This online anthology of several papers given by Robert Kraft on copies of Greek Jewish scriptures contains, apart from actual texts, a number of images of fragments of the Septuagint and a short bibliography. The main scope of Kraft's site is the extent of continuity or discontinuity between Jewish scribal culture and early Christian practices at the beginning of the Christian era. 'Textual Mechanics' also lists a number of links to related sites, document lists, and bibliographic information. 'Textual Mechanics' is not the most user-friendly site you may encounter: its layout could be much improved. However, it is worth making an effort to read through this resource, as its content fully compensates for its lack in form.
This website offers information about the Abbreviationes software created at the KUN Center for Medieval and Renaissance Natural Philosophy in The Netherlands as a powerful reference tool for reading medieval Latin manuscripts. It is an electronic dictionary of medieval Latin abbreviations designed for use in learning and teaching of medieval Latin paleography. The software consists of a database of over 70,000 entries. Abbreviationes is available in a personal edition, a workgroup edition for 10 users, and a server edition for an unlimited number of users. There is also an Abbreviationes Online version by subscription.Order and purchasing details are also available on the website. The resource is frequently updated, and upgraded with new versions of the database for use on a wide variety of browsers. It is possible to receive a free trial of the database through the website, and users will find a great deal of textual information (including screen-grabs) about the database's operation.
Ancient scripts is a site written and maintained by someone who is a computer expert, not a linguist. The resource is easy to navigate and, in spite of the fact that the author is not a linguistic scholar, thorough and valuable in its content. On these pages you will find a display of more than thirty writing systems, a section on phonetics and language families, a timeline, a bibliography and an introduction to historical linguistics. This site is an excellent starting point for anyone interested in one particular writing system or in linguistics in general.
The Center for Epigraphical and Palaeological Studies site includes information about forthcoming events and courses (some of which are open to the general public) and offers several short-term post-doctoral fellowships in Greek and Latin epigraphy. The site (which is part of the Department of Greek and Latin at the Ohio State University) contains links to other related web-sites as well as images of inscriptions and manuscripts (ranging from Attic inscriptions to mediaeval Latin manuscripts). Unfortunately, as the site is still under construction most of these images are as yet unavailable, and so when one clicks on the images for Greek or Roman 'squeezes' (a plaster cast representation of an inscription) one is simply presented with a list of reference numbers. The dated Attic inscriptions do have pictures, but the images come without even the most basic commentary of what this inscription is, a reproduction of the text or translation, or the context in which it was found (all of which are essential). Reference numbers are provided so that one can look these inscriptions up in the relevant books which have all this pertinent information (but this defies the point of putting it on the web-site in the first place).
This is the website of The Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD), part of the Classics Centre at the University of Oxford. Set up in 1995 'to provide a focus for the study of ancient documents,' the CSAD has since become a research centre of national and international importance. The Centre houses the University's epigraphy archive, which includes a large collection of paper impressions of Greek inscriptions, Roman inscriptions from Britain, and a photographic collection. The website is searchable and provides information about the CSAD and its activities, including details on lectures, conferences and seminars, imaging projects, links to resources, and a link to the CSAD's online newsletter. Also accessible via this website are links to the home pages of the CSAD's projects: Vindolanda tablets online; Romano-British curses; Cairo photographic archive; papyri in British collections; Oxyrhynchus papyri; Poinikastas (epigraphic sources for early Greek writing); Monumenta Asia Minoris Antiqua (MAMA); and e-science and ancient documents.
The checklist presented in this website is prepared by academic papyrologists from a variety of universities; its primary aim is to provide for papyrologists and librarians a complete bibliography of monographs, current and past, on documentary papyri written in Greek, Latin, Coptic and Demotic, and preserved on papyrus, ostraca, or wooden tablets. The site is published under the auspices of Duke University and achieves its aims admirably, providing a very full resource organised into a variety of sub-headings which are conveniently hot-linked at the side of every page. The site, which is frequently updated, is based on the fifth printed edition of the checklist (March 2001). Users should note that the site confines itself to documentary papyri, and no literary material is cited. Moreover, there are neither any actual papyri or texts available for viewing, nor any links to sites providing them. That said, the site should prove a useful bibliographic resource for scholars and graduate students working in this field.
