This online anthology of several papers given by Robert Kraft on copies of Greek Jewish scriptures contains, apart from actual texts, a number of images of fragments of the Septuagint and a short bibliography. The main scope of Kraft's site is the extent of continuity or discontinuity between Jewish scribal culture and early Christian practices at the beginning of the Christian era. 'Textual Mechanics' also lists a number of links to related sites, document lists, and bibliographic information. 'Textual Mechanics' is not the most user-friendly site you may encounter: its layout could be much improved. However, it is worth making an effort to read through this resource, as its content fully compensates for its lack in form.
The "Actas y Comunicaciones" (ISSN 1669-7286) from the University of Buenos Aires' Instituto de Historia Antigua y Medieval present research papers from the Institute in electronic format, in PDF files. The first issue of this electronic peer reviewed publication appeared in 2005, bringing together papers presented at a conference held at the Institute entitled 'Cuestiones historiográficas y representaciones históricas. Europa, ayer y hoy' (Historiographic Questions and Historical Representations. Europe, Yesterday and Today'). The articles are written in either Spanish or Italian and focus on such themes as: political power and intellectual development in the Middle Ages; the university as 'hammer and chisel' of medieval society, using 15th century Salamanca University as a case study; and, in a move away from medieval history, a study of Italian intellectuals and the fascist movement in Italy. The editors hope that the electronic format will permit greater dissemination of research output from the Institute, but they also welcome contributions from international scholars for future issues. At the time of review (2009) the PDF files three (2005-2007) of all four volumes posted online were not downloading properly.
Felix Just's resource provides a succinct overview of the different periods of Israelite, Jewish, and early Christian history, ranging from 3000 BCE to the Edict of Milan in 313 CE (plus a very brief summary of the major phases of the history of Israel up to the present day). Several additional charts open up specific periods and events into greater detail. Containing Biblical genealogy as well as historical chronology, this site is intended for beginners in the field and people wanting basic information on the periodisation of Biblical history.
The 'Ancient China' website provides a basic introduction to Chinese history and intellectual culture. Beginning with the prehistoric Yellow River Valley settlements and ending with the fall of the Chou dynasty in 256 BCE, the site describes the major events and developments in Chinese civilisation. There are pages on Chinese philosophy, covering: the Five Classics; Confucius (Kung Fu Tzu); Mencius; Lao Tzu and Taoism; Mo Tzu; and the legalists. Also included are extracts from Confucius's 'The Analects' and selections from the Tao Ching (Book of Changes), along with an abstract of the 'Dream of the Red Chamber'. There is also a short glossary of key terms. Unfortunately, the site appears to have been abandoned before it was complete, and hence some sections listed on the contents page - those on ancient Chinese culture, and the historical atlas - appear not to exist. The extensive links list has also suffered from lack of regular maintenance, with a high proportion of broken links. Nevertheless, the rest of the site forms a useful starting point for those interested in this subject. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates. The site is part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project.
This is the official website of the Italian association of orientalists, scholars who study the ancient Near East. The website publishes information on the association and how to submit a CV or personal information to be published in "OrientaLista", a list of (mostly Italian) orientalists. The "Orientalia" publishes short reports; reviews; bibliographies; pre-prints; and papers; most files are in PDF format, and written in Italian or English. Among such contents are: "Wisdom Literature and Proverbs 1-9: A Bibliography"; "The Ugaritic Poems of Keret and Aqhat: A Bibliography"; "The So-Called ‘Jehoash Inscription’: Transcription and Bibliography"; "Magic and Divination in the Neo-Assyrian Period: A Selected Bibliography"; "Archaeometry of a Stone Tablet with Hebrew Inscription Referring to Repair of the House"; "Review of Gérard Toffin, Entre hindouisme et bouddhisme: la religion néwar, Népal"; "The Construction of Biblical Monotheism: An Unfinished Task"; "I colori nell’astrologia mesopotamica".
