This site, part of the larger LacusCurtius resource (q.v.), contains an online version of Platner and Ashby's seminal Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. This large reference work contains valuable information on almost every monument of ancient Rome, and was for many years the standard work of first call for students of the ancient city. Although subsequently eclipsed by the works of Richardson and latterly Steinby, it is still an invaluable work (enjoying the considerable merits of brevity and of being in English) and the version presented here is very useful. The Dictionary is accessible through a hyperlinked page of buildings usefully sorted by type, and one click will take you directly to the required entry. Cross-references to other entries in the Dictionary are also hyperlinked. Furthermore, in cases where Platner and Ashby refer to ancient literary sources mentioning a specific building, Mr Thayer, the website's owner, has included a link to the relevant passages in his own collection of online texts (for Cassius Dio, Suetonius, Pliny, Martial and others). This is an intelligent use of the Internet's advantages over the printed page, and makes this online version even more useful than the original book. Mr Thayer has also appended his own pictures and notes to some of the Dictionary entries. This site is rather more useful for public or large commercial buildings than private dwellings, and much has been discovered since the Dictionary was originally published in 1929. There are more complete versions elsewhere on the Internet, but this one is particularly well presented and a supremely useful resource.
This pleasingly presented site provides comprehensive information about the American Academy in Rome, including full details of its residency opportunities, summer programmes, its Rome Prize, and fellowships. There are also details of current and forthcoming exhibitions, conferences, concerts, and other events. The site includes the online catalogue of the American Academy's library (via the URBS network of research libraries in Rome, which pools the catalogues for several scholarly institutions) and a complete list of the Academy publications (together with ordering information). A style sheet for the Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome is available online. A page with helpful maps and synopses of the Academy's current and recent archaeological projects (excavations at Rome, Ostia, Jerba, Stabiae, Bomarzo, Cosa and Licenza) provides links to the relevant excavation journals and home pages. Details of its photographic archive are also present. The archive comprises specialized collections of photographs on archaeology, architecture, art and gardens. A few selected images are available online.
This is the website of The American Institute for Roman Culture (IRC), which aims to promote the culture and history of ancient Rome by running educational programs and cultural heritage projects. Details of these activities are provided here. Included is information about: excavations at the Villa delle Vignacce and Ostia Antica; the excavation of the Roman forum run in conjunction with the universities of Oxford and Stanford (a link is also provided to the official website of this particular excavation); study abroad programs in aspects of Roman culture and archaeology; voluntary opportunities at the Institute itself (which is based in Rome); other events organised for the general public by the Institute; and the people involved in running the organisation.
The website of the American Journal of Archaeology (AJA) publishes free full-text electronic versions in PDF format of all published papers from 2002 to 2007 as well as additional online-only contents such as books and museums reviews; image galleries; supplementary data (e.g. bibliography of osteological research in classical archaeology); and forums. Only abstracts are available for articles published since 2008; the full-text PDF files can only be accessed via a subscription. The journal focuses on Greek, Roman and Etruscan archaeology, and publishes also a few papers on Aegean (Minoan and Mycenaean) archaeology and the archaeology of the ancient Near East and Mesopotamia. The website can be searched and prospective authors may find guidelines and a form to submit their papers for publication. Issues of the journal dating before 2001 can be searched and accessed via JSTOR. It is possible to subscribe to a mailing list (AJA e-Update) for updates on the journal and the current activities of the American Institute of Archaeology.
The American Journal of Archaeology was founded in 1885 and is now one of the most prestigious journals in the field of Classical Archaeology. Anyone interested in the archaeology of the Mediterranean region will find this website useful.
Developed by Jan Willem Drijvers, the Ammianus Marcellinus Online Project introduces the fourth century AD Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus and his work. A detailed biography of Ammianus is given, and further sections of the website are devoted to providing comprehensive bibliographical lists to provide the user with a starting point for further research. These pages include details of editions, translations (into a wide range of modern languages), concordances and commentaries, as well as of articles and books on aspects of his Roman history. There is also a section on the structure of his work, and a series of essays on particular topics. Included here are papers looking at Ammianus' treatment of the following: Constantius II; Christianity; Julian; military history; geographical digressions; and barbarians and ethnography.
The Ancient Greek and Roman coins website is written from the perspective of a collector, but is nevertheless a very informative and detailed site which is particularly useful for those who are new to numismatics. An introductory section on the 'vocabulary of ancient coins' gives detailed information about what to look out for when examining coins from different ancient periods. There are also detailed secions on Roman coins (arranged chronologically from the Republic to the fifth century AD and Greek coins (covering the Athenian empire, Alexander the Great, the Ptolemies, and the Greek cities under the Roman empire). There are also (smaller) sections on Eastern empires (Parthia and Persia) as well as the Byzantine period. The site also features information on a miscellany of other topics aimed primarily at those wishing to collect and photograph coins. It is richly illustrated throughout, and the accounts of the coins are very detailed - the historical background is explained as well as information about the particular coins in question.
Ancient Journeys is the online Festschrift in honour of the distinguished American classicist and ancient historian Eugene Numa Lane, and contains the full-text of 20 articles written by his colleagues and students on a wide range of subjects dealing with Greek and Roman art, archaeology, history, religion and literature. The resource also offers biographical information, a tabula gratulatoria and series of personal memoirs by his associates, as well as a bibliography of Lane's published work. Published by the Stoa Consortium, the Festschrift is notable for its broad range of topics but also for the absence of a paper version. A hypertext medium is used throughout and links are provided to Perseus for Latin and Greek words. Many of the articles are illustrated and the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at larger scales. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Greek and Roman studies.
Compiled by Timothy J. Moore of the Department of Classics, University of Texas at Austin, this ancient music bibliography is a themed online bibliography (which, at the time of reviewing, had last been updated in 2008) that lists books and papers, of relevance to the classics or music student, interested in the study of music from Ancient Greece or Rome. Specific sections cover various elements of music making, including: singing and speaking; the voice; rhythm; and musical instruments, such as strings, auloi/tibiae, extant pipes, auletai/tibicines, and kroupezai/scabellum. There are also sections on music on: the Greek and Roman stage; Livy VII.2, the origins of Roman theatre, and the performance of 'cantica'; Plautus and Terence; music in art; dance; music, education and ethics; the Carmina Convivalia; and Byzantine music. The majority of the works listed here are written in English, although there are several in German, French and Italian.
This website is an outstanding visual resource for the study of ancient Greek and Roman theatres, and is an ideal introduction to the study of theatre architecture. Its main feature is a series of panoramic views from various observation points outside and inside the remains of archaeological sites across Europe, which allow the user to 'walk' around the ruins of several theatres (QuickTime software is required to access the virtual tours). At the time of writing this review, the website appeared to be still under construction, with some locations covered more fully than others. Theatres in modern Turkey are given the most attention, presenting sites at Aspendos, Aphrodisias, Bodrum, Ephesus, Hierapolis, Miletus, Pergamon and Priene. Other featured locations are Epidaurus (Greece) and Ostia Antica (Italy). A clickable map of Europe shows the location of each theatre. Each tour is accompanied by details including: information on the location of the theatre; dates of construction and renovation; dimensions; brief details of excavations. Plans of the theatres, and in some cases reproductions, are also present, and there is a glossary of relevant architectural terms. In addition to the ancient theatres, there is also a tour of the Opéra National de France in Paris, built in the years from 1862 to 1875.
This site is a lively and extensive online community for devotees of ancient Roman history. Its main feature is a series of chatrooms on a vast array of specific topics relating to Rome, including: classical archaeology; Roman festivals; the Latin language; and Rome in television, movies and the arts. Also featured are trivia quizzes and role play groups (featuring life in various historical periods, for example under the Roman Republic in the first century BC). The site also provides an interactive map (QuickTime required) which locates the Roman provinces (including, for example, Africa, Gaul and Germania) and key sites in the city of Rome itself (such as the Campus Martius, the Forum Romanum and the Capitoline). Users may click on the locations or their names for further detailed information on each region, accompanied by images and maps; this is a useful tool for aiding students with visualising the geography of the ancient Roman empire. If your browser allows them pop-up windows appear including information such as which registered users of the site are online now. Pseudonyms identify the contributors and editors of this resource.
The Romans website is based on the book 'The Romans: an introduction' published by Routledge (2008). In addition to many pages of information there are 24 detailed timelines covering the whole of Roman history and literature, as well as interactive quizzes, picture galleries of images (some from museums like the Hunterian and from the VRoma Project), and maps (from the Ancient World Mapping Center). This resource is connected with a 'parent' site, The Classics Pages, and the sites share a search engine. Clear copyright information is provided for all resources such as text (Taylor & Francis Books) and images.
This well-presented resource is the website for the archaeological excavations at Aphrodisias (in the ancient Roman province of Caria, in modern Turkey) undertaken by the Institute of Fine Arts in cooperation with the Faculty of Arts and Science at New York University. Introductory information is provided on the history of the site and the excavations, and then the user may access more detailed pages on key areas of the archaeological site. The following locations are covered: the temple of Aphrodite; the cult image of Aphrodite; architecture and sculpture of the bouleuterion (council chamber); the sculptor's workshop; the north agora; the Sebasteion; the basilica; and the stadium. Within each section images and plans are accompanied by detailed explanatory text. An overall plan of Aphrodisias is provided and the user can move the mouse over this to be given names of buildings; on clicking on the building a closer view is given. One can then click on this building for a closer view. There is also a map based on the geophysical survey carried out between 1995 and 1998. Finally, there is an extensive bibliography of relevant material (divided into sections for ease of use), with a particular emphasis on excavation reports.
The American School of Classical Studies has been excavating in the area of the Athenian Agora since 1931. The main focus of attention has been the Agora of the 5th and 4th centuries BC but finds from the archaeological site span the periods from the Late Neolithic to the 20th century. The website presents an extensive "Site Tour" including Quicktime panoramas. There are (section "Plans and Drawings") plans of the site at various historical phases and reconstruction models (again as Quicktime) of some of the major buildings as well as pictures of the outdoor sections of the agora ("Architecture and Topography"). Section "Excavations" contains short excavation reports which focus particularly on the artefacts. Some of the artefacts presented are still unpublished and therefore to access these artefacts in the catalogue it is necessary to have permission and registration details from the American School of Classical Studies. The rest of the illustrated catalogue is freely accessible and divided in sections "Black and Plain Pottery"; "Red Figured and White Ground"; "Hellenistic Pottery and Wheelmade Table Ware"; and "Greek Coins". The latest preliminary report can be found in section "Recent Excavations". Section "Resources" outlines the contents of the webiste. Anyone interested in ancient Greece may find this website useful.
Several publications have been made available in HTML format or through Google Books and can be freely accessed in section "Agora Publications". Among the publications are guides; a few volumes of the Athenian Agora Monographs (Vol.12 Black and Plain Pottery; Vol. 26 The Greek Coins; Vol. 29 Hellenistic Pottery; and Vol. 30 Attic Red-Figured and White-Ground Pottery); "The Birth of Democracy" (catalogue of exhibition); "The Athenian Citizen: Democracy in the Athenian Agora"; "The Games at Athens"; "Horses and Horsemanship in the Athenian Agora"; "Ancient Athenian Building Methods"; "Graffiti in the Athenian Agora"; books on coins; "Waterworks in the Athenian Agora"; "Miniature Sculpture from the Athenian Agora" and others. At the time of review access to some titles was difficult and some titles appears mixed (e.g. "Amphoras and the Ancient Wine Trade"); the alternative "list of all publications" may be used.
