This site, part of the larger LacusCurtius resource (q.v.), contains an online version of Platner and Ashby's seminal Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. This large reference work contains valuable information on almost every monument of ancient Rome, and was for many years the standard work of first call for students of the ancient city. Although subsequently eclipsed by the works of Richardson and latterly Steinby, it is still an invaluable work (enjoying the considerable merits of brevity and of being in English) and the version presented here is very useful. The Dictionary is accessible through a hyperlinked page of buildings usefully sorted by type, and one click will take you directly to the required entry. Cross-references to other entries in the Dictionary are also hyperlinked. Furthermore, in cases where Platner and Ashby refer to ancient literary sources mentioning a specific building, Mr Thayer, the website's owner, has included a link to the relevant passages in his own collection of online texts (for Cassius Dio, Suetonius, Pliny, Martial and others). This is an intelligent use of the Internet's advantages over the printed page, and makes this online version even more useful than the original book. Mr Thayer has also appended his own pictures and notes to some of the Dictionary entries. This site is rather more useful for public or large commercial buildings than private dwellings, and much has been discovered since the Dictionary was originally published in 1929. There are more complete versions elsewhere on the Internet, but this one is particularly well presented and a supremely useful resource.
This pleasingly presented site provides comprehensive information about the American Academy in Rome, including full details of its residency opportunities, summer programmes, its Rome Prize, and fellowships. There are also details of current and forthcoming exhibitions, conferences, concerts, and other events. The site includes the online catalogue of the American Academy's library (via the URBS network of research libraries in Rome, which pools the catalogues for several scholarly institutions) and a complete list of the Academy publications (together with ordering information). A style sheet for the Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome is available online. A page with helpful maps and synopses of the Academy's current and recent archaeological projects (excavations at Rome, Ostia, Jerba, Stabiae, Bomarzo, Cosa and Licenza) provides links to the relevant excavation journals and home pages. Details of its photographic archive are also present. The archive comprises specialized collections of photographs on archaeology, architecture, art and gardens. A few selected images are available online.
The primary focus of the well-presented and easy-to-use website 'Ancient Greece' is the art, architecture and archaeology of ancient Greece. It is divided into sections on the following topics: archaeology; history; culture; maps; architecture; museums; art; photographs; and a timeline. Three key locations are discussed: the Athenian acropolis, Delphi and Crete. Explanatory text describes in detail the construction and appearance of a range of key buildings. The Parthenon (fifth century BC) is particularly well-covered, with other Athenian buildings described here including the Propylaia, Erechtheion and Temple of Athena Nike. Highlights of the information on Delphi include the Temple of Apollo, treasuries, theatre, stadium and tholos. The coverage of Crete includes the Minoan sites (c 3000-1000BC) Knossos, Malia, Phaistos, Zakros and Palekastro and the classical/Hellenistic sites of Itanos, Tripitos and Xerokampos. The website is richly illustrated with images of ancient art, archaeological finds and modern images of the sites discussed. Also featured are satellite images, maps and plans of key areas, and the website gives links to the sites of modern museums where ancient treasures can be found. Overall this is an excellent resource for Greek archaeology and history.
The Ancient Greek World Web presentation is a virtual exhibition created by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. It deals with aspects of ancient Greek history and society from the sub-Mycenaean period to the Hellenistic period (c. 1100-31 BC). A section entitled 'Land and Time' gives a chronological overview of the history of the periods which are covered. Other sections cover the following broad topics: daily life; religion and death; and the economy. Each section is divided into several sub-sections and is illustrated using images of ancient Greek art (vase paintings, sculpture and coins); accompanying text provides important details about these artefacts. The site is well presented, and the images which are used to depict important aspects of ancient Greek life would be very useful particularly for those studying or presenting a variety of classical courses, who require easy access to the primary sources.
Ancient Journeys is the online Festschrift in honour of the distinguished American classicist and ancient historian Eugene Numa Lane, and contains the full-text of 20 articles written by his colleagues and students on a wide range of subjects dealing with Greek and Roman art, archaeology, history, religion and literature. The resource also offers biographical information, a tabula gratulatoria and series of personal memoirs by his associates, as well as a bibliography of Lane's published work. Published by the Stoa Consortium, the Festschrift is notable for its broad range of topics but also for the absence of a paper version. A hypertext medium is used throughout and links are provided to Perseus for Latin and Greek words. Many of the articles are illustrated and the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at larger scales. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Greek and Roman studies.
This website is an outstanding visual resource for the study of ancient Greek and Roman theatres, and is an ideal introduction to the study of theatre architecture. Its main feature is a series of panoramic views from various observation points outside and inside the remains of archaeological sites across Europe, which allow the user to 'walk' around the ruins of several theatres (QuickTime software is required to access the virtual tours). At the time of writing this review, the website appeared to be still under construction, with some locations covered more fully than others. Theatres in modern Turkey are given the most attention, presenting sites at Aspendos, Aphrodisias, Bodrum, Ephesus, Hierapolis, Miletus, Pergamon and Priene. Other featured locations are Epidaurus (Greece) and Ostia Antica (Italy). A clickable map of Europe shows the location of each theatre. Each tour is accompanied by details including: information on the location of the theatre; dates of construction and renovation; dimensions; brief details of excavations. Plans of the theatres, and in some cases reproductions, are also present, and there is a glossary of relevant architectural terms. In addition to the ancient theatres, there is also a tour of the Opéra National de France in Paris, built in the years from 1862 to 1875.
