The Etymological Dictionary of Classical Mythology is a website concerned with word origins, in particular with the etymology of English words which have their roots in ancient Greek and Roman mythology. Its main feature is a searchable etymological dictionary which lists proper names and other words originating in classical myth, along with brief definitions. The site also has sections devoted to ancient Greek and Latin words as used in astronomy, the calendar, personal names and conversational phrases, and a page on classical myth as found in popular culture (cinema, literature, brand names and song lyrics). A bibliography of secondary material is also provided. Whilst the site is an easily accessible quick reference tool for looking up unfamiliar terms, it is limited in its application as the definitions do not give references to the original ancient sources where the words and names can be found.
Felix Just's resource provides a succinct overview of the different periods of Israelite, Jewish, and early Christian history, ranging from 3000 BCE to the Edict of Milan in 313 CE (plus a very brief summary of the major phases of the history of Israel up to the present day). Several additional charts open up specific periods and events into greater detail. Containing Biblical genealogy as well as historical chronology, this site is intended for beginners in the field and people wanting basic information on the periodisation of Biblical history.
This online resource about Ancient Egypt covers the history of the region from the earliest settlements to the end of the Roman period. The site acts as a general historical overview, with a page describing the major events of each traditional period. Egyptian culture also receives some attention, with a page on hieroglyphics and another on the concept of the underworld. There is an image gallery of the pyramids and some Egyptian art; a timeline of key events (hyperlinked to other pages); an introduction to the 'Book of the Dead'; a short glossary of terms; and a categorised list of links, which was unfortunately in dire need of repair when checked. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
Ancient Journeys is the online Festschrift in honour of the distinguished American classicist and ancient historian Eugene Numa Lane, and contains the full-text of 20 articles written by his colleagues and students on a wide range of subjects dealing with Greek and Roman art, archaeology, history, religion and literature. The resource also offers biographical information, a tabula gratulatoria and series of personal memoirs by his associates, as well as a bibliography of Lane's published work. Published by the Stoa Consortium, the Festschrift is notable for its broad range of topics but also for the absence of a paper version. A hypertext medium is used throughout and links are provided to Perseus for Latin and Greek words. Many of the articles are illustrated and the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at larger scales. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Greek and Roman studies.
This website brings to life the social world of ancient Greek and Roman associations, Christian congregations and Jewish synagogues using inscriptions, monuments, archaeological finds, and literary texts from the Roman empire, especially Asia Minor (Turkey) in an interactive context. The site's author is Philip Harland of York University, Toronto, and it accompanies his 2003 book 'Associations, synagogues and congregations: claiming a place in Ancient Mediterranean Society' (reviews and a table of contents for the book can be found here). Several of the author's other published articles are available to view on the website. As well as this the site provides information about courses taught by the author on topics including: religion in ancient Asia Minor; early Christianity; early Jewish and Christian apocalypticism; personified evil in early Judaism and Christianity. Course outlines, discussion notes and detailed handouts can be accessed here. The site is clear and easy to navigate and will be useful for those teaching, studying or researching these aspects of ancient religion.
This is the official website of the Italian association of orientalists, scholars who study the ancient Near East. The website publishes information on the association and how to submit a CV or personal information to be published in "OrientaLista", a list of (mostly Italian) orientalists. The "Orientalia" publishes short reports; reviews; bibliographies; pre-prints; and papers; most files are in PDF format, and written in Italian or English. Among such contents are: "Wisdom Literature and Proverbs 1-9: A Bibliography"; "The Ugaritic Poems of Keret and Aqhat: A Bibliography"; "The So-Called ‘Jehoash Inscription’: Transcription and Bibliography"; "Magic and Divination in the Neo-Assyrian Period: A Selected Bibliography"; "Archaeometry of a Stone Tablet with Hebrew Inscription Referring to Repair of the House"; "Review of Gérard Toffin, Entre hindouisme et bouddhisme: la religion néwar, Népal"; "The Construction of Biblical Monotheism: An Unfinished Task"; "I colori nell’astrologia mesopotamica".
The association also organises some learned meetings; some information on recent meetings is provided on this website. In section "Orientalia" are also available the free and full-text PDF editions of the proceedings of such meetings, including Le discipline orientalistiche come scienze storiche. Atti del 1º Incontro «Orientalisti» (Roma, 6-7 Dicembre 2001), edited by Giuseppe Regalzi; "Mutuare, interpretare, tradurre: storie di culture a confronto. Atti del 2º Incontro «Orientalisti» (Roma, 11-13 dicembre 2002)", edited by Giuseppe Regalzi; and "Definirsi e definire: percezione, rappresentazione e ricostruzione dell’identità. Atti del 3º Incontro «Orientalisti» (Roma, 23-25 febbraio 2004)", edited by Massimo Gargiulo, Chiara Peri and Giuseppe Regalzi. Researchers specialising on the ancient Near East will find this website useful.
For those searching for primary resources on Zoroastrianism, the Avesta Zoroastrian Archives are an excellent starting point. Zoroastrianism was a major world religion from the 6th century BC to the 7th century AD, and still has several hundred thousands adherents in India, Iran and North America. The site includes the whole of the Avesta (ancient scriptures of Zoroastrianism) in both English and Avestan (though the latter is provided in Latin script), an assortment of the middle-Persian/Pahlavi texts, and a selection of modern works. Introductory discussions on Zoroastrianism and the Avestan language are also offered. The linguistic section contains a helpful dictionary and descriptions of the language, but caution should be exercised with some of the other Zoroastrian resources, as not all information presented here reflects the best of scholarly opinion. Nevertheless, they do offer an intriguing view into modern expressions of the faith.
The 'Barbarians and Bureaucrats' website from Washington State University outlines the history of the Minoan and Mycenaean Greek civilizations, which were followed by the Greek Dark Ages, lasting until about 700 BC. The Minoan civilization, based on the Aegean island of Crete and centred around palaces such as the one at Knossos, flourished in the second millennium BC. The website describes the Minoan people and customs, looking at their religion and visual culture. There are also pages on the role of women in their society, and the peculiar practice of bull-jumping. The smaller section on the more militaristic early Greeks describes their origins and religion, and attempts to ascertain the cause for the fall of the Mycenaean civilisation during the twelfth century BC. The historicity of the siege of Troy is touched upon, and introductory information about Homer's epic poetry is provided. The site also links to other online resources, although many of these are more relevant to the study of Greece in the period after 700 BC.
This is a free-to-view online edition of Gregory Nagy's book The Best of the Achaeans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry, which was first published in 1979. The version which appears here is the 1999 revised edition published by Johns Hopkins University Press. The book looks at the epics of Homer (both the Iliad and the Odyssey) and other forms of archaic (pre-fifth-century BC) Greek poetry, most notably the so-called Homeric Hymns (with a particular focus on the Hymns to Apollo, Demeter and Aphrodite), and the Theogony and Works and Days of Hesiod. There is also reference to the poetry of Pindar and Archilochus and the early versions of Aesop's fables. Each chapter is based around a reading of a section of ancient text and focuses particularly upon what these texts reveal about the concept of the hero (figures such as Achilles and Hector) in the archaic Greek world, whilst looking at the ancestral practices of hero-cults as well as the poetry, prose and song relating to the figures of the heroes. This machine readable text is presented in a number of versions including HTML, although it may be necessary to download Greek font.