The BBC History website "Romans" examines the enduring traces of Roman rule (43-410 CE) to be found in Britain - the language, culture and the landscape. Aimed at students of all ages, this website complements recent BBC broadcasts and includes considerable contributions from presenters and producers for example: Roman military historian and associate producer of "Simon Schama's History of Britain", Dr Mike Ibeji asks what the careers of Roman soldiers reveal about life in Roman Britain; Lindsay Allason-Jones (University of Newcastle Upon Tyne) explores the lives of Romano-British women; Adam Hart Davis, presenter of "Local Heroes" asks "What did the Romans do for us?" Other topics include: Roman Empire (Andrew Wallace-Hadrill); Roman Amphitheatre (Kathleen Coleman); Pompeii: Its Discovery and Preservation (Salvatore Ciro Nappo). As well as numerous interpretative texts there are multimedia resources taking advantage of the Internet's versatility as a teaching/learning medium. These include: galleries of images of Hadrian's Wall and Roman mosaics; five FAQs about Roman Britain answered; audio dramas (with script) of the Boudiccan Rebellion in 60 CE; and an interactive 3D reconstruction of Housesteads fort on Hadrian's Wall circa 3rd Century CE. For earlier Internet browsers a text-only version is available for much of the content. The "Romans" site maintains the design of BBCi History - such as the links to History content from the left and top navigation bars (which also identifies which area of the site you are currently in). The search box allows you to search History and the rest of the BBCi website. The bottom navigation bar offers access to: the "reading room" (feature articles authored by prominent historians); the "multimedia zone" (interactive content - games, 3D reconstructions, animations, audio and video); "For kids" (content designed for both primary and secondary school ages); the "how to" section (that offers advice on local and family history, house history, and amateur archaeology).
One of the finest and most diverse collections in Athens, and also the oldest in Greece, it is no surprise to find that the Benaki Museum's website is exemplary in form and content. It offers all the necessary information for the prospective visitor, including QuickTime movies of many of the galleries, details of past, present and future collections, and overviews of the collections. A journey through the museum passes through Ancient Greece and the Roman period, the Byzantine period, the Frankish and Ottoman occupations, to the struggle for independence in the nineteenth century and the establishment of the Greek state thereafter. Each section is represented by a selection of choice artefacts, the illustrations of which can be enlarged. The Museum also holds important collections of historic heirlooms, over 6000 paintings and drawings by Greek artists and those who visited or were inspired by the country, as well as Coptic, Chinese (largely the gifts of George Eumorphopoulos) and Islamic art and a collection of Toys and Games from Greece and the wider world. There is admirable attention to the history of the museum, with special features on the founder, Antonis Benakis, and other significant donors, as well as the building itself (the Benakis' residence in Athens) and plans for the division of the collection (the Islamic collection, the Department of Historical Archives, and the collection of Toys and Games) and their prospective homes. The Museum's Archive collection is particularly important, and there are separate pages for the Historical (much relating to the Greek War of Independence and the later rise of Eleftherios Venizelos), Neo-Hellenic Architecture and Photography archives. The last has further links to pages devoted to James Robertson, Nelly's, Voula Papaioannou and Dimitris Harissiadis, all of which are well illustrated. All three archives are responsible for publications, details of which are listed.
This website by Prof. em. Ulrich Harsch publishes a collection of pictures of the Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger Table), a medieval copy of a Roman map (itinerarium pictum) of the Empire. The original manuscript was probably drawn around 250 AD, but the oldest surviving copy dates around 1200 AD. There are a few pictures of parts of the 1200 AD document and the 1598 AD copy by Marco Velsero. A full set of high resolution colour pictures of the 1887 copy by Conrad Miller is made available; this is the clearest copy for modern reading and includes a reconstruction of the first sheet. The sample pictures of the other editions show how the process of copying might have slightly altered the original document.
The Tabula Peutingeriana is the most important map surviving from Roman times and it was originally a parchment scroll made of 12 sheets. Only 11 sheets have survived (the first representing the Iberian Peninsula and parts of the British Isles is missing); the surviving sheets measure together 6.82 by 0.34 metres. The elongated shape of the map forces the use of a characteristic perspective unsuitable to represent geographic features in an accurate way and therefore most of the features on the map are schematic. The purpose of the map was to depict an impressive network of 100,000 Km of major roads uniting approximately 3,000 settlements on three continents (Europe, northern Africa and Asia up to a strip of land possibly representing China); the distances between settlements are given. Rome, Constantinople and Antioch were represented by special icons suggesting that these were the most important centres at the time that the map was drawn.
The British School at Athens' website provides information about the School; its activities and organised events; its museum and archive; its library; and the archaeological site of Knossos. A list of present and past members is available and there is information on how to become a member. The website provides access to the library of the School; lists the publications by the School including the Annual; and publishes events organised by the School; field and bursary opportunities in Greece; it details how to become a friend or member; and how to apply for permits or the facilities available to the School's members, including the Fitch Research Laboratory and the hostels. The School organises courses for both undergraduates and postgraduates. This websites is an essential resource for researchers wishing to carry out research in Greece.
The British School at Rome (BSR) is a centre for research on the archaeology, history and culture of Italy, and for contemporary art and architecture. It is one of a large group of national academies in Rome. This website includes information about: residential awards for researchers and artists; a programme of exhibitions in contemporary art; a programme of lectures and conferences on the humanities; a specialist research library; a publications programme; and a virtual tour of the School. Also included are pages relating to archaeology fieldwork projects, including excavations at Forum Novum (villa, church and amphitheatre) since 1997 directed by the Birmingham University Field Archaeology Unit, the British Museum and the British School at Rome, and carried out in collaboration with the Soprintendenza Archeologica del Lazio. This project aims to complement other urban studies being carried out as part of the Tiber Valley project, in particular to the study of the larger scales of urban form currently being carried out by the University of Southampton. Interdisciplinary research projects also detailed here include: the Pompeii Project (an archaeological and multimedia investigation of a small section of the extinct city, known as Insula 9, which includes a virtual tour of Insula I.9 on this website); the Tiber Valley Project (an integrated project examining the hinterland-city relationship in central Italy); and the Roman Ports Project, which traces at the development of Portus, the port of imperial Rome.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
This is the website of the Cambridge School Classics Project (CSCP), which aims to promote the teaching of classics and ancient history to students of all ages. This excellent resource offers teaching aids, practical advice, and news and Web links to students and teachers with a dual emphasis on Latin and Roman history, myths and storytelling. The website features a very useful and extensive series of free online resources for Latin learners and their teachers, many in the form of web links, as well as providing a guide to the Cambridge Online Latin Project and its paper version, the Cambridge Latin Course. A subscription is required for the online Latin course. Resources also include an online vocabulary tester and dictionary. Information is also provided on the Iliad Project, which aims to develop child literacy skills via the medium of storytelling, and on other initiatives to support the teaching of Greek and Roman culture in primary schools. The CSCP website will be a fundamental resource for anyone interested in classical civilisation at all levels of education.
Capitolium.org is an extensive and detailed website devoted primarily to the imperial fora in the city of Rome, and to the ongoing archaeological work there. A historical overview of ancient Rome, from its traditional foundation date (753 BC) to the imperial period, is given here, accompanied by a detailed chronological table of events, an index of Roman emperors and a map of the empire. Details are also given of the archaeological excavations taking place in the area of the fora, with specific information on each individual forum, its history, buildings and functions (included here are sections on the fora of Caesar, Augustus, Nerva and Trajan, and on the Temple of Peace in the forum of Vespasian, as well as Trajan's market). A section on daily life describes ancient Roman food and drink, family life and housing. Finally the website has a 'Ludi' (games) section with pages on Roman numerals, the calendar of Roman holidays, Latin phrases and sayings, a quiz based on information found on the site, and a limited list of films set in ancient Rome. The website is equally navigable in English and Italian.
Produced to accompany two Channel 4 documentaries on ancient Carthage broadcasted first in May 2004, this attractive resource provides a useful illustrated overview of what was once one of the richest and most powerful civilisations in the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC. While the parent documentaries focussed in particular on the relationship between Carthage and Rome, which fought three bitter wars between 264 and 146 BC, and on the character of the great general Hannibal Barca, the website also provides a valuable social, economic and religious framework for the military history of the city. From its origins as a Phoenician trading settlement founded by merchants from present day Lebanon in the 9th century BC, the city eventually formed the centre of a maritime colonial empire which encompassed much of the western Mediterranean, bringing it into conflict both with the indigenous and Greek settlers and later with the growing Roman empire. Its destruction in 146 BC and subsequent refoundation as a Roman colony resulted in the loss of much of its Phoenician cultural identity, while the biased accounts of hostile ancient sources gave rise to many sensational and lurid representations of Carthaginian culture, in particular the practice of child sacrifice. Archaeology, however, is able to tell a different story and the discussions of Carthaginian sites in Tunisia, Sicily, Sardinia and Spain provide an alternative approach to this ancient culture. The website allows the reader to form a more balanced view of daily life and institutions of the ancient city. Additionally present are links to online resources on the subject of Carthage and the Roman world, as well as printed sources.
The Center for Epigraphical and Palaeological Studies site includes information about forthcoming events and courses (some of which are open to the general public) and offers several short-term post-doctoral fellowships in Greek and Latin epigraphy. The site (which is part of the Department of Greek and Latin at the Ohio State University) contains links to other related web-sites as well as images of inscriptions and manuscripts (ranging from Attic inscriptions to mediaeval Latin manuscripts). Unfortunately, as the site is still under construction most of these images are as yet unavailable, and so when one clicks on the images for Greek or Roman 'squeezes' (a plaster cast representation of an inscription) one is simply presented with a list of reference numbers. The dated Attic inscriptions do have pictures, but the images come without even the most basic commentary of what this inscription is, a reproduction of the text or translation, or the context in which it was found (all of which are essential). Reference numbers are provided so that one can look these inscriptions up in the relevant books which have all this pertinent information (but this defies the point of putting it on the web-site in the first place).
This is the website of The Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD), part of the Classics Centre at the University of Oxford. Set up in 1995 'to provide a focus for the study of ancient documents,' the CSAD has since become a research centre of national and international importance. The Centre houses the University's epigraphy archive, which includes a large collection of paper impressions of Greek inscriptions, Roman inscriptions from Britain, and a photographic collection. The website is searchable and provides information about the CSAD and its activities, including details on lectures, conferences and seminars, imaging projects, links to resources, and a link to the CSAD's online newsletter. Also accessible via this website are links to the home pages of the CSAD's projects: Vindolanda tablets online; Romano-British curses; Cairo photographic archive; papyri in British collections; Oxyrhynchus papyri; Poinikastas (epigraphic sources for early Greek writing); Monumenta Asia Minoris Antiqua (MAMA); and e-science and ancient documents.
This is the official website of the "Centro Internazionale per lo Studio dei Papiri Ercolanesi" directed by Marcello Gigante. The centre studies the library of the Villa dei Papiri in Herculaneum. The website is poor in contents with only basic information and several incomplete sections, including the English version. It includes the summaries of "Cronache Ercolanesi" and there is an extensive bibliography. This website requires Flash. The first owner of the villa appears to have been Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, but other names have been suggested. Several texts in the library were written by members of the Epicurean school of philosophy. It is known that Piso Caesoninus was a supporter of the school and he probably hosted Philodemus of whom he may have been patron. The first person to open the charred papyri and read from them was father Antonio Piaggio, an expert from the Vatican Library who invented a device for the purpose. Large parts of the villa are yet to be excavated, including the supposed Latin library. Only a few texts have been read so far given their poor state of preservation; some of the papyri were already centuries old on 79 AD, when the villa was destroyed by the eruption of the Vesuvius.
Chiron is an organisation formed by Spanish teachers of Classics and their website acts as a portal providing general information on the group (including on the courses organised by Chiron). Among the services are a space for blogs; a Wiki; a collection of bookmarks; a gallery of photographs that can be used for teaching (over 20,000 pictures at the time of review); and a series of online videos relating to classical topics. The aim of the group is to provide a series of Web tools useful in teaching classics that are relevant and tested by other teachers. Many of the resources are in Spanish, but the community is already starting to translate some resources and aims at creating an international community. Teachers in Classics (and classical archaeology) at all levels should visit this website and possibly participate and contribute in developing this community.
Devoted to the Roman orator and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43BC), the Cicero Homepage is a useful online starting point for anyone approaching the study of Cicero for the first time, and also provides suggestions for more in-depth exploration of his works. The site offers full Latin text of some of the author's speeches (De amicitia; Pro archia; In Catilinam; In Verrem; Pro Ligario; Pro Marcello and Brutus). There is also a brief chronology of Cicero's life and works, as well as an extensive bibliography of suggestions for further reading. Although this is not annotated, giving only publication details of books and articles, it is divided, helpfully, into sections on: oratory and rhetoric; Cicero's life and reputation; philosophy and religion; and the publication of Cicero's works, with further sections on secondary material relating to the specific writings of Cicero.
