattle problem and the Archimedean solids; and numerous paintings, engravings and contemporary illustrations (some highly speculative) depicting Archimedes' claw, burning mirrors, screw and other legendary innovations, plus a number of "portraits" available at various resolutions.
This online resource provides an overview of the life and work of the Greek mathematician, Archimedes (287-212 BC). It consists predominantly of an article written by the authors of the site, JJ O'Connor and EF Robertson, of the School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews, in which they discuss important details of Archimedes' biography and provide information about his main works and ideas. This article is also hyperlinked to other articles by the same author which discuss aspects of mathematical theory relevant to the study of Archimedes. In addition to this biographical coverage, users can access a selection of quotations from Archimedes' principal works, a list of references to books and articles on Archimedes, and a list of links to other Web resources on Archimedes.
The Archimides Palimpsest is a website devoted to the oldest surviving manuscript containing the work of the Greek thinker, Archimedes of Syracuse (ca 287-212 BC). Preserved at the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, the manuscript contains a compendium of his mathematical treatises. Most importantly, it includes the only copy of the treatise Method of Mechanical Theorems, in which Archimedes explains how he drew upon mechanical means to elucidate his mathematical theorems. It is also the only source in the original Greek for the treatise On Floating Bodies, in which Archimedes explores the physics of flotation and explains the formal proof for the principle of specific gravity. With beautifully rendered reproductions, biographical and historical background, as well as information on preservation techniques, the Archimedes Palimpsest is an excellent introduction to the manuscript. A core set of data including digital images, transcriptions and metadata of the Archimedes Palimpsest has been released in October 2008 and can be downloaded from a linked website. The core set of data has been used by Google to produce an e-book accessible online. This website and the data made available may be useful to people interested in a variety of disciplines (Greek literature; mathemathics; palaeography; manuscript preservation; digital reading on ancient artefacts; etc.) at all levels.
Created and maintained by Professor Nancy Demand (Indiana University Bloomington), the Asclepion is an online resource which presents a series of brief but useful introductory pages and links to the development and characteristics of early medicine in Greece, Mesopotamia and Egypt. The website is divided into the following sections: an introduction to the study of ancient medicine; essays on health and medicine in the geographical areas mentioned above; a picture gallery of images of ancient surgical instruments; a section on texts and articles (with links to translated passages of Hippocrates as well as short essays on particular aspects of ancient medicine); a page of links to other online resources relating to the ancient world. Although not extensive, the material presented on this website should allow anyone to become versed in the general aspects of the field. References, along with a collection of additional links, will significantly aid readers in expanding their research and locating relevant primary texts.
This is an easy-to-use online English translation of the 'Elements' ('Stoicheia' in Greek) of the Greek mathematician Euclid (c. 300BC). The translation is accompanied throughout by geometric diagrams to illustrate Euclid's textbook. The text is easily accessible, as it has been divided by the site's author into individual books and then into sections relating to definitions, postulates, common notions and propositions. A summary of each idea is given; the user clicks on this to access the complete text of each. There is also a page relating what little we know of Euclid's life, with suggestions for further reading, and a page of web links.
Forum Romanum is a website which provides several useful resources for classics. The core element of the resource is the Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum (CSL) which is a digital library of Latin literature. Authors are listed alphabetically and the user can access Latin texts, translations (in English and occasionally in other European languages) and in some cases secondary material available online. Included are texts from the earliest epigraphic documents to 18th century neo-Latinists. As well as the CSL, Forum Romanum also makes available online some reproduced out of copyright texts: H.W. Johnston's Private Life of the Romans (1903, revised by Mary Johnston in 1932); William C. Morey's Outlines of Roman History (1901); and John Stewart Milne's Surgical Instruments in Greek and Roman Times (1907). The individual chapters of each work can be viewed in a clear user-friendly format.