The Book of the Dead is part of the Internet Sacred Text Archive, run by amateur John B. Hare as a free, non-profit archive of e-texts on religion and mythology. The site does not promote the views of John Hare or any other individual but simply presents sacred texts from original scans and printed anthologies. A bibliography of these texts and a code of standards in scanning is provided on the site. Mainly, the texts are given in English translation although a few texts are accessible in their original language. The Internet Sacred Texts Archive is a partner of Distributed Proofreading for Project Gutenberg in developing e-text projects. The page on the Egyptian Book of the Dead provides free access to E.A. Wallace Budge's 1895 translation of this sacred text. Texts are grouped under the Plate format of the Book, while Budge's extensive introductory material is reproduced in full. All material on the site is available free of charge, although Sacred texts also offer its archive on CD-ROM in order to fund the running of the site. An excellent resource.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
The Institute for Antiquity and Christianity (IAC) is part of the Claremont Graduate School and is a research centre which focuses on the origins of western civilisation; its bulletin is made available online by the Claremont Colleges Digital Library. Volumes available here date from 1970 to 1997. The user may browse contents lists for each volume and then access each volume page-by-page in PDF format. Of particular academic interest are the texts of IAC public lectures, and a wide range of topics is covered by these, including: archaeology relating to Biblical sites; the writing of the New Testament; ancient Roman education; Judaism and Christianity; Alexandrian poetry; ancient magic; the synagogue; and papyrology.
This is the website of the Cambridge School Classics Project (CSCP), which aims to promote the teaching of classics and ancient history to students of all ages. This excellent resource offers teaching aids, practical advice, and news and Web links to students and teachers with a dual emphasis on Latin and Roman history, myths and storytelling. The website features a very useful and extensive series of free online resources for Latin learners and their teachers, many in the form of web links, as well as providing a guide to the Cambridge Online Latin Project and its paper version, the Cambridge Latin Course. A subscription is required for the online Latin course. Resources also include an online vocabulary tester and dictionary. Information is also provided on the Iliad Project, which aims to develop child literacy skills via the medium of storytelling, and on other initiatives to support the teaching of Greek and Roman culture in primary schools. The CSCP website will be a fundamental resource for anyone interested in classical civilisation at all levels of education.
The Catalogue of Paraliterary Papyri (CPP) contains descriptions and texts from Greek papyri and other written materials. For each document, several metadata including bibliographic references are provided. Most texts catalogued in CPP cannot be found in the standard electronic corpora of literary and documentary papyri, such as the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) and the Duke Data Bank of Documentary Papyri (DDBDP) and therefore this catalogue is one of the essential reference tools for Greek papyri. The simple interface simplifies access to the catalogue, which can be searched or browsed. At the time of review the catalogue contained about 500 texts, several of which make reference to Greek mythology. The catalogue benefited of two grants from the Onderzoeksraad K.U.Leuven.
This Web page, 'Classical documents for Christian research', features a series of links to English translations of ancient texts (originating from Greece, Rome, and Egypt) which may be of use to those undertaking research into parallels between Biblical texts and stories featured in classical literature. As the full-text of many of the works is included, these may also be of interest to anyone seeking online translations of the featured authors. Works which appear here are: Aristophanes' 'Peace', 'Clouds' and 'Ecclesiazusae'; Euripides' 'Bacchae'; Hesiod's 'Theogony' and 'Works and Days'; the Homeric Hymns; selected works of Plato; Herodotus' Histories; and extracts from Catullus, Pausanias, Aristotle and Athenaeus, as well as a number of Egyptian texts.
This online resource is a concise guide to the major classical writings which provide our source material for the myths of the Olympian gods and goddesses, illustrated with a selection of images from ancient and modern artists. The classical passages are taken from the Perseus Digital Library; this allows the interested reader to delve more deeply into the original sources and to pursue further research. No knowledge of Latin or ancient Greek is required or assumed. The resource also features a short but critical bibliography for further reading, a guide to identifying divinities from their iconographic attributes, and a timeline of Greek history and literature. While this modest website will largely benefit a general or undergraduate audience (it is intended for undergraduate students in Greek and Roman studies at the University of Victoria, BC) it will also serve as a quick and useful reference source or aide-memoire to the more knowledgeable or experienced student of classical myth, particularly for its iconographic content.
This is an excellent companion website for Morford and Lenardon's best-selling book Classical Mythology, now in its seventh edition, which offers a wide range of resources for teachers of classics and ancient history. Apart from providing a useful outline of each chapter and a summary of the myths discussed within, the website provides free, downloadable PowerPoint images for use in class, as well as a series of glossaries of words, phrases and characters encountered in classical texts, and maps of the Mediterranean world and of the classical constellations. There is also a valuable series of lesson plans and accompanying quizzes based on the chapters of the book which can also be used independently of the text. Each chapter description is accompanied by a commentary on the text and a list of relevant weblinks which provide many valuable reference links. The archive section features extracts from ancient literary accounts, together with a commentary, as well as a selection of modern poems inspired by classical mythology by writers such as Yeats, Poe, Landor, Keats, Browning, Shelley, Longfellow, Frost, Byron, Blake and T.S. Elliot. This website will benefit both school and university students and teachers of classical literature and culture as well as those taking English, comparative literature or art history.
This website was set up by Dr Robin Mitchell-Boyask of Temple University to accompany his course in classical mythology. It is focused largely on Greek mythology, and is written primarily with undergraduates in mind, covering a range of mythological subjects, such as the gods and the Trojan War. Included are a series of study guides, compiled by Dr Mitchell-Boyask and featuring the following works: Homer's Iliad and Odyssey; selected Homeric Hymns; Sophocles' Oedipus and Antigone; Euripides' Medea and Hippolytus. Also featured are: a list of links for studying ancient mythology; details of the myths relating to Zeus; and links to images of myths relating to Heracles, Apollo, the city of Athens and the Trojan War (these lead ultimately to relevant pages of the Perseus website). This resource is a very straightforward site which would be of use to any student of Greek mythology.
This website accompanies a course on Classical Mythology run by Professor William A Johnson at Bucknell University. Whilst some of the information here is specific to that particular course, there is much which will be of interest to those looking for information on the myths of the ancient world in general. Individual pages of the site contain notes on particular topics and questions for discussion, and would be useful aids to anyone preparing tutorials or lectures relating to the themes covered here. Many pages are also accompanied by images from ancient art. The focus is primarily on ancient Greek myth, and individual sections deal with the following subjects: myth in literature (including the Near Eastern background, Gilgamesh, Homer and Hesiod, and the Greek dramatists Aeschylus and Sophocles); myth in art (with images relating to the myths of Heracles, Medea and Jason, and Perseus); myth in religion (including both gods and heroes); myth and thought (covering some of the ways in which philosophy and science deal with myth); and theories of myth. There is also a quick-reference study guide dealing with key names, concepts and episodes in myth. A further section gives sample exam/essay questions.
Written by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, this is an excellent online study guide to classical Greek and Roman culture through its key literary, historical and philosophical writers. The resource, which is intended for use by undergraduates taking classics options, combines historical, critical and literary material with practical exercises and questions in reading, comprehension and interpretation. The authors featured are: Homer; Thucydides; Sophocles; Euripides; Aristotle; Aristophanes; Plato; Lucretius; and Virgil. Each literary genre is accompanied by sections providing cultural and intellectual background. The entries are hyperlinked to Perseus for easy reference, as is the excellent glossary of personal names, technical terms and placenames, though there is no bibliography. This resource provides a clear and reliable learning resource for classics and ancient history students.
Classics Unveiled is a series of web pages on a range of classical themes aimed primarily at school-level students and enthusiasts of the classical world. It is divided into four main sub-sections entitled: MythNET; Rome Unleashed; Rome Exposed; and Latin Wordstock. MythNET looks at ancient Greek and Roman mythology and features sections on gods and heroes, with brief details of key figures and stories from mythology. The section entitled Rome Unleashed focuses on the history of Rome and is arranged chronologically, with subdivisions on: From City to Empire (755-27BC); Imperial Regime (27-BC-102AD); Imperial Peace (102-192AD); Troubled Century (192-280AD); and Restoration and Fall (280-476AD). Each part contains short summaries of key events in Roman history. There are also timelines for each era and a list of Roman rulers. In the Rome Exposed section the focus is social history, with information on: Roman homes; the family; slavery; dress; cuisine; games, exercises and baths; entertainment; religion; and death. Finally, Latin Wordstock is a limited list of Latin vocabulary along with pages on English words derived from Latin roots. This site, whilst it tries to offer a wide range of information, succeeds in providing only an introductory overview of the topics covered. It would therefore be of most use to those new to the study of the classical world.
