Aeria is an online resource from the Institute of Classical Archaeology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg. It consists primarily of images of and information relating to the university's collection of classical Greek and Roman artefacts, including sculpture (some original objects as well as plaster casts of others) and painted pottery dating from the eighth century BCE onwards. Users may undertake a virtual tour of the museum itself, viewing artefacts by display case, as well as being given information on special exhibitions. The site also has a searchable section of images from the museum's photographic archive; this collection houses photographs of classical sites and artefacts taken by photographers from 1860-1914. Whilst section headings are given in English translation throughout, the majority of the website's detailed text is in German.
The Ancient City of Athens is an excellent website which has an extensive range of photographs of principal archaeological sites in Athens, taken from the slide collections of Prof. Kevin Glowacki and Nancy Klein of Texas A&M University. There are photographs of the following areas: the Acropolis; the agora; the Arch of Hadrian; the city Eleusinion; the Kerameikos; the Library of Hadrian; the Lysicrates monument; the Olympieion and south-east Athens; the Philopappos monument; the pnyx; and the Roman agora. There is also a section on the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron, in Attica. Within the different sections there is a good range of general and detailed views. The photographs from the Acropolis' slopes are particularly useful, not only because they are annotated but since access to these sites is difficult for most visitors to Athens. In addition, the Acropolis section provides far more than the usual snapshots, with detailed photos of architectural sculpture and pre-classical building works. The photos of the Agora and Kerameikos offer an excellent and comprehensive selection. In addition to the photographic archive the site offers a number of other resources, which are: an introductory essay on the topography and monuments of Athens; a very brief outline of Greek history to AD 1453; information about the tribes and eponymous heroes of the ancient Athenians. Bibliographic details are given, as well as links to other relevant websites.
The primary focus of the well-presented and easy-to-use website 'Ancient Greece' is the art, architecture and archaeology of ancient Greece. It is divided into sections on the following topics: archaeology; history; culture; maps; architecture; museums; art; photographs; and a timeline. Three key locations are discussed: the Athenian acropolis, Delphi and Crete. Explanatory text describes in detail the construction and appearance of a range of key buildings. The Parthenon (fifth century BC) is particularly well-covered, with other Athenian buildings described here including the Propylaia, Erechtheion and Temple of Athena Nike. Highlights of the information on Delphi include the Temple of Apollo, treasuries, theatre, stadium and tholos. The coverage of Crete includes the Minoan sites (c 3000-1000BC) Knossos, Malia, Phaistos, Zakros and Palekastro and the classical/Hellenistic sites of Itanos, Tripitos and Xerokampos. The website is richly illustrated with images of ancient art, archaeological finds and modern images of the sites discussed. Also featured are satellite images, maps and plans of key areas, and the website gives links to the sites of modern museums where ancient treasures can be found. Overall this is an excellent resource for Greek archaeology and history.
The Ancient Greek World Web presentation is a virtual exhibition created by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. It deals with aspects of ancient Greek history and society from the sub-Mycenaean period to the Hellenistic period (c. 1100-31 BC). A section entitled 'Land and Time' gives a chronological overview of the history of the periods which are covered. Other sections cover the following broad topics: daily life; religion and death; and the economy. Each section is divided into several sub-sections and is illustrated using images of ancient Greek art (vase paintings, sculpture and coins); accompanying text provides important details about these artefacts. The site is well presented, and the images which are used to depict important aspects of ancient Greek life would be very useful particularly for those studying or presenting a variety of classical courses, who require easy access to the primary sources.
Ancient Journeys is the online Festschrift in honour of the distinguished American classicist and ancient historian Eugene Numa Lane, and contains the full-text of 20 articles written by his colleagues and students on a wide range of subjects dealing with Greek and Roman art, archaeology, history, religion and literature. The resource also offers biographical information, a tabula gratulatoria and series of personal memoirs by his associates, as well as a bibliography of Lane's published work. Published by the Stoa Consortium, the Festschrift is notable for its broad range of topics but also for the absence of a paper version. A hypertext medium is used throughout and links are provided to Perseus for Latin and Greek words. Many of the articles are illustrated and the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at larger scales. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Greek and Roman studies.
This well-presented resource is the website for the archaeological excavations at Aphrodisias (in the ancient Roman province of Caria, in modern Turkey) undertaken by the Institute of Fine Arts in cooperation with the Faculty of Arts and Science at New York University. Introductory information is provided on the history of the site and the excavations, and then the user may access more detailed pages on key areas of the archaeological site. The following locations are covered: the temple of Aphrodite; the cult image of Aphrodite; architecture and sculpture of the bouleuterion (council chamber); the sculptor's workshop; the north agora; the Sebasteion; the basilica; and the stadium. Within each section images and plans are accompanied by detailed explanatory text. An overall plan of Aphrodisias is provided and the user can move the mouse over this to be given names of buildings; on clicking on the building a closer view is given. One can then click on this building for a closer view. There is also a map based on the geophysical survey carried out between 1995 and 1998. Finally, there is an extensive bibliography of relevant material (divided into sections for ease of use), with a particular emphasis on excavation reports.
These Web pages contain photographs of archaeological remains (architectural features and sculpture) from Athens and the surrounding region of Attica. The following sites are featured: the Akropolis (Acropolis); the agora; the Kerameikos; the Pnyx; the Olympieion; the region of Attica; Sounion; and Thorikos. Each has its own section of the website where the user may access images of buildings (in their present state), sculptures and some inscriptions. Brief descriptions are provided for each photograph, along with relevant bibliography. The photographs are clear, and the site is easy to navigate; this is therefore a useful visual resource for archaeologists and classicists.
This resource provides online photos of Ancient Art and Architecture, covering material from the Ancient Near East, Ancient Egypt, Minoan and Mycenaean civilisations, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Greece, and Rome. The pages are part of Art Images for College Teaching, a database of visual resources for use in education, a project that also covers arts of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods, the eighteenth to twentieth century, and also non-Western art. The author encourages users to contribute their own images, and the value of the site will increase with user involvement. The admirable intention and large scope of the database is at present restricted by a limited depth. In its current state, the site is of most value to the general public who would desire a general overview, although there is inevitably some imbalance in that the resource can only use the photos that it has. Thus there are photos of the sculpture of East pediment of the Parthenon, but none of the West, nor a view of the temple as a whole. The temples at Paestum receive a significant proportion of images. The Erechtheion is represented by two 'Caryatids', and not the temple as a whole. There is a reasonable selection of Archaic and Early Classical Greek sculpture, but later and famous works attributed to Praxiteles, Lysippus or Polyclitus are absent. Egyptian art is represented by eleven images. Roman architecture and sculpture receives more, with 5 pages, but is similarly selective. There are a number of factual errors, such as the mislabelling of Parthenon South metope 28, and East pediment figure G. No measurements are provided with the photos. The descriptions provide identification, location and date, although bibliography is provided for each image. If the author's hopes and intentions are satisfied, this resource could be of immense use for novices to ancient art.