Written by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, this is an excellent online study guide to classical Greek and Roman culture through its key literary, historical and philosophical writers. The resource, which is intended for use by undergraduates taking classics options, combines historical, critical and literary material with practical exercises and questions in reading, comprehension and interpretation. The authors featured are: Homer; Thucydides; Sophocles; Euripides; Aristotle; Aristophanes; Plato; Lucretius; and Virgil. Each literary genre is accompanied by sections providing cultural and intellectual background. The entries are hyperlinked to Perseus for easy reference, as is the excellent glossary of personal names, technical terms and placenames, though there is no bibliography. This resource provides a clear and reliable learning resource for classics and ancient history students.
Classics Ireland is the journal of the Classical Association of Ireland; this website provides the online version of the printed edition. Volumes 1-12 (1994-2005) are available here at the time of writing. Classics Ireland publishes scholarly articles and reviews on all aspects of the ancient world. Topics covered in the journal's articles, of which the full-text is available to view here, include: ancient Greek and Latin drama and poetry; Greek and Roman history and historiography; the reception of classical works and themes in modern literature; sexuality and gender; slavery; art and architecture; and teaching and learning classical subjects.
Classics Unveiled is a series of web pages on a range of classical themes aimed primarily at school-level students and enthusiasts of the classical world. It is divided into four main sub-sections entitled: MythNET; Rome Unleashed; Rome Exposed; and Latin Wordstock. MythNET looks at ancient Greek and Roman mythology and features sections on gods and heroes, with brief details of key figures and stories from mythology. The section entitled Rome Unleashed focuses on the history of Rome and is arranged chronologically, with subdivisions on: From City to Empire (755-27BC); Imperial Regime (27-BC-102AD); Imperial Peace (102-192AD); Troubled Century (192-280AD); and Restoration and Fall (280-476AD). Each part contains short summaries of key events in Roman history. There are also timelines for each era and a list of Roman rulers. In the Rome Exposed section the focus is social history, with information on: Roman homes; the family; slavery; dress; cuisine; games, exercises and baths; entertainment; religion; and death. Finally, Latin Wordstock is a limited list of Latin vocabulary along with pages on English words derived from Latin roots. This site, whilst it tries to offer a wide range of information, succeeds in providing only an introductory overview of the topics covered. It would therefore be of most use to those new to the study of the classical world.
The website "Cleopatra : a multimedia guide to the Ancient World" is a wonderful online exhibition published by The Art Institute of Chicago. It focuses specifically on Egypt, Greece, and Italy between 3100 BCE and 600 CE, and provides photographs and descriptions of important artefacts (sculpture, vases, coins and wall paintings) from each historical period. This richly illustrated site also contains a timeline, glossary of terms and maps. There are also lesson plans based on the artefacts; whilst these are aimed at teachers of school-age children the website itself stands alone very well as an online exhibition or basic reference site.
Compitum is a French-language website which is aimed primarily at researchers and is devoted to news about events and publications relating to the study of Roman antiquity, Latin language and literature. Information is given here about relevant conferences and lectures (some in France itself, others taking place elsewhere in the world). There is also an extensive (and annotated) section listing useful online resources (including bibliographies and publications as well as websites on particular themes relating to the ancient Roman world). Recent publications on ancient Roman themes are also listed here, with brief details of contents. Users may register in order to receive Compitum's newsletter via email.
This is the website for the Corinth Computer Project, which is based at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States. The project was founded in 1988 with the aim of developing a computerized architectural and topographical survey of the Roman colony of Corinth. The project is particularly concerned with uncovering information about the different stages of the city's development and the impact of non-Roman influences, including Hellenistic, Byzantine and Venetian. There is also an emphasis on research into Roman strategies of city planning. The site offers a detailed methodological essay about the project as well as information about Corinth in Greek, Roman and modern times. The text in each section is accompanied by city plans and photographs, including a number of photographs of the process of excavation, and of the regional landscape. The 'reference' section of the site also provides a glossary of archaeological terms used, a bibliography and links to selected resources for classicists on the Internet. The Corinth Computer Project is a well thought-out scholarly website which has won a number of awards.
This specialist resource is an online edition of Dr Nicolle Hirschfeld's 1996 book The PASP database for the uses of scripts on Cyprus (Minos Supplement 13) which aims in the long-term to provide a comprehensive account of all the ancient inscriptions and glyphs from Cyprus, whether on stone, clay or metal and coin. The people of the island of Cyprus employed a variety of writing systems to record their spoken languages in the Bronze and Iron Ages, including the syllabic Cypro-Minoan and Cypro-Classical scripts as well as alphabetic Greek and Phoenician letters. The current database includes Cypro-Minoan writings from the Late Bronze Age circa 1700-1000 BCE which record an undeciphered language (or languages) and the closely related Cypro-Classical script of the succeeding Iron Age which lasted down to the 3rd century BC when it was displaced by the Greek alphabet. Cypro-Classical was used to record both the local Greek dialect and an undeciphered tongue called Eteo-Cypriot. Phoenician and Roman inscriptions will be added in future editions of the database, in addition to the inscriptions in cuneiform, Egyptian and Ugaritic which have also been found in the island. The database is searchable by inscription number, object type, geographical context, nature and material and is prefaced by various instructions on how to use the data. This resource will benefit researchers in the ancient writings and scripts of the Mediterranean world, particularly those interested in the transmission of the alphabet to the Greek world and the interaction of cultures in the region in the Bronze and Iron Age, as well as more general students of Cypriot and Near Eastern archaeology.
This is the website of the David M Robinson collection at the University of Mississippi's University Museum. The Museum holds over 2000 objects, a collection built up principally by Dr Robinson, the excavator of Olynthos, his wife and Mr and Mrs Frank Peddle. The website puts online photographs of a significant and diverse proportion of the museum's holdings. Of Greek artefacts, there are inscriptions, coins, sculptures, mosaics and other objects, mainly small bronzes and terracottas. The Roman objects are organised in the same categories. In addition there is an important collection of Greek and South Italian vases, of which there are around ninety photographs presented here. There is also a small section on Egyptian artefacts. In all cases, there is a brief accompanying description, but no dimensions. A bibliographical reference is provided for most of the inscriptions, vases and sculptures. Many of the Greek vases are also linked to the relevant entry on the Perseus website. A number of the photographs of vases are out of focus, so whilst the images provide a general impression they may in some cases be inadequate for detailed study.
De Imperatoribus Romanis (On the Roman Emperors, or DIR) is a high-quality, online scholarly encyclopaedia about the rulers of the Roman Empire from 27 BC to 1453 AD, (Augustus to Constantine XI Palaeologus). The contents of DIR have been prepared by scholars but are intended to be accessible to non-specialists as well. This is an award winning online resource based at Salve Regina University, useful for teaching and learning about the history of Roman Emperors and many other aspects of Roman life, and easy to navigate. (There are frames and non-frames versions of the site, and a search engine). It includes biographical essays on the individual emperors, and descriptions and maps of significant battles in the empire's history. Each article is rigorously peer reviewed for quality and accuracy by the editorial board (drawn from universities from the USA, Germany, Canada, and Australia) before it can be included in the DIR, and authors undertake to keep their information current. Much of this material is cross-referenced by hyperlinks to: the Imperial Index (an index of all the emperors who ruled during the empire's 1500 years); Imperial Stemmata (family trees of important imperial dynasties); the DIR and ORB Ancient and Medieval Atlas providing maps of the empire at different times; the Imperial Battle Index; and the Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins for emperors before the fall of Rome in 476 AD (sourced from Cohen's "Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire romain", 1880-1892, and from Justin Paola's online "Collection of Roman Emperors"); as well as other recommended links to related sites.
Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project is an online collection of digital photographs and measurements based on a large marble street plan of the ancient city, completed around the start of the third century AD. Parts of it survive in numerous fragments, the assembly of which into a coherent 'jigsaw' has long challenged archaeologists. Stanford University's Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project has collected high definition digital photographs and computer measurements of the 1186 surviving fragments (these may be viewed here) and is now aiming to develop computer algorithms that might help to establish a more useful searchable version of the map. The user interface for the selection from Stanford's database which been made so far is available online. This site, though, is the news page for the technical side of the project. It contains a detailed description of the process which the Stanford team is developing, which will be of interest to those who seek to bring the latest technology to bear on ancient problems. The site also offers background information on the original map itself, as well as a detailed annotated bibliography of relevant reference works. There are also useful press reports and news updates about the progress of the project.
Digressus, launched in 2001, is a fully refereed online journal whose primary aim is to provide opportunities for graduate students in classics and related subjects to publish book reviews and articles in their subject areas. Articles deal with a wide variety of aspects of the classical world, including ancient Greek and Roman history, literature, philosophy, art and archaeology. The journal also features reviews of academic books. A collaborative project between the Universities of Nottingham and Birmingham, the journal accepts reviews and articles in English, German, French, Italian and Spanish as well as publishing proceedings of conferences. The papers are presented in PDF format. The resource also includes a guide for contributors and a page of external links to conferences and events of interest to classicists; the editors invite their readers to submit news and information for inclusion on the website.
This database contains references to written records of people (prosopography) living in the Soknopaiu Nesos area of Al Fayyūm from Demotic and Greek sources dating from the seventh century BC to the fifth century AD. The database can be searched, and each record has appropriate bibliographic references; there is also a general bibliography. The high number of personal written documents in the area makes this area particularly suitable for a prosopographic study. Each record can be printed selecting the printable version. This specialist database may interest primarily researchers in Classics and archaeology.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
'Dr. J's Illustrated Guide to the Classical World' is a mélange of texts, images and weblinks illustrating many aspects of the ancient Greek and Roman World assembled by Dr Janice Siegel of Illinois State University and is designed to open up the world of classical antiquity to students of all levels. This is an on-going project and will be added to over time. It provides much useful supplementary study material for school children and preliminary undergraduate students in Classics, ancient history and classical archaeology. Illustrated lectures and texts feature items on ancient history, myth, drama, art and archaeology sites and art. The many images and photographs are provided by the author herself or else derive from the major archaeological museums of the world. The website, the core of which is the author's personal webpage, is largely designed to facilitate undergraduate appreciation of the Classics in their studies and is particularly suitable for browsing but is also intended to provide learning aids for teachers. Siegel's colloquial text and selection of images draw numerous parallels between the ancient world and modern political and military events. These also serve a didactic purpose for students and faculty, as will the inclusion of course materials and accounts of her teaching experiences since 1994. Other features of the site include a wide-ranging survey of audio-visual teaching resources in classics, available either online or in video or CD versions.
This excellent website provides a series of historical, linguistic and mythological maps of the ancient world. The site is divided into the following sections: maps of ancient Italy (from the sixth to the third centuries BC); maps of the Roman world in the republican period; maps of the Roman world in the imperial period; Latin and Romance languages (showing the geographical spread of these languages throughout Europe and under the Roman empire); the return of Odysseus (featuring an interactive map with locations featured in Homer's Odyssey; the accompanying description here is written in Spanish); and the voyages of Aeneas (this section is similar to that on Odysseus' journey). The maps are clearly annotated and easy to understand, and can be used to illustrate the changing boundaries of the territories of Europe at various points in the history of the ancient world. Most of the maps are also available in several languages: English; Catalan; Spanish; Dutch; French; Italian; Galician; and Latin.
The early Church website covers the history of the Church from its foundation until c.600 CE. This site is a bibliographic guide listing primary and secondary sources by topic. Topics include: the Bible; councils; heresies and sects; famous individuals within the Church (listed alphabetically); ecclesiastical history; philosophy (Aristotle, Plato, Neo-Platonism, Cynicism, Epicurianism and Stoicism); and study aids. The inclusion of non-Christian philosophy means that the coverage period actually dates back to the fifth century BCE, and thus provides a useful bibliography for students of (Classical) philosophy as well as those studying early Christianity. There, are, however, no accompanying descriptions of the books, but given the extensiveness of the lists, this is understandable.The site is maintained by Robert Bradshaw, who has a Cambridge diploma in religious studies from Mattersey Hall (Assemblies of God Bible College).