Arachne is a collection of digital photographs of Roman and Greek antiquities with associated metadata; a simple and free registration is required to access it. Most photographs carry a watermark and are B&W, but they should be fine for use in teaching and research. Three major collections have been prepared: the Ara Pacis; Trajan's Column; and reliefs from sarcophagi. In addition to these collections, thousands of photographs can be searched and browsed with simplicity, these include photographs of artefacts in museums; pictures and drawings of architectural structures; painted ceramics; maps; aerial pictures; and reproductions of the Classical style (e.g. Neoclassical architecture). This website contains photographs of archaeological sites from all over the Mediterranean Region. This is a large and expanding collection of photographs and is recommended for use in teaching for its quality and sheer number.
The project benefits of support from Berliner Museen; Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (DAI); and Winckelmann-Edition Stendal.
This online resource consists of a substantial miscellany of items relating to the ancient mathematician and technologist Archimedes of Syracuse (?287-212BC); it was compiled by Dr Chris Rorres, a member of the mathematics department at Drexel University (Philadelphia, USA) who has a strong amateur interest in Archimedes' life and work. The site is illuminated throughout by translated extracts from the works of Polybius, Livy, Plutarch, Cicero, Vitruvius and other writers, discussing familiar episodes such as the siege of Syracuse - the defence against which is traditionally held to have relied on Archimedes' mechanical ingenuity - and Archimedes' subsequent death and burial. The site includes: a summary timeline of Archimedes' life; a narrative account of the siege; some historical background material, including information on the ruling family of Syracuse; discussions of Archimedes' known or supposed mathematical concerns, including the 'cattle problem and the Archimedean solids; and numerous paintings, engravings and contemporary illustrations (some highly speculative) depicting Archimedes' claw, burning mirrors, screw and other legendary innovations, plus a number of "portraits" available at various resolutions.
These Web pages contain photographs of archaeological remains (architectural features and sculpture) from Athens and the surrounding region of Attica. The following sites are featured: the Akropolis (Acropolis); the agora; the Kerameikos; the Pnyx; the Olympieion; the region of Attica; Sounion; and Thorikos. Each has its own section of the website where the user may access images of buildings (in their present state), sculptures and some inscriptions. Brief descriptions are provided for each photograph, along with relevant bibliography. The photographs are clear, and the site is easy to navigate; this is therefore a useful visual resource for archaeologists and classicists.
The 'Barbarians and Bureaucrats' website from Washington State University outlines the history of the Minoan and Mycenaean Greek civilizations, which were followed by the Greek Dark Ages, lasting until about 700 BC. The Minoan civilization, based on the Aegean island of Crete and centred around palaces such as the one at Knossos, flourished in the second millennium BC. The website describes the Minoan people and customs, looking at their religion and visual culture. There are also pages on the role of women in their society, and the peculiar practice of bull-jumping. The smaller section on the more militaristic early Greeks describes their origins and religion, and attempts to ascertain the cause for the fall of the Mycenaean civilisation during the twelfth century BC. The historicity of the siege of Troy is touched upon, and introductory information about Homer's epic poetry is provided. The site also links to other online resources, although many of these are more relevant to the study of Greece in the period after 700 BC.
The BBC History website "Romans" examines the enduring traces of Roman rule (43-410 CE) to be found in Britain - the language, culture and the landscape. Aimed at students of all ages, this website complements recent BBC broadcasts and includes considerable contributions from presenters and producers for example: Roman military historian and associate producer of "Simon Schama's History of Britain", Dr Mike Ibeji asks what the careers of Roman soldiers reveal about life in Roman Britain; Lindsay Allason-Jones (University of Newcastle Upon Tyne) explores the lives of Romano-British women; Adam Hart Davis, presenter of "Local Heroes" asks "What did the Romans do for us?" Other topics include: Roman Empire (Andrew Wallace-Hadrill); Roman Amphitheatre (Kathleen Coleman); Pompeii: Its Discovery and Preservation (Salvatore Ciro Nappo). As well as numerous interpretative texts there are multimedia resources taking advantage of the Internet's versatility as a teaching/learning medium. These include: galleries of images of Hadrian's Wall and Roman mosaics; five FAQs about Roman Britain answered; audio dramas (with script) of the Boudiccan Rebellion in 60 CE; and an interactive 3D reconstruction of Housesteads fort on Hadrian's Wall circa 3rd Century CE. For earlier Internet browsers a text-only version is available for much of the content. The "Romans" site maintains the design of BBCi History - such as the links to History content from the left and top navigation bars (which also identifies which area of the site you are currently in). The search box allows you to search History and the rest of the BBCi website. The bottom navigation bar offers access to: the "reading room" (feature articles authored by prominent historians); the "multimedia zone" (interactive content - games, 3D reconstructions, animations, audio and video); "For kids" (content designed for both primary and secondary school ages); the "how to" section (that offers advice on local and family history, house history, and amateur archaeology).
The Beazley Archive is a research unit of the University of Oxford's Faculty of Literae Humaniores; this is its website. The original archive of Sir John Beazley (1885-1970) included about 250,000 photographs, notes, drawings and books relating to ancient Greek and Roman art. In 1979 information technology (IT) projects began with the Pottery Database of Athenian figure-decorated vases of the 7th-4th centuries BC. Since 1992 IT projects on other aspects of classical art have been created. This website displays information about the Archive, including publications and bibliographies, and gives access to the IT projects and databases. These include: gems; pottery; sculpture; and the dictionary. For example: Pottery - The Beazley Archive text database records information about Athenian figure-decorated vases illustrated in publications available to the Ashmolean Library. Begun in 1979, it now has over 67,000 entries, with fourteen fields, including bibliographical references, find-place, shape and iconographical terms. In 1992 the Archive began to participate in a European Union project (RAMA) linking the collections of seven museums across Europe via the Internet. This project enabled the Beazley Archive to begin digitising its photographs and drawings. These include a vast collection of images of classical sites. An enhanced version of the original database is now available via the website (users may search for images according to location). The Dictionary feature of the resource is an excellent alphabetical guide to classical sites and terminology (including references to places, technical terms, buildings, people, gods and other figures from myth); each explanatory entry is accompanied by relevant images from the archive's collection. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Resource Enhancement Scheme.
