The American Numismatic Society (ANS) is an institution of international standing whose aim is to promote the study of coins, medals and related objects within their social, cultural context and economic contexts. The website provides a wide range of information on the aims, activities, structure, publications and history of the Society, in addition to a series of online resources of interest to students and researchers of ancient, mediaeval and modern coinage and economic history. The society's vast collection of 800,000 coins can be searched with the help of a detailed search engine which provides full descriptions and, in many cases, good quality images which can also be purchased from the Society. There is also a guide to individual departments of the Society and to the scholars who curate them along with some bibliographic material on specific areas of numismatics. On-line resources include annotated bibliographies of numismatic interest sorted by author and subject with past issues available as an archive XML file, together with a series of experimental online publications with high quality illustrations on various themes such as a history of money, a potted account of Roman coinage, and a guide to numismatic terms and methods. A substantial page of links to other numismatic websites provides a excellent set of further resources and guides to national and private collections. The website also hosts the International Numismatic Commission or Commission International de Numismatique, an excellent source of information on many aspects of coinages including histories of collections, bibliographies of leading numismatists and national laws on antiquities.
This is the website of Ancient Coins for Education (ACE), a non-profit organisation in the United States of America which encourages the 'hands-on' use of numismatics as a way of teaching students about the ancient (Greek, Roman and Byzantine) world. Although the project deals primarily with middle and high schools, the site contains some resources which would also be of value to tutors or students in higher education. As well as giving details of ACE's projects and activities, the site provides a range of teaching resources, including lesson and study plans, based around the theme of ancient coinage, as well as detailed background information on related topics. The website as a whole is rather difficult to navigate, but clicking on the 'Teacher Resources' link reveals a wealth of information on coinage and related subjects. Topics which are covered include: the evolution of Roman coinage; weights and measures; denominations of coins; costs and wages in the ancient world; Roman inscriptions; and ancient mythology. The site also provides annotated links to other online resources which may be of interest.
The Ancient Greek and Roman coins website is written from the perspective of a collector, but is nevertheless a very informative and detailed site which is particularly useful for those who are new to numismatics. An introductory section on the 'vocabulary of ancient coins' gives detailed information about what to look out for when examining coins from different ancient periods. There are also detailed secions on Roman coins (arranged chronologically from the Republic to the fifth century AD and Greek coins (covering the Athenian empire, Alexander the Great, the Ptolemies, and the Greek cities under the Roman empire). There are also (smaller) sections on Eastern empires (Parthia and Persia) as well as the Byzantine period. The site also features information on a miscellany of other topics aimed primarily at those wishing to collect and photograph coins. It is richly illustrated throughout, and the accounts of the coins are very detailed - the historical background is explained as well as information about the particular coins in question.
The Ancient Greek World Web presentation is a virtual exhibition created by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. It deals with aspects of ancient Greek history and society from the sub-Mycenaean period to the Hellenistic period (c. 1100-31 BC). A section entitled 'Land and Time' gives a chronological overview of the history of the periods which are covered. Other sections cover the following broad topics: daily life; religion and death; and the economy. Each section is divided into several sub-sections and is illustrated using images of ancient Greek art (vase paintings, sculpture and coins); accompanying text provides important details about these artefacts. The site is well presented, and the images which are used to depict important aspects of ancient Greek life would be very useful particularly for those studying or presenting a variety of classical courses, who require easy access to the primary sources.
This online resource is aimed primarily at collectors of ancient Greek and Roman coins but nonetheless acts also as a starting point for ancient historians with an interest in numismatics, as well as dealing in depth with some particular aspects of the subject. A page of frequently asked questions explains the basics relating to ancient coinage and gives advice on further reading as well as on starting a collection. Further pages give more detail on specific topics. These include: a guide to late Roman coin types (AD 364-450); a section on ancient imitations of Roman coins; details of auction catalogues of use to the collector; resources on Byzantine coins of Cherson on the Black Sea; and a list of coin types minted at the Tripolis mint of the late third century Roman empire. The text of the website is illustrated throughout with images of the relevant coins.