This clear, well-organised website is based around a series of nineteen maps illustrating the extent of the Roman Empire over a broad chronological span from the beginning of the empire in 338BC to AD1453, when Constantine XI died defending New Rome from the Turks. The author (who describes this work as his hobby) sets out his definition of empire and gives a summary of Roman history over the period covered, and each individual map is accompanied by a summary of events relating to the geographical spread of the empire. The site is an excellent aid for the visualisation of the rise and fall of Rome, and also offers further detailed analytical and comparative cartographic material, including: 'summary' maps emphasising the territorial continuity of Rome through the ages by considering how long various areas were under Roman control; maps of later empires (Ottoman, Greek, Fascist and Napoleonic); maps of the wider Eurasian world in AD116, AD755 and AD1288. There is also: a discussion of the different ways in which we might categorise the 'ages' of the Roman Empire (in relation to religion, adversaries or political organisation, for example); an article (with maps) discussing the decline and fall of Rome from the mid-fourth to mid-eighth centuries AD; and a section entitled 'Empires Strike Back' on eras when imperial powers returned to dominate the lands of ancient Rome. Finally, a short bibliography gives suggestions for further reading.
First published in 1993, Electronic Antiquity is an online peer reviewed journal which carries articles, reviews and notices (including job vacancies and conference information) relevant to the study of Greek and Roman classics and ancient history. Topics covered by articles published here include, among others: Greek and Latin poetry; biography; ancient drama; ancient philosophy; social history; ancient mythology; and Egyptology. The full-text of all articles published since the first volume is available at no cost to the user. Contents may be browsed by volume and issue or via a general search interface. Submission guidelines are also provided for those wishing to contribute. Greek text is transliterated. Articles since July 2004 are available to download in PDF format.
The Encyclopaedia Romana is an enthusiast's website providing short narrative essays on topics relating to Roman history and culture, and Roman Britain. The essays brought together on the site are arranged under the headings: Nexus (the Roman province of Britannia, and some about Classical Greece); Notae (Roman history and culture); Roma (Roman architecture); and SPQR (the various access options for the information). The topics are of personal interest for the author and are self-evidently the work of a conscientious writer. There is plenty of evidence that the author has checked primary sources (in translation) and secondary sources - bibliographies and relevant online links are given. A more systematic view of the site is provided by the Site Map (a table of contents) or the excellent Site Index (which organises the wide range of topics covered and puts them in alphabetical order).
The Epigraphic Database Heidelberg (Epigraphische Datenbank Heidelberg - EDH) is an excellent online collection of Latin inscriptions, which aims to integrate Latin epigraphy from all parts of the Roman Empire in a single database. The Web resource consists of three key elements: the epigraphic text database; the epigraphic bibliography; and the photographic database. The text database contains (at the time of writing this review) over 56 000 inscriptions, and is fully searchable by a vast range of criteria including, for example, province, date and inscription type. Search results provide bibliographic details and the Latin text of the inscriptions. The bibliographic database is a vast collection of records of published books and articles relating to the inscriptions - this too is fully searchable. Finally, the searchable photographic database contains images of the inscriptions. This is a vast resource which will be invaluable to those researching Latin epigraphy.
The website 'Eras' is an online journal produced by postgraduate students from the School of Historical Studies at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. The journal focuses on the areas of history, archaeology, religion and theology, and Jewish civilisation. Readers are encouraged to respond through the discussion page. Eras is intended to provide a platform to showcase recent Masters and doctoral research. There are links to back editions and each edition contains five or six full articles plus some book reviews. The articles are presented in both abstract and full form (in PDF format). The journal lacks a thematic approach, which would help or even engage the reader. Instead, each issue contains random material and it is necessary to trawl through the issues to discover if there is anything useful. Guidelines for contributors are available on the site together with calls for papers. There is scope to contact the editors and contribute to the discussion page.
Feminae Romanae: Women of Ancient Rome is an extremely well designed website that aims to put the position of Roman women into a historical context with other contemporary cultures (contrasting the older cultures of Greece and of the Etruscans, who influenced the early Romans). The site is organised into the following headings: Heroines of Rome (legendary stories of Roman women which influenced later generations as to what an ideal woman was supposed to be); Republican Women (covering roughly the third through to the first centuries BC); Imperial Women (which documents the changes after the failure of the Republic and the rise of Augustus); Women of Influence (providing biographies of notable Roman women, including Cornelia, Livia, Clodia, Agrippina the Elder, Julia Domna, and Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great); Forgotten Women (attempts to sketch working women of Rome, about whom so little has been written in their own time); The World Within (which deals with the private world of the Roman women). The site is easy to use and beautifully illustrated throughout with images from ancient art; references are given for the sources of these images. Articles are well-written, and acknowledgments appear in the Links section of the site.
From University College London's Department of History, the website of the Festus Lexicon Project provides comprehensive information on the Lexicon of Festus, or 'De verborum significatu', an encyclopaedic Latin dictionary compiled in the Roman Imperial era. Despite the fragmentary state of the dictionary, it is a rich source of information and citations, from and about the period. It is of use to those interested in Roman history, Latin grammar, legal and antiquarian learning, culture, politics, religion and social aspects of the period. The project will prepare a database of texts, a complete translation, extensive commentary, and bibliography. At the time of cataloguing there were no sample database entries available. There is information about the four main writers conected with the Festus Lexicon: Marcus Terentius Varro; Verrius; Festus; and Paul the Deacon. Also included is a bibliography of secondary works. Working from an eleventh century text, the project team aims to reconstruct the lexicon from medieval tomes, glossaries, and manuscripts. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
Fictional Rome is an online database of bibliographic and related information about English-language novels set in the ancient Roman world. The time-span for the project is from the days of the Republic to the close of the Western Empire in the sixth century. The database currently holds over 1500 entries. A selection of the titles have short reviews attached to them. The database can be searched by name, title, date of publication, subject, location and level. Each title has also been allocated a 'period code' which enables retrieval of titles relating to a general period or a specific emperor's reign. A typical record will also include a description of the subject matter (including whether Jewish, Christian or Pagan), and some indication of how the work has been rated by one of the project's reviewers. The site also includes: a short story database; browsing by author; a selection of essays about historical novels; basic information and links about non-fictional characters of the period; a time-line, discussion area and links to further resources. This extensive resource will be of particular value to those interested in the reception of ancient Rome in modern times.
This website (which is published by the Wesley Center for Applied Theology) contains the complete works of Flavius Josephus, including the 'Antiquities' (an history of the Jewish people), the 'Jewish War' (an historical account of the revolt against Rome from AD 66-70), Josephus's 'Autobiography', the 'Discourse on Hades' and, 'Against Apion' (an apology of the Jewish people and customs). All the translations are those of William Whiston (who translated them in the seventeenth/eighteenth century). The book version of Whiston's translation was updated in 1906 and more recently in 1988. The version which appears here is based upon the 1906 edition. The translation into English is therefore somewhat archaic, but elegant and eminently readable. There is, however, no commentary on the text, nor even the smallest background detail on any of the works, Josephus, or Whiston. Josephus was born in AD 37 to a priestly Jewish family, and as such was destined for the priesthood himself. At the age of sixteen Josephus spent several months studying with the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes before deciding to become a Pharisee. During the Jewish Revolt against Rome (AD 66-70), Josephus was appointed commander of the region around Galilee. The Romans captured Josephus in AD 67, and he remained a prisoner of Vespasian (the military commander and future emperor) until AD 69, when Josephus was given his freedom for prophesying Vespasian's rise to the purple. Josephus remained in Rome after the revolt was put down, and retained close connections with the imperial family (with both Vespasian and Vespasian's sons Titus and Domitian when they also became emperor). Although Josephus became a Roman citizen, he retained his Jewish religion - choosing to remarry a Jewess in AD 73/4. The date of Josephus' death is unknown, but is conjectured to have been around AD 92/3. Josephus's works are clearly set out and the individual chapters (or books) are labelled so that one can click on to a particular book without having to wade through the entire opus. There is no search engine, however. One can also download the complete works as a Zip file from this site.
The Fondazione Niccolò Canussio [Niccolò Canussio Foundation] aims to promote the study of Ancient Greek and Roman culture, history, art and literature, whilst also taking into account the civilisations' influence on today's society. A biography of Niccolò Canussio (d. 1500) is given, as well as full-text of his work "De restitutione Patriae", dated 1499. An English translation with the title "On the restoration of the Fatherland" has recently been added to the website. The work of Vittorio Canussio, founder of the institution, entitled "Scritti sul mondo antico" [Writings on the Ancient World] is likewise available to read in PDF. A digital library allows users to access various publications relating to ancient history. A section of the site is dedicated to the works and study of Julius Caesar, with links to related Web resources and an extensive bibliography. The Foundation organises an annual conference, details of which are provided. This website is a useful source of bibliographic material and secondary sources on ancient Greece and Rome.
The "Fortuna visiva of Pompeii" project makes available online a digital archive of visual and written documents on Pompeii, dating from the discovery of the ancient Roman town, in 1748, to the end of the 19th century. Developed on the basis of several studies carried out under the guidance of the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, this resource provides access to a digital library containing full-text of rare, or more generally unobtainable, works on the subject of the archaeological site of Pompeii. Over fifty books have been entirely digitised. For each work an abstract and bibliographical details are included. The digital archive section offers access to bibliographic and iconographic material - such as engravings, drawings and watercolours - through three different indexes. Unedited documents, such as manuscripts, are present too and can be explored through predefined theme-based itineraries or freely browsed. Images come with explanatory captions and can be enlarged to facilitate viewing. Detailed cross-references are provided for documents featuring in both virtual archives. At the time of this review a related topographic platform, a GIS named "Un piano per Pompei" (A plan for Pompeii) appears to be under construction. This is an outstanding resource which would greatly assist scholars or anyone with an interest for the topic covered.
Forum Romanum is a website which provides several useful resources for classics. The core element of the resource is the Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum (CSL) which is a digital library of Latin literature. Authors are listed alphabetically and the user can access Latin texts, translations (in English and occasionally in other European languages) and in some cases secondary material available online. Included are texts from the earliest epigraphic documents to 18th century neo-Latinists. As well as the CSL, Forum Romanum also makes available online some reproduced out of copyright texts: H.W. Johnston's Private Life of the Romans (1903, revised by Mary Johnston in 1932); William C. Morey's Outlines of Roman History (1901); and John Stewart Milne's Surgical Instruments in Greek and Roman Times (1907). The individual chapters of each work can be viewed in a clear user-friendly format.
The Frankfurter elektronische Rundschau zur Altertumskunde (FeRA) is an electronic journal that publishes papers and reviews in German primarily by younger authors. The journal focuses on Greek and Roman Classical archaeology with topics such as Roman ceramics with painted birds; the Odeion of Pericles in Athens; the lighthouse of Pharos; the cult of Vulcanus at Ostia; frescoes at Municipium Claudium Virunum; and Callimachus' Hymn to Apollo. Most papers are written in German, with a few written in English and Italian. Contributions are welcome especially from young scholars. This website may be useful primarily to researchers.
The Friends of Herculaneum Society website details the activities of the Society as well as news and updates on current research about the Roman town of Herculaneum. The Society publishes an illustrated newsletter, available on the site in PDF. The newsletter contains short research articles on the current excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum as well as reports on progress relating to the digitisation and reading of the papyri from the Villa dei Papiri. Articles in recent issues include: an introduction to the Society and its aims; "Out of the Ashes" (on digitally imaging the Herculaneum Papyri); reviews; "Deconstructing Herculaneum" (on the excavation and reconstruction of the site), "Brought to Light" (new images from Herculaneum and Monte Soma), "Il Porcino - Our Mascot?"; an updated account of the Herculaneum Archive; "Mapping the Villa of the Papyri"; "Herculaneum in the History of Art Criticism"; and others. Another notable section focuses on the papyri found at the Villa dei Papiri, Herculaneum. It contains a bibliography of ancient texts recovered from the papyri, including Epicurean philosophers and epigrams by Philodemus, and derived research texts. The most important section is an indexed collection of the copies of some papyri made between 1802 and 1806. Many of these papyri have been destroyed in the attempt to copy them, and therefore copies are all that remain. Other sections present related events in Oxford and across the world and provide information on joining the Society.
This website presents research on the geography of Roman Gaul, in particular on the south-west of the region, by Ralph Mathisen of the University of South Carolina. Locations are listed alphabetically, by ancient Roman province and modern Department, and by site type (such as settlements, sanctuaries, cemeteries, mines and quarries, bridges, aqueducts and roads etc), stages on ancient route maps such as the Antonine Itinerary, the Bordeaux Pilgrim and the Peutinger Table. Full bibliographic citations of each site are also provided. The site was last updated in 2002 and lacks a map of the region which reduces its utility to less experienced learners such as undergraduates, though this resource will benefit more knowledgeable researchers in the field of ancient history and classical archaeology.