The American School of Classical Studies has been excavating in the area of the Athenian Agora since 1931. The main focus of attention has been the Agora of the 5th and 4th centuries BC but finds from the archaeological site span the periods from the Late Neolithic to the 20th century. The website presents an extensive "Site Tour" including Quicktime panoramas. There are (section "Plans and Drawings") plans of the site at various historical phases and reconstruction models (again as Quicktime) of some of the major buildings as well as pictures of the outdoor sections of the agora ("Architecture and Topography"). Section "Excavations" contains short excavation reports which focus particularly on the artefacts. Some of the artefacts presented are still unpublished and therefore to access these artefacts in the catalogue it is necessary to have permission and registration details from the American School of Classical Studies. The rest of the illustrated catalogue is freely accessible and divided in sections "Black and Plain Pottery"; "Red Figured and White Ground"; "Hellenistic Pottery and Wheelmade Table Ware"; and "Greek Coins". The latest preliminary report can be found in section "Recent Excavations". Section "Resources" outlines the contents of the webiste. Anyone interested in ancient Greece may find this website useful.
Several publications have been made available in HTML format or through Google Books and can be freely accessed in section "Agora Publications". Among the publications are guides; a few volumes of the Athenian Agora Monographs (Vol.12 Black and Plain Pottery; Vol. 26 The Greek Coins; Vol. 29 Hellenistic Pottery; and Vol. 30 Attic Red-Figured and White-Ground Pottery); "The Birth of Democracy" (catalogue of exhibition); "The Athenian Citizen: Democracy in the Athenian Agora"; "The Games at Athens"; "Horses and Horsemanship in the Athenian Agora"; "Ancient Athenian Building Methods"; "Graffiti in the Athenian Agora"; books on coins; "Waterworks in the Athenian Agora"; "Miniature Sculpture from the Athenian Agora" and others. At the time of review access to some titles was difficult and some titles appears mixed (e.g. "Amphoras and the Ancient Wine Trade"); the alternative "list of all publications" may be used.
The Beazley Archive is a research unit of the University of Oxford's Faculty of Literae Humaniores; this is its website. The original archive of Sir John Beazley (1885-1970) included about 250,000 photographs, notes, drawings and books relating to ancient Greek and Roman art. In 1979 information technology (IT) projects began with the Pottery Database of Athenian figure-decorated vases of the 7th-4th centuries BC. Since 1992 IT projects on other aspects of classical art have been created. This website displays information about the Archive, including publications and bibliographies, and gives access to the IT projects and databases. These include: gems; pottery; sculpture; and the dictionary. For example: Pottery - The Beazley Archive text database records information about Athenian figure-decorated vases illustrated in publications available to the Ashmolean Library. Begun in 1979, it now has over 67,000 entries, with fourteen fields, including bibliographical references, find-place, shape and iconographical terms. In 1992 the Archive began to participate in a European Union project (RAMA) linking the collections of seven museums across Europe via the Internet. This project enabled the Beazley Archive to begin digitising its photographs and drawings. These include a vast collection of images of classical sites. An enhanced version of the original database is now available via the website (users may search for images according to location). The Dictionary feature of the resource is an excellent alphabetical guide to classical sites and terminology (including references to places, technical terms, buildings, people, gods and other figures from myth); each explanatory entry is accompanied by relevant images from the archive's collection. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Resource Enhancement Scheme.
The website for the Beazley Archive has provided this online resource to their various collections of gems. Styles and periods covers the geometric, archaic, Phoneician scarabs, Greco-Persian, Etruscan, late antique, early Christian and Jewish periods, with examples for each grouping. The full index to the catalogue for the Classical Phoenician scarabs is available, together with a chart explaining the borders and mounts for these objects. Another section of this website is dedicated to the 1791 catalogue of over 15,000 gems in the collection of the most prolific collector in the eighteenth century, James Tassie. Searches can also be carried out by gem number. The plates are made available for browsing. Access is also provided to the online catalogue of the collection of Alfred Danicourt, as well as images relating to the collection of the fourth Duke of Marlborough (1739-1817). Images are also provided of examples from the collection formed by Prince Stanislas Poniatowski (1754-1833). It is proposed to provide an illustrated online catalogue of this collection at a later date.
Explore Highlights is an online database of exhibits from the collections of the British Museum. The site describes thousands of objects, sorted under headings of 'culture,' 'people,' 'place,' and 'material,' all of which are described in some detail and accompanied by good quality images. Descriptions of artifacts from across the world are designed for the general public rather than archaeologists, and technical terms are explained. Each description does however conclude with suggested further reading that may be of use to a more scholarly browser. The website also offers virtual tours, and an excellent search engine. The presentation of the site is impeccable, and, although it is targeted toward the general public rather than an academic audience, the site will doubtless be of interest to the scholar wishing to find what exhibits the British Museum holds in specific fields.
This website brings together material at the British Museum of interest to researchers. Of particular note are the details of individual research projects, which include a vast range of subjects in the fields of archaeology, art history, anthropology, world cultures and museology. Additionally, the website makes available a limited number of fulltext research publications as well as bibliographic details of all the museums publications, including the fulltext online journal British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan. The pages also include a link to the Museum’s online collections database of its two dimensional pictorial art holdings, and details of the Museum's own archives and Paul Hamlyn reference library.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
The website of the Canadian Institute in Greece (CIG), formerly the Canadian Archaeological Institute at Athens (CAIA) gives details of the Institute's research, archaeological projects, services and staff. Included here is information on membership and the facilities of CIG (including a library and a hostel for members), as well as events held by the Institute (such as lectures, colloquia and study tours). Most importantly, however, is the information given here concerning ongoing fieldwork projects. These are: excavations at Argilos (Macedonia); an underwater survey near Mount Athos; and surveys and analysis of finds on Crete, Lesbos, Euboea and in Arcadia. Details are also given of completed fieldwork at Khostia and Tanagra (Boeotia) and Kiapha Thiti (Attica), along with lists of the CIG's publications on these projects. The website also contains a section listing useful links for travellers to Greece, as well as relevant Canadian links.