The main function of this website is to display the catalogue of ancient and Byzantine coins from Ottilia Buerger's collection which is exhibited at Lawrence University. The numismatic catalogue features 147 coins in total, dating from the 5th century BCE to the 10th century CE, and these are arranged in the following categories: the Greek city-states, their colonies and neighbours; the Hellenistic age; the Roman world; and the Byzantine empire. Each entry features a clear image of the obverse and reverse of the coin, a date, details of the image and inscription, and text giving an interpretation and historical background. Aside from the catalogue the site also features several articles on aspects of ancient coinage, including: the production of ancient coins; Greek coinage and the polis; Hellenistic coin portraits; Roman coins and Roman history; and the development of the Byzantine solidus. A glossary of key terms is also included.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
The website for Byzantine Studies from the library at Notre Dame University brings together several useful resources on the subject. Perhaps the most significant of these is a detailed annotated bibliography for Byzantine studies. This includes links to online resources as well as information about books and journal articles, and is divided into the following sections: source collections; general information; art and architecture; geography; hymnography; law; literature; manuscripts; numismatics; patristics (hagiography); prosopography; and journals. The resource also provides downloadable versions of the following texts (in PDF format): an English translation of Eustathios of Thessaloniki's Critical Remarks on Homer's Iliad; the Life of St George of Amastris; and Karl Krumbacher's History of Byzantine Literature. Also within this site is a section on several icons (the Theotokos Eleousa; the Divine Liturgy; the Vita icon of Euthymios of Sardis; the Quadripartite icon and the Ten Saints icon) from the Snite Museum of Art. There is a colour image of each of these icons as well as a full description detailing its size, location, and history. Finally, an annotated list of links to other useful websites is also given.
This is a website detailing the collection of coins from the ancient Greek city of Ephesus in the Museum of Ancient Cultures in Macquarie University; it is presented as a study aid for students of ancient history and related subjects but also for the interest of the general public. Ephesus was famous throughout classical antiquity for its great temple of Artemis, which no doubt contributed to the prosperity of the city, but the site is also important for producing the earliest finds of coinage in the ancient world and from the 6th century BC was producing distinctive issues recognisible by the use of the deer and the bee as symbols of the polis. The website consists of a series of 10 illustrated chapters outlining the history, iconography and cultural and religious symbolism of the coinage of Ephesus. There are also chapters on women from the ruling class in Ephesus, the relationship between the city and its neighbours (and ultimately with the expanding Roman republic), and on the temple and cult of Ephesian Artemis, together with a succinct bibliography. Finally, there is also an interactive gallery of the coins themselves. The result is a fascinating social, economic and political history as reflected in its monetary issues.
This is the website of the David M Robinson collection at the University of Mississippi's University Museum. The Museum holds over 2000 objects, a collection built up principally by Dr Robinson, the excavator of Olynthos, his wife and Mr and Mrs Frank Peddle. The website puts online photographs of a significant and diverse proportion of the museum's holdings. Of Greek artefacts, there are inscriptions, coins, sculptures, mosaics and other objects, mainly small bronzes and terracottas. The Roman objects are organised in the same categories. In addition there is an important collection of Greek and South Italian vases, of which there are around ninety photographs presented here. There is also a small section on Egyptian artefacts. In all cases, there is a brief accompanying description, but no dimensions. A bibliographical reference is provided for most of the inscriptions, vases and sculptures. Many of the Greek vases are also linked to the relevant entry on the Perseus website. A number of the photographs of vases are out of focus, so whilst the images provide a general impression they may in some cases be inadequate for detailed study.