George Ortiz spent over 40 years collecting works of art, and this website publishes online the complete corpus of his private collection. His predominant interest is Greece, and this is reflected in the dominance of Greek objects, ranging from a Neolithic steatopygus idol of the sixth millenium BC to a Late Hellenistic glass bowl of the first century AD. The collection is particularly rich in small archaic and classical bronzes. There are smaller quantities of Ancient Near Eastern, Egyptian, Etruscan, Achaemenid and Romance artefacts, and the total of 280 pieces also includes Polynesian, American, Chinese and African works amongst others. The website is attractively simple in presentation and each entry includes a photograph that can be enlarged and a well-written and referenced commentary. Twenty items can be viewed in 3-D, but QuickTime needs to be installed. There is also a search facility, and a glossary of relevant terms relating to ethnography and archaeology.
This Web page provides users with free access to an add-on 'layer' for use in the free Google Earth software. Loading this layer inside Google Earth gives users a... "free accurate model of Ancient Rome in the year 320 A.D. The model contains 3D terrain contours and 6,700 3D buildings". A relatively powerful modern PC is required to run the Ancient Rome layer inside Google Earth. The 3D models are... "based on a physical model of the city called the... 'Plastico di Roma Antica' created by archaeologists and model-makers from 1933 to 1974 and housed in a special gallery in the Museum of Roman Civilization in Rome. 3D digital models were created based on scans of the physical model." Buildings are labelled, and two hundred of the most important buildings are modelled with a high level of historically-accurate detail. Users can enter the interior of selected buildings. Users can zoom in, tilt, and create "fly-through" videos of the model using either Google Earth's 'Pro' version or the basic version of Google Earth and free third-party video-capture tools such as FRAPS. This 3D city model will be an important resource for understanding the scope and nature of Ancient Rome's topography and urban structure. It also acts as an exemplar for the authentic online recreation of historic cities in 3D via personal computers. The Web page is available in a wide variety of languages other than English.
"Grand" is a website about the Gallo-Roman Sanctuary site at Grand, located in the North-West of France in the Vosges Department, which was first excavated in the early 19th century, when the substantial amphitheatre attracted scholarly interests. Later excavations, during the late 19th and 20th centuries, helped uncover and record the amphitheatre, the sanctuary's ramparts and several large, very well-preserved mosaics. The sanctuary's lack of water supply, in a region where drought was common, was puzzling until the discovery of over 300 wells, connected by a 15km long complex of underground galleries for running water, sometimes at a depth of over 12 metres. The website provides a description of the archaeological site itself, rather than the separate excavations undertaken. Photographic images coupled with hand-drawn reconstructions provide support to the text.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Greek and Roman antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on the Greek, Etruscan, Roman and Byzantine civilisations as well as several pages on individual objects from the collections of the museum (about 250 at the time of review). There is a map and a timeline. The presentations of individual objects are highly recommended as many are masterpieces of art. Most objects have artistic value and are described and interpreted in detail. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long).
Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies (GRBS) is a journal which has been published quarterly online since 2004 by Duke University and which focuses on Classics. The website lists tables of contents for all volumes since 1958, and provides access to abstracts and the full text of all articles written since 2004. These can be viewed in PDF format. Most of the published articles concentrate on classical and Byzantine literature, but archaeology is represented too. Papers include general literary themes such as "ancestors as icons" and the titanic origin of humans" as well as authors such as Homer, Herodotus and Plutarch. There are also papers on classical epigraphy and the archaeological excavations investigating late antique Palestine.
This website publishes the free and full-text Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft journal that focuses on Classical archaeology, literature, and philosophy with several papers on religion, cult and rituals. The individual papers are available in PDF format and are mostly in German, but there are also a few in Italian. The journal also publishes numerous reviews of books, which can be found alongside the papers. There is a full-text search form that returns as results the list of PDF files in which the searched keyword appears. It is possible to subscribe to a mailing list to be notified of new issues. Researchers in particular will find this journal useful.
This site provides an attractively illustrated introduction to the coins and measures of Judaea from early times until the crusader period with historical background and a useful basic bibliography. Before the adoption of Greek and, later, Persian coins (or 'darics') in the 7th-4th centuries BC, a sophisticated system of inscribed weights, based on the unit of the Shekel, was used in Jewish areas. The first Judaean issues proper were not struck until the 4th century BC under Persian and Seleucid licence and were based on the widely used Athenian owls or Persian modes. The Seleucid Antiochus VII also struck hybrid Syrian-Jewish issues in the later 2nd century. The first properly 'Jewish' coins, with Hebrew inscriptions and lacking the portrait heads of earlier issues for religious reasons, did not appear until the time of John Hyrcanus (135-104 BC) and his successors when Judaea became fully independent. The series of coins from the reign of the Herodian dynasty and the Roman conquest down to the Late Empire and Byzantine period provide a fascinating potted history of Judaea as well as important insights on economic and iconographic matters. There is also a short section on the revival of coins of Israel in the 20th century, both in the Mandate period and after independence in 1948. The resource is part of the Jewish History Ring published by Amuseum.org (The Jewish Museum in Cyberspace) and associated with the American Jewish Historical Society. It is a useful complementary source for students of ancient history and archaeology working in the East Mediterranean or those studying general numismatics as well as an attractive introduction for the interested amateur.
Hispania epigraphica is an online free and full-text academic journal publishing new Latin inscriptions and indexes of inscriptions found in Iberia. Each issue of the journal publishes a number of articles in PDF format, usually including an extensively commented list of new inscriptions from both Spain and Portugal (each in a separate section) and an updated list of words that takes in account all inscriptions known. It is an essential research tool for epigraphists interested in Roman Iberia.
"Hispania Epigraphica" is an online database publishing Roman inscriptions from Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal). For each inscription there is a picture; the transcription of the Latin text and the translation in Spanish. The database is searchable. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The House of Ptolemy is a resource guide, intended as a study aid and to provide bibliographical material for students of Greco-Roman Egypt. The main focus of the site, as its name suggests, is the period of the Ptolemaic kings (331 BCE - 30 BCE), descendants of Macedonian Greeks. There are also compendious sections on Roman, Byzantine and modern Egypt. Within these periods, links are arranged by theme into sets and subsets, in a fashion that is generally clear and efficient. Topics covered include: historical overviews; Ptolemaic numismatics; Ptolemaic genealogy and king lists; the transition to Roman provincial Egypt; the city of Alexandria; the culture of Ptolemaic Egypt; the Ptolemaic empire outside Egypt; the Jews of Egypt. Most of the links are presented with a comment from the site's author: this is a personal list, not a faculty or institutional webpage. The selection of items is therefore prone to subjectivity and its completeness cannot be guaranteed; furthermore, material of widely varying intellectual depth, rigour, and specialisation is included among the links. At the time of writing this review, the site was last updated in 2002 - this meant that some of the links were no longer functional. Nonetheless, there is a wealth of material here, well organised; the numerous awards garnered by the page indicate its worth. This site is a useful starting point for students.
The website "In Boudica's Footsteps" accompanied an edition of the Channel 4 programme Fact or Fiction. One of the specially created microsites, it seeks to overturn the myths surrounding the warrior queen of the Iceni, about even whose name (Boadicea, Boudicca, Boudica) there is dissent. Her revolt, led in AD 60 against the Romans, ensured her a place in British national history, and she was revived as a heroine queen in the Victorian era. The site explores the events that led the queen, humiliated by the Romans, to sack Colchester (Camulodunum), London and St Albans (Verulamium), while Suetonius Paulinus was campaigning in North Wales. The website is easy to navigate and outlines the story well, being divided into sections corresponding to the geographical progress of Boudica's rebellion (Thetford to Colchester; Colchester to London; London to St Albans; and St Albans to Mancetter). It is useful as a basic introduction to one of the most fascinating figures in British, and English, history.
The Internet Classics Archive offers access to online editions of classical texts. It currently offers over four hundred works by over fifty different authors, primarily Greek and Roman but also some Chinese (for example Confucius) and Persian (for example Omar Khayyam). All texts are in translation. The site offers a facility (through a link to the Perseus website) by which texts can be searched by work, author or by the entire archive. Users can view brief biographical information on each author through links to the online Encyclopaedia Britannica. The site has been affected by some technical problems which mean that searches can be slow. This is a resource which would mainly be of use to undergraduates looking for translations of major texts. It would be less useful for advanced or specialist research.
This website provides a lecture-style illustrated introduction to ancient Greek and Roman comedy, an excellent overview (by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College) of the subject for school and undergraduate level students of classics and related disciplines. The 29 sections introduce the origins of classical comedy and its role in the religious festivals of Athens, which were established in honour of the god Dionysius. It particularly relates to the Great (or City) Dionysia, one of the two Dionysian festivals (the other being the Rural Dionysia) that was probably established in the 6th century BC, but that is best documented from the 5th century BC onwards. The website outlines the form and function of the theatres and their technical equipment with reference to surviving literary, iconographic and archaeological evidence. There is much useful information on genre, aspects of performance, the role of actors and chorus, and on music, as well as a modest bibliography suitable for undergraduate reading. The text is hypertexted throughout to the Perseus digital library for convenient reference, which makes it an ideal online resource for students taking classical civilisation at an elementary level.
This attractive website is devoted to exploring the life of Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE). It is divided into the following sections, each looking at an aspect of his life: Caesar's youth to his consulate; Gaul to the Rubicon; the Civil War; the conspiracy and his death; the aftermath of his murder; Caesar's legacy; the private man; battles and campaigns (giving detailed information about individual military campaigns); his contemporaries (with biographies of individuals such as Cicero, Brutus, Antony and Cato). The site is illustrated throughout with maps and images from ancient art, and the author makes good use of both primary and secondary source material (although specific references to passages cited are rarely given). There is also a detailed timeline of key events in Caesar's life, and an annotated bibliography of primary and secondary source material, which includes links to other Web resources. This resource provides a useful introduction to Caesar for those studying him for the first time.
K C Hanson's website may be a chaotic montage of loosely connected resources, but within this eclectic host of sub-directories, there are several topics worth exploring by those interested in history, culture or religion. Dr. Hanson's primary interest seems to lie with the interactions between various ancient and classical communities spanning from the apogee of the Egyptian to the Roman Empire (in particular the relationship between the later and the early Christian communities). He has assembled a series of dynastic chronologies for both Israel and Rome, along with a selection of texts relevant to this period. With a little searching one can find ancient documents from Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Greek civilizations, along with a selection from Semitic cultures. These texts, all translated, tend to cluster between the eighth century BCE and the third century CE but there are a number which predate these.
Part of the site provides useful support resources for the textbook 'Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts', which Dr Hanson co-authored with Douglas E. Oakman. Those wishing to delve further into a particular topic may also wish to consult Hanson's robust series of web links to the ancient world and/or his bibliographic collections on rituals on ancient Greco-Roman society; Hellenic, Semitic and Anatolia Cultures; and The Old Testament. An attractive collection of images from many of these cultures has been compiled.
This wide-ranging and attractively produced website, 'Underwater archeology', available in French, English and Arabic, provides an illustrated introduction to the history, methods and major discoveries of underwater explorers, particularly those carried out by the research teams of DRASSM, the Départment des recherches archéologiques subaquatics et sous-marines of the French Ministry of Culture. Underwater archaeology has had a long, though sporadic, history, from the time Roman divers salvaged the cargo of amphoras from a shipwreck in the first century BC to the development of the modern aqualung by Cousteau and Gagnan in 1943. The resource features: a historical chronicle of major developments in maritime archaeology particularly since the designs of Leonardo da Vinci followed by the practical attempts to construct artificial breathing apparatus in the 17th century; an outline of the principal methods of underwater prospection and excavation of wrecks together with notes about the conservation of submerged organic materials; a major survey of shipwrecks around the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of France (a sample of some 700 known) in addition to others sites in Malta, Gabon, Martinique and the Indian Ocean; an account of underwater archaeology in Egypt, in particular the spectacular rediscovery of the submerged parts of Alexandria and of the numerous Greek and Roman wrecks off the Egyptian coast. This notable didactic resource will benefit and improve both amateurs and professionals alike, especially undergraduate students of Mediterranean archaeology and history but also anyone interested in wider issues of world archaeology, trade routes, conservation of underwater finds and heritage issues related to shipwreck sites.