The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon, hosted by the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, USA, aims to create a lexicon of all Aramaic words from 900 BCE till the Early Middle Ages. The resource consists of a database section with facilities allowing for concordance, dictionary, dialect and lexicon searches, and a searchable, very well updated bibliography. A few pages introduce the Aramaic language, which is still spoken today.
Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI) is an online collection of resources on cuneiform, the international writing system of the ancient Near East for thousands of years, in which were recorded historical, religious and administrative documents in a wide variety of languages including Sumerian, Akkadian (or Babylonian) and Hittite. The (CDLI) is an collaborative project led by the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin and the University of California at Los Angeles to create a digital record of the earliest horizon of cuneiform texts ca. 3300-2000 B.C. to facilitate research and cast further light on the origins of writing and of urban civilisation. The resource, published as two mirrored websites hosted by the project partners, consists of a series of inter-related databases of fourth and third millennia B.C. cuneiform texts, including proto-cuneiform, from a variety of institutions including the University of Leiden, the Hilprecht Collection and the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin. The databases include extensive glossaries of words and sign types and high resolution photographs of many of the writing tablets. Navigating the databases is sometimes confusing and the limited introductory material indicates that this a website for specialist in ancient Near Eastern languages and scripts. Bibliographic resources include the Gelb Library of over 10,000 references to scholarly works on the origins of writing and a special section on proto-cuneiform. The full-texts of several scholarly articles is also available, including one on the undeciphered script Proto-Elamite. Technical information on the digitisation process is also provided as is news about the on-going CDLI programme. This is a specialist resource will interest students of the Sumerian and Akkadian languages and archaeologists and cultural historians working on the origins of writing and administration in the Near East.
This specialist resource is an online edition of Dr Nicolle Hirschfeld's 1996 book The PASP database for the uses of scripts on Cyprus (Minos Supplement 13) which aims in the long-term to provide a comprehensive account of all the ancient inscriptions and glyphs from Cyprus, whether on stone, clay or metal and coin. The people of the island of Cyprus employed a variety of writing systems to record their spoken languages in the Bronze and Iron Ages, including the syllabic Cypro-Minoan and Cypro-Classical scripts as well as alphabetic Greek and Phoenician letters. The current database includes Cypro-Minoan writings from the Late Bronze Age circa 1700-1000 BCE which record an undeciphered language (or languages) and the closely related Cypro-Classical script of the succeeding Iron Age which lasted down to the 3rd century BC when it was displaced by the Greek alphabet. Cypro-Classical was used to record both the local Greek dialect and an undeciphered tongue called Eteo-Cypriot. Phoenician and Roman inscriptions will be added in future editions of the database, in addition to the inscriptions in cuneiform, Egyptian and Ugaritic which have also been found in the island. The database is searchable by inscription number, object type, geographical context, nature and material and is prefaced by various instructions on how to use the data. This resource will benefit researchers in the ancient writings and scripts of the Mediterranean world, particularly those interested in the transmission of the alphabet to the Greek world and the interaction of cultures in the region in the Bronze and Iron Age, as well as more general students of Cypriot and Near Eastern archaeology.
ETANA is a cooperative project between ten scholarly institutions and organizations, funded by the Mellon Foundation, with the aim of enabling wider access to Abzu (the Internet gateway for Ancient Near East studies) and the digitization of core texts in the field. At the time of review, there were over 350 digitized texts, covering topics including ancient Egyptian and Babylonian history, biblical archaeology, and the religion of the Semites. There are also over 180 digitized cuneiform texts. Texts include an electronic version of the 'Pantheon Babylonicum: Nomina Deorum e Textibus Cuneiformibus Excerpta et Ordine Alphabetico Distributa' by Deimel, Panara, Patsch and Schneider. The site also offers a short list of links to archaeological projects and organizations affiliated with ETANA. The ETANA core texts collection can be browsed alphabetically, or keyword searches can be performed using the Abzu interface. Abzu also offers details of a vast array of websites, online journals, and ebooks relevant to academics and students working in this area.