This website publishes an etymological dictionary of Greek myths initiated by Carla Zufferli, then an undergraduate student, and now carried forward by an international team. The dictionary can be accessed by clicking on "dizionario etimologico" and then "consulta" on the top menu and then "consulta" on the page (or using the direct hyperlink on this page); it can only be browsed by word ("voce"; in each record the part of the title in capital letters, e.g. "ACHILLE"); ancient name ("indice"; in each record the first part of the title, e.g. "Achillèus"); category ("categoria") or theme ("tema") accessing the menu on the top and then the required word on the menu on the right looking towards the screen. For each word in the dictionary there are short definitions; references to ancient texts; the etymology of each name starting where possible from Linear B words; category and theme where available; pictures of archaeological artefacts in which relevant characters are depicted (not always available and there are some broken links). The dictionary is in Italian, but Spanish and French translations are being completed. It is necessary to have installed a special font for Greek words, which can be downloaded from the website. Another important part of this website is labelled "materiali": here there are short articles ("saggi") on miscellaneous aspects of Greek religion and mythology; original texts ("testi") from both ancient and modern poets (e.g. the "snake women" from "Mythos Libykí²s" by Dionis Chrysostomi; "Narciso al fonte" by Umberto Saba) and reviews ("recensioni e notizie") of recent publications. Some pages also provide more details on the project and the team writing the dictionary. This advanced dictionary is a useful research tool for researchers and postgraduate students of Greek religion and possibly Mycenaean Linear B.
This excellent website provides a series of historical, linguistic and mythological maps of the ancient world. The site is divided into the following sections: maps of ancient Italy (from the sixth to the third centuries BC); maps of the Roman world in the republican period; maps of the Roman world in the imperial period; Latin and Romance languages (showing the geographical spread of these languages throughout Europe and under the Roman empire); the return of Odysseus (featuring an interactive map with locations featured in Homer's Odyssey; the accompanying description here is written in Spanish); and the voyages of Aeneas (this section is similar to that on Odysseus' journey). The maps are clearly annotated and easy to understand, and can be used to illustrate the changing boundaries of the territories of Europe at various points in the history of the ancient world. Most of the maps are also available in several languages: English; Catalan; Spanish; Dutch; French; Italian; Galician; and Latin.
The early Church website covers the history of the Church from its foundation until c.600 CE. This site is a bibliographic guide listing primary and secondary sources by topic. Topics include: the Bible; councils; heresies and sects; famous individuals within the Church (listed alphabetically); ecclesiastical history; philosophy (Aristotle, Plato, Neo-Platonism, Cynicism, Epicurianism and Stoicism); and study aids. The inclusion of non-Christian philosophy means that the coverage period actually dates back to the fifth century BCE, and thus provides a useful bibliography for students of (Classical) philosophy as well as those studying early Christianity. There, are, however, no accompanying descriptions of the books, but given the extensiveness of the lists, this is understandable.The site is maintained by Robert Bradshaw, who has a Cambridge diploma in religious studies from Mattersey Hall (Assemblies of God Bible College).
The website of The Ecole Initiative : The Eleusinian Mysteries is dedicated to the ancient Greek festival held annually in honour of Demeter and Persephone. The Eleusinian Mysteries were the most sacred and revered of all the ritual celebrations of ancient Greece. The website has been compiled by Edward Beach of the University of Wisconsin. The site offers an account of what little is known about the Mysteries, and some of this is necessarily speculative. This includes discussion of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. The site also offers images of Demeter, Persephone and Eleusis. There is also a bibliography. The resource would primarily be of interest to ancient historians working on Greek religion.
A site as wonderful in its detail as it is frustrating in its navigation, Egyptian Royal Tombs of the New Kingdom is a website providing information about and diagrams of major Egyptian burial sites constructed between the 16th and 11th centuries B.C. (Dynasties XVIII-XX). With extensive descriptions, Kelley Ross (of Los Angeles Valley College) takes us through the tombs and various chambers of pyramids and the Valley of the Kings, highlighting their major features and offering brief inventories of their contents, along with scholarly theories from some of the more recent secondary sources. The majority of material is directed towards an undergraduate or general interest user who is specifically interested in the physical construction and setting of Egyptian funerary rituals, both of whom will appreciate the number of diagrams and their level of detail.
The Encyclopedia Mythica, edited by M.F. Lindemans, contains in excess of 7,000 articles on mythological figures, deities, and supernatural beings. The site is extremely straightforward to use: one can simply enter the required mythological terms into the search engine, or explore the alphabetically arranged major subsets, which include the mythology of over two dozen geographical areas or traditions. Other sections include a bestiary, genealogical tables, and an image gallery of over 250 pictures. As with many works of this type, the definitions are quite short: in fact, the structure is perhaps more reminiscent of a dictionary than an encyclopaedia, but that does not detract from its utility as a quick reference resource. While users can be reasonably confident about the reliability of the descriptions about specific deities or figures from a single culture, the encyclopaedia generally fails to give much consideration to the changes and evolutionary nature of mythic and folklore strands. Thus, while a definition may be correct for a specific group, where a supernatural entity is shared across more than one culture or an extended period, the explanation tends to be somewhat oblivious to these variations.
ETANA is a cooperative project between ten scholarly institutions and organizations, funded by the Mellon Foundation, with the aim of enabling wider access to Abzu (the Internet gateway for Ancient Near East studies) and the digitization of core texts in the field. At the time of review, there were over 350 digitized texts, covering topics including ancient Egyptian and Babylonian history, biblical archaeology, and the religion of the Semites. There are also over 180 digitized cuneiform texts. Texts include an electronic version of the 'Pantheon Babylonicum: Nomina Deorum e Textibus Cuneiformibus Excerpta et Ordine Alphabetico Distributa' by Deimel, Panara, Patsch and Schneider. The site also offers a short list of links to archaeological projects and organizations affiliated with ETANA. The ETANA core texts collection can be browsed alphabetically, or keyword searches can be performed using the Abzu interface. Abzu also offers details of a vast array of websites, online journals, and ebooks relevant to academics and students working in this area.
This website (which is published by the Wesley Center for Applied Theology) contains the complete works of Flavius Josephus, including the 'Antiquities' (an history of the Jewish people), the 'Jewish War' (an historical account of the revolt against Rome from AD 66-70), Josephus's 'Autobiography', the 'Discourse on Hades' and, 'Against Apion' (an apology of the Jewish people and customs). All the translations are those of William Whiston (who translated them in the seventeenth/eighteenth century). The book version of Whiston's translation was updated in 1906 and more recently in 1988. The version which appears here is based upon the 1906 edition. The translation into English is therefore somewhat archaic, but elegant and eminently readable. There is, however, no commentary on the text, nor even the smallest background detail on any of the works, Josephus, or Whiston. Josephus was born in AD 37 to a priestly Jewish family, and as such was destined for the priesthood himself. At the age of sixteen Josephus spent several months studying with the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes before deciding to become a Pharisee. During the Jewish Revolt against Rome (AD 66-70), Josephus was appointed commander of the region around Galilee. The Romans captured Josephus in AD 67, and he remained a prisoner of Vespasian (the military commander and future emperor) until AD 69, when Josephus was given his freedom for prophesying Vespasian's rise to the purple. Josephus remained in Rome after the revolt was put down, and retained close connections with the imperial family (with both Vespasian and Vespasian's sons Titus and Domitian when they also became emperor). Although Josephus became a Roman citizen, he retained his Jewish religion - choosing to remarry a Jewess in AD 73/4. The date of Josephus' death is unknown, but is conjectured to have been around AD 92/3. Josephus's works are clearly set out and the individual chapters (or books) are labelled so that one can click on to a particular book without having to wade through the entire opus. There is no search engine, however. One can also download the complete works as a Zip file from this site.
