This is the online presence of the American Society of Greek and Latin Epigraphy (ASGLE), a non-profit organisation which aims to further teaching and research in Greek and Latin epigraphy. The site currently provides details about the society including contact information for its officers, and information about becoming a member. There is also a section on archived announcements relating to events in the field of epigraphy. Currently, the main strength of the resource is a detailed list of well-annotated links to other online resources for epigraphy. Also featured in the section entitled 'The epigrapher's bookshelf' are a list of common abbreviations used in inscriptions, and a section on the forms of Greek numerals.
This resource makes available online several texts relating to the study of ancient history, archaeology and Biblical studies. Included are English translations of some inscriptions and works by ancient authors as well as papers written by modern scholars. Whilst the works of ancient writers which are provided here (Julius Caesar; Tacitus; Livy; Herodotus; and Plutarch) are easily accessible elsewhere on the Internet, one area where this site is unusual is in providing texts relating to Assyria, Babylon and Persia. The following inscriptions are included in English translation: inscription of Tiglath Pileser I; black obelisk of Shalmaneser II; annals of Assur-Nasir-Pal; inscription of Nebuchadnezzar; and the Behistun inscription of Darius I. There is also: a translation of the Assyrian epic of Ishtar and Izdubar; the Babylonian law code of Hammurabi (1780 BC); the text of a 1937 article on Susa by H. G. Spearing; two articles on the Behistun inscription; and the full text of Austen Henry Layard's 1854 work Discoveries at Nineveh. Several resources for bible study are also provided here.
Ancient Journeys is the online Festschrift in honour of the distinguished American classicist and ancient historian Eugene Numa Lane, and contains the full-text of 20 articles written by his colleagues and students on a wide range of subjects dealing with Greek and Roman art, archaeology, history, religion and literature. The resource also offers biographical information, a tabula gratulatoria and series of personal memoirs by his associates, as well as a bibliography of Lane's published work. Published by the Stoa Consortium, the Festschrift is notable for its broad range of topics but also for the absence of a paper version. A hypertext medium is used throughout and links are provided to Perseus for Latin and Greek words. Many of the articles are illustrated and the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at larger scales. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Greek and Roman studies.
These Web pages contain photographs of archaeological remains (architectural features and sculpture) from Athens and the surrounding region of Attica. The following sites are featured: the Akropolis (Acropolis); the agora; the Kerameikos; the Pnyx; the Olympieion; the region of Attica; Sounion; and Thorikos. Each has its own section of the website where the user may access images of buildings (in their present state), sculptures and some inscriptions. Brief descriptions are provided for each photograph, along with relevant bibliography. The photographs are clear, and the site is easy to navigate; this is therefore a useful visual resource for archaeologists and classicists.
The British Epigraphy Society was set up in 1996 with the objective of advancing archaeology and history education. They have a particular interest in the study of Greek, Roman or other texts, inscriptions and historical documents. The Society aims to raise the profile of epigraphy research within the British Isles and to improve communication between researchers. The British Epigraphy Society has connections with the Association Internationale d'Epigraphie Greque et Latine.The website of the British Epigraphy Society provides information on the aims, objectives and constitution of the society. Details are given of how to join the society. The strongest feature of the website is the news and future events sections. The newsletter of the Society, BES News, is available in PDF format, but contains no papers or scientific articles. There is also a section with proceedings of past events. The website also maintains a selection of links to other relevant sites.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
The Center for Epigraphical and Palaeological Studies site includes information about forthcoming events and courses (some of which are open to the general public) and offers several short-term post-doctoral fellowships in Greek and Latin epigraphy. The site (which is part of the Department of Greek and Latin at the Ohio State University) contains links to other related web-sites as well as images of inscriptions and manuscripts (ranging from Attic inscriptions to mediaeval Latin manuscripts). Unfortunately, as the site is still under construction most of these images are as yet unavailable, and so when one clicks on the images for Greek or Roman 'squeezes' (a plaster cast representation of an inscription) one is simply presented with a list of reference numbers. The dated Attic inscriptions do have pictures, but the images come without even the most basic commentary of what this inscription is, a reproduction of the text or translation, or the context in which it was found (all of which are essential). Reference numbers are provided so that one can look these inscriptions up in the relevant books which have all this pertinent information (but this defies the point of putting it on the web-site in the first place).