De Imperatoribus Romanis (On the Roman Emperors, or DIR) is a high-quality, online scholarly encyclopaedia about the rulers of the Roman Empire from 27 BC to 1453 AD, (Augustus to Constantine XI Palaeologus). The contents of DIR have been prepared by scholars but are intended to be accessible to non-specialists as well. This is an award winning online resource based at Salve Regina University, useful for teaching and learning about the history of Roman Emperors and many other aspects of Roman life, and easy to navigate. (There are frames and non-frames versions of the site, and a search engine). It includes biographical essays on the individual emperors, and descriptions and maps of significant battles in the empire's history. Each article is rigorously peer reviewed for quality and accuracy by the editorial board (drawn from universities from the USA, Germany, Canada, and Australia) before it can be included in the DIR, and authors undertake to keep their information current. Much of this material is cross-referenced by hyperlinks to: the Imperial Index (an index of all the emperors who ruled during the empire's 1500 years); Imperial Stemmata (family trees of important imperial dynasties); the DIR and ORB Ancient and Medieval Atlas providing maps of the empire at different times; the Imperial Battle Index; and the Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins for emperors before the fall of Rome in 476 AD (sourced from Cohen's "Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire romain", 1880-1892, and from Justin Paola's online "Collection of Roman Emperors"); as well as other recommended links to related sites.
This site provides an attractively illustrated introduction to the coins and measures of Judaea from early times until the crusader period with historical background and a useful basic bibliography. Before the adoption of Greek and, later, Persian coins (or 'darics') in the 7th-4th centuries BC, a sophisticated system of inscribed weights, based on the unit of the Shekel, was used in Jewish areas. The first Judaean issues proper were not struck until the 4th century BC under Persian and Seleucid licence and were based on the widely used Athenian owls or Persian modes. The Seleucid Antiochus VII also struck hybrid Syrian-Jewish issues in the later 2nd century. The first properly 'Jewish' coins, with Hebrew inscriptions and lacking the portrait heads of earlier issues for religious reasons, did not appear until the time of John Hyrcanus (135-104 BC) and his successors when Judaea became fully independent. The series of coins from the reign of the Herodian dynasty and the Roman conquest down to the Late Empire and Byzantine period provide a fascinating potted history of Judaea as well as important insights on economic and iconographic matters. There is also a short section on the revival of coins of Israel in the 20th century, both in the Mandate period and after independence in 1948. The resource is part of the Jewish History Ring published by Amuseum.org (The Jewish Museum in Cyberspace) and associated with the American Jewish Historical Society. It is a useful complementary source for students of ancient history and archaeology working in the East Mediterranean or those studying general numismatics as well as an attractive introduction for the interested amateur.
Hispania epigraphica is an online free and full-text academic journal publishing new Latin inscriptions and indexes of inscriptions found in Iberia. Each issue of the journal publishes a number of articles in PDF format, usually including an extensively commented list of new inscriptions from both Spain and Portugal (each in a separate section) and an updated list of words that takes in account all inscriptions known. It is an essential research tool for epigraphists interested in Roman Iberia.
The House of Ptolemy is a resource guide, intended as a study aid and to provide bibliographical material for students of Greco-Roman Egypt. The main focus of the site, as its name suggests, is the period of the Ptolemaic kings (331 BCE - 30 BCE), descendants of Macedonian Greeks. There are also compendious sections on Roman, Byzantine and modern Egypt. Within these periods, links are arranged by theme into sets and subsets, in a fashion that is generally clear and efficient. Topics covered include: historical overviews; Ptolemaic numismatics; Ptolemaic genealogy and king lists; the transition to Roman provincial Egypt; the city of Alexandria; the culture of Ptolemaic Egypt; the Ptolemaic empire outside Egypt; the Jews of Egypt. Most of the links are presented with a comment from the site's author: this is a personal list, not a faculty or institutional webpage. The selection of items is therefore prone to subjectivity and its completeness cannot be guaranteed; furthermore, material of widely varying intellectual depth, rigour, and specialisation is included among the links. At the time of writing this review, the site was last updated in 2002 - this meant that some of the links were no longer functional. Nonetheless, there is a wealth of material here, well organised; the numerous awards garnered by the page indicate its worth. This site is a useful starting point for students.
'Numismatics' is a website created by an enthusiast with an interest in ancient coins: it features essays, images and weblinks relating to this topic. There are also digital reprints of classic numismatic works such as a complete illustrated edition of Barclay Head's 'Historia Numorum', first published in 1886 and one of the seminal works on Greek and Roman coinage. Also included are some 70 plates from Head's guide to the coin collection of the British Museum (with the preface to the 1895 edition) and some high resolution maps of ancient Greece. There is also a selection of plates from the British Museum's coin catalogue. The site author's own contributions include articles on the Greek alphabet, the coins of Apollonia Pontika and the Gorgon issues of Parion. These are not footnoted or referenced and lack detailed bibliographies but will interest amateurs and undergraduates who can use them alongside standard academic works on ancient numismatics. More experienced numismatists will find it a useful source of small but clear images for teaching purposes and quick reference.