Designed to accompany a series of lectures given by Professor Kirk Summers of the University of Alabama, this website on Greek and Roman mythology provides links to images of the slides used as visual aids (showing primarily ancient art and architecture). The course is based around the theme of Greek and Roman mythology, and focuses on specific deities and texts relating to their stories. These include literary interpretations of particular myths from archaic Greece to Roman times, including Hesiod's Theogony, Ovid's Metamorphoses and Euripides' Bacchae. Lectures are based on the following themes: the creation myths; Zeus and Hera; Poseidon, Hermes and Hephaestus; Artemis and Athena; Cybele and Aphrodite; Demeter and Persephone; Apollo at Delphi; Dionysus; the underworld (including Orpheus); Heracles; and Perseus and Theseus. Each slide is accompanied by descriptive text, and although the actual text of the lectures is not featured here the site is nonetheless a valuable source of images for anyone seeking to illustrate teaching material on these topics. Links to relevant external websites are also given.
This is an online exhibition, provided by the US National Library of Medicine, which offers an overview of ancient Greek medicine (from around 800 BC to 200 AD) and some of the ways in which modern Western medicine is founded on ancient practice. The site functions as an introduction for anyone interested in the history of medicine in the ancient world, with a timeline of key events and brief details of the transmission of ancient medical texts to the modern world. Individual sections focus on Hippocrates (fifth century BC), with a translation of the Hippocratic oath, Aristotle (fourth century BC), and Galen (second century AD). A further section looks briefly at the physicians Pythagoras (sixth century BC), Dioscorides (first century AD) and Artemidorus (second century AD). There is also some information on healing in Greek myth and art, with reference to the gods Asclepius and Apollo and the Homeric myth of Chiron and Achilles. A short bibliography on Greek medicine is given (without annotation).
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston holds one of the premier collections of Greek and Roman antiquities, and this Web page, part of the Museum's online collections database, presents a range of works associated with Greek mythology from the 6th century BC to the 3rd century AD. The media include painted vases, stone and bronze sculpture, coins and jewellery. There are in total 137 objects, and they can be arranged according to catalogue reference, accession number, culture (e.g., Mycenean, Archaic Greek, South Italian), subject or artist name. Some excellent and famous pieces are included, such as the Dokimasia Painter's 'Oresteia' calyx-krater, the 'Boston throne' and the 'Bartlett' Aphrodite head. The major Greco-Roman gods are illustrated, as are a number of depictions of Medusa, Herakles performing his labours, and other mythological figures, such as genii on Roman sarcophagi. There is a search facility that covers everything within the online collection. Each entry is accompanied by a description of the content, date, size and the musuem inventory number. No bibliography is detailed, but details of provenance/ ownership history are included. Perhaps the most useful aspect of this resource are the photos that accompany the text.. The photos are of high quality and the interactive zoom feature produces details of fine quality that enable close scrutiny.
The Greek Mythology Link is a vast online repository of detailed information on Greek myths. Created by Carlos Parada, it is based partly on his book 'Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology' (Jonsered, 1993), and thus pays particular attention to the relationships of mythical characters with one another. It bases its information on primary sources, all of which are collated in the bibliography. The site consists of key sections which cover the following: 'Biographies' (outlining the roles, deeds and relationships of the gods, men, women, personifications and monsters in the mythical stories); 'Groups' (referring to the collectives which populate Greek mythology); 'Places and Peoples' (on the mythical history of cities and regions that feature in Greek mythology, such as Corinth, Troy and Ionia, as well as the Underworld), an extensive dictionary of mythological characters and places; a catalogue of images (primarily showing pictures of post-classical illustrations and sculptures dealing with the ancient myths). There are also illustrated essays on the myths in general, divinities, events, and a section of varia, including 'Murders', 'Life and Deeds of the Pelopides' and 'Disney's Hercules and Original Hercules compared'. The site is fully searchable and each page contains hyperlinks which direct the reader to other relevant articles within the resource. Justifiably, the site has received a number of awards, and should be a primary resource for anyone interested in Greek mythology and its reception in modern times.
Acting as an introduction to the history of Greece from the Neolithic to the Byzantine periods, this website provides information about developments during each of the eras which it covers, as well as related images. Descriptive text is accompanied by a wide variety of photographs showing historical and archaeological sites in Greece as well as images of artefacts which are on display in museums. Overviews of the following historical periods are provided: Neolithic; Cycladic; Minoan; Mycenean; Geometric; Classical; Hellenistic; Roman; and Byzantine. Each of these sections is divided into further subsections on topics such as economic and social developments, art, religion or poltical history. Further pages are devoted to particular archaeological sites in Greece: the Acropolis of Athens; the sanctuary at ancient Olympia; and Eleusis. These are perhaps the most detailed and informative parts of the resource, providing images of and information on individual buildings (for example temples and theatres) at each location. Other areas of the website look at the Olympic games and the Eleusinian mysteries, and there is a brief dictionary of Greek mythology. Links to news articles on various aspects of Greek history are also provided. The site will be of particular interest to those who are new to the study of Greek history and culture.
'The Hebrews: A Learning Module' provides an excellent introduction to the history of the Hebrew peoples from the Age of the Patriarchs (beginning c. 1950 BC) to the Diaspora of the Jews in the first century AD. Based largely on the testimony of the Torah and the rest of the Old Testament, the account provided here also introduces corresponding evidence where available. The history is divided into separate chronological web pages, covering periods such as: Egypt and the wanderings; the occupation of Canaan; the Monarchy (with accounts of Saul, David, and Solomon); the two kingdoms (of Israel and Judah); the exile; and the Greeks and the Jews. The site includes a separate section on the Hebrew religion. This looks at the evolution of Jewish scripture and beliefs from the pre-Mosaic period, to monotheism and the prophetic books, to the post-exile reforms. There is a page on the Torah and a glossary of Hebrew terms and concepts. An anthology of Hebrew readings includes extracts from Genesis, Exodus, and Judges. The site also includes a map of ancient Israel, and a list of links to other sites (although a few of these were not in operation at the time this record was reviewed). This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
This online exhibit from the Perseus digital library focuses on the myths relating to the ancient Greek hero or demi-god Hercules (Herakles). Drawing on various versions of the ancient mythological tales, it relates the stories about his life and the 12 labours which form part of the Hercules legend. Sub-sections of the site cover the following: maps of Hercules' legendary journeys; his encounters with various women, both mortal and immortal (including: Hera: Athena; Megara; Omphale; Deianira; and Hebe); his 12 labours (with an individual page telling the story of each one); and other stories relating to Hercules. Whilst the text on the site is rather basic, and aims to provide an introduction to the topic, the main merit of the resource is that it is richly illustrated with relevant images from Greek art and of ancient Greek archaeological sites.
This is a simple website explaining the Hittite and Hurrian deities, their forms, roles, and relations. The information is divided into sections on the following topics: 'Who were the Hittites?'; 'What deities did they worship?'; and 'Cosmology and the structure of the universe'. There is also a short annotated bibliography of relevant sourc material. Within the explanatory text of each section the descriptions for each god or goddess contain hyperlinks to other deities, allowing for easy navigation around this single-page website.
This Web page, authored by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Vancouver, provides the revised version of a lecture on Homer's ancient Greek epic poem, the Odyssey. The resource is part of the author's Johnstonia website. The lecture is divided into sections on the following topics: a historical note on Homer; the Odyssey as an epic poem; structure and style of the Odyssey; the Odyssey's vision of life; the gods as visual manifestations of the divine; the character of the hero Odysseus; comedy in the poem. Throughout the lecture the author also compares aspects of the Homeric epic with the Old Testament Book of Genesis.
'Into His Own' focuses on the historical study of Jesus and the New Testament. It consists of a number of primary texts in translation, including extracts from the works of Josephus and Tacitus, and from the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Talmud, and the Mishna, on the political, social and religious situation in 1st-century Palestine. In addition to the primary material, these pages offer information (including maps) on the historical sites and sources on which this study is based. Thorough and scholarly, but still aimed at an audience of non-experts, this resource is an excellent teaching and introductory research tool. The site also features a blog and a short list of related links.