This is the website of The Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD), part of the Classics Centre at the University of Oxford. Set up in 1995 'to provide a focus for the study of ancient documents,' the CSAD has since become a research centre of national and international importance. The Centre houses the University's epigraphy archive, which includes a large collection of paper impressions of Greek inscriptions, Roman inscriptions from Britain, and a photographic collection. The website is searchable and provides information about the CSAD and its activities, including details on lectures, conferences and seminars, imaging projects, links to resources, and a link to the CSAD's online newsletter. Also accessible via this website are links to the home pages of the CSAD's projects: Vindolanda tablets online; Romano-British curses; Cairo photographic archive; papyri in British collections; Oxyrhynchus papyri; Poinikastas (epigraphic sources for early Greek writing); Monumenta Asia Minoris Antiqua (MAMA); and e-science and ancient documents.
The Claros website is a computerised concordance of the editions of ancient Greek inscriptions aimed at making it easier for specialist epigraphers and more general linguists, archaeologists and classicists to locate new editions of epigraphic texts published in the last 100 years. The database, published by the Diccionario Griego-Espanõl at the Instituto de Filologia in Madrid, assembles all the concordances found at the end of epigraphical publications as well as providing some new concordances for volumes of the Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum and other corpora which were originally published without them. While not exhaustive, the selection of material in the database is impressive and, along with the large bibliography which is also included, will be a major resource for researchers in classics, archaeologists and related. The website is available in Spanish, English and French.
The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon, hosted by the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, USA, aims to create a lexicon of all Aramaic words from 900 BCE till the Early Middle Ages. The resource consists of a database section with facilities allowing for concordance, dictionary, dialect and lexicon searches, and a searchable, very well updated bibliography. A few pages introduce the Aramaic language, which is still spoken today.
This is the wiki-based website of Concordia, a JISC/NEH-funded project. Concordia will create a new digital collection of engraved inscriptions from the Roman monuments of Tripolitana (northern Libya). The digitised texts may be integrated with geographic datasets to allow: integrated text searching; dynamic mapping; and geographical linkages for these and other relevant collections. The project is completed in 2009, and the The website remains active in aprts, with schedule of Web chats online. The site also includes: a short description of the primary sources used; a minimal project plan; project news; and information on the ORE (Object Reuse and Exchange) and other interoperability standards that are used. Other major resources may be presented as the project outputs become available. Indeed, elsewhere on the Web some outputs from this project are in evidence, for example in the Pleiades website which gives geographical information on the ancient world
Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI) is an online collection of resources on cuneiform, the international writing system of the ancient Near East for thousands of years, in which were recorded historical, religious and administrative documents in a wide variety of languages including Sumerian, Akkadian (or Babylonian) and Hittite. The (CDLI) is an collaborative project led by the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin and the University of California at Los Angeles to create a digital record of the earliest horizon of cuneiform texts ca. 3300-2000 B.C. to facilitate research and cast further light on the origins of writing and of urban civilisation. The resource, published as two mirrored websites hosted by the project partners, consists of a series of inter-related databases of fourth and third millennia B.C. cuneiform texts, including proto-cuneiform, from a variety of institutions including the University of Leiden, the Hilprecht Collection and the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin. The databases include extensive glossaries of words and sign types and high resolution photographs of many of the writing tablets. Navigating the databases is sometimes confusing and the limited introductory material indicates that this a website for specialist in ancient Near Eastern languages and scripts. Bibliographic resources include the Gelb Library of over 10,000 references to scholarly works on the origins of writing and a special section on proto-cuneiform. The full-texts of several scholarly articles is also available, including one on the undeciphered script Proto-Elamite. Technical information on the digitisation process is also provided as is news about the on-going CDLI programme. This is a specialist resource will interest students of the Sumerian and Akkadian languages and archaeologists and cultural historians working on the origins of writing and administration in the Near East.
Current epigraphy is an edited "blog" that publishes news about Greek and Latin epigraphy. The blog aims to publish "workshop and conference announcements; notices of discoveries, publications and reviews; project reports; and descriptive links to digital epigraphic projects". All news are archived and can be searched; the most recent news are also available via RSS feeds. This website may be useful principally to researchers or postgraduate students.
There is also a separated mailing list (inscriptiones-l) for discussions managed and edited by David Meadows; all postings to the list are archived and can be freely viewed. The mailing list is a useful complement to this website.
