The Ancient Commentators on Aristotle Project is run by the Department of Philosophy at King's College London, and this is its website. The project aims to make available in English translation the principal ancient commentaries on the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC). This site makes available online several documents (in PDF format) related to the project. It should be noted, however, that the translated commentaries themselves are unavailable here (links are provided for those wishing to purchase these online). Nonetheless, researchers of Aristotle will find several items of interest. Chief among these is an extensive bibliographical guide to recent works on the commentators. This is an annotated list of articles and books relating to the ancient Greek, Arabic and Latin commentaries on Aristotle. Also provided here are lists of volumes produced by the project, including translations and explanatory works.
'Ancient Egyptian Religion' is a website that serves as a gateway to a short but useful and well-maintained collection of links relating to the religious beliefs of ancient Egyptians. The list, compiled by Andrew Bayuk, is lightly annotated. The materials chosen cover items such as: deities; beliefs; practices; culture; mythology; priesthood; history; philosophy; symbols; death; funeral; embalming; and tombs. The site forms part of the 'Guardian's Egypt' website, which features various other aspects of Egypt and Egyptology. Accessible and informative, this resource is suitable for undergraduate use.
This website acts as an introduction to ancient rhetoric, and was constructed by Malcolm Heath of the classics department at the University of Leeds in order to assist students taking his course on the ancient art of persuasion. As well as a very useful downloadable course handbook (in PDF format) which provides an introduction to ancient rhetorical theory, the site also provides: papers on rhetorical invention and declamation; an introduction to Hermogenes' On Issues; and translations of parts of some ancient textbooks on rhetoric, Aphthonius' and Libanius' Preliminary Exercises (progymnasmata). Given the less familiar nature of these texts, this site is a useful contribution to rhetoric studies on the Internet.
A product of a seminar held at the University of Pennsylvania, this website is devoted to the Latin writer Apuleius (c. AD 123-c. 170). Although Apuleius is best known as the author of the Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass), the resource is concerned not with this text but rather with Apuleius' Apologia (Apology), a declamation defending himself against charges of using magic. The site features Latin texts and English translations of the Apologia as well as a range of detailed articles by university staff and graduate students on topics relating to the work. Themes include: the context of the Apologia; marriage and money; magic; Apuleian rhetoric; and the theme of anger. The site also features a section on bibliography relating to Apuleius.
The Archelogos Project website is the home of an ambitious and exciting project, based at the University of Edinburgh. The project's aim is the creation of an electronic database recording all the philosophical arguments that can be extracted from the works of the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. The database, which is designed for online viewing, is still a work in progress, but substantial sections of text are already available. Arguments are presented hierarchically: each of the main points can be expanded to reveal the sub-arguments. Citations are given for each argument's location in the original work, plus links to both the Greek texts and English translations. There are also notes on alternative interpretations of words and phrases, and references to other passages where similar themes occur. Analyses have been commissioned from specialists in ancient philosophy, and are overseen by an academic board drawn from universities around the world. The Archelogos Database is one of several interesting and innovative on-going University of Edinburgh projects relating to ancient philosophy; links to the others are also provided.
This website consists of an online text of Aristotle's Rhetoric and a short bibliography of secondary works. The text used as the basis for this is W Rhys Roberts' English translation of 1954. Each of the three books of the rhetoric is given its own web page, with Roberts' extended indexes linking to precise paragraphs within the work. The entire site may be searched by keyword, and a Bekker index is also included to allow users to access sections of the text using the referencing system based on the definitive text. Although unannotated, the secondary bibliography is extensive, and organised in reverse chronological order of publication (that is, with the most recently-published items listed first). The entire site may also be downloaded in HTML format.
This website is part of the Digital Library for International Research, a project of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC), and it publishes the first nine volumes (1973-1981) of the "Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Dergisi: Hümaniter Bilimler" journal. This journal contains papers on a variety of topics, including modern literature; history of art; philosophy; history and archaeology. Among the papers are "Plato's Criticism of Parmenides' Conception of Being as Found in the Sophist"; "The Paradox in the Epilogue of Troilus and Criseyde"; "The Sale of Slaves in the Ottoman Empire"; "The City and the Desert as Nineteenth Century Mythical Topoi"; "Turkish Women and the Amazons in Renaissance English Drama"; and "Islam and Turkish Literature". Papers are written in English or Turkish and are accessible as individual full-text PDF files, with searchable text.