This website provides a lecture-style illustrated introduction to ancient Greek and Roman comedy, an excellent overview (by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College) of the subject for school and undergraduate level students of classics and related disciplines. The 29 sections introduce the origins of classical comedy and its role in the religious festivals of Athens, which were established in honour of the god Dionysius. It particularly relates to the Great (or City) Dionysia, one of the two Dionysian festivals (the other being the Rural Dionysia) that was probably established in the 6th century BC, but that is best documented from the 5th century BC onwards. The website outlines the form and function of the theatres and their technical equipment with reference to surviving literary, iconographic and archaeological evidence. There is much useful information on genre, aspects of performance, the role of actors and chorus, and on music, as well as a modest bibliography suitable for undergraduate reading. The text is hypertexted throughout to the Perseus digital library for convenient reference, which makes it an ideal online resource for students taking classical civilisation at an elementary level.
This online resource is a clearly-written and well-illustrated introduction to Greek tragedy aimed at undergraduates studying Classics and related subjects, by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, New York. Presented in lecture form, the course consists of 24 sections which include the following: an explanation of the origins of tragedy in the religious festivals of ancient Greece (particularly the City Dionysia in Athens); information about the locations of ancient theatres and an analysis of their architectural and technical details; a discussion of the written and iconographic sources for the Greek theatre; and sections on the actors, chorus, music and production of a play. The only drawback is the absence of a bibliography or of sources for the archaeological material such as the admirable series of painted vase scenes which reflect the origin of the text in the lecture hall. Nonetheless, the resource will benefit school and undergraduate students of ancient literature and society, as well as those interested in comparative literature and drama.
This is the website of the online Journal for Late Antique Religion and Culture (JLARC), which has been published annually since 2007 by Cardiff University's Centre for Late Antique Religion and Culture (CLARC). CLARC's sphere of interest covers all aspects of late antique religion and culture from the late Hellenistic period to the early Middle Ages, with a particular emphasis on classical antiquity. Users may view abstracts of articles and then access the full text of these in PDF format. The website also provides details of the editorial board as well as guidelines for contributors.
This is the website of the Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism, which originates from McMaster Divinity College, Hamilton, Canada. The journal is presented first here online, and then appears in an annual printed volume (published by Sheffield Phoenix Press). Users may access the full text of the most recent articles via the site (in PDF format); once the printed volume has appeared, however, only lists of contents and abstracts are accessible online. The journal looks at the place of the New Testament and early Judaism in the Greco-Roman world. Full-text articles available to view here, or forthcoming at the time of writing this review covered the following topics: an Odyssean view of Paul, developed by John Chrysostom; an interpretation of Luke's gospel using the literary theory of Bakhtin; the languages of Palestine during the New Testament period; Greco-Roman biography; and pilgrimage to the holy land. Also available online are full-text reviews of recent publications on topics which fall within the journal's scope.
K C Hanson's website may be a chaotic montage of loosely connected resources, but within this eclectic host of sub-directories, there are several topics worth exploring by those interested in history, culture or religion. Dr. Hanson's primary interest seems to lie with the interactions between various ancient and classical communities spanning from the apogee of the Egyptian to the Roman Empire (in particular the relationship between the later and the early Christian communities). He has assembled a series of dynastic chronologies for both Israel and Rome, along with a selection of texts relevant to this period. With a little searching one can find ancient documents from Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Greek civilizations, along with a selection from Semitic cultures. These texts, all translated, tend to cluster between the eighth century BCE and the third century CE but there are a number which predate these.
Part of the site provides useful support resources for the textbook 'Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts', which Dr Hanson co-authored with Douglas E. Oakman. Those wishing to delve further into a particular topic may also wish to consult Hanson's robust series of web links to the ancient world and/or his bibliographic collections on rituals on ancient Greco-Roman society; Hellenic, Semitic and Anatolia Cultures; and The Old Testament. An attractive collection of images from many of these cultures has been compiled.
This online resource, part of the Johnstonia Web pages created by Ian Johnston of Malaspian University-College, Vancouver, is a brief summary of the various ancient stories told about the Trojan War and its background. These stories, many of which originate from before the time of Homer, are all part of the oral tradition relating to Troy (sources for these traditions include fragments of early Greek hexameter poetry). The information contained here would be useful for anyone new to the study of the Homeric epics and seeking a brief insight into the mythological background to the stories and characters of the Iliad and Odyssey. Unfortunately, however, no references to ancient texts are provided which would have enabled the user to follow up the stories in more depth. The page also contains a brief summary of the cultural influence of the Trojan War legend, as well as a note on the house of Atreus, the royal family of Mycenae.
The Lost Gospel of Judas is a website from National Geographic Society, focusing on the Coptic manuscript discovered in the 1970s and eventually restored and translated in 2006. The Gospel of Judas is believed to have been written before 180 A.D. by an unknown gnostic writer, possibly in Egypt, and was regarded as heretical both for its gnostic content and its favourable treatment of the eponymous disciple, traditionally held to have betrayed Jesus. This site offers background information about the manuscript, its discovery, and the work to conserve it, along with images of the pages of the codex, plus a complete transcription of the Coptic text and an English translation. This is a useful resource for those wishing to learn more about this important discovery.
This bilingual (Spanish/English) website, created by researcher and teacher Martín Pozzi of Buenos Aires University, is devoted to the study of the first century AD Latin poet Marcus Manilius, whose best known work is the Astronomica, a 4500 line hexametric poem which combines astrology with Stoic philosophy. The site offers links to online editions of the text (Loeb and Intratext) as well as commentaries, articles, secondary literature and reviews. A useful and extensive bibliography of works on Manilius also provides a list of publications on ancient astrology and the zodiac. Much of the secondary material referenced in the bibliography is in English. There is an excellent range of links including ones on the wider history of astrology. There is also a discussion group to which readers can subscribe. This resource will benefit researchers and teachers in classics and related subjects, including the history of science and religion.
Created by Philip Harland of York University, Toronto, this website is devoted to an ongoing seminar within the Sociey of Biblical Literature. The seminar originated in 2002 and looks at the way in which meals and dining can provide an insight into the social and religious lives of ancient Greeks and Romans, as well as aiding understanding of early Christianity and Judaism. Users may access full text versions of papers given by members of the seminar (these are available to download in PDF format). Topics covered include: women and dining; the Greco-Roman banquet; biblical references to meals; dining, the eucharist and Christianity; meals and Judaism; and ancient philosophy and food. There is also a list of the academics who are members of the seminar.
Minerva Systems, written by Dr Cora Angier Sowa, is a website dealing with various aspects of the classical world. The author, whose academic background is in classical studies and computing, is interested in the use of computers in the humanities; this site is primarily aimed at presenting some of her work on the relationship between modern technology and the study of the ancient world. Here users may access the first chapter of her work, 'The Loom of Minerva : an Introduction to Computer Projects for the Literary Scholar'. The site also features essays on the following themes: verbal patterns in Hesiod's Theogony; the themes of the Homeric Hymns and other early Greek oral poetry; and ancient myths in modern movies. There is also an archived section on 'quotations of the month' which contains miscellaneous extracts (in English translation) from ancient texts with explanatory information and accompanying images from ancient and modern art.
This small website, written by Alison B. Griffith, is a hypertext introduction to Mithraism, the ancient Roman mystery cult of the god Mithras. Roman worship of Mithras began sometime during the early Roman empire, perhaps during the late first century CE, and flourished from the second through the fourth centuries CE. The resource gives details on the following topics: the deity Mithras; possible origins of the Roman cult; structure and liturgy of the cult; iconography; and the popularity of Mithraism geographically, socially and chronologically. There is also a short bibliography of scholarly works.