This specialist resource is an online edition of Dr Nicolle Hirschfeld's 1996 book The PASP database for the uses of scripts on Cyprus (Minos Supplement 13) which aims in the long-term to provide a comprehensive account of all the ancient inscriptions and glyphs from Cyprus, whether on stone, clay or metal and coin. The people of the island of Cyprus employed a variety of writing systems to record their spoken languages in the Bronze and Iron Ages, including the syllabic Cypro-Minoan and Cypro-Classical scripts as well as alphabetic Greek and Phoenician letters. The current database includes Cypro-Minoan writings from the Late Bronze Age circa 1700-1000 BCE which record an undeciphered language (or languages) and the closely related Cypro-Classical script of the succeeding Iron Age which lasted down to the 3rd century BC when it was displaced by the Greek alphabet. Cypro-Classical was used to record both the local Greek dialect and an undeciphered tongue called Eteo-Cypriot. Phoenician and Roman inscriptions will be added in future editions of the database, in addition to the inscriptions in cuneiform, Egyptian and Ugaritic which have also been found in the island. The database is searchable by inscription number, object type, geographical context, nature and material and is prefaced by various instructions on how to use the data. This resource will benefit researchers in the ancient writings and scripts of the Mediterranean world, particularly those interested in the transmission of the alphabet to the Greek world and the interaction of cultures in the region in the Bronze and Iron Age, as well as more general students of Cypriot and Near Eastern archaeology.
'Demos : Classical Athenian democracy' is a on-going digital project aiming to provide a comprehensive online guide to Athenian political life in the 5th and 4th centuries BC in a fully interactive, hypertext medium. This attractively presented digital encyclopaedia, sponsored and published by the Stoa Consortium, makes extensive use of original historical and epigraphic source material as well as providing detailed essays on many aspects of the political institutions and leaders of Athens in the classical period. Extensively cross-referenced with the Perseus project, the resource also includes much iconographic material and many bibliographic citations. The long-term aim is to provide information on many aspects of Athenian life in this period for a wide audience at all levels of academic and general interest. Useful features include: details of tribal heroes and personifications of political and social ideas; a series of essays on ancient historians and literary genres; a section on the nature of the sources themselves; and a list of relevant inscriptions and potted accounts of political institutions. A general A-Z index is complemented by a more specialised index of historical sources. All of the major articles can be downloaded as PDF files. Other useful features include a series of FAQs and a guide to work-in-progress. This useful and stimulating website will benefit students, teachers and researchers in ancient history, classics and classical archaeology as well as those from the wider disciplines of politics and sociology who are interested in a comparative and historical perspective.
The Electronic Archive of Greek and Latin Epigraphy (EAGLE) is a gateway that facilitates the access and search of other epigraphical archives, namely the Epigraphische Datenbank Heidelberg (EDH); the Epigraphic Database Roma (EDR); and the Epigraphic Database Bari (EDB). These databases contain the texts and several metadata of Greek and Latin epigraphical inscriptions. However, each database must be accessed independently and the data available in each database is not uniform. Furthermore, each database is accessible via different interfaces, and therefore the integration is minimal. EAGLE is being supervised by the Association Internationale d'Épigraphie Grecque et Latine (AIEGL). Both researchers and students may find this reference resource useful.
EpiDoc : Epigraphic Documents in TEI XML is the website of an initiative which aims to develop rigorous standards and tools for the digital encoding and interchange of epigraphic documents by using the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and the conventions of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). This resource contains the home page and resources of the community of developers as well as the guidelines to produce structured markup of epigraphic texts in TEI encoding language (an "open source" digital format). The current guidelines (marked as "stable") and drafts of proposed ones ("snapshot") are available as an online document. This is a specialist resource which will benefit anyone planning or participating in digital epigraphic projects in addition to those interested in humanities computing.
The Epigraphic Database Heidelberg (Epigraphische Datenbank Heidelberg - EDH) is an excellent online collection of Latin inscriptions, which aims to integrate Latin epigraphy from all parts of the Roman Empire in a single database. The Web resource consists of three key elements: the epigraphic text database; the epigraphic bibliography; and the photographic database. The text database contains (at the time of writing this review) over 56 000 inscriptions, and is fully searchable by a vast range of criteria including, for example, province, date and inscription type. Search results provide bibliographic details and the Latin text of the inscriptions. The bibliographic database is a vast collection of records of published books and articles relating to the inscriptions - this too is fully searchable. Finally, the searchable photographic database contains images of the inscriptions. This is a vast resource which will be invaluable to those researching Latin epigraphy.
The free and full-text online edition of the "Études épigraphiques" journal is published by the French School of Athens. At the time of review there were four issues available: "Inscriptions de Thessalie I. Les cités de la vallée de l’Enipeus"; "Corpus des inscriptions grecques d’Illyrie méridionale et d’Épire. I. Inscriptions d’Épidamne-Dyrrhachion et d’Apollonia"; and "Retour à la liberté. Libération et sauvetage des prisonniers en Grèce ancienne. Recueil d’inscriptions honorant des sauveteurs et analyse critique". These studies focus on Greek sites in Thessaly, Illyria and Epirus excavated by the French School of Athens and are final publications. More issues should appear online. The available issues may be useful to anyone interested in Greek epigraphy.