This website publishes the free and full-text online edition of the "Bibliothèques de l'Ecole française d'Athènes et de Rome - Série Athènes", a series of monographs published by the French School of Athens. Almost all volumes have been made available; it is possible that missing volumes will be published in the future. This collection of volumes is often outdated in many parts, but can still be a precious reference for researchers. It focuses on Greek archaeology, history, art and literature. Among the studies are those on the Athenian trireme (La Trière athénienne. Étude d’archéologie navale); the frontier on the Euphrates (La frontière de l’Euphrate de Pompée à la conquête arabe); Etruscan and Villanovan Bologna (Bologne étrusque et villanovienne); Aelius Aristide; Cycladic pottery (La céramique des Cyclades); Callimacus (Callimaque et son oeuvre poétique); several volumes on Delos; the sphinx; the defeat of 404 BC for Athens (Athènes devant la défaite de 404. Histoire d’une crise idéologique); Minoan tholoi, especially from the Mesara Plain, and Mycenaean tholoi (Tholoi, tumuli et cercles funéraires. Recherches sur les monuments funéraires de plan circulaire dans l’Égée de l’Âge du Bronze); Mycenaean ivories; Lysander of Sparta; the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age of Greece (Le Néolithique et le Bronze Ancien égéens); the sanctuary of Poseidon and Amphitrite at Ténos (Ténos. Le sanctuaire de Poséidon et d’Amphitrite); and many others. This website may be useful to both researchers and students.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
The website for Byzantine Studies from the library at Notre Dame University brings together several useful resources on the subject. Perhaps the most significant of these is a detailed annotated bibliography for Byzantine studies. This includes links to online resources as well as information about books and journal articles, and is divided into the following sections: source collections; general information; art and architecture; geography; hymnography; law; literature; manuscripts; numismatics; patristics (hagiography); prosopography; and journals. The resource also provides downloadable versions of the following texts (in PDF format): an English translation of Eustathios of Thessaloniki's Critical Remarks on Homer's Iliad; the Life of St George of Amastris; and Karl Krumbacher's History of Byzantine Literature. Also within this site is a section on several icons (the Theotokos Eleousa; the Divine Liturgy; the Vita icon of Euthymios of Sardis; the Quadripartite icon and the Ten Saints icon) from the Snite Museum of Art. There is a colour image of each of these icons as well as a full description detailing its size, location, and history. Finally, an annotated list of links to other useful websites is also given.
This online resource is a concise guide to the major classical writings which provide our source material for the myths of the Olympian gods and goddesses, illustrated with a selection of images from ancient and modern artists. The classical passages are taken from the Perseus Digital Library; this allows the interested reader to delve more deeply into the original sources and to pursue further research. No knowledge of Latin or ancient Greek is required or assumed. The resource also features a short but critical bibliography for further reading, a guide to identifying divinities from their iconographic attributes, and a timeline of Greek history and literature. While this modest website will largely benefit a general or undergraduate audience (it is intended for undergraduate students in Greek and Roman studies at the University of Victoria, BC) it will also serve as a quick and useful reference source or aide-memoire to the more knowledgeable or experienced student of classical myth, particularly for its iconographic content.
This is the website of the Propylaea project of the Center for the Study of Architecture (CSA); the project concentrates on a single building, the Propylaea, which is the gateway to the Athenian Acropolis. The website makes extensive use of computer aided design (CAD) techniques; detailed information about the survey methods used is provided here. In addition to a general introduction to the building, and an essential bibliography, the website provides access to several pictures accessible through plans of the building; the plans identify the angle at which the pictures were taken and the pictures are grouped accordingly. A CAD model of the Propylaea in DWG format is freely downloadable; it requires at least a browser plug-in to translate it to a virtual reality model, but would be most useful to those with previous knowledge of and access to CAD software.
This is the website of the David M Robinson collection at the University of Mississippi's University Museum. The Museum holds over 2000 objects, a collection built up principally by Dr Robinson, the excavator of Olynthos, his wife and Mr and Mrs Frank Peddle. The website puts online photographs of a significant and diverse proportion of the museum's holdings. Of Greek artefacts, there are inscriptions, coins, sculptures, mosaics and other objects, mainly small bronzes and terracottas. The Roman objects are organised in the same categories. In addition there is an important collection of Greek and South Italian vases, of which there are around ninety photographs presented here. There is also a small section on Egyptian artefacts. In all cases, there is a brief accompanying description, but no dimensions. A bibliographical reference is provided for most of the inscriptions, vases and sculptures. Many of the Greek vases are also linked to the relevant entry on the Perseus website. A number of the photographs of vases are out of focus, so whilst the images provide a general impression they may in some cases be inadequate for detailed study.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
This German website publishes a bibliographic database of occurrences in ancient Coptic hagiographic texts of female representations. Field "Kommentar" contains short descriptions of the actual figures, but there are no pictures. Access to the database is free and all contents are full-text; a printable version can be selected. The database can be browsed or searched. Specialist researchers intrerested in Byzantine and early Arab Egypt; early Christianity and Coptic religion and culture may find this database useful.