The art and archaeology browser is a tool provided by the Perseus website which allows the user to find archaeological objects from ancient Greece and the Roman empire featuring in Perseus' extensive online collection of text and images. The initial search page allows the user to select object type, and is divided into the following categories: architecture; coins; gems; sculpture; sites; and vases. Each section is then divided into further sub-categories in order to help the user to narrow their search for a particular object (for example, if looking for a building in the architecture category one may search by site, building, period, architect or type). Entries for each object give a brief summary with links to other pages of Perseus which can provide further detail. These include images and secondary source material which refer to the selected object. This will be a useful reference tool and starting point for those seeking information on specific ancient archaeological sites and artefacts.
"Roman Provincial Coinage Online" is a database containing photographs of Roman coins from the provinces. The database of about 45,000 coins (over 13,000 types) from the Antonine period (138-192 CE) is searchable by iconography, place, and time from "coin database". After selecting the parameters of search (intuitive, but tutorials are available), the results include a small picture of the coins and some essential information, including the town of provenance. By clicking on the picture, it is possible to access a high resolution version of the photograph, and additional data such as any inscriptions, type of metal, diameter, weight and bibliographic references. By clicking on the town name, a Flash map will show its location. It is also possible to use the mapping feature independently from the database accessing section "maps". The website also contains a referenced introduction to coinage in the Roman provinces and short biographies of the Roman emperors (including portraits in sculpture) that ordered the coinage of the coins in the database. This project has been funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council and the University of Oxford.
Supported by the British Academy, this is an online database of over 25,000 Greek coins found in British museums, institutions and private collections designed to complement the existing 30 printed volumes of the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum (SNG) which was initiated in 1931. The powerful search function allows the reader to search by: collection: country or state of origin; archaeological site; ruler or magistrate; date (600 BC-100 AD); denomination, weight, volume, or standard; obverse and reverse description; die axis; SNG reference. Each item has an individual entry and, in many cases, is accompanied by images of the coins. Although the absence of any introductory material means that this is a largely intended as a specialist resource for numismatists and ancient historians and archaeologists, dedicated undergraduates will also benefit from browsing the corpus of coins from the ancient Greek and Hellenistic world, particularly through using the image gallery function.
The University of Melbourne's Classics and Archaeology Virtual Museum Project puts online the majority of the contents of the Classics and Archaeology wing of the University's Ian Potter Museum, together with a number of collections not owned by the University. This vast online resource offers access to Greek, Roman, Egyptian and Middle Eastern manuscripts, pottery, coinage, bronzes, vases and sculpture.The centrepiece of the site is the database that allows the user to search the collection. Over 7000 images are available, and there are a number of photos for each object, taken from differing angles and with varying degrees of detail. This makes the site particularly useful for research, as do the full descriptions, bibliographies and comparisons for individual pieces. This information, with all other relevant data such as date, provenance and material, is attractively presented and easily accessible. The self-directed tour allows the user easy access to full lists of the artefacts and the history of the individual collections. There is extensive documentation about the development of the museum and the virtual museum project.
This growing website, aimed at both students and teachers, is designed to help its users learn more about ancient Roman coinage. Its main feature is an extensive numismatic catalogue which has been compiled from information submitted by private collectors and dealers. This is clear and user-friendly: it may be browsed chronologically by decade for the Roman republic and by emperor or empress for the imperial period. The contents of the catalogue range from 326 BC to the time of the emperor Honorius (AD 393-423). Each section contains information on a variety of coin-types from the period, with clear images of the obverse and reverse, summaries of the image and text of the legend as well as, in some cases, a set of web links where more information relating to the period or coin may be found. The catalogue also has a search facility which enables the user to compare coins featuring similar images or inscriptions. Aside from the catalogue the site also features a range of links to useful articles on specific topics relating to coinage, as well as to broader ancient history sites.