This online resource is designed to introduce undergraduate students to science and technology in ancient Greece and Rome. The resource features: an alphabetical 'Who's who' giving brief biographical details for key individuals; information about important inventions and technical innovations; and a chronological table putting scientific developments into their wider historical context. There is also a section which deals with specifice scientific subjects. This covers the following: astronomy; biology and medicine; engineering; geography; mathematics; physics; mechanics; and engineering. An article on each topic gives an overview, with hyperlinks to other pages on the relevant personalities and inventions. The site is being developed by Dr Tracey Rihll as part of her undergraduate teaching and research programme at the University of Swansea and includes some student papers containing text and photos of some of the practical projects submitted by level 2 students on her technology and engineering module. There are also links to external sites which provide online versions of relevant ancient texts.
This is an online exhibition, provided by the US National Library of Medicine, which offers an overview of ancient Greek medicine (from around 800 BC to 200 AD) and some of the ways in which modern Western medicine is founded on ancient practice. The site functions as an introduction for anyone interested in the history of medicine in the ancient world, with a timeline of key events and brief details of the transmission of ancient medical texts to the modern world. Individual sections focus on Hippocrates (fifth century BC), with a translation of the Hippocratic oath, Aristotle (fourth century BC), and Galen (second century AD). A further section looks briefly at the physicians Pythagoras (sixth century BC), Dioscorides (first century AD) and Artemidorus (second century AD). There is also some information on healing in Greek myth and art, with reference to the gods Asclepius and Apollo and the Homeric myth of Chiron and Achilles. A short bibliography on Greek medicine is given (without annotation).
This website deals with the life and work of the Greek mathematician, Euclid (c. 300 BC). The site has been compiled by Donald Lancon, a freelance mathematical enthusiast who was educated at the University of Houston in the United States. The site consists mainly of an extended essay prepared by Lancon while he was a student at Houston. This includes biographical information about Euclid, which would be of general interest to classicists and ancient historians. Source references are given throughout. The site deals in some detail with Euclid's contributions to geometry and mathematics, paying particular attention to the Elements. This work by Euclid deals with topics including plane geometry, solid geometry and number theory. The site also provides a detailed bibliography of suggestions for further study relating to works on Euclid and other aspects of Greek mathematics.
Medicina Antiqua (ancient medicine) is a website hosted by the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at University College London and intended as a central resource for researchers in the history of ancient medicine. The site contains: online transcripts of English translations of several works by Galen, with links to a few other transcript sites; a small collection of short analytical essays on aspects of ancient medicine (topics covered include poisons, Hippocrates, dreams, and Galen); and external links to other relevant resources on ancient medicine.
Nexus is an online journal on architecture and mathematics, which contains a number of research papers on ancient architecture. Architecture, mathematics, perspective, and landscape formation are the most frequently recurring topics. The site includes abstracts and full-text articles; book reviews; a bibliography of books related to architecture and mathematics; conference reports; a bulletin board; and guidelines for the submission of articles. Among the papers of possible interest to archaeologists are: 'Mathematics, Astronomy, and Sacred Landscape in the Inka Heartland'; 'The Education of the Classical Architect from Plato to Vitruvius'; 'The Indefinite Dyad and the Golden Section: Uncovering Plato's Second Principle'; 'Philosophy and Science of Music in Ancient Greece: The Predecessors of Pythagoras and their Contribution'; 'The Arithmetic of Nicomachus of Gerasa and its Applications to Systems of Proportion'; 'Euclidism and Theory of Architecture'; and 'How Should We Measure an Ancient Structure?' The published titles cover classical architecture and its reception during the Italian Renaissance and other modern periods, as well as ancient science and mathematics. There are general papers on architecture and applied optics that may be useful to archaeologists studying ancient art and architecture.
This is the homepage of Plato, the internet journal of the International Plato Society. It is an impressive site committed to encouraging debate, and the exchange of ideas, between thinkers throughout the world. It consists primarily of essays that interpret texts by Plato and his followers. Work in the history of ideas is also prominent, some articles examining the popularity of Plato in modern Japan, others exploring the transmission of Platonic ideas from one period to another. True to the influence of Plato, the papers carried by this elegantly designed journal are in a number of languages, but English is the most important. Anyone working in philosophy, the history of ideas or theology will find the journal invaluable.