George Ortiz spent over 40 years collecting works of art, and this website publishes online the complete corpus of his private collection. His predominant interest is Greece, and this is reflected in the dominance of Greek objects, ranging from a Neolithic steatopygus idol of the sixth millenium BC to a Late Hellenistic glass bowl of the first century AD. The collection is particularly rich in small archaic and classical bronzes. There are smaller quantities of Ancient Near Eastern, Egyptian, Etruscan, Achaemenid and Romance artefacts, and the total of 280 pieces also includes Polynesian, American, Chinese and African works amongst others. The website is attractively simple in presentation and each entry includes a photograph that can be enlarged and a well-written and referenced commentary. Twenty items can be viewed in 3-D, but QuickTime needs to be installed. There is also a search facility, and a glossary of relevant terms relating to ethnography and archaeology.
From the University of Pennsylvania's Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, this website looks at various aspects of glass manufacture over the six centuries in which Rome dominated the Mediterranean world. The site is easy to navigate and illustrated throughout with images of ancient glassware. Themes which are highlighted are: the origins of glassmaking and glassworking; colouration; mosaic ware; colourless glass; the role of slaves in glassmaking; and the weathering of glass. Each page gives only a very short summary of the topic but is fully referenced with bibliographies of modern works on the topics explored; this will enable those who are interested in the subject to pursue further research.
Published to accompany an exhibition on the second golden age of Byzantine art (843-1261) held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, from March 11 to July 6, 1997, this website includes examples of art from the first golden age of Byzantine art (324-730) and the later period ending with the Turkish conquest in 1453. The online exhibition includes various pieces of art (busts, caskets and medallions), which range from the time of Constantine (AD 324) to 1453. There is also a brief history of Byzantium, which is divided into the early (324-730 CE), middle (843-1261 CE) and late (1261-1453 CE) periods. The website consists of: enlargeable images of the works of art; a section on the themes in Byzantine art; a history of Byzantium; and a glossary. In addition, there is a 'teacher resources' section designed to introduce schoolchildren to Byzantine works of art, providing several examples which serve as starting points for discussions. Useful elements include a timeline of important dates and an extensive glossary. A brief description accompanies each image, and the pictures can be enlarged for a more detailed view. The images are clear and well-photographed, but the collection of images is only small (numbering only 15 items).
The website for the Getty Museum has provided this online resource on the exhibition held at the Getty Villa from 7 August to 27 October 2008 on ‘Grecian Taste and Roman Spirit: The Society of the Dilettanti’. The exhibition featured portraits, sculptures, drawings and rare books to illustrate the first 100 years of the Dilettanti Society, which, founded in 1734, promoted the study of ancient Greek and Roman art and antiquities, and sponsored the creation of new artwork in the Classical style. As well as a slideshow, which discusses ten highlights from the exhibition, this website also provides information on the history of the Dilettanti. Audio files are attached to some of the images, which illustrate this site.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Greek and Roman antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on the Greek, Etruscan, Roman and Byzantine civilisations as well as several pages on individual objects from the collections of the museum (about 250 at the time of review). There is a map and a timeline. The presentations of individual objects are highly recommended as many are masterpieces of art. Most objects have artistic value and are described and interpreted in detail. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long).
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston holds one of the premier collections of Greek and Roman antiquities, and this Web page, part of the Museum's online collections database, presents a range of works associated with Greek mythology from the 6th century BC to the 3rd century AD. The media include painted vases, stone and bronze sculpture, coins and jewellery. There are in total 137 objects, and they can be arranged according to catalogue reference, accession number, culture (e.g., Mycenean, Archaic Greek, South Italian), subject or artist name. Some excellent and famous pieces are included, such as the Dokimasia Painter's 'Oresteia' calyx-krater, the 'Boston throne' and the 'Bartlett' Aphrodite head. The major Greco-Roman gods are illustrated, as are a number of depictions of Medusa, Herakles performing his labours, and other mythological figures, such as genii on Roman sarcophagi. There is a search facility that covers everything within the online collection. Each entry is accompanied by a description of the content, date, size and the musuem inventory number. No bibliography is detailed, but details of provenance/ ownership history are included. Perhaps the most useful aspect of this resource are the photos that accompany the text.. The photos are of high quality and the interactive zoom feature produces details of fine quality that enable close scrutiny.
The Greek Mythology Link is a vast online repository of detailed information on Greek myths. Created by Carlos Parada, it is based partly on his book 'Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology' (Jonsered, 1993), and thus pays particular attention to the relationships of mythical characters with one another. It bases its information on primary sources, all of which are collated in the bibliography. The site consists of key sections which cover the following: 'Biographies' (outlining the roles, deeds and relationships of the gods, men, women, personifications and monsters in the mythical stories); 'Groups' (referring to the collectives which populate Greek mythology); 'Places and Peoples' (on the mythical history of cities and regions that feature in Greek mythology, such as Corinth, Troy and Ionia, as well as the Underworld), an extensive dictionary of mythological characters and places; a catalogue of images (primarily showing pictures of post-classical illustrations and sculptures dealing with the ancient myths). There are also illustrated essays on the myths in general, divinities, events, and a section of varia, including 'Murders', 'Life and Deeds of the Pelopides' and 'Disney's Hercules and Original Hercules compared'. The site is fully searchable and each page contains hyperlinks which direct the reader to other relevant articles within the resource. Justifiably, the site has received a number of awards, and should be a primary resource for anyone interested in Greek mythology and its reception in modern times.