The publication of 'Centuries of Darkness' by Peter James et al in 1991 provoked a stormy scholarly debate about the nature of the chronological frameworks used by archaeologists to study the Mediterranean and Near Eastern world in the second and first millennia BC. The discussion of the so-called Dark Ages between 1200 and 700 BC was especially controversial as it advocated a drastic downdating of many major historical events and archaeological horizons by several centuries. This website, published by several of the original authors in 2000, provides an interesting angle on the debate in the form of 100 reviews of the book and a sample of the responses made to the critics derived from a wide range of academic and popular publications. Also included is a series of frequently asked questions about the 'Centuries of darkness' debate in which the authors address many of the specific criticisms of their argument. A very useful page listing websites devoted to ancient chronological studies and details of other books by the authors complete the resource.
This resource is by no means an exhaustive guide to the debate about Bronze and Iron Age chronology in the Mediterranean and Near East and the authors' partisan position, which is rejected by the majority of contemporary archaeologists and historians working in the field, is clear throughout. Nonetheless, the website is a valuable source of bibliographic reference to publications on ancient chronology. It also provides important insights into the politics and polemics of scholarly discourse and the nature of academic authority. It will benefit in particular third-level students and researchers in archaeology and the Bronze Age history of the Near East.
The website "Chester : A Virtual Stroll Around the Walls" is an excellent and relatively informative site which provides photographs of Chester's famed historic city walls. Dating partially from the Roman era, the walls were added to through the ages and form a complete circuit around the centre of Chester, a must on any tourist's itinerary. Chester was one of the few original Roman camps, and was known as Deva. The site provides varied information on Chester from Roman times, the history of the city, its architecture and topography. There is information here of interest to both the casual tourist and inhabitant of Chester alike. Facts about Chester's long history are presented in a lively and interesting way. The site provides reminiscences and updates about other buildings of historic importance in Chester, as well as a gallery of images of Chester, old Chester and of the famous Mystery Plays. The paintings of Chester by Louiss Rayner together with a biography of the artist can be seen on the site.
The website "Cleopatra : a multimedia guide to the Ancient World" is a wonderful online exhibition published by The Art Institute of Chicago. It focuses specifically on Egypt, Greece, and Italy between 3100 BCE and 600 CE, and provides photographs and descriptions of important artefacts (sculpture, vases, coins and wall paintings) from each historical period. This richly illustrated site also contains a timeline, glossary of terms and maps. There are also lesson plans based on the artefacts; whilst these are aimed at teachers of school-age children the website itself stands alone very well as an online exhibition or basic reference site.
The Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum (CVA) website makes available online an illustrated catalogue of ancient vases. The CVA was a project initiated in 1919 by Edmond Pottier of the Union Académique National. Its aim was to produce a series of monographs documenting all the ancient vases from Egypt, Mesopotamia and Europe preserved in museums. The website presents digitized versions of all the out of print fascicules, more than 250 in total. The website is quite simple, with just a few lines on the project and a few pictures outlining the contents of the catalogue. The database of vases is browsable by modern country or museum name. A search facility allows users to filter the entire database. This is a monumental project that is well known to all archaeologists interested in this field. Users will find the website useful and neatly designed, but the search facility requires some prior knowledge of ancient ceramics. Details of the vases are often scanty, without comments or interpretive notes, but there are good quality black and white pictures. This is a specialist website based on a resource that has long become a reference work.
This is the website of the David M Robinson collection at the University of Mississippi's University Museum. The Museum holds over 2000 objects, a collection built up principally by Dr Robinson, the excavator of Olynthos, his wife and Mr and Mrs Frank Peddle. The website puts online photographs of a significant and diverse proportion of the museum's holdings. Of Greek artefacts, there are inscriptions, coins, sculptures, mosaics and other objects, mainly small bronzes and terracottas. The Roman objects are organised in the same categories. In addition there is an important collection of Greek and South Italian vases, of which there are around ninety photographs presented here. There is also a small section on Egyptian artefacts. In all cases, there is a brief accompanying description, but no dimensions. A bibliographical reference is provided for most of the inscriptions, vases and sculptures. Many of the Greek vases are also linked to the relevant entry on the Perseus website. A number of the photographs of vases are out of focus, so whilst the images provide a general impression they may in some cases be inadequate for detailed study.
Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project is an online collection of digital photographs and measurements based on a large marble street plan of the ancient city, completed around the start of the third century AD. Parts of it survive in numerous fragments, the assembly of which into a coherent 'jigsaw' has long challenged archaeologists. Stanford University's Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project has collected high definition digital photographs and computer measurements of the 1186 surviving fragments (these may be viewed here) and is now aiming to develop computer algorithms that might help to establish a more useful searchable version of the map. The user interface for the selection from Stanford's database which been made so far is available online. This site, though, is the news page for the technical side of the project. It contains a detailed description of the process which the Stanford team is developing, which will be of interest to those who seek to bring the latest technology to bear on ancient problems. The site also offers background information on the original map itself, as well as a detailed annotated bibliography of relevant reference works. There are also useful press reports and news updates about the progress of the project.
A site as wonderful in its detail as it is frustrating in its navigation, Egyptian Royal Tombs of the New Kingdom is a website providing information about and diagrams of major Egyptian burial sites constructed between the 16th and 11th centuries B.C. (Dynasties XVIII-XX). With extensive descriptions, Kelley Ross (of Los Angeles Valley College) takes us through the tombs and various chambers of pyramids and the Valley of the Kings, highlighting their major features and offering brief inventories of their contents, along with scholarly theories from some of the more recent secondary sources. The majority of material is directed towards an undergraduate or general interest user who is specifically interested in the physical construction and setting of Egyptian funerary rituals, both of whom will appreciate the number of diagrams and their level of detail.
George Ortiz spent over 40 years collecting works of art, and this website publishes online the complete corpus of his private collection. His predominant interest is Greece, and this is reflected in the dominance of Greek objects, ranging from a Neolithic steatopygus idol of the sixth millenium BC to a Late Hellenistic glass bowl of the first century AD. The collection is particularly rich in small archaic and classical bronzes. There are smaller quantities of Ancient Near Eastern, Egyptian, Etruscan, Achaemenid and Romance artefacts, and the total of 280 pieces also includes Polynesian, American, Chinese and African works amongst others. The website is attractively simple in presentation and each entry includes a photograph that can be enlarged and a well-written and referenced commentary. Twenty items can be viewed in 3-D, but QuickTime needs to be installed. There is also a search facility, and a glossary of relevant terms relating to ethnography and archaeology.