LacusCurtius : Into the Roman World is a significant online collection of a range of useful resources for students of Classics. The site features a Roman Gazetteer, which consists of a photographic guide to various Roman towns and monuments, along with descriptions of archaeological excavations and visitor information. Featured locations include, among others: Rome; Assisi; Ostia; Perugia; and Rimin. The site also hosts around 40 Latin texts by authors such as: Pliny the Elder; Isidore of Seville; Suetonius; Polybius; Quintilian; Celsus; Cato; Procopius; and Macrobius. Some texts are available in Latin, some English, and some in both Latin and English translation. Each text is introduced by the site editor, Bill Thayer, with information about the copy text used (often old Loeb editions now in the public domain) and editorial notes. Other significant online resources include a variety of public-domain reference works. These include a selection of entries from William Smith's 1875 'Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities' and Samuel Ball Platner's 'Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome'. Other resources include: a Roman atlas; a catalogue of Roman Umbria; a section on Latin inscriptions; and an online version of W. R. Lethaby's 'Tomb of Mausolus'. This is an impressive site both in terms of the quantity and quality of the materials it offers.
The archaeological site of Entremont in the Aix-en-Provence region of southern France was one of the chief Celto-Ligurian oppida (or defended settlements) of ancient France whose population was in close contact first with the Greeks of Marseilles and the surrounding coast and later with the Romans who eventually conquered and colonised the area in the 120s BC. This attractively produced website provides, within a hypertext medium, a fascinating guide to the architecture, layout and material culture of the settlement, occupied in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, an account of its broader geographical and historical context and a discussion of contacts between the indigenous inhabitants of ancient France and the wider Mediterranean world. While the ancient authors regarded the native population (called variously Salyes, Salues or Salluvii) as fierce savages who repeatedly threatened the coastal settlers, the archaeology reveals a much more complicated picture of economic and cultural contact which resulted in the adoption of Mediterranean building techniques and lifestyle habits within native communities but which also resulted in the development of vigorous local traditions of cultural expression, most notably in the production of stone carvings for cultic use. The resource also features a valuable history of Celto-Ligurian studies which date back to the early 19th century. Other features include detailed timelines and interactive maps, a bibliography of relevant publications and an didactic archaeological game aimed at a younger school-aged audience (requires a flash plug-in). This resource, which is available in English and French versions, will interest a wide constituency and will benefit both the interested amateur as well as students and researchers of French and Mediterranean archaeology.
This is an excellent resource offering articles on ancient history and archaeology together with an impressive library of photographic images of ancient sites which can be down-loaded for free for non-commercial use. The website is laid out geographically with sections on Greece, Persia, Anatolia, Carthage and Punic Sicily, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Judaea, Germania and Rome (as well a Dutch language resource on Dutch history) while the authoritative but very readable text has many cross links between them. There is no overall structure to individual sections: the Greek entries have a strong emphasis on Alexander the Great and his successors, on various authors such as Plutarch and Herodotos (including selections of extracted texts) and a series of short encyclopaedia-style entries on politicians, philosophers and literary figures. The Judaean passages discuss, for instance, Messianic claimants, the Diaspora and anti-Semitism in the ancient and mediaeval worlds, alongside more linear accounts of the Roman wars and potted biographies of leading Jewish figures. This website will benefit both students and teachers of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern world but the author makes the pointed observation that students must combine the use of electronic resources with proper library research for which the Web is not a substitute.
This website, from the Humanities Department of Reed College, acts as a brief introduction to the Roman historian Livy (59BC-AD17) and his work Ab Urbe Condita (From the Founding of the City). It provides a short biography of the writer and a timeline listing the events described in the books of his history. There is also a selection of short extracts from modern writers' works on Livy, and the site gives links to a Latin text and English translation of the work (from Perseus). Finally, a bibliography offers a selection of articles and books which will enable the interested user to explore the topic further.
This themed online bibliography (which, at the time of reviewing, had last been updated in 2008) has been compiled by Timothy J. Moore of the Department of Classics, University of Texas at Austin, and lists books and papers which will be of relevance to the student of the Roman historian Livy (59BC-AD17). Specific sections cover editions of the text, other bibliographies and commentaries (both book-by-book and on the whole of his Ab Urbe Condita). There is also a section on general works, as well as further sections on particular themes: Livy and Augustus; philosophical and religious views; moral outlook; women; Livy's sources; his style and language; and the lost books of his history. The majority of the works listed here are written in English, although there are several in German, French and Italian.
Over 1,500 colour as well as black and white photographs relating to ancient Greece and Rome taken by the author primarily teaching purposes have been scanned and published online. There are also some non-ancient photographic subjects that have been useful for teaching, such as a photograph of a medieval cathedral for comparison with Roman architecture or a few images of a modern street market in Naples. The site offers a link to a software (Macintosh only) written by the author for teachers of Latin. An internal search engine is also available. The collection can be browsed by subject: England; France; Greece; Italy - (Rome, the Pantheon, Sicily, Italy except Rome and Sicily); and special selections of images (including the Roman house, and some Virgilian sites [Vergil]). The images can be accessed directly or previewed in thumbnails. Information relating to copyright, author and date the photograph has been taken is provided for each image.
This website has placed online a large collection of maps held in the Perry-Castañeda Library of the University of Texas at Austin -- although some maps are available through links to other sites. The site is extensive and clearly laid out, with maps listed alphabetically according to continent and country. There are maps with geographical, topographical, economic and demographic information. Most offerings are current, but there is a special section for historical maps, with most translated at least partly into English. These would constitute a helpful tool both for research and teaching, and afford the opportunity for comparison with more recent versions. There is a links site to other online maps sites and to maps dealers, and an instructions page for viewing and printing site content. Navigation throughout is straightforward. There is an online form for general enquiries to the University of Texas librarians.
This website provides a brief introduction to, and English translation of, the Notitia Dignitatum, a document which was originally written c. 395 AD (and later revised in the early fifth century AD), and which lists all of the various units of the Roman army and the locations where they were stationed. together with a brief introduction. The text used here is taken from William Fairley's 1551 English edition entitled 'Notitia Dignitatum or Register of Dignitaries, which appears in his 'Translations and reprints from Original Sources of European History, Volume 4'.
The extensive and impressive collection of Greek and Roman antiquities in New York's Metropolitan Museum is represented in this well-presented website by photographs of fifty highlights. These range from the third millennium BC (Early Cycladic I/II period) to the third century AD, and include vases, sculptures and metal objects. Each object is accompanied by its inventory numbers, dimensions, and details of material. Descriptions are provided for all pieces, although without reference to notable bibliography. The high-quality photos can be enlarged by being clicked on, and alternate views are offered. There is a search facility restricted to the fifty highlights. The links to other parts of the museum's website are straightforward, and include a history of the gallery of Greek and Roman art and its collections.
This small website, written by Alison B. Griffith, is a hypertext introduction to Mithraism, the ancient Roman mystery cult of the god Mithras. Roman worship of Mithras began sometime during the early Roman empire, perhaps during the late first century CE, and flourished from the second through the fourth centuries CE. The resource gives details on the following topics: the deity Mithras; possible origins of the Roman cult; structure and liturgy of the cult; iconography; and the popularity of Mithraism geographically, socially and chronologically. There is also a short bibliography of scholarly works.
This online resource contains an illustrated essay by David Ulansey on the meaning of some of the symbolism connected to the ancient mystery religion of Mithraism, which flourished across the Roman empire from the end of the first century CE until the eventual triumph of Christianity in the fifth century. Mithraism has left no scriptural evidence of the beliefs or cultic practices of its intiates, so Ulansey attempts here to penetrate some of its mysteries by studying the material artefacts and iconography that remain. The central thesis of this essay is that the cosmic symbolism of the Mithraic cult, with its zodiacal 'grades' of initiation and bull-slaying imagery, is connected to astronomical and astrological observation of the path of the sun through the constellations. Although the arguments become quite abstruse, they are clearly presented and illustrated with some useful diagrams. Ulansey's argument is an alternative to the accepted wisdom that Mithraism originated in Iran. This essay does not focus on the historical, archaeological, or sociological aspects of the worship of Mithras so much as on the basis for the worshippers' beliefs and the iconography. For those interested in the subject it offers a useful angle of approach through the study of the heavens.
This is the official website of the museum of Arles, France. It is an educational website which introduces the museum, its collections, and present and past exhibitions. The section about the collections includes short texts and several images for each period represented. Prehistory (Stone Age) and protohistory (Metals Age) are included, but most of the pages focus on the Roman period up until the late antiquity with thematic sub-sections on economy, mosaics and funerary rituals. Each sub-section is also divided into: a short presentation of the historical context; artefacts preserved at the museum; and other archaeological features from the area conserved elsewhere. Hovering the mouse arrow on highlighted keywords in any text will present a definition of terms or further information. In the section presenting temporary exhibitions, essential information and images accompany the descriptions. Past exhibitions have focused on: Algeria; Gaza; funerary rituals in Egypt; and Christianity in the Middle Ages. This website should prove useful to students.
This website describes the University of Cambridge’s Museum of Classical Archaeology. Located within the Faculty of Classics (although open to the public) the Museum is formed from a collection of some 450 plaster casts of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, including many well known pieces, and is one of the few remaining of this (once common) type of study collection. Additionally, the Museum’s reserve research collection (consultation by appointment) includes a further 200 plaster casts, Greek vases, pottery sherds and epigraphic squeezes. Full lists of the casts and sherds are available in PDF documents, although a database is promised. The website explains the Collection’s history and highlights, such as The Peplos Kore a cast of an ancient Greek statue of a young girl which is as brightly painted as the original would have been when it was created. Other noted highlights include casts of the Lysikrates Monument, Sounion Kouros, Olympia Pediment and Farnese Heracles. The website also includes details of the museums services for schools and family activities. The museum is closed until spring 2010.
Nordlist is an free full-text journal published by the University of Tromsø. There are papers on classical and modern literature; archaeology; and a variety of other topics that reflect the research carried out in that university. Papers are in Norwegian, German or English. Topics include community and place (e.g. the Americans and the Grand Canyon); dramatist John Webster; Anna Akhmatova, Leo Tolstoy and Russian literature; T. S. Eliot; rhetoric; Romanticism; Northern minorities (e.g. Sámi, Nenets, etc.); semiotics; Aksum stelae; Harold Pinter; narrative in Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre; Fridtjof Nansen; the Hellenistic Toledo krater; game boards in Iron Age Northern Europe; and others. A few papers are not accessible online and many are available in PDF format. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This detailed website is devoted to the study of Ostia, the principal harbour of Imperial Rome. Detailed plans and descriptions are given for 52 of the buildings of Ostia Antica, and there are many photographs of the sites as they look now. Another section describes the history of the excavations, with links to other excavation reports available on the Internet. An extensive section on current research provides up-to-date scholarly reports, and there are also summaries of recent colloquia. Reference materials include an extensive but non-annotated bibliography, maps, plans, topographical indexes, and 3D models available only as pictures. A further section provides ancient textual sources of information on Ostia. Texts include passages from classical historians, inscriptions, and graffiti found on the buildings. Another section provides information on the relationship between Rome and Ostia and the significance of the town on the Tiber. This includes more general material on Mediterranean harbours and maritime history. The website also provides links to various other sites connected with the Soprintendenza of Ostia, Rome and Roman archaeology.
The Oxford Roman Economy Project is a research project funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council and based in the Faculty of Classics, University of Oxford that focuses on the major economic activities underpinning the economy of the Roman Empire. Among the researched activities are wine and olive oil production and trade; fish salting and mining. The website publishes news and events; conference announcements; a few working papers; some very useful bibliographies; and an interactive map plotting the location of recent expeditions by team members in Egypt. At the time of review the most useful parts were the bibliographies and conference announcements, but further contents will published as the project progresses. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This online encyclopaedia from the Perseus digital library is a comprehensive reference source for a vast range of aspects of the classical world. Via the encyclopaedia's table of contents the user is able to click on the first letter of the term for which they are searching and then browse through entries beginning with that letter. Alternatively they may type in a search term. The breadth of information here to some extent defies summary, but among other things the following are included: key individuals (authors and statesmen, for example); important sites throughout the Greek and Roman world; mythology and religion; art and architecture; historical events; literary works. Each encyclopaedia entry provides hyperlinks to relevant resources in the Perseus library, including cross references to other articles in the encyclopaedia and direct links to primary and secondary sources as well as to any related images. The encyclopaedia is an excellent starting-point for those seeking information on classical topics.