This is the online version of the Packard Humanities Institute Greek Inscriptions database. It contains Greek inscriptions organised by period and corpora; they are available transliterated in Latin characters and in Greek. The database covers Greece including Crete; Cyprus; Thrace; north coast of the Black Sea; Syria; Egypt; North Africa; Germany and inscriptions from unknown provenances. It is still a preliminary (beta) version, but can be useful to students and researchers. This website requires a Java enabled browser.
The Heidelberger Gesamtverseichnis der Griechischen Papyrusurkunden Ägyptens (HGV) is a searchable index of Greek documentary papyri from Egypt, made available over the Web by the Institute for Papyrology, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. The project aims to provide a complete register of all documentary papyri (in Greek) from Egypt, and is therefore a highly valuable research tool. The user-interface is in German, though some help is available in English and Dutch. The index is taken from published corpora of Egyptian papyri and ostraka in the Greek language, and currently holds over 50 000 records. For each papyrus, a unique HGV number is given, along with a brief citation for the print publication, a date where available, place of origin, the material inscribed, and keywords summarising the content, where available. The collection has two indices: the 'hauptregister' which contains all papyri, and the 'erwähnte daten', listing the more than 9000 papyri which can be securely dated. Both can be searched on all fields. Results are in the form of a simple list, with links to more detailed information for each papyrus. These can be copied, saved, and printed, according to the limitations of one's Web browser. As well as the HGV, the Institute for Papyrology has created the Griechische Papyri der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung, an anthology of Greek papyri. This is a much smaller collection, but for each papyrus one can view a brief citation and description, an image, and transcription (the latter taken from the Duke Databank of Digital Papyri, which is also available on the PHI 7 CD).
Hispania epigraphica is an online free and full-text academic journal publishing new Latin inscriptions and indexes of inscriptions found in Iberia. Each issue of the journal publishes a number of articles in PDF format, usually including an extensively commented list of new inscriptions from both Spain and Portugal (each in a separate section) and an updated list of words that takes in account all inscriptions known. It is an essential research tool for epigraphists interested in Roman Iberia.
"Hispania Epigraphica" is an online database publishing Roman inscriptions from Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal). For each inscription there is a picture; the transcription of the Latin text and the translation in Spanish. The database is searchable. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This set of Web pages provides an introduction to the study of ancient Iberian languages, based on inscriptions found in modern Spain and Portugal. The various sections discuss Levantine Iberian writing, Greek-Iberian, Celtiberian, and the Sudlusitanian-Tartessian language. The site provides a guide to the phonetics of each alphabet, and offers theories as to where each alphabet is derived from. The arguments surrounding the origins of each language are explored, as are the issues surrounding the relationships between the several languages and scripts, such as the Basque-Iberian hypothesis. Some example inscriptions are provided on the site, as is a bibliography.
This is the website of the Imagines Italicae Project, which is based at the Institute of Classical Studies in London, and which aims to produce a scholarly, contextual database of texts and inscriptions in Italic languages from central Italy with regard to both their epigraphic and their archaeological properties. This website provides an online guide to the aims and methods of the project and a sample of material from the database as well as information about the participants. Apart from chronicling the progress of the project, readers are encouraged to submit material for inclusion in the database or offer advice and suggestions regarding any aspect of the work, including problems raised by the editors. There is also a discussion group devoted to the languages and scripts of Central Italy other than Latin or Greek and a guide to references and conventions used by the editors. The final database will be an indispensable tool for ancient historians, archaeologists, epigraphists and linguists interested in the questions of literacy and social identity in the non-Latin speaking peoples of Italy. The project has received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council.
The Inscriptions of Aphrodisias Project, which began in February 2004, is funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council under the Resource Enhancement Scheme and has an international team of scholars at its head; this is the project's website. This excellent resource makes available in electronic form the corpus of inscriptions excavated from Aphrodisias (South West Turkey), relating to the period of the Roman Empire. Information about the provenance of each inscription is provided, along with images, original ancient Greek text and English translation. The site is arrange in such a way that the user may search for an inscription by any of the following criteria: date; text category; monument type; or decorative features. There is also a concordance of other publications of these inscriptions, along with further bibliographical material. A section of the site also makes accessible the notebooks of earlier travellers to Aphrodisias (Robert Wood in 1750; W. Kubitschek and W. Reichel in 1893 and P. Boulanger in 1913).