This online resource contains an illustrated essay by David Ulansey on the meaning of some of the symbolism connected to the ancient mystery religion of Mithraism, which flourished across the Roman empire from the end of the first century CE until the eventual triumph of Christianity in the fifth century. Mithraism has left no scriptural evidence of the beliefs or cultic practices of its intiates, so Ulansey attempts here to penetrate some of its mysteries by studying the material artefacts and iconography that remain. The central thesis of this essay is that the cosmic symbolism of the Mithraic cult, with its zodiacal 'grades' of initiation and bull-slaying imagery, is connected to astronomical and astrological observation of the path of the sun through the constellations. Although the arguments become quite abstruse, they are clearly presented and illustrated with some useful diagrams. Ulansey's argument is an alternative to the accepted wisdom that Mithraism originated in Iran. This essay does not focus on the historical, archaeological, or sociological aspects of the worship of Mithras so much as on the basis for the worshippers' beliefs and the iconography. For those interested in the subject it offers a useful angle of approach through the study of the heavens.
The legendary myths of ancient Greece, in a website, designed for children and teachers, as a resource for the heroes, gods and monsters of Greek mythology. There are illustrated versions of the quests, adventures and also an index of mythological figures and places and links to the areas in which they appear.
Mythologia 97 is an online German-language dictionary of mythology that is designed and maintained by Dr Peter Tondl. From the welcome page, users are guided by a menu on the left of the screen to an alphabetical index of approximately one hundred key figures from Greek mythology. Each of these names is a hyperlink, and by right-clicking on it, the user is taken to a text document and, in some instances, pictures relating to the selected figure. The definitions, though short, are informative and well-written, and contain further hyperlinks to other related figures. This is a functional, user-friendly web resource that will be of interest primarily to the general public and non-specialists.
"Nazianzos", the website of the Centre for the Study of Gregory of Nazianzus, based at the Université catholique de Louvain in Belgium, is devoted to the life and work of the fourth-century Cappadocian theologian, Gregory of Nazianzus (c.325-390). For the most part delivered in French (although a number of sections have English versions), the site includes a brief essay on textual transmission, online databases for finding manuscripts of Gregory's Orations, bibliographies of editions and translations, and information about the Centre's activities and projects. Through an international collaboration, the Centre is also building a critical edition of Gregory's texts, while evaluating the impact of his thought on the Oriental Christian cultures. Their results can be observed through a series of annual reports (available in French only). The site also functions as a gateway to some of the material on the early church fathers available on the Internet. Directed primarily towards professional academics and research students, Nazianzos will be of use to those interested in early church history, theology or biblical hermeneutics, and particularly anyone working at the advanced level on Greek Orthodox Christianity in the fourth and fifth centuries, Gregory of Nazianzus himself, or the impact of his writings.
This is the website of The Oath in Archaic and Classical Greece, a research project funded by the Leverhulme trust, directed by Alan H Sommerstein and based at the University of Nottingham's Department of Classics. The project's main focus is a database of all references to oaths or acts of swearing found in Greek texts dating from the introduction of alphabetic writing to the year 322 BCE; the website makes this database, which features over 3,700 records, available online. A search facility allows the user to look for references to particular oaths according to a wide range of criteria, including: author; work; genre; date; swearer or swearee (this can be broken down further into gender, age, status and citizenship of the swearer/swearee); and god to which the oath refers. Search results include both literary and epigraphic references to swearing and are given in the form of detailed descriptions to the content and context of the oaths, with references to the sources in which they may be found. The website also provides: a brief explanation of the definition of an oath; information about the project team; and details of the project's publications.
Orpheus is a website from Washington State University which relates to a project designed to enrich introductory humanities courses. The primary focus of the site is ancient mythology but it aims to encourage students to think about the ways in which ancient thought can be related to the modern world and to human psychology in general. The site contains a wealth of resources on a wide range of topics which fall within this remit; included are detailed pages on particular myths, as well as study guides and thought-provoking questions on ancient texts, and images from ancient and modern art. Broad section headings are divided into more detailed sub-sections and include: the ancient world (with items on Gilgamesh, creation myths, the Old Testament, gods and heroes); Greek mythology (Homer, Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns, the Greek gods and the Muses); Greek plays (focusing on Sophocles and Euripides); Roman mythology (Ovid); thematic connections of myth (including sections on animals, Hell, war, mythology of state, mythology of self and the myth of love); and mythology in film (with reference to westerns, monsters in film, and science fiction films). Whilst there are countless other websites dealing with ancient mythology this one stands out because it does not simply narrate the stories but raises interesting questions about the place of myth in the world in general, and its relevance to all human beings.
The Pantheon is a website providing information on the traditions, myths and rituals associated with ancient Greek gods and goddesses, and provides an introduction to Greek religion for those new to the study of the ancient world. Introductory text is divided into the following sections: the five ages of man; the creation of the world; the creation of mankind; the Titans; the Gods of Olympus; and Greek heroes and demi-gods; other Greek legends. The site is also fully searchable, and links to pertinent entries are also embedded into the main text. Unfortunately few references to ancient sources are provided; this limits the usefulness of the site as anything other than a basic starting-point.
The papyrus Egerton 2 is a fragment of an unknown gospel, dated between 150 and 200 CE and found in Egypt in the 1930s. This home page is a private site published under the University of Bremen Web pages, containing high quality images of the Egerton 2 papyrus, with full transcription and translations into English and German. The author has also provided a brief history of the papyrus and the scholarly debate it has provoked, information on its palaeography and a discussion of its canonical parallels. Finally, this resource holds an extensive bibliography and a number of online secondary sources.
Papyrus of Ani; Egyptian Book of the Dead website is a translation of the ancient Egyptian book of Going Forth by Day, more commonly referred to as the Book of the Dead. The translation was made by the famous English Egyptologist Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge (1857 - 1934). The text is a funerary text that was used during the New Kingdom in Egypt and is based on Old Kingdom pyramid texts and the coffin texts from the Middle Kingdom. It describes the journey of the dead through the nether world and is thus an important source of information about the concepts of death during this era. The website consists of the translated text from the papyrus of Ani which is dated to the 19th Dynasty of the New Kingdom in Egypt. The text contains, in addition, alternative sections from other papyri with the same or similar texts. This is a useful resource for anyone interested in Egyptology or the religions of the ancient world.
Pathways to Ancient Myth is an online resource initially designed for use by Calvin College's classical mythology students, but which will appeal to others with an interest in looking at locations relevant to the legends of ancient Greece. It presents what are described as five virtual walking tours of places important in history, myth, ritual, and art of the Greek world. Featured sites are the Athenian Acropolis; Delphi; Dodona; Eleusis; and Olympia. Each tour comprises a set of photographs, accompanied by explanatory text describing the history, mythology, and buildings of the sites. This is a clear and easy-to-use resource which brings together visuals and text and could be used as an introduction to Greek history or as an aid to teaching Greek architecture as well as in courses relating to the myths of Greece.
This online encyclopaedia from the Perseus digital library is a comprehensive reference source for a vast range of aspects of the classical world. Via the encyclopaedia's table of contents the user is able to click on the first letter of the term for which they are searching and then browse through entries beginning with that letter. Alternatively they may type in a search term. The breadth of information here to some extent defies summary, but among other things the following are included: key individuals (authors and statesmen, for example); important sites throughout the Greek and Roman world; mythology and religion; art and architecture; historical events; literary works. Each encyclopaedia entry provides hyperlinks to relevant resources in the Perseus library, including cross references to other articles in the encyclopaedia and direct links to primary and secondary sources as well as to any related images. The encyclopaedia is an excellent starting-point for those seeking information on classical topics.
The 'Philo Judaeus: On Ascetics' website contains a copy of the first four chapters of the aforementioned text (based on a translation which appeared in an edition by O. Thatcher in 1907 and which has been adapted by Professor Arkenberg). This is one of many texts which appears in the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. There is a brief introduction, taken from Thatcher's edition, which explains who Philo was and when he wrote (an Alexandrian Jew of the first century CE). This text was composed c.30 CE and focuses on the customs of the Essenes - a particular set of Jews who had an especially rigid modus vivendi (hence the title 'On Ascetics').