This is the website of the Phoenix journal, a publication of the Classical Association of Canada, whose stated aim is to publish articles in all the major aspects of classics (literature, history, archaeology, philosophy, religion, art, architecture and so on) up to AD 600. Although Phoenix is a specialist journal it claims that its articles are also written for the more general reader. Two editions of Phoenix are produced each year (the first was in 1946). The site provides access to abstracts of current articles as well as to contents lists for previous editions of the journal. There is a search facility which allows the user to search the titles of all articles published in the journal. (Note that the full text of the journal is provided by J-STOR for those affiliated to institutions which subscribe to the service). The website also provides information for those wishing to contribute to the journal.
This excellent online resource is devoted to a large (70 square metres) plaster model which represents Rome in the fourth century CE (the time of the emperor Constantine). The model, originally created by the architect Paul Bigot (1870-1942) and now housed at the Université de Caen, has been used as the basis for a virtual three-dimensional model which features on this website. Here the user will find an exceptionally detailed interactive tour of the model, with maps, images and video clips of each building and area of the ancient city. This can be accessed in a variety of different ways to suit the user's own requirements, with the material organised either geographically (where each location is given a separate sub-section), historically (with sections on monarchy, republic, early empire and late empire), thematically (divided into, for example, religious buildings, baths, dwellings and so on) or via a map of the city. A scholarly bibliography is also given for each individual building/geographical area. The resource therefore has a wide range of possibilities for helping both students and researchers to envisage the architecture and geography of the ancient city.
This Italian website provides a summary of the archaeological excavations at Pompeii. It contains information on the history of the excavations, the chronological development of Pompeii, a long bibliography, including epigraphic sources, and a glossary. A list of ancient authors writing about Pompeii is available and includes excerpts of works in Latin and Italian. There are illustrated sections for all aspects that have been studied, including general themes, such as urban planning, architecture, society, economy, religion, technology and art. There are also more specific themes such as: hygiene, theatre, elections and sex (lupanare) in Pompeii, the Roman calendar, medicine, clothing and food habits. Several famous buildings and their contents are reviewed in detail and these include private houses, thermae, theatres, temples, gates and public buildings. This website also includes a map and a few pictures of reconstructions. The language is very simple and there are several colour pictures. A complete sitemap is available by clicking on the "i" [index] symbol; the tree map should be avoided as it installs a proprietary plug-in for no practical use. This is an educational website that could be used during lectures; it requires Internet Explorer.
This Web resource accompanies Penelope Allison's 2003 book 'Pompeian households: An analysis of the material culture' (Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Monograph 42) and provides a valuable description and analysis of the form, function and decoration of 30 atrium houses found in Pompeii, together with an extensive database of their artefactual contents. Published by the Stoa Consortium, this website will benefit students and researchers of Roman history and archaeology as well as those interested in the history of domestic interiors and the anthropology of space. The houses analysed here were excavated between 1826 and 1978 so the level of documentation varies tremendously. Many of the objects from older exploration lack contextual or stratigraphical information but Allison's careful analysis of the scientifically excavated houses provides a framework for understanding the masses of material which cannot be assigned a definite findspot. Each house is described room by room in terms of function, decoration and architectural layout (with plans and photographs). The houses are also placed within the wider urban context of Pompeii and readers with SVG graphics can browse an interactive map of the town which links with the main catalogue of houses. Earlier scholarly interpretations are also discussed in the light or more recent understanding of the archaeology of the town. The site also provides an extensive glossary and bibliography as well as help in using the resource and its database.
This website presents information and photographs relating to archaeological surveys undertaken in the forum at Pompeii, which was destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79. The Pompeii Forum Project is a collaborative venture sponsored by the National [USA] Endowment for the Humanities and the University of Virginia (amongst others). A large archive of black and white images of the buildings found there is online here, along with detailed reports on the technology and instruments used to undertake the surveys. Further reports give details of a project which uses the principles of structural engineering to investigate the reconstruction of Pompeii after an earthquake there in AD 62 (seventeen years before the eruption of Vesuvius). The focus is on the urban centre of the Roman city of Pompeii, and its urban history through to modern times. There are also links to further resources on Pompeii for use by teachers and students, and a list of lectures and publications relating to the project.
This website publishes information and preliminary reports on the archaeological excavations of the ancient site of Portus (Fiumicino), one of the harbours of ancient Rome. The Portus Project is a research initiative between the University of Southampton; the British School at Rome; the University of Cambridge; and the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici di Ostia and it has been funded in part by the AHRC. The website details the objectives of the research and the planned surveys. The research will focus on the pre-Trajanic port, the important port constructed under Emperor Trajan and the Late Antique harbour. Some maps, illustrations and 3D reconstructions (just as pictures) are also available, and there is a separate gallery of pictures. An updated bibliography is also available. Students interested on the harbours of ancient Rome as well as researchers may find this website useful.
This online resource focuses on the first emperor of Rome, Augustus Caesar (Octavian, 63 BC-14 AD) and provides a detailed introduction to the man himself and to the history of ancient Rome during his lifetime. The website is divided into clear sections detailing the key points of Augustus' life, with information on his early life, his political career and his role as triumvir as well as his time as princeps, or emperor. Further sections look at Augustus' legacy and his private life. The site is easy to navigate and richly illustrated throughout. There is also a bibliography of primary and secondary source material, including links to other relevant websites. This is a good starting point for anyone who is looking for an overview of this key figure in Roman history.
The Project on Ancient Cultural Engagement (PACE) focuses on ancient authors who found themselves in between cultures in order to address problems of cultural identity and cultural interaction in the Roman world, 200 BCE to 300 CE, with particular emphasis to the Greek and eastern world. Among the texts included are those of Polybius of Megalopolis; Flavius Josephus; Diodorus Siculus and others. The website publishes Classical texts with original text; English translations; full commentary; and textual parallels. The website also publishes full-text papers and books in PDF format ("scholarly studies") and abstracts of relevant theses ("dissertations"). There is a section on "History of Reception" concerned with the reception of "The Judean War"; "The Judean Antiquities"; "Life of Josephus"; and "Against Apion". It is possible to perform keyword searches on the bibliographic database only or on the bibliographic database plus the geographical (places) and archaeological notes; the notes can also be browsed. It is possible to contribute to this project by registering using a form. This website may interest researchers interested in the topics of cultural identity and acceptance in the Roman world.
This is the website of 'Projet Volterra', a research project funded by the British Academy through the AHRB (Arts and Humanities Research Board), based at the History Department of University College, London. The project is named in memory of Edoardo Volterra, a distinguished 'Roman lawyer' who died in 1987, leaving his collection of books to the École Française de Rome. The stated aim of the project is to 'promote the study of Roman legislation in its full social, political and legal context'. The site is predominantly a database for Roman edicts issued between AD 305 and AD 383, and uses a variety of sources, (including both epigraphic and papyrological, but mainly the Law Codes). An online version of books one to eight of the Theodosian Code is available (based upon Mommsen's 1905 edition), and the team have aimed to present this as close to the original format as possible. Additionally, the site offers reviews of books on Roman law relevant to the project. Such reviews are not the team's own, but have been taken from the Bryn Mawr Classical Review and the Medieval Review. A list of emperors from Pertinax (AD 192) to Marcian (died AD 457) is present on the site, as is a list of other relevant Web resources.
This Web page describes AHRC-funded research to re-display the Ancient Greek and Roman collections at the University of Cambridge's Fitzwilliam Museum. The project aims to bring the University's archaeological scholarship into "conversation" with contemporary museum display practices, in the light of recent advances in art history research, moving away from 'thematic' or 'stylistic' displays, towards an understanding of the role of "changing technology, the complexities of workshop practices, and the role of ancient markets" as well the influence of collectors on museum objects. Outputs will include a new public catalogue and Web pages for visitors.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Religion, Dynasty and Patronage in Rome, c.440-840' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as tab delimited files. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. Religion, Dynasty, and Patronage in Rome, c.440-c.840 aims to offer a new approach to the social history of Christianity in Europe in the formative period from the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire to the rise of the Carolingians. By compiling a relational database of patronage (both ecclesiastical and secular) in Rome from the mid-fifth to the mid-ninth centuries, the project seeks to make visible the social basis of the much-discussed process of 'Christianization.' The goal of the database is to make possible new kinds of comparative work through the 'levelling' effect of entering data from sources and periods not usually considered together. It also aims at making some of the sources (narrative sources, inscriptions, charters) directly available to users. The database covers patronage transactions in the city of Rome (including the suburban basilicas) from the mid-fifth to the mid-ninth centuries. The database includes different sources for patronage such as narrative sources, inscriptions, charters and letters. Due to the broad variety of source types, a relational database model was employed where several aspects of patronage such as the birth place of donors, the places where a transaction has been issued and the location of particular objects are related to this sources.
This simple website created by Dr W J Kowalski of Pennsylvania State University discusses artefacts which provide clues about the Romans' love of sporting pursuits, and particularly of games like handball and catch. The site provides pointers on ancient rules of play and is illustrated throughout with images from ancient art, some of which can be enlarged (references are not, however, provided for the images). Ball-playing was popular among the Romans, and they often spent their morning exercises playing games on the fields (palaestra) or ball-courts (sphaerista). The web pages provide descriptions of these games, including: handball (Expulsim Ludere); Trigon; football; field hockey; Harpasta; Phaininda; and Episkyros. There is also a full list of references to this brief but useful guide.
This website consists of a series of illustrated articles by Dr W J Kowalski, of Pennsylvania State University, presenting and reconstructing the rules for a wide variety of ancient Roman board games, including: knucklebones (Tali & Tropa); dice (Tesserae); Roman chess (Latrunculi); Roman draughts [Checkers] (Calculi); twelve lines (Duodecim Scripta); lucky sixes (Felix Sex); noughts and crosses [Tic-tac-toe] (Terni Lapilli); Roman backgammon (Tabula); and Egyptian backgammon (Senet). Many of the sections feature diagrams illustrating the boards used to play these games; these are often also accompanied by images of relevant archaeological finds, or from ancient art. There is also a full list of references to allow anyone whose interest has been sparked by this brief but useful guide to explore the topic further.
This website provides images of the Roman calendar, marked with feast days and holidays as well as the corresponding modern calendar date. There is also an explanation about how to use the calendar, with details of its 3 primary markers, the Kalends, the Nones and the Ides. There is also a brief illustrated account of the archaeology of the Julian calendar, with images of the few fragments of Roman calendars that survive (collectively known as Fasti). The user may click on the images to study an enlarged picture. The references that support the Roman Calendar are also listed.
This website is an enthusiast's collection of illustrations of the Roman Emperors. This started as a set of photographs of busts taken by the author in various museums, and now includes acknowledged contributions from others. This resource is arranged into a list of the Roman emperors and whenever possible, their busts and/or any other contributions they made to Roman art or architecture. There are links to biographies and further background material drawn from other online resources. Clicking on the emperor's name displays his coin portrait. Although not all emperors have photographic images, this does provide a good visual introduction and contextual information for school students and undergraduates.
This website accompanies a television series, The Roman Empire in the First Century, which was first broadcast by the US Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) in 2001. As well as providing details of the programme's production, the site also features a range of resources relating to the history of ancient Rome. It includes an introduction to this period of history, with information on the transition from Republic to Empire and details on the period from the age of Augustus (27 BC-AD 14) to the rule of Trajan (AD 98-117). There are also features on: writers of the period, including Virgil, Ovid, Seneca, Petronius, and the Elder and Younger Plinys; the social order, with information about emperors, senators, equestrians, plebeians and slaves; and daily life, covering marriage and the family, the home, Roman baths, entertainment and religion. A timeline and a Julio-Claudian family tree are also provided. Although the site is primarily aimed at schools (including lesson plans related to the topics it covers) it offers a broad and clear overview of the historical period which serves as a useful introduction to anyone studying the Roman Empire for the first time.