The Inscriptions of Israel/Palestine website aims to publish an electronic version of all inscriptions found in Israel dating from the Hellenistic period (ca. 330 BCE) to the Islamic Conquest (640 CE). A search engine allows users to access some 15,000 inscriptions, with searches possible for individual inscriptions or words, including proper names, occurring in one or more inscriptions. There is, however, no browse function, which makes general access to the site difficult without prior knowledge of sources. Ultimately users should be able to access detailed maps of every single archaeological site that contains inscriptions of the period concerned, as well as photographs of every inscription with a translation. The site also provides a bibliographic database and lists related links; links to some scholarly essays on epigraphy were broken at the time of last review.
This online resource, created by Professor Onno Van Nijf of the University of Groningen, is a guide to sources of information relating to the study of ancient Greek and Latin inscriptions. Primarily a well-annotated bibliography, the website provides an introduction to the vast field of epigraphy and to scholarly work in this field. It incorporates references to both printed and online materials, providing links to relevant websites. Abbreviations for sources commonly used by epigraphers are also provided. The resource is divided into the following sub-sections: 'Where to start?'; 'The organization of the field'; 'Collections and corpora'; 'Heuristics'; 'Epigraphy and IT'. Monographs, journals, museum collections and excavation reports, as well as the texts of the inscriptions themselves, are all considered. There is also a section dealing with publications on the critical signs, Latin abbreviations and Greek numerals used by epigraphers. This resource would be a good place to start for anyone trying to familiarise themselves with the bibliography on epigraphy.
K C Hanson's website may be a chaotic montage of loosely connected resources, but within this eclectic host of sub-directories, there are several topics worth exploring by those interested in history, culture or religion. Dr. Hanson's primary interest seems to lie with the interactions between various ancient and classical communities spanning from the apogee of the Egyptian to the Roman Empire (in particular the relationship between the later and the early Christian communities). He has assembled a series of dynastic chronologies for both Israel and Rome, along with a selection of texts relevant to this period. With a little searching one can find ancient documents from Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Greek civilizations, along with a selection from Semitic cultures. These texts, all translated, tend to cluster between the eighth century BCE and the third century CE but there are a number which predate these.
Part of the site provides useful support resources for the textbook 'Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts', which Dr Hanson co-authored with Douglas E. Oakman. Those wishing to delve further into a particular topic may also wish to consult Hanson's robust series of web links to the ancient world and/or his bibliographic collections on rituals on ancient Greco-Roman society; Hellenic, Semitic and Anatolia Cultures; and The Old Testament. An attractive collection of images from many of these cultures has been compiled.
The website of the Laboratorio Informatico per le Lingue Antiche (LILA) provides information about their software 'SNS - Greek and Latin'. The software is for Macintosh computers, and enables the user to search two important data banks of classical writing: the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae; and parts of the Packard Humanities Institute's bank. The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae contains ancient Greek texts ranging from Homer to authors in the fifteenth century A.D. The Packard data banks available to users are PHI #5.3, containing classic Latin texts, and PHI #7, containing Greek documentary papyri and inscriptions. The software provides the user with a fairly sophisticated search engine, catering for Boolean logic operators, special characters, and restrictions by various bibliographic factors. Results may be exported in different text formats.A single-user licence costs around 150 Euros. A free demonstration version of the software may be ordered from the site, although this allows access to a limited selection of the texts. The site also allows users to subscribe to the SNS mailing list.
LacusCurtius : Into the Roman World is a significant online collection of a range of useful resources for students of Classics. The site features a Roman Gazetteer, which consists of a photographic guide to various Roman towns and monuments, along with descriptions of archaeological excavations and visitor information. Featured locations include, among others: Rome; Assisi; Ostia; Perugia; and Rimin. The site also hosts around 40 Latin texts by authors such as: Pliny the Elder; Isidore of Seville; Suetonius; Polybius; Quintilian; Celsus; Cato; Procopius; and Macrobius. Some texts are available in Latin, some English, and some in both Latin and English translation. Each text is introduced by the site editor, Bill Thayer, with information about the copy text used (often old Loeb editions now in the public domain) and editorial notes. Other significant online resources include a variety of public-domain reference works. These include a selection of entries from William Smith's 1875 'Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities' and Samuel Ball Platner's 'Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome'. Other resources include: a Roman atlas; a catalogue of Roman Umbria; a section on Latin inscriptions; and an online version of W. R. Lethaby's 'Tomb of Mausolus'. This is an impressive site both in terms of the quantity and quality of the materials it offers.
