The Ancient Greek World Web presentation is a virtual exhibition created by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. It deals with aspects of ancient Greek history and society from the sub-Mycenaean period to the Hellenistic period (c. 1100-31 BC). A section entitled 'Land and Time' gives a chronological overview of the history of the periods which are covered. Other sections cover the following broad topics: daily life; religion and death; and the economy. Each section is divided into several sub-sections and is illustrated using images of ancient Greek art (vase paintings, sculpture and coins); accompanying text provides important details about these artefacts. The site is well presented, and the images which are used to depict important aspects of ancient Greek life would be very useful particularly for those studying or presenting a variety of classical courses, who require easy access to the primary sources.
The 'Barbarians and Bureaucrats' website from Washington State University outlines the history of the Minoan and Mycenaean Greek civilizations, which were followed by the Greek Dark Ages, lasting until about 700 BC. The Minoan civilization, based on the Aegean island of Crete and centred around palaces such as the one at Knossos, flourished in the second millennium BC. The website describes the Minoan people and customs, looking at their religion and visual culture. There are also pages on the role of women in their society, and the peculiar practice of bull-jumping. The smaller section on the more militaristic early Greeks describes their origins and religion, and attempts to ascertain the cause for the fall of the Mycenaean civilisation during the twelfth century BC. The historicity of the siege of Troy is touched upon, and introductory information about Homer's epic poetry is provided. The site also links to other online resources, although many of these are more relevant to the study of Greece in the period after 700 BC.
The BBC History website "Romans" examines the enduring traces of Roman rule (43-410 CE) to be found in Britain - the language, culture and the landscape. Aimed at students of all ages, this website complements recent BBC broadcasts and includes considerable contributions from presenters and producers for example: Roman military historian and associate producer of "Simon Schama's History of Britain", Dr Mike Ibeji asks what the careers of Roman soldiers reveal about life in Roman Britain; Lindsay Allason-Jones (University of Newcastle Upon Tyne) explores the lives of Romano-British women; Adam Hart Davis, presenter of "Local Heroes" asks "What did the Romans do for us?" Other topics include: Roman Empire (Andrew Wallace-Hadrill); Roman Amphitheatre (Kathleen Coleman); Pompeii: Its Discovery and Preservation (Salvatore Ciro Nappo). As well as numerous interpretative texts there are multimedia resources taking advantage of the Internet's versatility as a teaching/learning medium. These include: galleries of images of Hadrian's Wall and Roman mosaics; five FAQs about Roman Britain answered; audio dramas (with script) of the Boudiccan Rebellion in 60 CE; and an interactive 3D reconstruction of Housesteads fort on Hadrian's Wall circa 3rd Century CE. For earlier Internet browsers a text-only version is available for much of the content. The "Romans" site maintains the design of BBCi History - such as the links to History content from the left and top navigation bars (which also identifies which area of the site you are currently in). The search box allows you to search History and the rest of the BBCi website. The bottom navigation bar offers access to: the "reading room" (feature articles authored by prominent historians); the "multimedia zone" (interactive content - games, 3D reconstructions, animations, audio and video); "For kids" (content designed for both primary and secondary school ages); the "how to" section (that offers advice on local and family history, house history, and amateur archaeology).
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
The author of this online article is Marilyn Katz of Wesleyan University; according to the website the text found here is also to appear in print in the scholarly journal Classical Philology. The focus of the piece is the debate in modern times as to whether ancient Athenian women were present at theatrical performances. Katz looks at the origins of the debate which was first sparked in 1776 by the German scholar Karl Böttiger and which has occupied academics since then until the present day. Her focus is the 'socio-cultural and historical circumstances under which the question first arose as a subject of scholarly debate'. Further sections of the essay are as follows: Böttiger and the theatre; popular culture and classical scholarship; eighteenth-century German Hellenism; and the role and rights of women. This article on a very specific topic will be of interest to those seeking information on the history of classical scholarship in Europe as well as on the debate surrounding the presence of women in the ancient theatre.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
Feminae Romanae: Women of Ancient Rome is an extremely well designed website that aims to put the position of Roman women into a historical context with other contemporary cultures (contrasting the older cultures of Greece and of the Etruscans, who influenced the early Romans). The site is organised into the following headings: Heroines of Rome (legendary stories of Roman women which influenced later generations as to what an ideal woman was supposed to be); Republican Women (covering roughly the third through to the first centuries BC); Imperial Women (which documents the changes after the failure of the Republic and the rise of Augustus); Women of Influence (providing biographies of notable Roman women, including Cornelia, Livia, Clodia, Agrippina the Elder, Julia Domna, and Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great); Forgotten Women (attempts to sketch working women of Rome, about whom so little has been written in their own time); The World Within (which deals with the private world of the Roman women). The site is easy to use and beautifully illustrated throughout with images from ancient art; references are given for the sources of these images. Articles are well-written, and acknowledgments appear in the Links section of the site.