The Boethius website is created and maintained by James J. O'Donnell of Georgetown University. It focuses on the Roman philosopher, poet and politician who lived from ca. 480 to ca. 525 CE, offering a brief biography and the Latin text of his 'Consolation of Philosophy (Consolatio Philosophiae)' with translation tools, a line-by-line commentary, an English translation and a bibliography. It is intended as a teaching resource for students of classics and/or history and for this it serves its purpose very well. There are also links to related resources but a number of these were not functioning at the time this record was reviewed.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
This website publishes new translations of Plato's Euthyphro, Socrates' Defense (also known as The Apology), Crito and the death scene from Phaedo and is part of Dr Woods' personal page. The new translation has been prepared by Dr Woods and his student Ryan Pack with the intention of offering a good online translation for those who cannot (or prefer not) to visit a library. This is a good idea, and hopefully more lecturers will make available important contents online. Students in particular will appreciate this website.
Chaironeia is a website is devoted to the Greek biographer, historian and moral philosopher Plutarch (c.AD 46-c.120) - the site is named after his birthplace in Boeotia. The most useful section of the site is an extensive bibliography of works on Plutarch, organised by theme and including: editions and translations; the second sophistic and the background to Plutarch and his works; philosophy; religion; literature and aesthetics; textual criticism; and influence; as well as articles and books on specific volumes of Plutarch's Lives and his Moralia. The resource also features a page on Plutarchan Nachleben (influence/reception), with remarks on Plutarch from later authors and historical figures, including Agathias, Shakespeare's 'Henry IV', Ben Jonson, Mary Shelley, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Harry S. Truman. A list of Plutarch links on the Web is also given.
Written by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, this is an excellent online study guide to classical Greek and Roman culture through its key literary, historical and philosophical writers. The resource, which is intended for use by undergraduates taking classics options, combines historical, critical and literary material with practical exercises and questions in reading, comprehension and interpretation. The authors featured are: Homer; Thucydides; Sophocles; Euripides; Aristotle; Aristophanes; Plato; Lucretius; and Virgil. Each literary genre is accompanied by sections providing cultural and intellectual background. The entries are hyperlinked to Perseus for easy reference, as is the excellent glossary of personal names, technical terms and placenames, though there is no bibliography. This resource provides a clear and reliable learning resource for classics and ancient history students.
This online resource is the homepage of Malcolm Heath, a professor of Greek Language and Literature at Leeds University, who is responsible for a number of major studies on Greek literature and rhetoric since the late 1980s. His website provides a full list of his publications, with abstracts and, where available, links to full-text versions online. Topics covered include: Aristotle; Aristophanes; Thucydides; ancient literary criticism (including ancient interpretations of Homer); Hesiod; and Pindar. Here Heath also makes accessible a wide range of course materials which he has used for the teaching of classical subjects including: Aristotle's Poetics; ancient rhetoric; Greek tragedy; Homer's Iliad; and literary theory. For each topic there are bibliographies, synopses of key texts and short papers on important issues. There is much here which will be of interest to both students and teachers of undergraduate classical courses.
This is a very simple website containing a complete electronic text (in English translation) of The Discourses by the ancient philosopher Epictetus (c. AD50-120). The Discourses record exchanges between Epictetus and his students after formal teaching had concluded for the day. They are a record of intimate, though earnest, discussions in which Epictetus gets his students to consider carefully what the philosophic life, for a Stoic, consists of, and how to live it oneself. A wide range of topics are touched upon, from friendship to illness, from fear to poverty, on how to acquire and maintain tranquillity, and why we should not be angry with other people. The electronic text is divided into four books, with each book containing several chapters.
Epicurus and Epicurean Philosophy is a website which aims to introduce Epicureanism both to the serious student of philosophy and to anyone seeking useful and inspiring ideas. Epicurus (341-270 BC) helped to lay the intellectual foundations for modern science and for secular individualism, with many aspects of his system still highly relevant some twenty-three centuries after they were first taught to his students at his school, known as 'The Garden', in Athens. The site includes: translations of Epicurean texts (including works by, as well as Epicurus himself: Diogenes Laertius; Lucretius; Cicero; Horace; Lucian; Cornelius Nepos; Plutarch; and Lactantius); background information on the period in which he and his followers wrote; general material on ancient philosophy; and pages of annotated links to other relevant online resources. There is also a discussion list associated with the site.