The home page of Prof. Dr. Dr. Manfred Clauss (Ancient History Faculty, University of Frankfurt), includes a database aiming to compile all Latin inscriptions. At the time of writing, 332,250 entries from more than 560 publications and over 16,000 places had been entered into the database. The database can be searched by publication, province, place or town. Text search is also possible, as is a variety of combined searches. Search results can be sorted by origin of publication (Beleg) or by province (Provinz). Thus, the site will, for instance, instantly produce all surviving Latin epigraphic evidence for a given Roman province, including full references and even maps of sites.
This website presents the work of the Canadian epigraphic mission at Xanthos and the nearby sanctuary of Letoon. The main goal of the mission is to find, photograph and report all epigraphic inscriptions of Hellenistic and Roman time in the region. A few short articles present the project; the final reports of each survey carried out since 2000 are available in sections "survey seasons" and "reports and publications" in PDF format; the reports are scans of the original papers published in "Anatolia Antiqua" and are available only in French. An extensive and updated bibliography is available in section "reports and publications". The "documentary data base" section contains the photographs of most of the inscriptions found; it is a work in progress with new data added as new inscriptions are found and studied. For each inscription there are a low resolution and a medium resolution picture; a short description of the stone and its context; dimensions; and publications. The inscriptions themselves are not available on this website, but most photographs are clear enough to be read by experienced epigraphists. The website publishes photographs of the original inscriptions as well as of "squeezes", impressions on paper of the inscriptions. There are also some simple colour maps of ancient Lycia and Xanthos, with all the excavated sectors emphasised. This website is an updated and useful complement to the publications on paper by the team and interested researchers should not overlook it.
This resource is an online collection of over 800 images depicting inscriptions on stone from the sanctuary of the Eleusinian Mysteries at Eleusis, Greece. Most of the images are photographs taken by Kevin Clinton of the Department of Classics at Cornell University. For each inscription details of the publication in which it features are given, although transcriptions/translations are not provided here. The images are of high quality; the use of black and white photographs enhances the readablility of the texts. The collection is also fully searchable. The website also provides bibliographic details of relevant publications as well as information about the digitisation project itself.
This is the website of The Oath in Archaic and Classical Greece, a research project funded by the Leverhulme trust, directed by Alan H Sommerstein and based at the University of Nottingham's Department of Classics. The project's main focus is a database of all references to oaths or acts of swearing found in Greek texts dating from the introduction of alphabetic writing to the year 322 BCE; the website makes this database, which features over 3,700 records, available online. A search facility allows the user to look for references to particular oaths according to a wide range of criteria, including: author; work; genre; date; swearer or swearee (this can be broken down further into gender, age, status and citizenship of the swearer/swearee); and god to which the oath refers. Search results include both literary and epigraphic references to swearing and are given in the form of detailed descriptions to the content and context of the oaths, with references to the sources in which they may be found. The website also provides: a brief explanation of the definition of an oath; information about the project team; and details of the project's publications.
Based on the life's work and surviving archive of renowned Oxford epigrapher Lilian ('Anne') Jeffery (1915-1986), this online resource provides a major database and scholarly tool for the study of early Greek writing and literacy from circa 800-500 BC. Published by the University of Oxford's Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD), the website provides information on thousands of inscriptions and their archaeological context as well as a biography of Jeffery by David Lewis reproduced from the Proceedings of the British Academy. The inscriptions can be searched by publication sequence, script types, letter form, site context, object type, region and sub region, and date range. Each entry is given an individual data sheet which includes detailed information about the inscriptions, as well as images, transcriptions and translations. There is also a series of maps showing the distribution of the inscriptions. Jeffery's book 'The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece' (first published in 1961) remains a seminal text for early Greek epigraphy but her archive contains a far larger collection of drawings, notes and supplementary material not included in the original publication or in the revised second edition edited by Alan Johnston in 1990. The archival material provided here is of considerable interest in expanding and elucidating the original publication.
This is the website of 'Projet Volterra', a research project funded by the British Academy through the AHRB (Arts and Humanities Research Board), based at the History Department of University College, London. The project is named in memory of Edoardo Volterra, a distinguished 'Roman lawyer' who died in 1987, leaving his collection of books to the École Française de Rome. The stated aim of the project is to 'promote the study of Roman legislation in its full social, political and legal context'. The site is predominantly a database for Roman edicts issued between AD 305 and AD 383, and uses a variety of sources, (including both epigraphic and papyrological, but mainly the Law Codes). An online version of books one to eight of the Theodosian Code is available (based upon Mommsen's 1905 edition), and the team have aimed to present this as close to the original format as possible. Additionally, the site offers reviews of books on Roman law relevant to the project. Such reviews are not the team's own, but have been taken from the Bryn Mawr Classical Review and the Medieval Review. A list of emperors from Pertinax (AD 192) to Marcian (died AD 457) is present on the site, as is a list of other relevant Web resources.