"Grand" is a website about the Gallo-Roman Sanctuary site at Grand, located in the North-West of France in the Vosges Department, which was first excavated in the early 19th century, when the substantial amphitheatre attracted scholarly interests. Later excavations, during the late 19th and 20th centuries, helped uncover and record the amphitheatre, the sanctuary's ramparts and several large, very well-preserved mosaics. The sanctuary's lack of water supply, in a region where drought was common, was puzzling until the discovery of over 300 wells, connected by a 15km long complex of underground galleries for running water, sometimes at a depth of over 12 metres. The website provides a description of the archaeological site itself, rather than the separate excavations undertaken. Photographic images coupled with hand-drawn reconstructions provide support to the text.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Greek and Roman antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on the Greek, Etruscan, Roman and Byzantine civilisations as well as several pages on individual objects from the collections of the museum (about 250 at the time of review). There is a map and a timeline. The presentations of individual objects are highly recommended as many are masterpieces of art. Most objects have artistic value and are described and interpreted in detail. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long).
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston holds one of the premier collections of Greek and Roman antiquities, and this Web page, part of the Museum's online collections database, presents a range of works associated with Greek mythology from the 6th century BC to the 3rd century AD. The media include painted vases, stone and bronze sculpture, coins and jewellery. There are in total 137 objects, and they can be arranged according to catalogue reference, accession number, culture (e.g., Mycenean, Archaic Greek, South Italian), subject or artist name. Some excellent and famous pieces are included, such as the Dokimasia Painter's 'Oresteia' calyx-krater, the 'Boston throne' and the 'Bartlett' Aphrodite head. The major Greco-Roman gods are illustrated, as are a number of depictions of Medusa, Herakles performing his labours, and other mythological figures, such as genii on Roman sarcophagi. There is a search facility that covers everything within the online collection. Each entry is accompanied by a description of the content, date, size and the musuem inventory number. No bibliography is detailed, but details of provenance/ ownership history are included. Perhaps the most useful aspect of this resource are the photos that accompany the text.. The photos are of high quality and the interactive zoom feature produces details of fine quality that enable close scrutiny.
This online resource, produced by a student from the University of Glasgow's Department of Archaeology, provides an insight into the political and constructional history of Hadrian's Wall, which was completed in 136 CE. The website details the different plans and stages involved during the wall's construction. Sections giving information on the the wall's purpose, modifications and political environment are presented, accompanied by extensive photo libraries of today's visible remains; these include images of the forts and milecastles as well as the wall itself. Pages on the Raetian Limes, the Antonine Wall and the Gask Ridge are also provided; these give further information on Roman military defences and frontiers both in Britain and throughout Europe.
Household and City Organization at Olynthus website is the electronic version of Nicholas Cahill's book 'Household and City Organization at Olynthus' (Yale UP 2002), a major study of the domestic architecture and social and economic life of a classical Greek settlement of the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. A searchable database of the excavated artefacts and interactive GIS/ Virtual Reality plan of the site plan and architectural units from the final publication (1929-1952) is planned for the future. Olynthus, located in the Chalcidice peninsula of northern Greece, provides a rare example of a well excavated and published classical Greek domestic quarter. The city was laid out on a Hippodamian street grid from 432 BCE onwards but was destroyed and largely abandoned in 348 BCE. The level of architectural preservation was very high and many domestic artefacts were found in situ when excavated. It is a text-book example of Greek town planning and provides a unique insight into the relationships between the public and private spheres in Greek society. The text provided on this website is fully searchable. The website is hosted by Stoa.org, a consortium for electronic publications in the humanities, and is also connected to the Perseus Lookup Tool which provides a comprehensive guide to the Greek passages texts quoted throughout the text. This site will interest a wide range of students and researchers working on Greek archaeology, social and economic history.
K C Hanson's website may be a chaotic montage of loosely connected resources, but within this eclectic host of sub-directories, there are several topics worth exploring by those interested in history, culture or religion. Dr. Hanson's primary interest seems to lie with the interactions between various ancient and classical communities spanning from the apogee of the Egyptian to the Roman Empire (in particular the relationship between the later and the early Christian communities). He has assembled a series of dynastic chronologies for both Israel and Rome, along with a selection of texts relevant to this period. With a little searching one can find ancient documents from Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Greek civilizations, along with a selection from Semitic cultures. These texts, all translated, tend to cluster between the eighth century BCE and the third century CE but there are a number which predate these.
Part of the site provides useful support resources for the textbook 'Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts', which Dr Hanson co-authored with Douglas E. Oakman. Those wishing to delve further into a particular topic may also wish to consult Hanson's robust series of web links to the ancient world and/or his bibliographic collections on rituals on ancient Greco-Roman society; Hellenic, Semitic and Anatolia Cultures; and The Old Testament. An attractive collection of images from many of these cultures has been compiled.
LacusCurtius : Into the Roman World is a significant online collection of a range of useful resources for students of Classics. The site features a Roman Gazetteer, which consists of a photographic guide to various Roman towns and monuments, along with descriptions of archaeological excavations and visitor information. Featured locations include, among others: Rome; Assisi; Ostia; Perugia; and Rimin. The site also hosts around 40 Latin texts by authors such as: Pliny the Elder; Isidore of Seville; Suetonius; Polybius; Quintilian; Celsus; Cato; Procopius; and Macrobius. Some texts are available in Latin, some English, and some in both Latin and English translation. Each text is introduced by the site editor, Bill Thayer, with information about the copy text used (often old Loeb editions now in the public domain) and editorial notes. Other significant online resources include a variety of public-domain reference works. These include a selection of entries from William Smith's 1875 'Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities' and Samuel Ball Platner's 'Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome'. Other resources include: a Roman atlas; a catalogue of Roman Umbria; a section on Latin inscriptions; and an online version of W. R. Lethaby's 'Tomb of Mausolus'. This is an impressive site both in terms of the quantity and quality of the materials it offers.