This Feminism and Classics 2004 website publishes the proceedings of the fourth conference on Feminism and Classics held at the University of Arizona (Tucson), in May 2004. The volume, edited by Marilyn B. Skinner, includes sections with several papers on each of the following themes: papyrology, gender and diversity; the politics and discourse of feminism in Classics; classical perspectives on gay rights; and 'gendering the classroom'. The papers often refer to the American perception of feminist issues, but they contribute significantly to the discussion of gender studies in classical studies.
HyperEpos: Epic on the Internet is an annotated web gateway for those interested in both Classical (Greek and Roman) epic poetry, and English language epics from the Middle Ages to the present day. In addition to the more familiar categories of Renaissance and Medieval epic, the site lists an extensive number of sub-genres. These include Women's epic, American epic, Modernist epic and Contemporary epic. A further category, Non-Western epic, provides a range of resources for the study of texts such as the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Epic of Shahnameh Ferdowsi. The site covers Indian epic, African epic, Arabic epic, Japanese epic, and Turkish and Persian epic. Resources on these topics include texts, commentaries, and translations.The site is a valuable resource for genre-based study and would be particularly useful for students and scholars working on comparative or cross-cultural studies.
Founded in 2002, Leeds International Classical Studies is an open-access online journal associated with the Leeds International Classics Seminar. It publishes articles and interim discussion papers on all aspects of Greek and Roman antiquity, and of the history of the classical tradition. Topics covered by journal articles include: comedy; didactic poetry; marriage and sex; oratory and rhetoric; philosophy; and tragedy. As well as presenting the full text of journal articles in PDF format, the website also provides: guidelines for those who wish to contribute articles to the journal; a statement of editorial policy; and information regarding the copyright of articles submitted.
This unique online resource, Graeco-Roman Marriage Papyri, compiled by David Instone-Brewer, collates every Greek, Roman and Jewish text relating to marriage and divorce from the fourth century BC to the fourth century AD. The texts are accessible here in their original languages, whether Greek, Latin, Aramaic or Hebrew; links are given to the documents on the websites of the Perseus Digital Library, the Tyndale Archive and the Advanced Papyrological Information System (APIS). References to the texts in which the documents can be found are also given (these are shown in pop-up windows, so to make use of this resource the user must disable any pop-up blockers). The papyri are organised in chronological order, and the catalogue listing for each item is accompanied by references to relevant secondary material and English translations, where possible. Also featured are: a full bibliography; a checklist of editions of papyri; links to other works on divorce, remarriage and the New Testament written by the site's author; and link to downladable Greek and Hebrew fonts.
The website of the School of History, Classics, and Archaeology at Birkbeck College, University of London, essentially provides information for those considering courses at Birkbeck, or who are already on one of the courses. However, the website also has a excellent set of resources aimed at its students which can be used by any interested party. The sections Undergraduate, Classics, and Medieval resources point the student towards useful websites and other resources in the field. There is also information on forthcoming conferences and projects within the School, as well as links to pertinent lecture and seminar lists at IHR and ICS. Each individual department has listings of its staff, their research interests, and contact details.
Diane Thompson of Northern Virginia Community College has created a fascinating web resource reflecting on the central role of the story of Troy and the Epic Cycle in Greek, Roman and European culture based on the content of her 2004 book 'The Trojan War: literature and legends from the Bronze Age to the present' (McFarland). She takes the reader on a 3,000 year journey from the archaeology of Troy and Mycenae and the Bronze Age origins of the epics, to the establishment and dissemination of the Homeric texts as seminal books in Greek and Roman times, to their transformation into Christian and later European literature during the Middle Ages, to the Renaissance and the Enlightenment periods and finally down to the reinvention of the tales in the 20th century by James Joyce, Wilfred Owen, Derek Walcott, Jean-Paul Sartre and the generation of writers who reflected their experiences of the Vietnam War through the poetry of Homer. One major section, focusing on the role of women in the Epics and how they have been central to recent feminist discourse, is also used to introduce important bibliographical material on ancient and modern interpretations of goddesses, powerful ancient women and gender roles generally, from both academic and literary authors. Each chapter, arranged in roughly chronological order, contains a summary of the historical context and links to etexts, images, film references and background material, including very useful bibliographic material. A linked series of pages provides a course guide to the module Myths and stories of the Trojan War taught by Thompson to college level students. The website is ideal for students of classics and ancient history (or European history generally), but also for those interested in the evolution of Western literary and artistic models.