From University College London's Department of History, the website of the Festus Lexicon Project provides comprehensive information on the Lexicon of Festus, or 'De verborum significatu', an encyclopaedic Latin dictionary compiled in the Roman Imperial era. Despite the fragmentary state of the dictionary, it is a rich source of information and citations, from and about the period. It is of use to those interested in Roman history, Latin grammar, legal and antiquarian learning, culture, politics, religion and social aspects of the period. The project will prepare a database of texts, a complete translation, extensive commentary, and bibliography. At the time of cataloguing there were no sample database entries available. There is information about the four main writers conected with the Festus Lexicon: Marcus Terentius Varro; Verrius; Festus; and Paul the Deacon. Also included is a bibliography of secondary works. Working from an eleventh century text, the project team aims to reconstruct the lexicon from medieval tomes, glossaries, and manuscripts. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The Friends of Herculaneum Society website details the activities of the Society as well as news and updates on current research about the Roman town of Herculaneum. The Society publishes an illustrated newsletter, available on the site in PDF. The newsletter contains short research articles on the current excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum as well as reports on progress relating to the digitisation and reading of the papyri from the Villa dei Papiri. Articles in recent issues include: an introduction to the Society and its aims; "Out of the Ashes" (on digitally imaging the Herculaneum Papyri); reviews; "Deconstructing Herculaneum" (on the excavation and reconstruction of the site), "Brought to Light" (new images from Herculaneum and Monte Soma), "Il Porcino - Our Mascot?"; an updated account of the Herculaneum Archive; "Mapping the Villa of the Papyri"; "Herculaneum in the History of Art Criticism"; and others. Another notable section focuses on the papyri found at the Villa dei Papiri, Herculaneum. It contains a bibliography of ancient texts recovered from the papyri, including Epicurean philosophers and epigrams by Philodemus, and derived research texts. The most important section is an indexed collection of the copies of some papyri made between 1802 and 1806. Many of these papyri have been destroyed in the attempt to copy them, and therefore copies are all that remain. Other sections present related events in Oxford and across the world and provide information on joining the Society.
The InscriptiFact project at the University of Southern California publishes photographs of ancient Middle Eastern inscriptions, mainly from Phoenicia, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. To access the website it is necessary to register by faxing a signed user agreement; read the instructions (PDF files); and install Java components (administrator rights required). The database is accessed using a special Java browser (Mac and Windows supported). After logging in, it is possible to browse the inscriptions by period, site, language, support and collection, or search them. Once a list of relevant inscriptions is produced, clicking on any entry will display the metadata associated with that inscription. Clicking on the "go" button on the list of inscriptions provides access to a series of thumbnails of all the available photographs for that inscription; there is a set of BW and colour photographs for each inscription. The thumbnails can be saved as TIFF or JPEG pictures, or preferably as full resolution JPEG2000 photographs (recommended). There is also a standalone viewer to visualise Reflection Transformation Imaging (RTI) images.
There are no transliterations or translations of the inscriptions. Among the scripts are Ammonite; Arabic; Aramaic; Coptic; Cuneiform (Akkadian; Babylonian; Sumerian; Ugaritic); Egyptian hieroglyphs; Greek; Hebrew; Latin; Nabatean; Phoenician; Semitic and others. There are also early alphabetic inscriptions such as that from Wadi el-Hol and some Dead Sea scrolls. This website can be useful primarily for teaching and researching, but postgraduate students specialising in ancient languages may also find it useful. The project has been funded by several organisations, including the Underwood Family Trust Fund; the Ahmanson Foundation; and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
This is the website of L'Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes; a think-tank of the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique [CNRS], based in Paris. The institute conducts fundamental research on the medieval manuscript and the transmission of medieval texts written in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, and Old French. The site provides information regarding: the Institute's activities and publications; a calendar of seminars, conferences and colloquia; access to online searching of its library catalogue; a listing of available electronic resources; and information on courses of interest.This website is of particular interest to researchers of the medieval manuscript book.
K C Hanson's website may be a chaotic montage of loosely connected resources, but within this eclectic host of sub-directories, there are several topics worth exploring by those interested in history, culture or religion. Dr. Hanson's primary interest seems to lie with the interactions between various ancient and classical communities spanning from the apogee of the Egyptian to the Roman Empire (in particular the relationship between the later and the early Christian communities). He has assembled a series of dynastic chronologies for both Israel and Rome, along with a selection of texts relevant to this period. With a little searching one can find ancient documents from Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Greek civilizations, along with a selection from Semitic cultures. These texts, all translated, tend to cluster between the eighth century BCE and the third century CE but there are a number which predate these.