The association also organises some learned meetings; some information on recent meetings is provided on this website. In section "Orientalia" are also available the free and full-text PDF editions of the proceedings of such meetings, including Le discipline orientalistiche come scienze storiche. Atti del 1º Incontro «Orientalisti» (Roma, 6-7 Dicembre 2001), edited by Giuseppe Regalzi; "Mutuare, interpretare, tradurre: storie di culture a confronto. Atti del 2º Incontro «Orientalisti» (Roma, 11-13 dicembre 2002)", edited by Giuseppe Regalzi; and "Definirsi e definire: percezione, rappresentazione e ricostruzione dell’identità. Atti del 3º Incontro «Orientalisti» (Roma, 23-25 febbraio 2004)", edited by Massimo Gargiulo, Chiara Peri and Giuseppe Regalzi. Researchers specialising on the ancient Near East will find this website useful.
The 'Barbarians and Bureaucrats' website from Washington State University outlines the history of the Minoan and Mycenaean Greek civilizations, which were followed by the Greek Dark Ages, lasting until about 700 BC. The Minoan civilization, based on the Aegean island of Crete and centred around palaces such as the one at Knossos, flourished in the second millennium BC. The website describes the Minoan people and customs, looking at their religion and visual culture. There are also pages on the role of women in their society, and the peculiar practice of bull-jumping. The smaller section on the more militaristic early Greeks describes their origins and religion, and attempts to ascertain the cause for the fall of the Mycenaean civilisation during the twelfth century BC. The historicity of the siege of Troy is touched upon, and introductory information about Homer's epic poetry is provided. The site also links to other online resources, although many of these are more relevant to the study of Greece in the period after 700 BC.
The Barbarians on the Periphery website offers an informative and well-illustrated hypertext presentation, based on a doctoral thesis by Constanze Maria Witt (University of Virginia, 1997) on the origins of Celtic art in Central and Western Europe in the Urnfield and Hallstatt periods (circa 1000-500 BC). Witt attempts to combine contemporary anthropological theory with up-to-date art historical analysis. The site includes six essays covering contemporary perception of Celtic art and culture, methodological issues, 'Mediterranean interactions', ethnic and cultural identity, mortuary analysis, drinking and banquets, and sex and gender. Furthermore, there are excellent picture essays (including maps) on ten of the main Celtic archaeological sites of Continental Europe (Dürnberg; Glauberg; Hallstatt; Heuneburg; Hirschlanden; Hochdorf; Kleinaspergle; Reinheim; Vix; and Waldalgesheim). The site also provides dedicated picture essays on flagons and wagons, and a substantial bibliography.
The British School at Athens' website provides information about the School; its activities and organised events; its museum and archive; its library; and the archaeological site of Knossos. A list of present and past members is available and there is information on how to become a member. The website provides access to the library of the School; lists the publications by the School including the Annual; and publishes events organised by the School; field and bursary opportunities in Greece; it details how to become a friend or member; and how to apply for permits or the facilities available to the School's members, including the Fitch Research Laboratory and the hostels. The School organises courses for both undergraduates and postgraduates. This websites is an essential resource for researchers wishing to carry out research in Greece.
Produced to accompany two Channel 4 documentaries on ancient Carthage broadcasted first in May 2004, this attractive resource provides a useful illustrated overview of what was once one of the richest and most powerful civilisations in the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC. While the parent documentaries focussed in particular on the relationship between Carthage and Rome, which fought three bitter wars between 264 and 146 BC, and on the character of the great general Hannibal Barca, the website also provides a valuable social, economic and religious framework for the military history of the city. From its origins as a Phoenician trading settlement founded by merchants from present day Lebanon in the 9th century BC, the city eventually formed the centre of a maritime colonial empire which encompassed much of the western Mediterranean, bringing it into conflict both with the indigenous and Greek settlers and later with the growing Roman empire. Its destruction in 146 BC and subsequent refoundation as a Roman colony resulted in the loss of much of its Phoenician cultural identity, while the biased accounts of hostile ancient sources gave rise to many sensational and lurid representations of Carthaginian culture, in particular the practice of child sacrifice. Archaeology, however, is able to tell a different story and the discussions of Carthaginian sites in Tunisia, Sicily, Sardinia and Spain provide an alternative approach to this ancient culture. The website allows the reader to form a more balanced view of daily life and institutions of the ancient city. Additionally present are links to online resources on the subject of Carthage and the Roman world, as well as printed sources.