Over 1,500 colour as well as black and white photographs relating to ancient Greece and Rome taken by the author primarily teaching purposes have been scanned and published online. There are also some non-ancient photographic subjects that have been useful for teaching, such as a photograph of a medieval cathedral for comparison with Roman architecture or a few images of a modern street market in Naples. The site offers a link to a software (Macintosh only) written by the author for teachers of Latin. An internal search engine is also available. The collection can be browsed by subject: England; France; Greece; Italy - (Rome, the Pantheon, Sicily, Italy except Rome and Sicily); and special selections of images (including the Roman house, and some Virgilian sites [Vergil]). The images can be accessed directly or previewed in thumbnails. Information relating to copyright, author and date the photograph has been taken is provided for each image.
The extensive and impressive collection of Greek and Roman antiquities in New York's Metropolitan Museum is represented in this well-presented website by photographs of fifty highlights. These range from the third millennium BC (Early Cycladic I/II period) to the third century AD, and include vases, sculptures and metal objects. Each object is accompanied by its inventory numbers, dimensions, and details of material. Descriptions are provided for all pieces, although without reference to notable bibliography. The high-quality photos can be enlarged by being clicked on, and alternate views are offered. There is a search facility restricted to the fifty highlights. The links to other parts of the museum's website are straightforward, and include a history of the gallery of Greek and Roman art and its collections.
This is the official website of the Roman Baths in the city of Bath, England. Describing Bath as 'one of the finest thermal spas of the ancient world', this excellent resource provides detailed information about the history and features of the Roman site. One of it's most interesting features is a 'walkthrough' of the baths which contains images of and information about the different sections of the building. Detailed descriptions of the Roman site can be found here, as well as information about how its appearance has changed over time. Images of selected items from the Roman Baths Museum can also be seen on the website, with accompanying textual explanation. Items featured on the website include: a temple pediment featuring a Gorgon's head; a gilt bronze head of Minerva; and a stone inscription set up by a priest (haruspex). There is also a fully searchable database of the museum's collection, which provides images and information on its holdings. In addition, the website includes information on the wide range of educational services (from school to university level) which are provided by the museum, as well as details (such as opening times and information about facilities) to help visitors to plan their trip to Bath.
This is the online version of the 1998 exhibition Oxyrhynchus : a city and its texts, which was held at the University of Oxford. Taking place one hundred years after the original publication of the Oxyrhynchus papyri, this exhibition was accompanied by a conference dedicated to the papyri and the archaeological excavations which unearthed them. The website presents a wealth of short articles on various aspects of the papyri and their discovery; these articles are well illustrated with photographs from the excavations as well as images of the documents themselves. Themes include: the site of Oxyrhynchus (with description and images of the buildings there); the excavations (from the work of Grenfell and Hunt in the late nineteenth century onwards); papyri relating to daily life (with sub-sections on religion, entertainment and magic); scribes and scholars (with images and description of papyri relating to key ancient texts); and material culture. This well-presented website provides a fascinating insight into these hugely important documents and the processes by which they were brought to light.
The carved frieze from the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis is the most famous, and controversial, collection of sculpture to survive from the classical Greek world. This clearly written and attractively illustrated resource, available in Greek and English, brings together all the surviving fragments of the frieze, presently housed in the British Museum, the Louvre and the Acropolis Museum, in a digital format. The site provides a concise and fascinating introduction to many aspects of the Parthenon and its sculpted decoration, including a history of the frieze and the building itself since its execution by Athenian statesman Pericles between 447 and 438 BC. The reader is given an outline of the religious significance of the Parthenon and the Panathenaic festival for the Athenian people as well as a discussion of the various interpretations of the temple iconography. The frieze itself is presented stone by stone with a commentary on each fragment, including reproductions of drawings by Carrey (1674) and Stuart (1757) which preserve details no longer visible on the surviving sculptures. Usefully, the sculpture from each of the four sides of the temple is presented initially as a series of continuous thumbnail images which allows the iconographic scheme to be viewed as a whole as well as detail by detail. This excellent website, produced by the Acropolis Restoration Service and published by the National Documentation Service (EKT), is intended by the authors to appeal to a wide-ranging audience from the general public to university level academics.
This online resource is dedicated to the marble sculptures - the metopes, frieze, and pediment statues - which originally adorned the Parthenon in Athens. It includes an image gallery of the marbles, and a history of the sculptures from their production in the fifth century BC to their removal to London by Lord Elgin in the early nineteenth century. The site's bias is towards the return of the marbles to Greece, although it provides information on both sides of this debate. This includes updates on the campaign for their return, media coverage of the topic and the arguments of the British government and the British Museum against the return of the sculptures.
This special website from the Guardian newspaper collates reports and commentary covering the debate over the Parthenon Marbles, which are currently housed in the British Museum. There are direct links to the latest stories and access to older articles in the Guardian's archive (going back to May 1999). The interactive guide to the history of the sculptures gives a brief account of the background; a link to a more complete history leads to a website from the Hellenic Electronic Center. In addition, there are reports relating to British and Greek perspectives, as well as those relating to the British government and the British museum. All reports and commentaries come from the Guardian or Observer. This site is a useful place to explore the differing perspectives on whether the marbles should be returned to Greece.
The art and archaeology browser is a tool provided by the Perseus website which allows the user to find archaeological objects from ancient Greece and the Roman empire featuring in Perseus' extensive online collection of text and images. The initial search page allows the user to select object type, and is divided into the following categories: architecture; coins; gems; sculpture; sites; and vases. Each section is then divided into further sub-categories in order to help the user to narrow their search for a particular object (for example, if looking for a building in the architecture category one may search by site, building, period, architect or type). Entries for each object give a brief summary with links to other pages of Perseus which can provide further detail. These include images and secondary source material which refer to the selected object. This will be a useful reference tool and starting point for those seeking information on specific ancient archaeological sites and artefacts.
Plastercasts.org is a website from the Beazley Archive at the University of Oxford. The site makes available online images of the archive's plaster casts of classical sculptures, as well as providing an introduction to various aspects of ancient art and archaeology. The site's two most informative sections are entitled 'Sculpture' and 'Plastercasts'. The first of these is divided into illustrated sections on the following topics: archaic period; classical period; Hellenistic period; architectural sculpture; grave monuments; votive, cult and commemorative monuments; and portraiture. The second provides information on the role of plastercasts, copies and restoration in the diffusion of classical art in modern times, and also includes sections on the making of casts and the history of Oxford's cast collection. The website also provides an extensive illustrated dictionary of key names (places, people, gods and goddesses) and terms which are necessary for an understanding of ancient art. Links are also given to other online resources from the Beazley Archive, and the site provides details of relevant events.