The Women and Gender in Ancient Egypt website is an online version of an exhibition at the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology at the University of Michigan, between March 14 and June 15, 1997. The exhibition was curated by Terry G. Wilfong, associate professor of Egyptology at the Department of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Michigan and consists of artefacts from the collections of the Kelsey Museum and the University of Michigan Library. It examines the lives and roles of women in ancient Egyptian society. It appears that women had higher status and were able to hold higher offices in ancient Egypt than what was possible in later Greek and Roman times. Although there are examples of women ruling as kings, the society was still a male dominated society. The site consists of a number of pages or chapters that covers certain areas such as; gender and religion; gender and power; other genders; and gender, fertility and sexuality. Each page consists of a short text and links to images of a number of artefacts relevant for the topic. This resource is easy to navigate and is useful for any student of Egyptology and especially those interested in gender studies.
The Women in the Ancient Near East website is a select bibliography of resources found in the research archive of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. The Oriental Institute is a research organisation and museum devoted to the study of the ancient Near East, founded in 1919 by the famous Egyptologist James Henry Breasted. The bibliography is compiled by Terry Wilfong, associate professor of Egyptology at the Department of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Michigan. The study of women in ancient Near East has attracted an increased amount of attention in recent years and this bibliography is an attempt to collect some of the more useful resources. The website contains the bibliography, a book review index and a subject index. It is a select bibliography and covers mainly acquisitions to the archive between 1988 and 1992. The bibliography is still a useful resource for anyone interested in ancient history and especially the history of women.
This website is published as part of Diotima (part of the Stoa Consortium), a site which provides materials for studying women and gender in ancient history. This particular part of Diotima publishes excerpts from Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Fant's book, Women's Life in Greece and Rome, a source book published in print by the Johns Hopkins University Press. The excerpts, which are English translations of key texts, are arranged by theme. Topics covered are: women's voices; philosophers; legal status in the Roman world; private life; medicine and anatomy; men's opinions; legal status in the Greek world; public life; occupations; and religion. This is a highly useful collection of primary sources from a wide range of literary, historical and philosophical texts and will be of interest to students and teachers focusing on this area of ancient social history.
This is an online version of a paper entitled 'Women, children and men' by Marilyn A. Katz of Wesleyan University, Connecticut; the paper forms Chapter Five of the Cambridge Illustrated History of Ancient Greece (ed. Paul Cartledge, Cambridge 1998). The author examines gender roles and the place held by children in the ancient Greek polis. After an introductory section, the paper is divided into the following sections: 'The polis as a sacrificial community' (on religion and ritual); 'The body of evidence' (dealing with the law courts); 'The body politic' (discussing issues surrounding citizenship); 'Trading places' (on the agora and those who frequented it); 'Athens on display' (focusing on dramatic festivals); 'Demographics' (the division of Athens and Attica into 'demes'); and 'Homebodies' (on the role of women within marriage and the home). Throughout the paper links are also provided to relevant images, which are annotated.
The Worlds of Roman Women is a Latin reader which is an annotated compilation of texts relating to women's lives in ancient Roman society: this well-organised website is the online companion to the printed text. Its quality and detail mean that it stands out as being exceptional among the wide range of online resources relating to gender studies and the ancient world. It makes available a vast collection of unadapted Latin texts (from inscriptions as well as written texts) by or about Roman women. These are accompanied by illustrative images and short essays relating to women's roles in ancient Rome. The site is divided into two key sections. The first of these, 'Instruction', consists of a variety of resources providing pedagogical support for the use of the texts and images. These include: a bibliography of relevant publications (online and in print); syllabi and lesson plans for the teaching of Roman women in Latin and translation; a selection of activities, based on ancient sources, for classroom use; and a list of links to online resources for the translation and interpretation of Latin. The other section of the site, entitled 'Worlds', consists primarily of Latin texts and images, with commentary. This is divided into ten sub-sections: childhood; learning; marriage; family; body; state; class; work; flirtation; and religion. Texts are hyperlinked to allow cross-referencing between different sections of the site. English translations of key words in the texts can also be viewed by clicking on the Latin word.