Part of the site provides useful support resources for the textbook 'Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts', which Dr Hanson co-authored with Douglas E. Oakman. Those wishing to delve further into a particular topic may also wish to consult Hanson's robust series of web links to the ancient world and/or his bibliographic collections on rituals on ancient Greco-Roman society; Hellenic, Semitic and Anatolia Cultures; and The Old Testament. An attractive collection of images from many of these cultures has been compiled.
"L'aventure des écritures" is a French-language site that provides a detailed, multi-layered and richly illustrated introduction to the history of writing. There are three section: one dealing with the origin and diffusion of some 25 world writing systems from ca. 3300 B.C. to ca. 1200 A.D (Naissances); one introducing the various supports for writing (Matters and forms - Matière et formes); and the third introducing "the page" (La page) namely presenting the history of the printed paper and the book. The website reflects an exhibition at the BNF in 1999. Using a hypertext medium, the reader is guided through the history, mythology and cultural context of the world major writing systems: Cuneiform, Egyptian, Chinese, African and Pre-Columbian and related scripts. These are complemented by sections outlining theoretical and cultural aspects of writing systems such as signs and cryptography, the relationship between writing and speech, and the symbolic and religious associations of letters and scripts. In addition to the wide-ranging bibliography and glossary of terms, there is extensive citation of academic and literary reflections on writing. The related, and equally splendidly presented 'dossiers pédagogiques' deal with the physical aspects of writing, book making and printing from inscribed clay tablets to illuminated manuscripts to the CD-rom. The excellent education section provides a very useful resource for teachers at all levels of education though it will be particularly useful for schools. This website has a wide potential audience from the general public to students, teachers and researchers of archaeology, classics and ancient languages or else to those interested in e-publication and education.
This website provides access to the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB), a searchable catalogue of Latin and Greek works in circulation from the fourth century BC to AD 800. It allows one to explore the transmission of ancient and classical texts and ideas from the ancient world through to late antiquity, and it builds on previous research by Roger Pack, Joseph van Haelst, and Marcello Gigante, whose catalogues of ancient books are incorporated here. The database has been created in FileMaker Pro, and this program must be available on one's machine in order to use the database. The LDAB contained information on just under 14,000 ancient literary texts at the time of writing this review, and it includes material written on papyrus, ostraka, parchment, and tablets. Each entry includes details of published material about the text, the ancient author, title of the work, material inscribed, the bookform, the genre, the culture (Greek, Latin, Hebrew), religion, the text's provenance, date of writing, description of the lettering, and the subjects covered by the text. The LDAB can be searched on most of the fields listed above. More than one field can be selected for searching. Results can be displayed in a variety of attractive formats. For example, a search for all editions of a Euripides play gives a list of catalogue entries in plain text. Other functionality is available with the CD-ROM version of the database. Using this webpage, you can search through the entire LDAB database, but you cannot download it it as a whole. Results can be printed out.
This is the website of the Medieval Institute Library at the University of Notre Dame, a uniquely rich resource for medieval studies in that it gathers in one place some 90,000 volumes; various collections of handbooks, series, pamphlets, reprints and photographic materials; microfilm and microfiche copies of some 3,000 medieval manuscripts and facsimile reprints from European libraries; a large collection of manuscript catalogues and materials on palaeography, diplomatics, and early printed books; and a collection of more than 200 medieval seals in facsimile. The library holdings on the history of medieval universities and medieval education reflect the Medieval Institute's scholarly interest in intellectual history, including that of the Byzantine Empire.
The website 'Medieval Manuscripts of Canon Law and Roman Law' provides access to a list of Canon law incipits compiled and maintained by Dr Giovanna Murano, and to a database of Canon law and Roman law manuscript shelfmarks developed by Gero Dolezalek at the University of Leipzig. The website aims to provide a comprehensive cumulative inventory of all manuscripts of Canon law and Roman law mentioned in catalogues or in legal-historical publications. It is designed as a tool for scholars in order to assist with the discovery of who published what, where and on which manuscript. In addition, the website also provides a gateway of annotated links to other web resources related to manuscripts of medieval Canon Law and Roman law and to some general medieval manuscripts sites. The Canon Law incipit list can be downloaded as a compressed file.