This is the website of The Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD), part of the Classics Centre at the University of Oxford. Set up in 1995 'to provide a focus for the study of ancient documents,' the CSAD has since become a research centre of national and international importance. The Centre houses the University's epigraphy archive, which includes a large collection of paper impressions of Greek inscriptions, Roman inscriptions from Britain, and a photographic collection. The website is searchable and provides information about the CSAD and its activities, including details on lectures, conferences and seminars, imaging projects, links to resources, and a link to the CSAD's online newsletter. Also accessible via this website are links to the home pages of the CSAD's projects: Vindolanda tablets online; Romano-British curses; Cairo photographic archive; papyri in British collections; Oxyrhynchus papyri; Poinikastas (epigraphic sources for early Greek writing); Monumenta Asia Minoris Antiqua (MAMA); and e-science and ancient documents.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
ETANA is a cooperative project between ten scholarly institutions and organizations, funded by the Mellon Foundation, with the aim of enabling wider access to Abzu (the Internet gateway for Ancient Near East studies) and the digitization of core texts in the field. At the time of review, there were over 350 digitized texts, covering topics including ancient Egyptian and Babylonian history, biblical archaeology, and the religion of the Semites. There are also over 180 digitized cuneiform texts. Texts include an electronic version of the 'Pantheon Babylonicum: Nomina Deorum e Textibus Cuneiformibus Excerpta et Ordine Alphabetico Distributa' by Deimel, Panara, Patsch and Schneider. The site also offers a short list of links to archaeological projects and organizations affiliated with ETANA. The ETANA core texts collection can be browsed alphabetically, or keyword searches can be performed using the Abzu interface. Abzu also offers details of a vast array of websites, online journals, and ebooks relevant to academics and students working in this area.
This site provides an attractively illustrated introduction to the coins and measures of Judaea from early times until the crusader period with historical background and a useful basic bibliography. Before the adoption of Greek and, later, Persian coins (or 'darics') in the 7th-4th centuries BC, a sophisticated system of inscribed weights, based on the unit of the Shekel, was used in Jewish areas. The first Judaean issues proper were not struck until the 4th century BC under Persian and Seleucid licence and were based on the widely used Athenian owls or Persian modes. The Seleucid Antiochus VII also struck hybrid Syrian-Jewish issues in the later 2nd century. The first properly 'Jewish' coins, with Hebrew inscriptions and lacking the portrait heads of earlier issues for religious reasons, did not appear until the time of John Hyrcanus (135-104 BC) and his successors when Judaea became fully independent. The series of coins from the reign of the Herodian dynasty and the Roman conquest down to the Late Empire and Byzantine period provide a fascinating potted history of Judaea as well as important insights on economic and iconographic matters. There is also a short section on the revival of coins of Israel in the 20th century, both in the Mandate period and after independence in 1948. The resource is part of the Jewish History Ring published by Amuseum.org (The Jewish Museum in Cyberspace) and associated with the American Jewish Historical Society. It is a useful complementary source for students of ancient history and archaeology working in the East Mediterranean or those studying general numismatics as well as an attractive introduction for the interested amateur.