This website publishes the free and full-text Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft journal that focuses on Classical archaeology, literature, and philosophy with several papers on religion, cult and rituals. The individual papers are available in PDF format and are mostly in German, but there are also a few in Italian. The journal also publishes numerous reviews of books, which can be found alongside the papers. There is a full-text search form that returns as results the list of PDF files in which the searched keyword appears. It is possible to subscribe to a mailing list to be notified of new issues. Researchers in particular will find this journal useful.
History of Ancient Philosophy is a highly organised and detailed piece of online courseware developed by Marc Cohen of the Philosophy Department at the University of Washington. The site will be most helpful for instructors and students working on ancient Greek philosophy from the Milesians through to Aristotle. Cohen makes available here his detailed lecture notes on a range of topics (subjects covered include Zeno, Plato and Aristotle, among others), as well as providing information about the course syllabus, including a schedule and sample examination questions. The site also provides a collection of links to online primary and secondary sources devoted to ancient philosophy and related topics. Cohen also has other subsites here entitled Just for Fun and Ancient Philosophy in the News, with recent relevant news items. These subpages are clearly meant to spark students' interest, but other visitors will find them informative as well.
The website of the International Association for Greek Philosophy (IAGP) provides information about the activities of the Association, which is a non-profit organisation devoted to promoting the study of Greek philosophy. Details of past and forthcoming conferences and publications are given, plus contact details for the Association. The site also offers a link to the International Centre for Greek Philosophy, a non-profit academic research and cultural institution which aims to promote international research into Greek philosophy, and to coordinate and develop the research carried out by specialists in Greek philosophy.
This is the website of the International Boethius Society. This society is dedicated to the study of the life, works, and times of Boethius (c.480-c.525 CE), the Roman philosopher, poet and politician. The society is a non-profit organisation, and this website is hosted by the English Department of the Middle Tennessee State University. Conference information and membership details are provided online along with a link to details of the society's journal 'Carmen Philosophiae' - essentially only a call for submissions, and a guide for submissions.
This is the website of the International Plutarch Society, which aims to further Plutarchan studies and to encourage communication between scholars who are researching various aspects of Plutarch's works. The site gives a page of links to English translations of writings of the Greek biographer, historian, and moral philosopher, (found in the Internet Classics Archive) as well as a large downloadable bibliography (in PDF format) of secondary material on Plutarch which, although comprehensive, gives only the title and author of works with no annotation detailing their content. Details of how to become a member of the International Plutarch Society are also given on the website, as well as information on new publications and upcoming conferences on Plutarch and tables of contents for the Society's paper journal, Ploutarchos.
Johnstonia is the home page of Ian Johnston, formerly an instructor at Vancouver Island University in Canada. The website offers a substantial collection of primary texts, many of which were translated by Johnston, plus many of Johnston's own essays, lecture transcripts, book reviews, and other study materials. Most of the primary texts fall within the disciplines of classics and philosophy, including works by: Aristophanes; Homer; Nietzsche; Rousseau; and several others. The lectures and other material cover many of the same authors, plus a number of literary writers: T. S. Eliot, John Milton, and Tom Stoppard are among those included, and there is a section devoted to the study of Shakespeare. The site describes itself as 'designed to provide curricular material for various courses in literature and Liberal Studies'. The works are freely available for educational and other non-commercial uses.
The Last Days of Socrates is a website designed by two faculty members of Clarke College, Iowa, and intended to provide help for those students who are reading the work of Socrates (469-399 BC) for the first time (typically first year undergraduates). It provides the complete texts (in English translation) of the Euthyphro, Apology, Crito and the Phaedo, the four central addresses attributed to Socrates and reported by Plato (429-347 BC). Each text is accompanied by explanatory notes of the important philosophical issues such as those that are concerned with Socratic irony, value and reason. The translations include cross-references with clickable links giving explanations of key terms or proper nouns. The site also offers a series of audio links to recordings of extracts from the speeches (RealPlayer is required in order to access these). A less comprehensive Spanish language version of the site is also available.
Founded in 2002, Leeds International Classical Studies is an open-access online journal associated with the Leeds International Classics Seminar. It publishes articles and interim discussion papers on all aspects of Greek and Roman antiquity, and of the history of the classical tradition. Topics covered by journal articles include: comedy; didactic poetry; marriage and sex; oratory and rhetoric; philosophy; and tragedy. As well as presenting the full text of journal articles in PDF format, the website also provides: guidelines for those who wish to contribute articles to the journal; a statement of editorial policy; and information regarding the copyright of articles submitted.