This website provides a brief introduction to, and English translation of, the Notitia Dignitatum, a document which was originally written c. 395 AD (and later revised in the early fifth century AD), and which lists all of the various units of the Roman army and the locations where they were stationed. together with a brief introduction. The text used here is taken from William Fairley's 1551 English edition entitled 'Notitia Dignitatum or Register of Dignitaries, which appears in his 'Translations and reprints from Original Sources of European History, Volume 4'.
The Multitext Homer is an on-going research project, supported by Harvard University's Center for Hellenic Studies and the Stoa Consortium, which aims to provide a definitive and interactive Web edition of the Homeric and related texts based on all of the surviving evidence from the pre-Classical to mediaeval periods as preserved in manuscripts and papyri and in ancient commentaries and scholiasts. The absence of a definitive edition of Homer is due in part to the lack of academic agreement as to which of the various texts and fragments of Homer, between which there are often considerable variations, may be regarded as 'primary'; this project is addressing this problem by including all of the relevant testimonia supported by modern critical commentaries.The website publishes numerous components of the wider research project and includes: a fully searchable relational database of the Homeric papyri based on the original research of Dana Sutton; an edition of Comparetti's 1901 facsimile of the Venutus A manuscript and of Villoison's 1788 edition of the Iliad; a translation of Proclus' summary of the Epic Cycle; a major commentary on the poems of Theognis of Megara. The full-text of Nagy's important 1996 work 'Homeric Questions' is also available. This is an important and expanding Web project which will benefit students and researchers of Greek literature and culture and those interested in manuscript studies and literary transmission from the ancient world.
"Nazianzos", the website of the Centre for the Study of Gregory of Nazianzus, based at the Université catholique de Louvain in Belgium, is devoted to the life and work of the fourth-century Cappadocian theologian, Gregory of Nazianzus (c.325-390). For the most part delivered in French (although a number of sections have English versions), the site includes a brief essay on textual transmission, online databases for finding manuscripts of Gregory's Orations, bibliographies of editions and translations, and information about the Centre's activities and projects. Through an international collaboration, the Centre is also building a critical edition of Gregory's texts, while evaluating the impact of his thought on the Oriental Christian cultures. Their results can be observed through a series of annual reports (available in French only). The site also functions as a gateway to some of the material on the early church fathers available on the Internet. Directed primarily towards professional academics and research students, Nazianzos will be of use to those interested in early church history, theology or biblical hermeneutics, and particularly anyone working at the advanced level on Greek Orthodox Christianity in the fourth and fifth centuries, Gregory of Nazianzus himself, or the impact of his writings.
The papyrus Egerton 2 is a fragment of an unknown gospel, dated between 150 and 200 CE and found in Egypt in the 1930s. This home page is a private site published under the University of Bremen Web pages, containing high quality images of the Egerton 2 papyrus, with full transcription and translations into English and German. The author has also provided a brief history of the papyrus and the scholarly debate it has provoked, information on its palaeography and a discussion of its canonical parallels. Finally, this resource holds an extensive bibliography and a number of online secondary sources.
The website of the Porphyrogenitus Project is a project under development at the Hellenic Institute, Royal Holloway College, University of London. The aim of the project is to compile a lexicon of abbreviations and ligatures in Greek Minuscule Hands (ca. 8th century to ca. 1600) in order to facilitate access to the content of manuscripts by Classical scholars and medievalists. The material the project coordinators use comes from manuscripts housed in major European and American libraries, and covers a variety of subjects from literature, music, law and notarial documents to mathematics, physics & alchemy, astronomy & astrology, weights & measures, and medicine, as well as tachygraphy, cryptography, monocondyliae and abbreviations and ligatures in early printed books. There are plans to publish the lexicon as a printed handbook and in CD-ROM format. This project was funded between 2001-2004 by the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the research grants scheme.