The Heidelberger Gesamtverseichnis der Griechischen Papyrusurkunden Ägyptens (HGV) is a searchable index of Greek documentary papyri from Egypt, made available over the Web by the Institute for Papyrology, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. The project aims to provide a complete register of all documentary papyri (in Greek) from Egypt, and is therefore a highly valuable research tool. The user-interface is in German, though some help is available in English and Dutch. The index is taken from published corpora of Egyptian papyri and ostraka in the Greek language, and currently holds over 50 000 records. For each papyrus, a unique HGV number is given, along with a brief citation for the print publication, a date where available, place of origin, the material inscribed, and keywords summarising the content, where available. The collection has two indices: the 'hauptregister' which contains all papyri, and the 'erwähnte daten', listing the more than 9000 papyri which can be securely dated. Both can be searched on all fields. Results are in the form of a simple list, with links to more detailed information for each papyrus. These can be copied, saved, and printed, according to the limitations of one's Web browser. As well as the HGV, the Institute for Papyrology has created the Griechische Papyri der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung, an anthology of Greek papyri. This is a much smaller collection, but for each papyrus one can view a brief citation and description, an image, and transcription (the latter taken from the Duke Databank of Digital Papyri, which is also available on the PHI 7 CD).
This is the website of the historiographical journal HISTOS, from the Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Durham. The scope of the journal is relatively broad and includes historiographical texts of Greece and Rome, the historiography of Byzantium and other ancient cultures, ancient biography and the influence of historiography and biography on other literary genres. Modern theory relevant to the study of historiography is also covered by the publication. The journal also addresses the use of non-literary sources for the study of the past. The emphasis of the journal is on the historical texts themselves rather than on the historical problems that they are being used to solve. The first issue of the journal was published in 1997 with volumes published annually up to and including 2000. Because the journal is no longer in publication links on the site to historiographical conferences and research projects are out of date.
The Monte Polizzo Project website presents the ongoing research at Monte Polizzo, Sicily, by Italian, Scandinavian and American archaeologists. The site is located in the region inhabited by the Elymians and has attracted considerable interest: up to eighty archaeologists have worked on the site at the same time. There is a short history of archaeological investigations at the site and numerous pages on the research objectives and methods as well as preliminary reports of the excavations. Several field methods have been tested or demonstrated on the site and for this reason the reports contain details and results of analyses that are normally available only on final reports. Most of the illustrated reports are available in PDF format. Each report contains: colour pictures; drawings; a bibliography; and results from fieldwork and scientific analyses, such as pollen and archaeozoological analyses. The main research goals of recent research at Monte Polizzo concentrate on the Hellenisation of the region and the study of the acropolis.
The House of Ptolemy is a resource guide, intended as a study aid and to provide bibliographical material for students of Greco-Roman Egypt. The main focus of the site, as its name suggests, is the period of the Ptolemaic kings (331 BCE - 30 BCE), descendants of Macedonian Greeks. There are also compendious sections on Roman, Byzantine and modern Egypt. Within these periods, links are arranged by theme into sets and subsets, in a fashion that is generally clear and efficient. Topics covered include: historical overviews; Ptolemaic numismatics; Ptolemaic genealogy and king lists; the transition to Roman provincial Egypt; the city of Alexandria; the culture of Ptolemaic Egypt; the Ptolemaic empire outside Egypt; the Jews of Egypt. Most of the links are presented with a comment from the site's author: this is a personal list, not a faculty or institutional webpage. The selection of items is therefore prone to subjectivity and its completeness cannot be guaranteed; furthermore, material of widely varying intellectual depth, rigour, and specialisation is included among the links. At the time of writing this review, the site was last updated in 2002 - this meant that some of the links were no longer functional. Nonetheless, there is a wealth of material here, well organised; the numerous awards garnered by the page indicate its worth. This site is a useful starting point for students.
The Inscriptions of Israel/Palestine website aims to publish an electronic version of all inscriptions found in Israel dating from the Hellenistic period (ca. 330 BCE) to the Islamic Conquest (640 CE). A search engine allows users to access some 15,000 inscriptions, with searches possible for individual inscriptions or words, including proper names, occurring in one or more inscriptions. There is, however, no browse function, which makes general access to the site difficult without prior knowledge of sources. Ultimately users should be able to access detailed maps of every single archaeological site that contains inscriptions of the period concerned, as well as photographs of every inscription with a translation. The site also provides a bibliographic database and lists related links; links to some scholarly essays on epigraphy were broken at the time of last review.