This Web resource accompanies Penelope Allison's 2003 book 'Pompeian households: An analysis of the material culture' (Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Monograph 42) and provides a valuable description and analysis of the form, function and decoration of 30 atrium houses found in Pompeii, together with an extensive database of their artefactual contents. Published by the Stoa Consortium, this website will benefit students and researchers of Roman history and archaeology as well as those interested in the history of domestic interiors and the anthropology of space. The houses analysed here were excavated between 1826 and 1978 so the level of documentation varies tremendously. Many of the objects from older exploration lack contextual or stratigraphical information but Allison's careful analysis of the scientifically excavated houses provides a framework for understanding the masses of material which cannot be assigned a definite findspot. Each house is described room by room in terms of function, decoration and architectural layout (with plans and photographs). The houses are also placed within the wider urban context of Pompeii and readers with SVG graphics can browse an interactive map of the town which links with the main catalogue of houses. Earlier scholarly interpretations are also discussed in the light or more recent understanding of the archaeology of the town. The site also provides an extensive glossary and bibliography as well as help in using the resource and its database.
This website presents the results of the Pylos Regional Archaeology Project (PRAP), which investigated the history of land use and landscape development around the Late Bronze Age palace (the so-called Palace of Nestor) near Pylos in Messenia, south-western Greece. In addition to preliminary reports of fieldwork between 1992-1997 and a bibliography of research by PRAP members, the site also provides detailed reports on the re-examination of finds from 1998-2005. The site also contains the following: a gazetteer of archaeological sites with accompanying thumb-nail maps; pottery and small finds databases, with images and descriptions of finds; a three-dimensional tour of the Palace of Nestor (this requires Quick Time); and photographs of the study area. This resource will be of particular use to undergraduate students and researchers interested in Mediterranean landscapes and survey methodology and in the long-term economic and social history of south-western Greece.
This website is an enthusiast's collection of illustrations of the Roman Emperors. This started as a set of photographs of busts taken by the author in various museums, and now includes acknowledged contributions from others. This resource is arranged into a list of the Roman emperors and whenever possible, their busts and/or any other contributions they made to Roman art or architecture. There are links to biographies and further background material drawn from other online resources. Clicking on the emperor's name displays his coin portrait. Although not all emperors have photographic images, this does provide a good visual introduction and contextual information for school students and undergraduates.
This small but neatly presented website relates to an important Roman military diploma found on a river bed in Croatia in 1997. Military diplomata, bronze documents testifying to the honourable discharge of a Roman soldier, survive in large numbers; few, however, are as well preserved as this, which dates from 71 AD. The text is beautifully preserved on both the inner and outer faces of the diploma, and the witnesses' seals survive beneath a removable wooden cover. The text provides interesting evidence for Roman activity in the then province of Pannonia, and constitutes the first written evidence of a town in the modern Slavonski Brod region. The English section of the website offers a series of good-quality photographs of the artefact with transcriptions of the text and some notes on its provenance and significance. The quality of both the diploma itself and of the Museum's presentation of it make this site worth a visit for anyone with an interest in Roman military history or this type of epigraphy.
"Roman Provincial Coinage Online" is a database containing photographs of Roman coins from the provinces. The database of about 45,000 coins (over 13,000 types) from the Antonine period (138-192 CE) is searchable by iconography, place, and time from "coin database". After selecting the parameters of search (intuitive, but tutorials are available), the results include a small picture of the coins and some essential information, including the town of provenance. By clicking on the picture, it is possible to access a high resolution version of the photograph, and additional data such as any inscriptions, type of metal, diameter, weight and bibliographic references. By clicking on the town name, a Flash map will show its location. It is also possible to use the mapping feature independently from the database accessing section "maps". The website also contains a referenced introduction to coinage in the Roman provinces and short biographies of the Roman emperors (including portraits in sculpture) that ordered the coinage of the coins in the database. This project has been funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council and the University of Oxford.
This website, illustrated with 232 photos, is an excellent introduction to the Villa Romana del Casale, a late Roman villa near Piazza Armerina in Sicily, famed for its polychrome mosaics. Divided into seven sections, the resource offers a comprehensive overview of the villa and the mosaics which decorate it. The introduction outlines its history from the time of construction until its excavation, and a brief account of the villa's function as the centre of a large agricultural estate. In the introductory section there is a plan of the villa; the user clicks on particular areas of this to be taken to photographs and detailed explanatory text. Sections of the resource are devoted to the following topics: how the villa was used in antiquity; the name of the villa and its owner; the mosaics; statues, wall painting and other decorative elements; visiting the villa; literature and links; and photographs. Hyperlinks on each page take the user to further information about key topics. Whilst the photos on this website were taken for personal interest, without perfect lighting conditions and sometimes from awkward angles, they remain an excellent resource, if only for their accessibility and generally high quality. They can all be enlarged.
This is the website to accompany Guy de la Bédoyí Ã‚Â¨re's Television series "The Romans in Britain" telling the story of the Roman occupation and its lasting impact - "The Romans helped shape the modern world, but as we are entering a new millennium their influence seems to be waning. How wide is the gap between our perceptions of the Romans and what we actually know about them?". This was broadcast on BBC2 and as part of the Open University's Open2 presentations. Contributors to the series in support of the prolific writer (and now presenter) de la Bédoyí Ã‚Â¨re are archaeologists Gustav Milne (Museum of London), Professor Martin Millett (Southampton University), Simon James, Stewart Ainsworth (Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, and Channel Four's "Time Team"), Lindsay Allason-Jones (Museum of Antiquities, University of Newcastle upon Tyne), Bill Griffiths (Tyne and Wear Museums); Gerald Brodribb; Sally Grainger ; David Rudkin (Fishbourne Roman Palace ) and Eugene Fraser (Butser Ancient Farm), and the prolific and respected writer, and director of the Vindolanda Trust - Robin Birley. The website is separated into the 3 episodes: Fact and Fable; Coming Of Age; and Hadrian's Wall. The full transcript of the programmes are available under "Script" and they are the most interesting part of the website. The left navigation provides links to: a timeline; details of the main locations visited in the series; an extensive reading list, links to other sites; and more information about the Open University courses that the programmes support.