LacusCurtius : Into the Roman World is a significant online collection of a range of useful resources for students of Classics. The site features a Roman Gazetteer, which consists of a photographic guide to various Roman towns and monuments, along with descriptions of archaeological excavations and visitor information. Featured locations include, among others: Rome; Assisi; Ostia; Perugia; and Rimin. The site also hosts around 40 Latin texts by authors such as: Pliny the Elder; Isidore of Seville; Suetonius; Polybius; Quintilian; Celsus; Cato; Procopius; and Macrobius. Some texts are available in Latin, some English, and some in both Latin and English translation. Each text is introduced by the site editor, Bill Thayer, with information about the copy text used (often old Loeb editions now in the public domain) and editorial notes. Other significant online resources include a variety of public-domain reference works. These include a selection of entries from William Smith's 1875 'Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities' and Samuel Ball Platner's 'Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome'. Other resources include: a Roman atlas; a catalogue of Roman Umbria; a section on Latin inscriptions; and an online version of W. R. Lethaby's 'Tomb of Mausolus'. This is an impressive site both in terms of the quantity and quality of the materials it offers.
Over 1,500 colour as well as black and white photographs relating to ancient Greece and Rome taken by the author primarily teaching purposes have been scanned and published online. There are also some non-ancient photographic subjects that have been useful for teaching, such as a photograph of a medieval cathedral for comparison with Roman architecture or a few images of a modern street market in Naples. The site offers a link to a software (Macintosh only) written by the author for teachers of Latin. An internal search engine is also available. The collection can be browsed by subject: England; France; Greece; Italy - (Rome, the Pantheon, Sicily, Italy except Rome and Sicily); and special selections of images (including the Roman house, and some Virgilian sites [Vergil]). The images can be accessed directly or previewed in thumbnails. Information relating to copyright, author and date the photograph has been taken is provided for each image.
The extensive and impressive collection of Greek and Roman antiquities in New York's Metropolitan Museum is represented in this well-presented website by photographs of fifty highlights. These range from the third millennium BC (Early Cycladic I/II period) to the third century AD, and include vases, sculptures and metal objects. Each object is accompanied by its inventory numbers, dimensions, and details of material. Descriptions are provided for all pieces, although without reference to notable bibliography. The high-quality photos can be enlarged by being clicked on, and alternate views are offered. There is a search facility restricted to the fifty highlights. The links to other parts of the museum's website are straightforward, and include a history of the gallery of Greek and Roman art and its collections.
This online resource contains an illustrated essay by David Ulansey on the meaning of some of the symbolism connected to the ancient mystery religion of Mithraism, which flourished across the Roman empire from the end of the first century CE until the eventual triumph of Christianity in the fifth century. Mithraism has left no scriptural evidence of the beliefs or cultic practices of its intiates, so Ulansey attempts here to penetrate some of its mysteries by studying the material artefacts and iconography that remain. The central thesis of this essay is that the cosmic symbolism of the Mithraic cult, with its zodiacal 'grades' of initiation and bull-slaying imagery, is connected to astronomical and astrological observation of the path of the sun through the constellations. Although the arguments become quite abstruse, they are clearly presented and illustrated with some useful diagrams. Ulansey's argument is an alternative to the accepted wisdom that Mithraism originated in Iran. This essay does not focus on the historical, archaeological, or sociological aspects of the worship of Mithras so much as on the basis for the worshippers' beliefs and the iconography. For those interested in the subject it offers a useful angle of approach through the study of the heavens.
This website describes the University of Cambridge’s Museum of Classical Archaeology. Located within the Faculty of Classics (although open to the public) the Museum is formed from a collection of some 450 plaster casts of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, including many well known pieces, and is one of the few remaining of this (once common) type of study collection. Additionally, the Museum’s reserve research collection (consultation by appointment) includes a further 200 plaster casts, Greek vases, pottery sherds and epigraphic squeezes. Full lists of the casts and sherds are available in PDF documents, although a database is promised. The website explains the Collection’s history and highlights, such as The Peplos Kore a cast of an ancient Greek statue of a young girl which is as brightly painted as the original would have been when it was created. Other noted highlights include casts of the Lysikrates Monument, Sounion Kouros, Olympia Pediment and Farnese Heracles. The website also includes details of the museums services for schools and family activities. The museum is closed until spring 2010.
Nexus is an online journal on architecture and mathematics, which contains a number of research papers on ancient architecture. Architecture, mathematics, perspective, and landscape formation are the most frequently recurring topics. The site includes abstracts and full-text articles; book reviews; a bibliography of books related to architecture and mathematics; conference reports; a bulletin board; and guidelines for the submission of articles. Among the papers of possible interest to archaeologists are: 'Mathematics, Astronomy, and Sacred Landscape in the Inka Heartland'; 'The Education of the Classical Architect from Plato to Vitruvius'; 'The Indefinite Dyad and the Golden Section: Uncovering Plato's Second Principle'; 'Philosophy and Science of Music in Ancient Greece: The Predecessors of Pythagoras and their Contribution'; 'The Arithmetic of Nicomachus of Gerasa and its Applications to Systems of Proportion'; 'Euclidism and Theory of Architecture'; and 'How Should We Measure an Ancient Structure?' The published titles cover classical architecture and its reception during the Italian Renaissance and other modern periods, as well as ancient science and mathematics. There are general papers on architecture and applied optics that may be useful to archaeologists studying ancient art and architecture.