'Into His Own' focuses on the historical study of Jesus and the New Testament. It consists of a number of primary texts in translation, including extracts from the works of Josephus and Tacitus, and from the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Talmud, and the Mishna, on the political, social and religious situation in 1st-century Palestine. In addition to the primary material, these pages offer information (including maps) on the historical sites and sources on which this study is based. Thorough and scholarly, but still aimed at an audience of non-experts, this resource is an excellent teaching and introductory research tool. The site also features a blog and a short list of related links.
The "Jerusalem Archaeological Park" website boasts a virtual reconstruction model of Israel's most important site stretching from Temple Mount to the Mount of Olives. The park is an open museum and the archaeological discoveries span a range of 5,000 years from the Bronze Age to the Middle Age. The park also contains the Davidson Center within a palace dating from the Umayyad period, which has been combined with modern architecture in an innovative way. The website provides historical notes on three key periods: First Temple period; Second Temple period; and the Early Islamic period. There are also sections on water systems; the history of research; biographies of excavators of the site and historical figures; a bibliography; and historical sources. There are maps and a comprehensive timeline. A section on virtual panoramas publishes a few small panoramas, and interestingly it documents each step undertaken in their production with a series of illustrated articles. This is a wonderful site for those interested in archaeology, Biblical History, Jewish Studies and may be useful to both students and researchers.
K C Hanson's website may be a chaotic montage of loosely connected resources, but within this eclectic host of sub-directories, there are several topics worth exploring by those interested in history, culture or religion. Dr. Hanson's primary interest seems to lie with the interactions between various ancient and classical communities spanning from the apogee of the Egyptian to the Roman Empire (in particular the relationship between the later and the early Christian communities). He has assembled a series of dynastic chronologies for both Israel and Rome, along with a selection of texts relevant to this period. With a little searching one can find ancient documents from Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Greek civilizations, along with a selection from Semitic cultures. These texts, all translated, tend to cluster between the eighth century BCE and the third century CE but there are a number which predate these.
Part of the site provides useful support resources for the textbook 'Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts', which Dr Hanson co-authored with Douglas E. Oakman. Those wishing to delve further into a particular topic may also wish to consult Hanson's robust series of web links to the ancient world and/or his bibliographic collections on rituals on ancient Greco-Roman society; Hellenic, Semitic and Anatolia Cultures; and The Old Testament. An attractive collection of images from many of these cultures has been compiled.
This wide-ranging and attractively produced website, 'Underwater archeology', available in French, English and Arabic, provides an illustrated introduction to the history, methods and major discoveries of underwater explorers, particularly those carried out by the research teams of DRASSM, the Départment des recherches archéologiques subaquatics et sous-marines of the French Ministry of Culture. Underwater archaeology has had a long, though sporadic, history, from the time Roman divers salvaged the cargo of amphoras from a shipwreck in the first century BC to the development of the modern aqualung by Cousteau and Gagnan in 1943. The resource features: a historical chronicle of major developments in maritime archaeology particularly since the designs of Leonardo da Vinci followed by the practical attempts to construct artificial breathing apparatus in the 17th century; an outline of the principal methods of underwater prospection and excavation of wrecks together with notes about the conservation of submerged organic materials; a major survey of shipwrecks around the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of France (a sample of some 700 known) in addition to others sites in Malta, Gabon, Martinique and the Indian Ocean; an account of underwater archaeology in Egypt, in particular the spectacular rediscovery of the submerged parts of Alexandria and of the numerous Greek and Roman wrecks off the Egyptian coast. This notable didactic resource will benefit and improve both amateurs and professionals alike, especially undergraduate students of Mediterranean archaeology and history but also anyone interested in wider issues of world archaeology, trade routes, conservation of underwater finds and heritage issues related to shipwreck sites.