This Italian website focusing on the Latin and Greek inscription known as "Res gestae Divi Augusti" (part of the "Monumentum Ancyranum") publishes a full catalogue of high definition pictures with some tools to improve readability. As part of the project, two sets of pictures separated by a decade will be published in an attempt to determine the degrade of the monumental inscription. Although entirely in Italian, the website is mainly a collection of pictures that can be easily browsed. The "Res gestae Divi Augusti" (Achievements of the Divine Augustus") is a funerary text written by the first Roman Emperor, Augustus and describing his life and achievements in triumphalistic tone. The surviving inscription is a later copy from Ancyra and it also has a Greek version. It is an essential text providing information on a key moment of Roman history. Most people will have heard of Augustus at school, at the cinema, or just visiting a Roman site: the source of what they heard is likely to be this inscription. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
Roman Law Resources is a website containing a great deal of material relating to Roman law, and which also acts as a gateway to other sites that may be of interest to researchers in this field. The site itself is fully searchable by keyword and offers information on the following topics: secondary literature; reviews of publications; teaching materials; primary sources; bibliographies; electronic reprints; errata in Roman Law books; corrections to Alan Watson's English translation of Justinian's Digest; and palingenesiae of Latin private rescripts and imperial Latin laws. Websites which are listed are each given a full description. Several of the resources available via this website are searchable databases providing a wealth of primary information. In addition to these materials, there are several information sections, detailing journals, web portals, prominent historians of ancient law, future events, etc. This is a clear and comprehensive website which provides an excellent starting page for research. It is navigable in German as well as in English.
This small but neatly presented website relates to an important Roman military diploma found on a river bed in Croatia in 1997. Military diplomata, bronze documents testifying to the honourable discharge of a Roman soldier, survive in large numbers; few, however, are as well preserved as this, which dates from 71 AD. The text is beautifully preserved on both the inner and outer faces of the diploma, and the witnesses' seals survive beneath a removable wooden cover. The text provides interesting evidence for Roman activity in the then province of Pannonia, and constitutes the first written evidence of a town in the modern Slavonski Brod region. The English section of the website offers a series of good-quality photographs of the artefact with transcriptions of the text and some notes on its provenance and significance. The quality of both the diploma itself and of the Museum's presentation of it make this site worth a visit for anyone with an interest in Roman military history or this type of epigraphy.
The Telamon Project is hosted by the department of Classics at St Kliment Ohridski University in Sofia and aims to create an online digital library of the ancient Greek inscriptions found in Bulgaria. In total there are over 3,500 such inscriptions, dating from the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Geographically the particular focus is on Roman Thrace, Philippopolis and Augusta Traiana. At the time of compiling this review only a very small proportion of the inscriptions was available on the website, but this is clearly an evolving resource. Users may search for inscriptions by number, findspot, date, text category and type of monument, and for each inscription the following information is provided: the original text; an English translation; important bibliography; textual apparatus and commentary; a photograph of the inscription. This resource is of particular interest for scholars whose work focuses on Greek epigraphy, as well as for people working with the digital humanities generally, especially those interested in encoding and resource-construction.
Trismegistos is an online 'platform' or service which enables the cross-searching of a variety of projects dealing with metadata of published documents relating to the study of late period Egypt (roughly 800 BCE - 800 CE). The aim of this developing service is to overcome any barriers of language and discipline in the study of documents written not only in Greek, Latin, and Egyptian in its various scripts, but also in Aramaic, Carian, and other languages. In total it contains nearly 100,000 records. The basis of the online resource is a searchable database, of collections of papyrological and epigraphic texts by the Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections and the project Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in Graeco-Roman Egypt. The 'Leuven home page of papyrus collections' is a comprehensive and invaluable database of information on collections of papyrus and ostraca from the ancient Mediterranean world (circa 2000 B.C.- circa 500 A.D.) scattered in almost 30 countries and 350 institutions. It includes contact details and URLs of many of the scholars and institutions active in papyrological research. The database appears to be an on-going project and the level of detail and number of links listed for individual collections vary considerably. There is a straightforward keyword search but the collection can also be browsed by country of origin, by institution and, where known, by archive provenance. References to literary papyri are cross-linked with the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB), though this is not immediately apparent. Several useful sections describe and contextualise public and private archives in antiquity and describe how they have survived and come down to us in the modern world. Many of the entries on individual institutions also provide brief accounts of their collection history in addition to summaries of past and present research projects. This is a valuable resource, particularly as a gateway site, for researchers in archaeology and Egyptology, ancient history, classics and biblical studies who are interested in papyri and related materials.