The carved frieze from the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis is the most famous, and controversial, collection of sculpture to survive from the classical Greek world. This clearly written and attractively illustrated resource, available in Greek and English, brings together all the surviving fragments of the frieze, presently housed in the British Museum, the Louvre and the Acropolis Museum, in a digital format. The site provides a concise and fascinating introduction to many aspects of the Parthenon and its sculpted decoration, including a history of the frieze and the building itself since its execution by Athenian statesman Pericles between 447 and 438 BC. The reader is given an outline of the religious significance of the Parthenon and the Panathenaic festival for the Athenian people as well as a discussion of the various interpretations of the temple iconography. The frieze itself is presented stone by stone with a commentary on each fragment, including reproductions of drawings by Carrey (1674) and Stuart (1757) which preserve details no longer visible on the surviving sculptures. Usefully, the sculpture from each of the four sides of the temple is presented initially as a series of continuous thumbnail images which allows the iconographic scheme to be viewed as a whole as well as detail by detail. This excellent website, produced by the Acropolis Restoration Service and published by the National Documentation Service (EKT), is intended by the authors to appeal to a wide-ranging audience from the general public to university level academics.
This excellent interactive online resource, from the University of Columbia, New York, provides information about and images of the sculptural decoration of the Parthenon frieze (fifth century BC). An introduction gives background details relating to the frieze, and the user is then able to click on a plan of the temple to view images of the sculptures which have survived, along with sketches of what the frieze would probably have looked like where nothing of the original has survived (these are based on drawings by the Flemish artist Jacques Carrey, probably made in around 1674). Each section is accompanied by explanatory text and a more detailed plan of the Parthenon itself. The user may also click on individual sections to view a larger image which allows for closer inspection.
This online resource is dedicated to the marble sculptures - the metopes, frieze, and pediment statues - which originally adorned the Parthenon in Athens. It includes an image gallery of the marbles, and a history of the sculptures from their production in the fifth century BC to their removal to London by Lord Elgin in the early nineteenth century. The site's bias is towards the return of the marbles to Greece, although it provides information on both sides of this debate. This includes updates on the campaign for their return, media coverage of the topic and the arguments of the British government and the British Museum against the return of the sculptures.
The art and archaeology browser is a tool provided by the Perseus website which allows the user to find archaeological objects from ancient Greece and the Roman empire featuring in Perseus' extensive online collection of text and images. The initial search page allows the user to select object type, and is divided into the following categories: architecture; coins; gems; sculpture; sites; and vases. Each section is then divided into further sub-categories in order to help the user to narrow their search for a particular object (for example, if looking for a building in the architecture category one may search by site, building, period, architect or type). Entries for each object give a brief summary with links to other pages of Perseus which can provide further detail. These include images and secondary source material which refer to the selected object. This will be a useful reference tool and starting point for those seeking information on specific ancient archaeological sites and artefacts.
This is the website of the Phoenix journal, a publication of the Classical Association of Canada, whose stated aim is to publish articles in all the major aspects of classics (literature, history, archaeology, philosophy, religion, art, architecture and so on) up to AD 600. Although Phoenix is a specialist journal it claims that its articles are also written for the more general reader. Two editions of Phoenix are produced each year (the first was in 1946). The site provides access to abstracts of current articles as well as to contents lists for previous editions of the journal. There is a search facility which allows the user to search the titles of all articles published in the journal. (Note that the full text of the journal is provided by J-STOR for those affiliated to institutions which subscribe to the service). The website also provides information for those wishing to contribute to the journal.
Plastercasts.org is a website from the Beazley Archive at the University of Oxford. The site makes available online images of the archive's plaster casts of classical sculptures, as well as providing an introduction to various aspects of ancient art and archaeology. The site's two most informative sections are entitled 'Sculpture' and 'Plastercasts'. The first of these is divided into illustrated sections on the following topics: archaic period; classical period; Hellenistic period; architectural sculpture; grave monuments; votive, cult and commemorative monuments; and portraiture. The second provides information on the role of plastercasts, copies and restoration in the diffusion of classical art in modern times, and also includes sections on the making of casts and the history of Oxford's cast collection. The website also provides an extensive illustrated dictionary of key names (places, people, gods and goddesses) and terms which are necessary for an understanding of ancient art. Links are also given to other online resources from the Beazley Archive, and the site provides details of relevant events.
This Web resource accompanies Penelope Allison's 2003 book 'Pompeian households: An analysis of the material culture' (Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Monograph 42) and provides a valuable description and analysis of the form, function and decoration of 30 atrium houses found in Pompeii, together with an extensive database of their artefactual contents. Published by the Stoa Consortium, this website will benefit students and researchers of Roman history and archaeology as well as those interested in the history of domestic interiors and the anthropology of space. The houses analysed here were excavated between 1826 and 1978 so the level of documentation varies tremendously. Many of the objects from older exploration lack contextual or stratigraphical information but Allison's careful analysis of the scientifically excavated houses provides a framework for understanding the masses of material which cannot be assigned a definite findspot. Each house is described room by room in terms of function, decoration and architectural layout (with plans and photographs). The houses are also placed within the wider urban context of Pompeii and readers with SVG graphics can browse an interactive map of the town which links with the main catalogue of houses. Earlier scholarly interpretations are also discussed in the light or more recent understanding of the archaeology of the town. The site also provides an extensive glossary and bibliography as well as help in using the resource and its database.