Over 1,500 colour as well as black and white photographs relating to ancient Greece and Rome taken by the author primarily teaching purposes have been scanned and published online. There are also some non-ancient photographic subjects that have been useful for teaching, such as a photograph of a medieval cathedral for comparison with Roman architecture or a few images of a modern street market in Naples. The site offers a link to a software (Macintosh only) written by the author for teachers of Latin. An internal search engine is also available. The collection can be browsed by subject: England; France; Greece; Italy - (Rome, the Pantheon, Sicily, Italy except Rome and Sicily); and special selections of images (including the Roman house, and some Virgilian sites [Vergil]). The images can be accessed directly or previewed in thumbnails. Information relating to copyright, author and date the photograph has been taken is provided for each image.
This website has placed online a large collection of maps held in the Perry-Castañeda Library of the University of Texas at Austin -- although some maps are available through links to other sites. The site is extensive and clearly laid out, with maps listed alphabetically according to continent and country. There are maps with geographical, topographical, economic and demographic information. Most offerings are current, but there is a special section for historical maps, with most translated at least partly into English. These would constitute a helpful tool both for research and teaching, and afford the opportunity for comparison with more recent versions. There is a links site to other online maps sites and to maps dealers, and an instructions page for viewing and printing site content. Navigation throughout is straightforward. There is an online form for general enquiries to the University of Texas librarians.
The Mesopotamia website traces the history and culture of the peoples that lived between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, from the first cities (c. 3000 BC) to the conquest of the region by Alexander (330 BC). Beginning with the Sumerians, the site narrates the events and cultural changes (and continuities) through the periods of dominance enjoyed by the Akkadians, Amorites, Hittites, Kassites, Assyrians, Chaldeans, and finally the Persians. The page devoted to the Persians seems to have been omitted from the main index, but can be reached from a link in the drop-down menu in the History and Peoples section. There is a section on the evolution of the Cuneiform script used in the region, and a further section of resources. These include a timeline, glossary, and links to other sites. A 'Mesopotamian readings' page includes the complete text of the Code of Hammurabi, translated by L. W. King, and a summary of the Epic of Gilgamesh. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
This online resource contains an illustrated essay by David Ulansey on the meaning of some of the symbolism connected to the ancient mystery religion of Mithraism, which flourished across the Roman empire from the end of the first century CE until the eventual triumph of Christianity in the fifth century. Mithraism has left no scriptural evidence of the beliefs or cultic practices of its intiates, so Ulansey attempts here to penetrate some of its mysteries by studying the material artefacts and iconography that remain. The central thesis of this essay is that the cosmic symbolism of the Mithraic cult, with its zodiacal 'grades' of initiation and bull-slaying imagery, is connected to astronomical and astrological observation of the path of the sun through the constellations. Although the arguments become quite abstruse, they are clearly presented and illustrated with some useful diagrams. Ulansey's argument is an alternative to the accepted wisdom that Mithraism originated in Iran. This essay does not focus on the historical, archaeological, or sociological aspects of the worship of Mithras so much as on the basis for the worshippers' beliefs and the iconography. For those interested in the subject it offers a useful angle of approach through the study of the heavens.
The website of the Museum of Cycladic Art contains useful information on all collections and activities at the museum, and is aimed primarily at the general public. The website is very neat and easy to navigate, and contains sections on the "museum" with practical information and an online version of a DVD presenting the museum ("virtual tour"). Section "permanent collections" is the most interesting, especially for undergraduate students. It includes artefacts from the Cycladic Collection and Collections of Ancient Greek Art and Ancient Cypriot Art, pictured and described in some detail. The selection of Cycladic artefacts follows an educational criterion, for example several figurines out of the very few in existence with traces of paint have been included. Figurines are one of the key topics, and this evident also in section "special topics", where there are also diagrams ordering the know types. There are also sections on Greek art and Cypriot antiquities (the latter focusing on trade), also with selected artefacts presented in greater detail. For each of the three sections there is a ”Special topics” area. These are thematic essays on various issues (including a large number of texts on Ancient Greek Art). Bibliographies are given in some pages, concentrating on publications of the museum (a section on these is also available). "Donators" (sic) is an interesting section on the donors that from the start gathered the collections of the museum. It may interest anybody who is interested in the sometimes difficult relationship between collectors and public museums. Section "education" is also noteworthy, and is aimed at schoolchildren. It includes a "resources" area, which provides online virtual tours to all the collections and museum publications, available as PDF files. Section "activities" outlines the research carried out by staff or promoted by the museum, and some occasional lectures and seminars organised by the museum may interest researchers. The "exhibitions" section provides information about current and upcoming exhibitions, as well as all previous exhibitions - whether art or archaeological exhibitions - presented at the MCA. There are many colour illustrations, maps and diagrams throughout the website, making this website an excellent educational tool up to undergraduate level.