This is the website of the US Epigraphy Project, which is based at Brown University and is devoted to information about Greek and Latin inscriptions which are preserved in the USA. The digital catalogue is based on the contents of the book Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the USA : A Checklist, written by J Bodel and S Tracy. The key feature of the online resource is a searchable database of these inscriptions. The user may browse by collection or publication, or by using a search form which has a range of fields including: language; place of origin; date; type of inscription; type of object; and type of material. Searches then produce an image of the inscription along with essential information (provenance, date, material and object type) and bibliographic details, along with the inscription's US epigraphy number. There is also a list of links to other epigraphy websites and relevant search engines.
The website "Vindolanda Tablets Online" is an excellent site which provides an online database of the Vindolanda Tablets found at the Vindolanda fortress near Hadrian's Wall dating from the first century of the common era. The site is extremely easy to navigate and features a help section. The database is intended to be used as a learning tool for teaching Latin and Classics at all levels; primary school (there is a link to the Latin course for primary schools, Minimus), A and AS levels, undergraduate, postgraduate and for research purposes. The website is based on the publication of three volumes of materials on the tablets, but obviously offers many more facilities than the printed form. There is a section on the background history to the fort of Vindolanda, where the tablets were found. The tablets provide information on the social, cultural, and military history of the fortress. There is an online exhibition of the tablets, which features sections on people, places, documents, reading the tablets, and forts and military life. An excellent reference section provides information about Roman systems of dates, measures, currencies, military units and ranks, and Roman nomenclature. The tablets themselves can be viewed individually, and through an image zooming viewer. The tablets are arranged as a fully searchable set of digital materials with information included that is related to the tablets. The texts of the tablets can be searched by document type, people, places, military terms, archaeology, and other terms. A comprehensive links page provides information on over 70 websites and a bibliography of printed material. The project is based within the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University and is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The initial capture of the digital images was supported by an Arts and Humanities Research Board grant.
Vindolanda is a Roman fort and civilian settlement lying just to the south of Hadrian's Wall. The Roman Army Museum, adjacent to the Roman site of Carvoran, 8 miles to the west, (one of the best preserved sections of the Wall), offers an insight into the garrisons of Hadrian's Wall. Roman Vindolanda and The Roman Army Museum are both part of the Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site. Presented in this website is essential visitor information and background to the museum and the Vindolanda Trust (that provides research, education and the public display of the monument and finds from the Vindolanda excavations) and the Trust's base in the country house of Chesterholm. There are also preliminary reports (news) of all the archaeological excavations carried out since 1997 (the most interesting section), a bookshop, tourist information and a growing Roman and general history links page.
The Worlds of Roman Women is a Latin reader which is an annotated compilation of texts relating to women's lives in ancient Roman society: this well-organised website is the online companion to the printed text. Its quality and detail mean that it stands out as being exceptional among the wide range of online resources relating to gender studies and the ancient world. It makes available a vast collection of unadapted Latin texts (from inscriptions as well as written texts) by or about Roman women. These are accompanied by illustrative images and short essays relating to women's roles in ancient Rome. The site is divided into two key sections. The first of these, 'Instruction', consists of a variety of resources providing pedagogical support for the use of the texts and images. These include: a bibliography of relevant publications (online and in print); syllabi and lesson plans for the teaching of Roman women in Latin and translation; a selection of activities, based on ancient sources, for classroom use; and a list of links to online resources for the translation and interpretation of Latin. The other section of the site, entitled 'Worlds', consists primarily of Latin texts and images, with commentary. This is divided into ten sub-sections: childhood; learning; marriage; family; body; state; class; work; flirtation; and religion. Texts are hyperlinked to allow cross-referencing between different sections of the site. English translations of key words in the texts can also be viewed by clicking on the Latin word.
This is the website of the Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, an international journal of Greek and Roman antiquity focusing on research into epigraphic and papyrological material. This resource provides a guide to the contents of the journal from 1967 to the present together with the digitised texts of articles from 2001-2004 which are available free of charge for private study (free volumes made available might vary from year to year). The indexes of most volumes can be browsed in PDF format. The reproduced articles are in German, English, French and Italian.Information on the print version of the journal is also provided, such as editorial advice for authors and subscription details.This website provides useful a bibliographic guide to publications in an important classics and ancient history journal for university students and researchers, particularly for those competent in European languages.