This website presents information and photographs relating to archaeological surveys undertaken in the forum at Pompeii, which was destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79. The Pompeii Forum Project is a collaborative venture sponsored by the National [USA] Endowment for the Humanities and the University of Virginia (amongst others). A large archive of black and white images of the buildings found there is online here, along with detailed reports on the technology and instruments used to undertake the surveys. Further reports give details of a project which uses the principles of structural engineering to investigate the reconstruction of Pompeii after an earthquake there in AD 62 (seventeen years before the eruption of Vesuvius). The focus is on the urban centre of the Roman city of Pompeii, and its urban history through to modern times. There are also links to further resources on Pompeii for use by teachers and students, and a list of lectures and publications relating to the project.
This Web page describes AHRC-funded research to re-display the Ancient Greek and Roman collections at the University of Cambridge's Fitzwilliam Museum. The project aims to bring the University's archaeological scholarship into "conversation" with contemporary museum display practices, in the light of recent advances in art history research, moving away from 'thematic' or 'stylistic' displays, towards an understanding of the role of "changing technology, the complexities of workshop practices, and the role of ancient markets" as well the influence of collectors on museum objects. Outputs will include a new public catalogue and Web pages for visitors.
This website is an enthusiast's collection of illustrations of the Roman Emperors. This started as a set of photographs of busts taken by the author in various museums, and now includes acknowledged contributions from others. This resource is arranged into a list of the Roman emperors and whenever possible, their busts and/or any other contributions they made to Roman art or architecture. There are links to biographies and further background material drawn from other online resources. Clicking on the emperor's name displays his coin portrait. Although not all emperors have photographic images, this does provide a good visual introduction and contextual information for school students and undergraduates.
Part of the World Art Treasures project, which is based on a collection of slides and photographs by Jacques-Edouard Berger, founding director of the Swiss-based Foundation Jacques-Edouard Berger (Jacques-Edouard Berger Foundation), this website brings together a number of Roman portraits found attached to mummies in Fayyum, Egypt. They are currently scattered world wide in museums and collections. The Fayyum portraits are either painted on wood or cloth and all date from the end of the first to the end of the fourth century AD. The website includes some images of the portraits and these are organised by their present location. Information is provided about tombs and burial rites and the techniques and the materials used. The role of the Fayyum portraits is discussed and a history of Fayyum (the region) is also provided. Information about certain images is only available in French and two lectures can also be listened to in French, for which a RealAudio Player is required.
This website, illustrated with 232 photos, is an excellent introduction to the Villa Romana del Casale, a late Roman villa near Piazza Armerina in Sicily, famed for its polychrome mosaics. Divided into seven sections, the resource offers a comprehensive overview of the villa and the mosaics which decorate it. The introduction outlines its history from the time of construction until its excavation, and a brief account of the villa's function as the centre of a large agricultural estate. In the introductory section there is a plan of the villa; the user clicks on particular areas of this to be taken to photographs and detailed explanatory text. Sections of the resource are devoted to the following topics: how the villa was used in antiquity; the name of the villa and its owner; the mosaics; statues, wall painting and other decorative elements; visiting the villa; literature and links; and photographs. Hyperlinks on each page take the user to further information about key topics. Whilst the photos on this website were taken for personal interest, without perfect lighting conditions and sometimes from awkward angles, they remain an excellent resource, if only for their accessibility and generally high quality. They can all be enlarged.
Samuel Ball Platner's Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome was originally published by Oxford University Press in 1929, and this website offers a digital version of its contents. It features scans of each page of this extensive alphabetical guide to the monuments, temples, bridges, streets, and fora of ancient Rome, with the period covered dating from the sixth century BC to the sixth century AD. Platner's work offers detailed entries on each building or feature, with a description and a series of references and quotations from ancient texts which discuss the highlighted landmarks. The work may be browsed page-by-page, or alternatively there is a search facility which enables the user to enter a specific term: a link to the relevant page of the dictionary is then given. The dictionary also features a chronological list of dateable monuments.
Scholia Reviews is an electronic journal of reviews for classics, ancient history, and related subjects. Subjects of books recently reviewed include: Greek historiography; late antiquity; Roman art and architecture; classical myth; Roman religion; Greek and Roman literature. The journal has been published on an annual basis since 1992. Book reviews are available via email as well as on the website. A selection of reviews are also published in the international printed journal, Scholia. Reviews tend to be between 1500-2500 words long. The Scholia Reviews website also includes details of books received and requiring review and guidelines for review authors (including the system for transcribing Greek).
The website Skenotheke: Images of the Ancient Stage has been developed by John Porter, a classical archaeologist based at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. The site is dedicated to images of ancient Greek and Roman theatre which are available on the Web; as such, whilst it does not feature original content, it is a very useful one-stop resource for those interested in ancient drama and the locations where this was performed. Links are provided to virtual reconstructions of ancient theatres, as well as to images of modern productions of classical plays. Images of ancient theatres are arranged by geographical location. Sections are dedicated to the following: the theatre of Dionysus at Athens; deme theatres; other theatres across mainland Greece (including those at Corinth, Delphi and Epidauros); the theatres of Asia Minor; and those on the Greek islands. There are also resources on Roman theatre including that at Pompeii. In addition, the site offers a collection of images of Greek and Roman drama shown in ancient art (including: vase paintings; figurines; mosaics; frescoes; and architectural decoration). These images would be useful for those studying acting in the Greek theatre and related topics such as Greek masks. The site offers resources for the study of satyr plays and comedy as well as Greek tragedy.