The 'Philo Judaeus: The Creation of the World' site is part of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook and contains an English translation (of the first eleven chapters only) of the aforementioned work. Philo was an Alexandrian (Hellenised) Jew of the first century AD, whose most famous work is arguably 'The Embassy to Gaius'. Philo, however, also wrote many works (all in Greek) on the Jewish religion, of which this is one. Professor Arkenberg of Fordham University has modified Thatcher's (1907) edition. This appears to be the standard translation of Philo, by C. Yonge (who is not credited on the site), which first appeared in 1854-5, and which has since been published in much more recent and more accessible editions than Thatcher's. The site, unfortunately, indicates none of this rather essential and elementary information. There is a very brief introduction to the text, taken directly from Thatcher's book, but there is no commentary, and the format of the text is plain and unadorned.
The Studia Philonica Annual is a scholarly journal devoted to the study of Hellenistic Judaism, and in particular the writings of Philo, an Alexandrian Jew who lived in the 1st century CE. The journal's website offers tables of contents and indexes of articles from 1989 onwards, but the articles themselves are not currently available online. Subscription details are available from the site, as is information on ordering back copies. The Studia Philonica Annual is published annually by Brown Judaic Studies under the aegis of SBL (Society of Biblical Literature) publications. The journal has an international advisory board, consisting of academics from America, France, the United Kingdom and Norway.
Philoctetes is a website which offers several key early philosophical texts in ancient Greek, along with English and French translations. In most cases the translation appears opposite the Greek text for ease of comprehension. Featured authors are: Thales (c. 600BC); Anaximander (sixth century BC); Heraclitus (c. 540-c. 480 BC); Parmenides (c. 515-c. 450 BC); Empedocles (fifth century BC); and Zeno (fifth century BC). Also included, with French translation only, are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, as well as works by Aeschylus (525-456BC), Plato (427-347BC) and Euclid (c. 300BC). Texts can be downloaded in PDF format. There is also a searchable dictionary of Greek gods. Results appear in French and give references to, and quotations from, key passages in the ancient texts.
This site is designed as an online companion to the textbook 'Classical Myth' by Barry B Powell. There are separate gateways for the fourth and fifth editions of the book, and although the site is primarily designed for school use there is some material here which will be of value to undergraduates studying mythology for the first time. The site is organised in such a way as to accompany Powell's book chapter-by-chapter. Themes which are covered include: the creation myths (the rise of Zeus and the origins of mortals); the Olympian gods; fertility myths (Demeter and Dionysus); the underworld; heroic myth (including Perseus, Heracles and Theseus); Oedipus and the Theban myths; the Trojan War and Odysseus. Each chapter-section includes: a summary of the objectives of each chapter; a set of quizzes on the relevant topic; sample essay questions; and (most usefully for university-level students) summaries of sources (ancient and modern) and links to text and images on the web which relate to the specific myths discussed. Also included with each section are glossaries of key terms and names from mythology with brief descriptions.
A chapter from Bulfinch's Mythology, which is available online on this site. This chapter deals in part with the story of Glaucus, a fisherman who, on discovering and tasting a magical herb, is overcome with the desire to dive into the water and becomes a water god. In this form, he encounters Scylla, the favourite of the water-nymphs.
Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean is both the weblog and main website of Philip Harland, an Assistant Professor at York University, Toronto. The blog covers a variety of topics related to the religions of ancient Greece and Rome, early Judaism, and early Christianity. Posted items which will be of interest to academics include: details of conferences, papers and publications; comments on recent articles in the media; references to ancient religion in popular culture (with a strong emphasis on cinematic portrayals of ancient religions); and links to other related websites. As well as reading the blog chronologically the user may also search posts according to a series of categories. These include: apocalypticism; archaeology and epigraphy; art and religion; Christian origins and literature; early Judaism and the diaspora; Greco-Roman religions and culture; history/religion and popular culture; Mesopotamian and Israelite religions; travel and religion; and women and religion.
This website provides images of the Roman calendar, marked with feast days and holidays as well as the corresponding modern calendar date. There is also an explanation about how to use the calendar, with details of its 3 primary markers, the Kalends, the Nones and the Ides. There is also a brief illustrated account of the archaeology of the Julian calendar, with images of the few fragments of Roman calendars that survive (collectively known as Fasti). The user may click on the images to study an enlarged picture. The references that support the Roman Calendar are also listed.
The website Roman Numeral and Date Conversion, with Roman Numerals Calculator and Roman Numerals Test, has been constructed by Steven Gibbs, a freelance enthusiast based in Guernsey.The site provides online tools for the calculation of dates in the Gregorian calendar in Roman numeric form. The site not only provides help with converting year dates into Roman numerals, but also in translating dates from the Gregorian calendar into their equivalent Julian form. The dates are expressed either in full Latin text, or in the more abbreviated form used by the Romans. For each date entered, users will be offered five variant forms.The site also offers useful notes on the historical development of the calendar, and the transition from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. There are links to other web resources relating to calendars, and a short bibliography of works on the subject.There is also an online tool for the conversion of Arabic numbers into Roman numerals. Other features include a Roman calculator, which carries curiosity rather than practical value.The site will be a very useful resource for those needing help with conversion of Roman dates and numbers, and could prove especially useful as a classroom tool.
The Roman Numerals and Calendar Web pages have been compiled by Paul Lewis, a freelance journalist and broadcaster. The site is not intended to function primarily as a conversion tool but to provide background information about the history of the Roman calendar and the formulation of dates in Latin. The site shows users how to form combinations of Roman numerals and offers detailed information about variant forms which were used in antiquity. There is also material on apparent anomalies in the Roman numeric system, including the expression of Roman numbers on clock-faces. There is an online quiz with answers provided although this is probably too advanced for use in secondary schools. The site is mainly aimed at a general interest audience, although it could prove useful for ancient historians wanting clarification on issues of dating.
Scholia Reviews is an electronic journal of reviews for classics, ancient history, and related subjects. Subjects of books recently reviewed include: Greek historiography; late antiquity; Roman art and architecture; classical myth; Roman religion; Greek and Roman literature. The journal has been published on an annual basis since 1992. Book reviews are available via email as well as on the website. A selection of reviews are also published in the international printed journal, Scholia. Reviews tend to be between 1500-2500 words long. The Scholia Reviews website also includes details of books received and requiring review and guidelines for review authors (including the system for transcribing Greek).
Coptic is the name given to the latest stage of the ancient Egyptian language from the first century BC and written in an alphabet deriving from Greek and Demotic. The term is applied more generally to the distinct culture of Egyptian Christianity and its diaspora which still uses the Coptic language in its religious rituals. This website, produced by the St Shenouda the Archimandrite Coptic Society of Los Angeles, is part of an on-going project to preserve and promote Coptic culture by providing digital resources for Coptic language, literary, archaeological and artistic study. Projects include the Coptic Microfilm Library (CML) which aims to put all relevant Coptic and Arabic texts online and the Mapping of Coptic Monuments project, which will record all Egyptian Christian architectural and archaeological sites. The Manual of Coptic Studies (at the time of review almost completely empty and not updated since 1996) includes: the liturgy and texts of Coptic Christianity; a history of the language; a guide to Coptic writing; a directory of Coptic scholars. Other features include a useful slide show of frescoes from Coptic churches and monasteries. There is also a run of newsletters from the mid-1990s and downloadable software. The links page provides further information on websites of Coptic interest.
This Web page provides a description of the pantheon and cosmology of the Sumerians, who lived in what is now southern Iraq between 5000 BC and 2000 BC. Aspects of Sumerian culture are touched upon, as are parallels with Biblical stories. Information is provided for each major deity and legendary figure, and each entry contains hyperlinks to associated entries. A full and annotated bibliography of sources is provided. This is a clearly presented online resource which serves as a good introduction to ancient Sumerian mythology.