This website provides access to Nestor, an international bibliography of: Aegean studies (including all of Greece, Albania, the southern coast of Bulgaria, the western and southern coasts of Turkey, and Cyprus); Homeric society; Indo-European linguistics especially concerning the development of Greek; and related fields (such as Philistine culture and the Classical Cypriot syllabary). It is published in print by the Department of Classics, University of Cincinnati, and editions published since 1959 are available here on this site. Nestor includes over 37,500 citations for all articles, books, monographs, and journals on prehistoric, ancient and classical Greece, and neighbouring areas. For each reference, Nestor gives the author, year of publication, title, place of publication, and publisher, but does not give any indication of the content of the article. The digital collection is searchable by author, title, journal name, and year (but not by subject or keyword), and results give a list of references. The website also provides access to a searchable International Dictionary of Aegean Prehistorians, via which it is possible to trace academics working in this field.
This German website publishes the preliminary results of a project focusing on the archaeology of Nubia, and especially Meroë, the Meroitic Empire, and its language. There are several pages detailing the project; section "Archäologie" contains a series of illustrated short reports, including a short history of research; useful tables to help deciphering the Meroitic language; and a substantial bibliography. Most pictures can be enlarged by clicking on them. A separate gallery of images contains a large number of photographs of buildings; ceramics and ornaments. The images are perhaps the most valuable resource of this website and may be useful to both students (to complement readings) and researchers.
Developed and compiled by Scott Noegel (University of Washington), Okeanos is a comprehensive and detailed online gateway to a large cache of electronic resources related to the study of the culture of the ancient, Biblical, classical and late antique Near East. Sections covering the following types of resources are included: atlases; Bible; bibliographies; general resources; journals; discussion lists; museums; and philology. The structure of the site makes navigating these links simple, and sections are typically organized by topic and then by geographic location. Overall, the material presented by Okeanos will be most relevant to students and academics already involved in some aspect of ancient near-eastern studies who wish either to locate a particular journal or to familiarize themselves with the entire breadth of scholarly activity in the field.
Initiated by the Sussex Archaeological Society at Fishbourne Roman Palace, the 'Romans in Sussex' website is a resource enabling users to access databases of objects and sites in Sussex relating to the late Iron Age (circa 100 BCE - 43 CE), the Roman and the early Saxon period (- 600 CE). It is intended primarily for use in learning and teaching and it has been designed with three separate levels to meet the needs of teachers of: Key Stage 2 (ages 7-11); Key Stages 3 and 4 (12-16); and for further education and higher education and the general public. Teachers may also find this resource useful for background information. Timelines and maps describe key events in Sussex, Britain and Rome throughout this period. Clickable maps illustrate known archaeological features at relevant times in the period. A thematic section divides the period into Late Iron Age, Roman and Anglo Saxon, examining subjects such as settlement and land use, religion and burial, people and politics and trade and industry. Its primary aim is for use as a research tool by students to find out about various aspects of life during this period, drawing on images and descriptions of objects from museums and collections from all over Sussex. Many of the artefacts are not on public display, or even published, and so are available here for the first time. The project is funded by Resource: the Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries.