This bilingual (Spanish/English) website, created by researcher and teacher Martín Pozzi of Buenos Aires University, is devoted to the study of the first century AD Latin poet Marcus Manilius, whose best known work is the Astronomica, a 4500 line hexametric poem which combines astrology with Stoic philosophy. The site offers links to online editions of the text (Loeb and Intratext) as well as commentaries, articles, secondary literature and reviews. A useful and extensive bibliography of works on Manilius also provides a list of publications on ancient astrology and the zodiac. Much of the secondary material referenced in the bibliography is in English. There is an excellent range of links including ones on the wider history of astrology. There is also a discussion group to which readers can subscribe. This resource will benefit researchers and teachers in classics and related subjects, including the history of science and religion.
Ben R. Schneider Jr. provides this online electronic database of early modern books, and older school-book texts popular with early modern readers. These all engage on some level with the subject of moral philosophy. Included are: conduct books such as Sir Thomas Elyots' 'The Boke Named the Governour' (1531) and Count Baldassare Castiglione's 'The Book of the Courtier' (1528; trans. Thomas Hoby 1561); biographies such as Plutarch's Lives; and works dealing with moral philosophy more directly, such as Bishop Joseph Hall's 'Characters of Virtues and Vices' (1608). Transcriptions appear to be fair, although authoritative hardcopy editions should be consulted for research purposes. Useful indices to the texts are provided and the site also features a links page focussing upon online resources dedicated to Stoic philosophy. Schneider is Emeritus professor of English at Lawrence University.
The 'Philo Judaeus: On Ascetics' website contains a copy of the first four chapters of the aforementioned text (based on a translation which appeared in an edition by O. Thatcher in 1907 and which has been adapted by Professor Arkenberg). This is one of many texts which appears in the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. There is a brief introduction, taken from Thatcher's edition, which explains who Philo was and when he wrote (an Alexandrian Jew of the first century CE). This text was composed c.30 CE and focuses on the customs of the Essenes - a particular set of Jews who had an especially rigid modus vivendi (hence the title 'On Ascetics').
The 'Philo Judaeus: The Creation of the World' site is part of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook and contains an English translation (of the first eleven chapters only) of the aforementioned work. Philo was an Alexandrian (Hellenised) Jew of the first century AD, whose most famous work is arguably 'The Embassy to Gaius'. Philo, however, also wrote many works (all in Greek) on the Jewish religion, of which this is one. Professor Arkenberg of Fordham University has modified Thatcher's (1907) edition. This appears to be the standard translation of Philo, by C. Yonge (who is not credited on the site), which first appeared in 1854-5, and which has since been published in much more recent and more accessible editions than Thatcher's. The site, unfortunately, indicates none of this rather essential and elementary information. There is a very brief introduction to the text, taken directly from Thatcher's book, but there is no commentary, and the format of the text is plain and unadorned.
Philoctetes is a website which offers several key early philosophical texts in ancient Greek, along with English and French translations. In most cases the translation appears opposite the Greek text for ease of comprehension. Featured authors are: Thales (c. 600BC); Anaximander (sixth century BC); Heraclitus (c. 540-c. 480 BC); Parmenides (c. 515-c. 450 BC); Empedocles (fifth century BC); and Zeno (fifth century BC). Also included, with French translation only, are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, as well as works by Aeschylus (525-456BC), Plato (427-347BC) and Euclid (c. 300BC). Texts can be downloaded in PDF format. There is also a searchable dictionary of Greek gods. Results appear in French and give references to, and quotations from, key passages in the ancient texts.
The Philodemus Project website, from the Classics Department at the University of California in Los Angeles, describes the background, problems, and progress of the ongoing attempt to piece together the texts of Philodemus from the remnants of the ancient Papyri found at the 'Villa of the Papyri' amongst the ruins of Herculaneum. Herculaneum was buried, along with Pompeii, by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. Philodemus of Gadara was a first century BC Epicurean philosopher who wrote treatises on poetics, rhetoric, and music. The site presents the historical background to the project, and provides images of the burnt papyrus scrolls from which the texts are being reconstructed. There are also pages on Philodemus's rhetoric (with images of hte relevant papyri), although the text itself is not provided at the site.