This website was initially designed to support Ancient History students at the University of Calgary, but offers freely accessible online versions from key Latin and Greek texts in English translation. A selection of sources relating to Greek history, Roman republican and imperial history and late antiquity may be found here. Texts relating to fifth-century BC Greek history include: Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War (Book I); Aeschylus' Persians; the pseudo-Aristotelian Athenian Constitution; and Plutarch's Alcibiades, Aristides, Cimon, Nicias and Pericles. The section on Roman republican history features several of the comparisons from Plutarch's Lives; for the Roman imperial period Tacitus' Annals (Book I) features. Electronic texts for the study of late antiquity (the fourth century AD onwards) are generally more difficult to find, and it is here that the site offers a convenient compilation of useful resources. Featured authors here are: Gregory Thaumaturgus; Lactantius; Eusebius; Athanasius; the Cappadocian Fathers; Symmachus; Ambrose; Jordanes; and Priscus. Each cited text is accompanied by a brief introduction to its author.
The Theoi Project is primarily an online encyclopaedia of figures from Greek religion. Each alphabetical entry has a short description of the god, spirit or monster; a longer description can then be accessed with further details and extracts from primary source material, as well as illustrations from Greek art. The site is impressive for its scope - even the most obscure and minor divinities merit an entry in this excellent quick reference tool. Further detailed sections of the site are devoted to the following topics: gods and goddesses; Titans and Titanesses; fabulous creatures; giants; heroes, kings and villains; nymphs; a family tree of the Greek gods; 'art galleries' depicting images from mythology; and a section providing access to key ancient texts for the study of mythology. The library includes English translations of ancient Greek and Latin poets, including: Callimachus; Theocritus; Aratus; Apollonius Rhodius; Lycophron; Quintus Smyrnaeus; Parthenius; Colluthus; Tryphiodorus; Philostratus; Callistratus; Nonnus; Statius; Hyginus; and Valerius Flaccus. Whilst there are many online resources devoted to classical mythology, this is one of the higher quality sites, making good use of the primary sources and providing a high level of detail.
Boston-born American writer Thomas Bulfinch (1796-1867) is best known today for his attractive retelling of classical myths for the general public published in 1855 as The Age of Fable; or stories of gods and heroes but later re-issued in 1881 under its better known title Bulfinch's Mythology. This useful website provides a biographical sketch and number of informative articles by Marie Cleary on various aspects of Bulfinch's life and work and on his important role in the popularisation (or 'democratisation' as Cleary sees it) of the ancient classics in 19th century America, in addition to a valuable unpublished short account of the role of classical literature in American society prior to Bulfinch's first venture into print in the 1850s. The articles are reproduced from the journals Humanities and Classical World and from the Biographical Dictionary of North American Classicists. Cleary emphasises how Bulfinch's juxtaposition of translations from the ancient authors with classic or contemporary English poetry was an innovative didactic method aimed to overcome the widespread lack of classical education among teachers and students alike. He also wrote to educate and edify, particularly his younger audience, which explains both the bowdlerised retelling of some ancient tales but also the Victorian Christian undertones to his writings. Cleary also expounds her own views on the nature and significance on classics in the current US school and university curriculum. This website will thus benefit students and researchers interested in the reception of classical literature, but also historians of education and religion in 19th century America.
Created by the University of Michigan Library, Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity offers a good visual and descriptive introduction to magical practices, devices and ornamentation from the pre-Christian period. Developed around the University's own extensive collection of papyri texts, each section begins with the description of a specific type of magical object, ranging from a early magic recipe books to a protective amulet. This description is followed by a series of related images that detail the features, significance and functionality of these apparatuses. The objects described come predominantly from the Mesopotamian and Egyptian regions, between the first and fifth centuries C.E. The site will be of appeal to anyone who has an interest in early magical rituals and practices during the height and decline of the Roman Empire. Those new to the subject may also wish to explore the brief, but helpful, bibliography at the end of the exhibit.
Travel and Religion in Antiquity is an ongoing seminar (since 2005) within the Canadian Society of Biblical Studies (CSBS); this website makes available its papers and abstracts online. The seminar looks at the ways in which travel affected religious activity and cultural interaction in antiquity (with an emphasis on the Hellenistic and Roman periods, but with some attention to the Persian and earlier periods). Papers and abstracts are available to view as PDF files. Topics covered to date include: Hellenistic, Judaean and early Christian travellers; ethnographic discourses and migration; cultic journeys and early Christian travellers; the interplay of travel and religion; and the realities of travel. There is also a lengthy bibliography, divided into themed sections, on travel and religion in antiquity. Finally, an annotated list of links to relevant external resources is also provided.
This website describes the University of Chicago's excavations, since 1989, of the sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia near Corinth; this was one of the most important religious centres of the ancient Greek world and the location of the pan-Hellenic games. In addition to reports for the 1989-2007 field seasons, the resource includes a number of articles on various aspects of ancient Isthmia as well as a bibliography of publications by the project team. The resource offers numerous useful maps, plans and photographs of the sanctuary. Particularly attractive is a series of 3D views and contour plans illustrating the architectural development of the sanctuary of Poseidon from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BCE. Ability to view large images (using Adobe Acrobat) is required. This site will be of value both to undergraduates and to those initiating research into the archaeology of Greek religion and social life.
Put together by Philip A Harland of York University, Toronto, this website allows the user to view images of artefacts in the Greek and Roman collections of several archaeological museums in Turkey. The emphasis is on objects which shed light on religious life in the ancient world. The museums which feature are those in: Aphrodisias; Ephesus (Selçuk); Hierapolis; Istanbul; and Smyrna (Izmir). Included are images of gods and emperors as featured in statues, reliefs and monuments (including sarcophagi). Most date from the first and second centuries CE. Each image is labelled with its subject and date, but no further detail is given. The site also contains links to Philip Harland's other websites featuring articles which shed light on relevant topics relating to ancient religion. There is also a link to a bibliography relating to the museums featured here.
Who Was Who in Roman Times is an online illustrated index to Roman culture, compiled by an enthusiast, Michiel Osinga. The site is arranged initially by topic (including: persons; geography; sources; events; religion; images; other miscellaneous subjects), with each topic subdivided further into other subjects arranged alphabetically. Clicking on the links which are given reveals information of varying degrees of detail and usefulness. For example, in some cases only a very short summary of the relevant topic is given, where in others, links are provided to extracts from ancient texts, images and more detailed information. The compiler has attempted to include a vast amount of information here; however, this means that the site is not always easy to navigate in order to find what the user is looking for.
Women in Greek Myths is a well organised website devoted primarily to introducing the female figures of ancient Greek mythology. This may be searched alphabetically or by keyword, but is also organised according to theme. Individual sections focus on the following topics: goddesses (featuring minor goddesses as well as the more well-known); nymphs; mortals; Amazons; and monstresses. There is also a section on some of the key men of Greek myth. A further section ('Myth Pages') brings together summaries of versions of important myths as told by ancient authors. Included here are: the creation; births of gods and goddesses; myths relating to love; and a range of other stories (such as the stories of Pandora, the Judgement of Paris, the Labours of Heracles and the Seven against Thebes). The most appealing aspect of the site is that it is richly illustrated by images of ancient sculpture and pottery, neoclassical art, and even film stills, although these are unfortunately given no captions citing sources.
World Mythology is a set of online resources designed to accompany a course run by Michael Webster at Grand Valley State University, Michigan. The materials available offer an insight into the mythology found in archaic Greek poetry, biblical texts, and Norse and Babylonian sources. As well as providing information for students of classics or theology the site will also be of use to anyone interested in comparative mythology. Classical texts covered are the early Greek hexameter poems of Hesiod (Theogony and Works and Days), the Homeric Hymns, and the Odyssey of Homer. The biblical section covers stories from the Book of Genesis, and there are sections on the gods of Norse, Babylonian, and Sumerian myth, as well as on the epic of Gilgamesh and Egyptian myth. A copy of Webster's course syllabus is provided, with accompanying material including: notes and commentary on the relevant texts, with explanations of key terms and names; suggested questions for essays or discussion; extracts from the primary sources; and bibliographies. The pages are cross-referenced, with hyperlinks to other relevant sections of the site.