Samnites and Samnium publishes a collection of illustrated articles by Davide Monaco, an amateur archaeologist. There are preliminary reports on the 2004 excavations of Vastogirardi; a paper on the sanctuary of Pietrabbondante by Filippo Coarelli and Adriano La Regina; and John Patterson's paper "Una cittí chiamata Sannio" (A city named Samnium). There are articles on Samnite coins; the army; religion; and the Oscan language (including the bronze tablet of Agnone), which are adequate for use in undergraduate essays. There are also an extensive bibliography, a list of ancient sources mentioning the Samnites and a public forum. Readers should be aware that some articles are available only in Italian and that some English articles are abbreviated versions of the original versions in Italian. The Samnites were a fierce Italic people that fought three wars against Rome for the control of the Italian peninsula; they also sided with Hannibal during his incursion in the Italian peninsula and caused trouble to Rome in the following centuries until Sulla defeated them one last time in 82 BC. This website is a good introduction to the Samnites for the general public and undergraduate students.
This is the website of the Society for Libyan Studies, founded in 1969 with support from the British Academy. The Society aims to encourage and coordinate the activities of researchers working on Libya in Britain and elsewhere. The Society is interested in a broad range of research including: archaeology; history; linguistics; natural sciences; and religion. The site is a valuable resource for information on current academic activities and potential sources of support for researchers. The Society provides some grants and scholarships and organises fieldwork trips. It also publishes the Journal of Libyan Studies, and the site provides tables of contacts for the volumes for 1983-1999, plus abstracts for some of these volumes. Details of forthcoming lectures and meetings concerning Libya are given, plus details of relevant collections in British libraries and archives. The site links to: archaeological sites in Libya; Libyan and British institutes; and other relevant sites.
The Temehu Tourism Services website has a special and substantial section on the museums in Libya, and also provides a directory of the little-known museums in that country. This new 2009 website also aims to make scholarly information and images freely available. The website includes "detailed reviews and analysis of all the museums of Libya, a photo gallery about the whole country, organised by town, a video gallery, a Libyan jewellery & traditional crafts gallery, and prehistoric art galleries". Details of opening times and museum entrance fees are also given, along with other practical details. Travel without an approved guide and planned route is still forbidden in the country, so the website has suggestions for its own Libyan tours, routes, and hotels. There is an associated weblog, which currently has details of the new (June 2009) changes in the Tourist Visa Law in Libya, advice on driving in Libya (apparently it is rather dangerous), and other useful current advice. This website would appear to be an important resource for archaeologists and historians planning to visit Libya, although other scholarly tour guides and resources may be available.
Created by the University of Michigan Library, Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity offers a good visual and descriptive introduction to magical practices, devices and ornamentation from the pre-Christian period. Developed around the University's own extensive collection of papyri texts, each section begins with the description of a specific type of magical object, ranging from a early magic recipe books to a protective amulet. This description is followed by a series of related images that detail the features, significance and functionality of these apparatuses. The objects described come predominantly from the Mesopotamian and Egyptian regions, between the first and fifth centuries C.E. The site will be of appeal to anyone who has an interest in early magical rituals and practices during the height and decline of the Roman Empire. Those new to the subject may also wish to explore the brief, but helpful, bibliography at the end of the exhibit.
Translations in Progress is a site devoted to translations (primarily by Robert Levine) of Medieval Latin, Middle French, Modern French, and Modern German literary texts, as well as some medieval texts of an historical nature. The main interest of the site lies in the fact that none of the texts have been translated before. However, all the texts have literary merit, and part of the aim of the site is to make known obscure modern European writers. Many of the translations have been used in undergraduate and graduate courses that Levine has taught, the syllabi of which are available on the site, and there are a number of critical articles on the translated texts. Also included are some Realplayer sound files of poets such as W.B. Yeats and Ezra Pound reading their own translations. Numerous colourful paintings accompany the texts. The home page, however, is poorly laid out, making it difficult to locate contents easily.