Initiated by the Sussex Archaeological Society at Fishbourne Roman Palace, the 'Romans in Sussex' website is a resource enabling users to access databases of objects and sites in Sussex relating to the late Iron Age (circa 100 BCE - 43 CE), the Roman and the early Saxon period (- 600 CE). It is intended primarily for use in learning and teaching and it has been designed with three separate levels to meet the needs of teachers of: Key Stage 2 (ages 7-11); Key Stages 3 and 4 (12-16); and for further education and higher education and the general public. Teachers may also find this resource useful for background information. Timelines and maps describe key events in Sussex, Britain and Rome throughout this period. Clickable maps illustrate known archaeological features at relevant times in the period. A thematic section divides the period into Late Iron Age, Roman and Anglo Saxon, examining subjects such as settlement and land use, religion and burial, people and politics and trade and industry. Its primary aim is for use as a research tool by students to find out about various aspects of life during this period, drawing on images and descriptions of objects from museums and collections from all over Sussex. Many of the artefacts are not on public display, or even published, and so are available here for the first time. The project is funded by Resource: the Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries.
The website Skenotheke: Images of the Ancient Stage has been developed by John Porter, a classical archaeologist based at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. The site is dedicated to images of ancient Greek and Roman theatre which are available on the Web; as such, whilst it does not feature original content, it is a very useful one-stop resource for those interested in ancient drama and the locations where this was performed. Links are provided to virtual reconstructions of ancient theatres, as well as to images of modern productions of classical plays. Images of ancient theatres are arranged by geographical location. Sections are dedicated to the following: the theatre of Dionysus at Athens; deme theatres; other theatres across mainland Greece (including those at Corinth, Delphi and Epidauros); the theatres of Asia Minor; and those on the Greek islands. There are also resources on Roman theatre including that at Pompeii. In addition, the site offers a collection of images of Greek and Roman drama shown in ancient art (including: vase paintings; figurines; mosaics; frescoes; and architectural decoration). These images would be useful for those studying acting in the Greek theatre and related topics such as Greek masks. The site offers resources for the study of satyr plays and comedy as well as Greek tragedy.
This is the website of the Society for Libyan Studies, founded in 1969 with support from the British Academy. The Society aims to encourage and coordinate the activities of researchers working on Libya in Britain and elsewhere. The Society is interested in a broad range of research including: archaeology; history; linguistics; natural sciences; and religion. The site is a valuable resource for information on current academic activities and potential sources of support for researchers. The Society provides some grants and scholarships and organises fieldwork trips. It also publishes the Journal of Libyan Studies, and the site provides tables of contacts for the volumes for 1983-1999, plus abstracts for some of these volumes. Details of forthcoming lectures and meetings concerning Libya are given, plus details of relevant collections in British libraries and archives. The site links to: archaeological sites in Libya; Libyan and British institutes; and other relevant sites.
This is the official website of the Superintendence of Pompeii, the public organisation responsible of the excavations and conservation of Herculaneum; Oplontis; Stabiae; Boscoreale; and Pompeii, the wealthy Roman city near Naples destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. An English translation is provided for some pages, but is often rather unidiomatic. Navigating the website is unnecessarily difficult. Several useful resources are buried deep within it - suggested itineraries, a history of the excavations, pictures and descriptions of the individual buildings. The English version sometimes difficult and incomplete. The Italian version is substantially different and with more contents: it is a pity that the main website of UNESCO site could not be translated in English. A Flash animation (the world of Caius) is aimed specifically at children and is available in the English version. There are many virtual panoramas (QuickTime, Flash, and IPIX plugins required), also in the English version.
The Italian version contains important sections, briefly reviewed here. Section "La Soprintendenza" focuses on the organisation and activities of the Superintendence. Clicking on "modulistica" (forms) there are the forms and bureaucratic procedure to submit the request for an authorisation to publish photographs and videos, which is required also for published scholarly works. Clicking on "laboratorio di ricerche applicate" (the archaeobotanical lab) and then on "banca dati" it is possible access to an updated list of plant remains found during the excavations at Pompeii; going back one level and clicking on "bibliografia" instead it is possible to access the bibliography. Clicking on "ufficio stampa" (press office; also a separate section) will provide access to all recent official communications (comunicati stampa), and there are also the links to the "mediacenter" (a simple selector of virtual panoramas) and the "fotopiano interattivo" an interactive aerial view of Pompeii from where virtual panoramas of 24 buildings can be accessed. The panoramas are larger than usual, but also of low quality. "Mediacenter" and "fotopiano" are also accessible from other sections. Section "siti archeologici" has very limited contents, useful are just the PDF maps of the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum; practical information to visit the archaeological sites (more information in section "info visita"); some information on the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD (including poignant pictures of casts of victims); and the "mediagallery" (gallery of pictures). Sections "mostre ed eventi" (exhibitions and events) as well as "progetti e ricerca" (projects and research) are very similar and provide some information on recent projects and other activities. This website has some contents for everyone, but there are very few contents for researchers since most sections contain images and virtual panoramas (useful for students and in teaching), news, or practical information. The short texts (mostly in Italian) appear inadequate for use at academic level and target the general public.
The Getty Museum hosted an exhibition of ancient mosaics from the national museums of Tunisia produced in the Roman province of Africa, which ran from 26 October 2006 to 30 April 2007. This online version includes videos showing conservation of mosaics both in situ and in museums. The videos can also be accessed through the video gallery. Visitors are invited to submit their reaction to the exhibition via an online form. Some of these responses are posted on the website.
Trajan's Column is an online collection of images and background material on the Roman monument, a 100 foot stone column recording the military victories of the Roman Emperor Trajan (reigned 98-117 CE) over the Dacians and the Germans in the second century CE,which is one of the most remarkable and best preserved survivals of monumental art from classical antiquity. This website provides a searchable database of over 500 images focusing on various aspects of the design and execution of the column's sculptural decoration as well as several introductory essays on the historical background, subject matter and wider physical context of the monument within the Forum of Trajan in Rome, presented throughout within a hypertext medium. This highly user-friendly resource is designed to be accessible to individuals at varying levels of knowledge and experience of the subject. An elaborate search engine allows you to explore highly specific aspects of the monument while Claudio Martini's interactive cartoon of the entire column provides an excellent introduction to the overall design and layout of the monument and contextualises the individual details provided by the database of images. The site can also be explored through the use of indices organised according to: subject; sculptural technique; and scene number or location. The high quality images (slides and drawings) were generated by sculptor Peter Rockwell, over the course of his study of Roman stone-carving practices, and can be viewed at three different resolutions. Technical information on all the imaging and programming details (including the programming code) is also provided. This detailed, stimulating and attractively presented website will interest archaeologists and classicists as well as art and military historians at many levels from the general public and novice undergraduate to the more experienced researcher.