The Roman Law website is part of the 'Law-related Internet Project' at the University of Saarbrücken and makes available some of the surviving fragments of the great corpus of civil law initiated by the 6th century AD Emperor Justinian, accompanied by the gloss written by the mediaeval jurist Accursius (1185-1263). The site is aimed at a number of different levels of interest and knowledge. The beginner is provided with a 'Questions and Answers' page outlining the basics of Roman law and its reception and interpretation in mediaeval Europe. More advanced scholars can subscribe to the Ius Romanum mailing and discussion list. Also featured is a useful page of links to other sites relevant to the history of law or the ancient world generally and some short pages on the history of theft. The resource is available in English, German, Italian and Latin versions though much of the source material, including the bibliographic information on leading jurists, remains in Latin. This site will therefore largely benefit advanced scholars or linguistically proficient undergraduates interested in Roman and mediaeval law or else in Late Roman and early Byzantine society.
The University of Melbourne's Classics and Archaeology Virtual Museum Project puts online the majority of the contents of the Classics and Archaeology wing of the University's Ian Potter Museum, together with a number of collections not owned by the University. This vast online resource offers access to Greek, Roman, Egyptian and Middle Eastern manuscripts, pottery, coinage, bronzes, vases and sculpture.The centrepiece of the site is the database that allows the user to search the collection. Over 7000 images are available, and there are a number of photos for each object, taken from differing angles and with varying degrees of detail. This makes the site particularly useful for research, as do the full descriptions, bibliographies and comparisons for individual pieces. This information, with all other relevant data such as date, provenance and material, is attractively presented and easily accessible. The self-directed tour allows the user easy access to full lists of the artefacts and the history of the individual collections. There is extensive documentation about the development of the museum and the virtual museum project.
The website "Vindolanda Tablets Online" is an excellent site which provides an online database of the Vindolanda Tablets found at the Vindolanda fortress near Hadrian's Wall dating from the first century of the common era. The site is extremely easy to navigate and features a help section. The database is intended to be used as a learning tool for teaching Latin and Classics at all levels; primary school (there is a link to the Latin course for primary schools, Minimus), A and AS levels, undergraduate, postgraduate and for research purposes. The website is based on the publication of three volumes of materials on the tablets, but obviously offers many more facilities than the printed form. There is a section on the background history to the fort of Vindolanda, where the tablets were found. The tablets provide information on the social, cultural, and military history of the fortress. There is an online exhibition of the tablets, which features sections on people, places, documents, reading the tablets, and forts and military life. An excellent reference section provides information about Roman systems of dates, measures, currencies, military units and ranks, and Roman nomenclature. The tablets themselves can be viewed individually, and through an image zooming viewer. The tablets are arranged as a fully searchable set of digital materials with information included that is related to the tablets. The texts of the tablets can be searched by document type, people, places, military terms, archaeology, and other terms. A comprehensive links page provides information on over 70 websites and a bibliography of printed material. The project is based within the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University and is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The initial capture of the digital images was supported by an Arts and Humanities Research Board grant.
The Worlds of Late Antiquity website is the home page for 'miscellaneous materials relating to the culture of the Mediterranean world', covering the period from 200 to 700 CE. Topics include the life and works of Saint Augustine, Cassiodorus' Variae, Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy, Pope Gregory the Great, Junillus/Junilius (quaestor under Justinian c.AD 541-9, who composed the Instituta regularia divinae legis in AD 542), Aelius Donatus (the mid 4th century grammarian who was the teacher of Jerome), and Cosmas Indicopleustes (a 6th century Alexandrian merchant who eventually became a monk, and who wrote the Christian Topography, based on his travels). All of the sections are composed by James O'Donnell of Georgetown University, primarily for a course he taught in 1995 (the exception to the above is the section on Cosmas, which is by Andrew Weisner also of the University of Pennsylvania). The site focuses on particular works by the aforementioned ancient writers, making the texts available on the net. For instance, Gregory the Great's 'Moralia in Iob' consists of the first five volumes of this book of which the first book is available in HTML format with clickable footnotes, while the remaining four are on ASCII format without footnotes. The Christian Topography of Comas is based upon McCrindles' (1887) translation, using Winstedt's (1909) edition of the Greek text. Generously, O'Donnell includes (a complete edition) of his own book on Cassiodorus, written in 1979, which is now out of print.