Coptic is the name given to the latest stage of the ancient Egyptian language from the first century BC and written in an alphabet deriving from Greek and Demotic. The term is applied more generally to the distinct culture of Egyptian Christianity and its diaspora which still uses the Coptic language in its religious rituals. This website, produced by the St Shenouda the Archimandrite Coptic Society of Los Angeles, is part of an on-going project to preserve and promote Coptic culture by providing digital resources for Coptic language, literary, archaeological and artistic study. Projects include the Coptic Microfilm Library (CML) which aims to put all relevant Coptic and Arabic texts online and the Mapping of Coptic Monuments project, which will record all Egyptian Christian architectural and archaeological sites. The Manual of Coptic Studies (at the time of review almost completely empty and not updated since 1996) includes: the liturgy and texts of Coptic Christianity; a history of the language; a guide to Coptic writing; a directory of Coptic scholars. Other features include a useful slide show of frescoes from Coptic churches and monasteries. There is also a run of newsletters from the mid-1990s and downloadable software. The links page provides further information on websites of Coptic interest.
Trajan's Column is an online collection of images and background material on the Roman monument, a 100 foot stone column recording the military victories of the Roman Emperor Trajan (reigned 98-117 CE) over the Dacians and the Germans in the second century CE,which is one of the most remarkable and best preserved survivals of monumental art from classical antiquity. This website provides a searchable database of over 500 images focusing on various aspects of the design and execution of the column's sculptural decoration as well as several introductory essays on the historical background, subject matter and wider physical context of the monument within the Forum of Trajan in Rome, presented throughout within a hypertext medium. This highly user-friendly resource is designed to be accessible to individuals at varying levels of knowledge and experience of the subject. An elaborate search engine allows you to explore highly specific aspects of the monument while Claudio Martini's interactive cartoon of the entire column provides an excellent introduction to the overall design and layout of the monument and contextualises the individual details provided by the database of images. The site can also be explored through the use of indices organised according to: subject; sculptural technique; and scene number or location. The high quality images (slides and drawings) were generated by sculptor Peter Rockwell, over the course of his study of Roman stone-carving practices, and can be viewed at three different resolutions. Technical information on all the imaging and programming details (including the programming code) is also provided. This detailed, stimulating and attractively presented website will interest archaeologists and classicists as well as art and military historians at many levels from the general public and novice undergraduate to the more experienced researcher.
This website describes the University of Chicago's excavations, since 1989, of the sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia near Corinth; this was one of the most important religious centres of the ancient Greek world and the location of the pan-Hellenic games. In addition to reports for the 1989-2007 field seasons, the resource includes a number of articles on various aspects of ancient Isthmia as well as a bibliography of publications by the project team. The resource offers numerous useful maps, plans and photographs of the sanctuary. Particularly attractive is a series of 3D views and contour plans illustrating the architectural development of the sanctuary of Poseidon from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BCE. Ability to view large images (using Adobe Acrobat) is required. This site will be of value both to undergraduates and to those initiating research into the archaeology of Greek religion and social life.
The University of Melbourne's Classics and Archaeology Virtual Museum Project puts online the majority of the contents of the Classics and Archaeology wing of the University's Ian Potter Museum, together with a number of collections not owned by the University. This vast online resource offers access to Greek, Roman, Egyptian and Middle Eastern manuscripts, pottery, coinage, bronzes, vases and sculpture.The centrepiece of the site is the database that allows the user to search the collection. Over 7000 images are available, and there are a number of photos for each object, taken from differing angles and with varying degrees of detail. This makes the site particularly useful for research, as do the full descriptions, bibliographies and comparisons for individual pieces. This information, with all other relevant data such as date, provenance and material, is attractively presented and easily accessible. The self-directed tour allows the user easy access to full lists of the artefacts and the history of the individual collections. There is extensive documentation about the development of the museum and the virtual museum project.
This online resource applies modern computer technology to create digital impressions of what 15 ancient Greek and Roman sculptures might have looked like in their original painted state, showing images of the pieces in their present format alongside the imagined polychromatic originals. Featured sculptures include: kouros and kore statues; statues of Apollo; a Parthenon metope; and Trajan's column. Contextual and historical information is minimal but there is a useful basic bibliography and a series of hyperlinks to sources of images of ancient art. The website also provides technical and methodological information on how the reconstructions were made. The 'Virtual Gallery' provides useful complementary learning materials for undergraduates studying classical art and archaeology and their teachers. It will also benefit art historians and artists interested in comparative historical materials.
A Visual Tour through Late Antiquity provides a selection of images of artistic evidence and material remains from the 4th to 7th centuries. The prime focus of the website is late antique Gaul at the time of Gregory of Tours (538-594) but context is provided by a variety of other images. The collection is divided into five sections: Late Roman court and aristocracy; Imperial art of 6th century Ravenna; Gallic art of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries; Frankish art and artefacts; and Royal grave goods. The Visual Tour through Late Antiquity was originally compiled for the use of students at the Nipissing University (Canada) but it also provides a good general introduction to some famous late Roman and early Frankish images and artefacts.
This is the website of the Warburg Institute, a department of the University of London which aims to further the study of those elements of European art, literature and philosophy which are derived from the ancient world. The site provides a wide range of resources and includes: information on the Institute's history; details of staff and students (including information on fellowships and graduate study programmes); a programme of events; contents lists for the Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes from 1937 to the present; the Institute's newsletter; details of its publications; a link to the library catalogue and index of the Institute's photographic collection. Perhaps most usefully for researchers, the Institute's digital collections of texts can also be accessed here, with out-of-print source material on medieval and Renaissance studies available for download in PDF format. Topics covered by these e-texts include: Renaissance Platonism; sources in Italian art; sources in the history of astrology; the iconography of Christian art; and the survival of classical art.