This website describes the University of Chicago's excavations, since 1989, of the sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia near Corinth; this was one of the most important religious centres of the ancient Greek world and the location of the pan-Hellenic games. In addition to reports for the 1989-2007 field seasons, the resource includes a number of articles on various aspects of ancient Isthmia as well as a bibliography of publications by the project team. The resource offers numerous useful maps, plans and photographs of the sanctuary. Particularly attractive is a series of 3D views and contour plans illustrating the architectural development of the sanctuary of Poseidon from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BCE. Ability to view large images (using Adobe Acrobat) is required. This site will be of value both to undergraduates and to those initiating research into the archaeology of Greek religion and social life.
The University of Melbourne's Classics and Archaeology Virtual Museum Project puts online the majority of the contents of the Classics and Archaeology wing of the University's Ian Potter Museum, together with a number of collections not owned by the University. This vast online resource offers access to Greek, Roman, Egyptian and Middle Eastern manuscripts, pottery, coinage, bronzes, vases and sculpture.The centrepiece of the site is the database that allows the user to search the collection. Over 7000 images are available, and there are a number of photos for each object, taken from differing angles and with varying degrees of detail. This makes the site particularly useful for research, as do the full descriptions, bibliographies and comparisons for individual pieces. This information, with all other relevant data such as date, provenance and material, is attractively presented and easily accessible. The self-directed tour allows the user easy access to full lists of the artefacts and the history of the individual collections. There is extensive documentation about the development of the museum and the virtual museum project.
The website and database of the Ure Museum of Greek Archaeology at the University of Reading, which possesses the fourth largest corpus of Greek vases in Britain in addition to an interesting collection of Egyptian material. Founded in 1922 to house the collection of antiquities at the then University College, the collection has expanded considerably since that time through further purchases and gifts. In 2005 the museum benefitted from an Arts and Humanities Research Council funded 'renewal', vastly improving the presentation and interpretation of its collections. This website provides a useful thematic guide to the museum holdings as well as a very detailed and well illustrated searchable database which is described as work-in-progress. In addition to sections on the history and techniques of Greek vases and on the Egyptian material, the thematic sections features: 'Athens and Sparta'; the 'Symposium'; 'Childhood'; 'Men and women'; 'Athletics and warfare'; 'Health and death'; 'Mythology and the gods'. The online database, developed in cooperation with the Max Planck Institute for the history of science in Berlin, contains detailed descriptions and captioned images of individual objects and can be searched according to a wide range of fields, including shape, fabric, period, provenance, artist, bibliography and Beazley cross-reference. Both the website and the database are extensively hypertexted. The site also provides visitor information, an online tour, lists of events and brief information for schools (including 'A' level students). This is a very helpful resource for undergraduates studying classical archaeology and ancient history but also provides much useful material for researchers from a relatively unknown but richly endowed museum.
This is the website of the US Epigraphy Project, which is based at Brown University and is devoted to information about Greek and Latin inscriptions which are preserved in the USA. The digital catalogue is based on the contents of the book Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the USA : A Checklist, written by J Bodel and S Tracy. The key feature of the online resource is a searchable database of these inscriptions. The user may browse by collection or publication, or by using a search form which has a range of fields including: language; place of origin; date; type of inscription; type of object; and type of material. Searches then produce an image of the inscription along with essential information (provenance, date, material and object type) and bibliographic details, along with the inscription's US epigraphy number. There is also a list of links to other epigraphy websites and relevant search engines.
The website "Vindolanda Tablets Online" is an excellent site which provides an online database of the Vindolanda Tablets found at the Vindolanda fortress near Hadrian's Wall dating from the first century of the common era. The site is extremely easy to navigate and features a help section. The database is intended to be used as a learning tool for teaching Latin and Classics at all levels; primary school (there is a link to the Latin course for primary schools, Minimus), A and AS levels, undergraduate, postgraduate and for research purposes. The website is based on the publication of three volumes of materials on the tablets, but obviously offers many more facilities than the printed form. There is a section on the background history to the fort of Vindolanda, where the tablets were found. The tablets provide information on the social, cultural, and military history of the fortress. There is an online exhibition of the tablets, which features sections on people, places, documents, reading the tablets, and forts and military life. An excellent reference section provides information about Roman systems of dates, measures, currencies, military units and ranks, and Roman nomenclature. The tablets themselves can be viewed individually, and through an image zooming viewer. The tablets are arranged as a fully searchable set of digital materials with information included that is related to the tablets. The texts of the tablets can be searched by document type, people, places, military terms, archaeology, and other terms. A comprehensive links page provides information on over 70 websites and a bibliography of printed material. The project is based within the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University and is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The initial capture of the digital images was supported by an Arts and Humanities Research Board grant.
Put together by Philip A Harland of York University, Toronto, this website allows the user to view images of artefacts in the Greek and Roman collections of several archaeological museums in Turkey. The emphasis is on objects which shed light on religious life in the ancient world. The museums which feature are those in: Aphrodisias; Ephesus (Selçuk); Hierapolis; Istanbul; and Smyrna (Izmir). Included are images of gods and emperors as featured in statues, reliefs and monuments (including sarcophagi). Most date from the first and second centuries CE. Each image is labelled with its subject and date, but no further detail is given. The site also contains links to Philip Harland's other websites featuring articles which shed light on relevant topics relating to ancient religion. There is also a link to a bibliography relating to the museums featured here.
VRoma is an online collection of resources for the teaching and learning of Latin and ancient Roman culture at secondary school and undergraduate level. It acts as a repository for online teaching material (holding an extensive collection of texts, commentaries, maps, images, teaching resources and more). Its central feature is a virtual classroom based on the city of Rome of c. AD150, where students and staff can log on and travel around the city and hold discussions with others visiting VRoma. Groups based in different institutions can arrange to visit VRoma at the same time and hold collaborative classes. Travel instructions and conversations can be in English or Latin. Using this element of VRoma introduces students to the monuments of ancient Rome, encourages them to use Latin, and to interact with peers. Background information to the VRoma project, help, and guidance on using the virtual city are all available on the website.