This is the homepage of Plato, the internet journal of the International Plato Society. It is an impressive site committed to encouraging debate, and the exchange of ideas, between thinkers throughout the world. It consists primarily of essays that interpret texts by Plato and his followers. Work in the history of ideas is also prominent, some articles examining the popularity of Plato in modern Japan, others exploring the transmission of Platonic ideas from one period to another. True to the influence of Plato, the papers carried by this elegantly designed journal are in a number of languages, but English is the most important. Anyone working in philosophy, the history of ideas or theology will find the journal invaluable.
Plato and his Dialogues is an online essay written by Bernard F Suzanne, a data processing systems architect and student of Plato. The essay provides a useful introduction to the ancient Greek philosopher and is divided into sections on the following topics, based on Plato's writings and ideas: Plato's autobiography; investing in education for political purpose; the just man and the philosopher-king; soul searching; the whole of being; rhetoric vs dialectic; man's happiness in the city; know thyself; Platonic theory. References to the texts of Plato are linked to their English translations on the Perseus website. There is also an alphabetical list of Plato's works, with links to their full English and Greek versions from Perseus.
This website is dedicated to the ancient Greek philosopher Plato (427-347 BC) and his dialogues, and contains a wide range of articles relating to the man and his works. There is also, however, much here which will be of use to the student of classical Greek history in general. Included are a biography of Plato and a list of his works, along with a brief history of the interpretation of the dialogues. Links are given throughout to the Greek and English texts of Plato's works found online (most of these are from the Perseus website). In relation to the broader history of classical Greece, there is an extensive alphabetical index of key names and places with detailed information on each, and a useful chronological history of Greece in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Finally, a series of clear maps of ancient Greece and the Mediterranean can also be found here; each map has clickable links to the alphabetical list of locations mentioned earlier.
This is the website of the Plato Centre (formerly the Centre for the Study of the Platonic Tradition), which is part of the School of Classics at Trinity College Dublin and which aims to further the study of the history of Platonism (including Christian, Jewish, and Islamic Platonism). The site offers details of the Centre's undergraduate and postgraduate degree programmes in Platonic studies, as well as giving information on Centre members and faculty (with details of their research and publications). The site also provides information on lectures, conferences, visiting scholars, and the activities of the Centre's members, as well as details of conferences held elsewhere on themes relating to the Centre's work. There is also a list of links to other relevant online resources of interest to those studying the Platonic tradition.
'Teaching Ancient Philosophy' is a web resource designed for the use of university teachers and students of Ancient Philosophy. Materials for teachers include commentaries on pedagogical issues as well as bibliographies and reviews of existing literature in teaching Ancient Philosophy, and prospective textbooks for courses relating to the subject. Resources for students include links to online texts; lexicons; encyclopedias; the homepages of relevant journals and organizations, discussion lists; contextual resources (e.g. images, maps, and archaeological guides); and online language resources. The site was designed by Dr John Sellars, senior lecturer in Philosophy at the University of the West of England, Bristol.
The Worlds of Late Antiquity website is the home page for 'miscellaneous materials relating to the culture of the Mediterranean world', covering the period from 200 to 700 CE. Topics include the life and works of Saint Augustine, Cassiodorus' Variae, Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy, Pope Gregory the Great, Junillus/Junilius (quaestor under Justinian c.AD 541-9, who composed the Instituta regularia divinae legis in AD 542), Aelius Donatus (the mid 4th century grammarian who was the teacher of Jerome), and Cosmas Indicopleustes (a 6th century Alexandrian merchant who eventually became a monk, and who wrote the Christian Topography, based on his travels). All of the sections are composed by James O'Donnell of Georgetown University, primarily for a course he taught in 1995 (the exception to the above is the section on Cosmas, which is by Andrew Weisner also of the University of Pennsylvania). The site focuses on particular works by the aforementioned ancient writers, making the texts available on the net. For instance, Gregory the Great's 'Moralia in Iob' consists of the first five volumes of this book of which the first book is available in HTML format with clickable footnotes, while the remaining four are on ASCII format without footnotes. The Christian Topography of Comas is based upon McCrindles' (1887) translation, using Winstedt's (1909) edition of the Greek text. Generously, O'Donnell includes (a complete edition) of his own book on Cassiodorus, written in 1979, which is now out of print.