"Roman Forum Excavation" is the website of a collaborative archaeological excavation between the American Institute for Roman Culture and the Universities of Oxford (UK) and Stanford (USA). This is an almost unique opportunity to excavate part of the great forum of the capital of the Roman empire as permission to dig is rarely conceded by the Italian Ministry of Culture (Italian Ministero per i Beni ed Attività Culturali) to non-Italian projects. The aim of the dig is to investigate the part of the edge of the Forum, between the Oratory of the Forty Martyrs, the so-called 'Domitianic aula' and the Temple of Castor, an important commercial zone on the edge of the Roman Forum in the Republican, Imperial, and late Roman periods, known as the area post aedem Castoris (the area behind the Temple of Castor and Pollux), as well as the related area on the adjacent Vicus Tuscus. Among the results of the first season (1 July - 7 August 2003) was the discovery (sensationally reported in the press as evidence of insane power-hunger) that Caligula appears to have suppressed the street to the south of the Temple of Castor in order to extend his palace right up to the temple podium, probably to make the temple a monumental entrance to the palace as described by Suetonius and Dio Cassius. Subsequently the street was restored and the palace facade apparently remodelled, probably by Claudius later in the the first century CE. The report of the 2004 season is also available. The project was led in the field by Dr Andrew Wilson, Oxford University Institute of Archaeology, and co-directed with Wilson by Dr Jennifer Trimble, Stanford University Department of Classics, and Dr Darius Arya, the American Institute for Roman Culture, Inc. (IRC). The IRC hosts the website.
As its title suggests, this website is devoted to the Roman gladiatorial games, and provides a significanct amount of information on the subject. The author of the site is Professor Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, in New York. The following topics are coveres: on the origins of the gladiatorial shows; the political and cultural overtones associated with the games; the various types of gladiators; venationes (fighting with animals); capital punishment; and the amphitheatres (the most famous of which is the Colosseum in Rome) in which such shows occurred. The descriptive text provides a series of sound basic introductions to the subject; each of these is accompanied by images taken from Roman mosaics depicting gladiators. There is also a short bibliography of further reading.
The Roman Law website is part of the 'Law-related Internet Project' at the University of Saarbrücken and makes available some of the surviving fragments of the great corpus of civil law initiated by the 6th century AD Emperor Justinian, accompanied by the gloss written by the mediaeval jurist Accursius (1185-1263). The site is aimed at a number of different levels of interest and knowledge. The beginner is provided with a 'Questions and Answers' page outlining the basics of Roman law and its reception and interpretation in mediaeval Europe. More advanced scholars can subscribe to the Ius Romanum mailing and discussion list. Also featured is a useful page of links to other sites relevant to the history of law or the ancient world generally and some short pages on the history of theft. The resource is available in English, German, Italian and Latin versions though much of the source material, including the bibliographic information on leading jurists, remains in Latin. This site will therefore largely benefit advanced scholars or linguistically proficient undergraduates interested in Roman and mediaeval law or else in Late Roman and early Byzantine society.
Roman Law Resources is a website containing a great deal of material relating to Roman law, and which also acts as a gateway to other sites that may be of interest to researchers in this field. The site itself is fully searchable by keyword and offers information on the following topics: secondary literature; reviews of publications; teaching materials; primary sources; bibliographies; electronic reprints; errata in Roman Law books; corrections to Alan Watson's English translation of Justinian's Digest; and palingenesiae of Latin private rescripts and imperial Latin laws. Websites which are listed are each given a full description. Several of the resources available via this website are searchable databases providing a wealth of primary information. In addition to these materials, there are several information sections, detailing journals, web portals, prominent historians of ancient law, future events, etc. This is a clear and comprehensive website which provides an excellent starting page for research. It is navigable in German as well as in English.
This small but neatly presented website relates to an important Roman military diploma found on a river bed in Croatia in 1997. Military diplomata, bronze documents testifying to the honourable discharge of a Roman soldier, survive in large numbers; few, however, are as well preserved as this, which dates from 71 AD. The text is beautifully preserved on both the inner and outer faces of the diploma, and the witnesses' seals survive beneath a removable wooden cover. The text provides interesting evidence for Roman activity in the then province of Pannonia, and constitutes the first written evidence of a town in the modern Slavonski Brod region. The English section of the website offers a series of good-quality photographs of the artefact with transcriptions of the text and some notes on its provenance and significance. The quality of both the diploma itself and of the Museum's presentation of it make this site worth a visit for anyone with an interest in Roman military history or this type of epigraphy.
The website Roman Numeral and Date Conversion, with Roman Numerals Calculator and Roman Numerals Test, has been constructed by Steven Gibbs, a freelance enthusiast based in Guernsey.The site provides online tools for the calculation of dates in the Gregorian calendar in Roman numeric form. The site not only provides help with converting year dates into Roman numerals, but also in translating dates from the Gregorian calendar into their equivalent Julian form. The dates are expressed either in full Latin text, or in the more abbreviated form used by the Romans. For each date entered, users will be offered five variant forms.The site also offers useful notes on the historical development of the calendar, and the transition from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. There are links to other web resources relating to calendars, and a short bibliography of works on the subject.There is also an online tool for the conversion of Arabic numbers into Roman numerals. Other features include a Roman calculator, which carries curiosity rather than practical value.The site will be a very useful resource for those needing help with conversion of Roman dates and numbers, and could prove especially useful as a classroom tool.
The Roman Numerals and Calendar Web pages have been compiled by Paul Lewis, a freelance journalist and broadcaster. The site is not intended to function primarily as a conversion tool but to provide background information about the history of the Roman calendar and the formulation of dates in Latin. The site shows users how to form combinations of Roman numerals and offers detailed information about variant forms which were used in antiquity. There is also material on apparent anomalies in the Roman numeric system, including the expression of Roman numbers on clock-faces. There is an online quiz with answers provided although this is probably too advanced for use in secondary schools. The site is mainly aimed at a general interest audience, although it could prove useful for ancient historians wanting clarification on issues of dating.
This website is based around Peutinger's Tabula, a twelfth-century copy of the only known Roman road map; the original map showed all of the territory conquered by Rome. In the nineteenth century the map was divided into eleven sections in order to preserve it; the website is based around these sections. The user clicks on a section and then on the name of a town or city and is taken to an image of the map which features that place. The map itself provides a fascinating insight into the geography of the Roman empire, although the online resource is somewhat difficult to navigate and loses some of its impact owing to the impossibility of providing an image of the map as a whole.
Compiled by Mary Harrsch, Director of Information Technology at the University of Oregon's College of Education, this weblog acts as an online 'magazine' which focuses on the Roman empire and the civilisations which interacted with it. Blog posts feature updates about topics such as: developments in the study of ancient history; museum news relating to Roman artefacts; information on classical pedagogy; and references to Roman history in popular culture. The website also features sub-sections on the following related themes: Roman archaeology; scholars working in the field of Roman studies; academic presentations on the Roman empire (with extracts from articles and links to any online versions of these); recently published books and novels on various aspects of the ancient world; and news about games and entertainment based on Roman themes. This diligently-updated blog will be of particular interest to those interested in the modern reception of classical history, as well as to those with a broader interest in ancient Rome.
This website, illustrated with 232 photos, is an excellent introduction to the Villa Romana del Casale, a late Roman villa near Piazza Armerina in Sicily, famed for its polychrome mosaics. Divided into seven sections, the resource offers a comprehensive overview of the villa and the mosaics which decorate it. The introduction outlines its history from the time of construction until its excavation, and a brief account of the villa's function as the centre of a large agricultural estate. In the introductory section there is a plan of the villa; the user clicks on particular areas of this to be taken to photographs and detailed explanatory text. Sections of the resource are devoted to the following topics: how the villa was used in antiquity; the name of the villa and its owner; the mosaics; statues, wall painting and other decorative elements; visiting the villa; literature and links; and photographs. Hyperlinks on each page take the user to further information about key topics. Whilst the photos on this website were taken for personal interest, without perfect lighting conditions and sometimes from awkward angles, they remain an excellent resource, if only for their accessibility and generally high quality. They can all be enlarged.
This is the website of the BBC Radio 4 programme The Roman Way, first broadcast in 2003 and presented by journalist David Aaronovitch, which explores the daily lives of the vast and diverse population which made up the Roman empire. The resource allows users to listen to the series online and provides a commentary on each of the four episodes together with insights on the programme from the presenter and the producer. Other features include a fact file of basic information on the Roman empire, a selection of recipes from the cook book of 1st century AD gourmet Marc Apicius, a list of colloquial Latin phrases and a page of useful external links to relevant webpages. Technical advice is provided for those who need audio help to listen to the programme online. Although aimed largely at the general public, 'The Roman way' will also interest A level candidates and undergraduates studying classics, ancient history and archaeology.
This is the website to accompany Guy de la Bédoyí Ã‚Â¨re's Television series "The Romans in Britain" telling the story of the Roman occupation and its lasting impact - "The Romans helped shape the modern world, but as we are entering a new millennium their influence seems to be waning. How wide is the gap between our perceptions of the Romans and what we actually know about them?". This was broadcast on BBC2 and as part of the Open University's Open2 presentations. Contributors to the series in support of the prolific writer (and now presenter) de la Bédoyí Ã‚Â¨re are archaeologists Gustav Milne (Museum of London), Professor Martin Millett (Southampton University), Simon James, Stewart Ainsworth (Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, and Channel Four's "Time Team"), Lindsay Allason-Jones (Museum of Antiquities, University of Newcastle upon Tyne), Bill Griffiths (Tyne and Wear Museums); Gerald Brodribb; Sally Grainger ; David Rudkin (Fishbourne Roman Palace ) and Eugene Fraser (Butser Ancient Farm), and the prolific and respected writer, and director of the Vindolanda Trust - Robin Birley. The website is separated into the 3 episodes: Fact and Fable; Coming Of Age; and Hadrian's Wall. The full transcript of the programmes are available under "Script" and they are the most interesting part of the website. The left navigation provides links to: a timeline; details of the main locations visited in the series; an extensive reading list, links to other sites; and more information about the Open University courses that the programmes support.
This website by prof Barbara McManus contains her lecture notes for the course "Ancient Rome in Film, Fiction, and Fact". It contains several illustrated articles aimed as an introduction to Roman civilisation for students. There are articles on historical characters such as Spartacus; Julius Caesar; Mark Anthony; Cleopatra; Octavian Augustus; Emperor Tiberius; Emperor Caligula. Further articles focus on topics such as politics; the army; clothing; theatre; baths; chariot racing and gladiatorial games. This website can be very useful for students and should be considered as a supplementary source of lecture notes.
Samuel Ball Platner's Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome was originally published by Oxford University Press in 1929, and this website offers a digital version of its contents. It features scans of each page of this extensive alphabetical guide to the monuments, temples, bridges, streets, and fora of ancient Rome, with the period covered dating from the sixth century BC to the sixth century AD. Platner's work offers detailed entries on each building or feature, with a description and a series of references and quotations from ancient texts which discuss the highlighted landmarks. The work may be browsed page-by-page, or alternatively there is a search facility which enables the user to enter a specific term: a link to the relevant page of the dictionary is then given. The dictionary also features a chronological list of dateable monuments.
Scholia : Studies in Classical Antiquity is an international journal of classical and related studies published by the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university. This website provides an index of articles from 1992 onwards as well as information about the staff, editors and advisory committee of the journal and the usual advice to prospective contributors. (You need to be in an institution which subscribes to ProQuest or to LOCKSS to make full use of this journal, e.g. to browse by author and volume, view thumbnails of the articles and of course to download abstracts and texts of articles.) The site is linked to Scholia Reviews, a related electronic site from the University of Natal which publishes a wider range of reviews that those printed in the paper publication of Scholia. The remit of the journal is very broad and includes articles on late antiquity and the mediaeval world, as well as the reception of classical learning during the renaissance and early modern periods and the continued relevance of classical studies in the modern world. The editors advise the use of Netscape 7.0 for optimal results when downloading papers. This online publication will benefit students and researchers in classical studies and ancient history.
Scholia Reviews is an electronic journal of reviews for classics, ancient history, and related subjects. Subjects of books recently reviewed include: Greek historiography; late antiquity; Roman art and architecture; classical myth; Roman religion; Greek and Roman literature. The journal has been published on an annual basis since 1992. Book reviews are available via email as well as on the website. A selection of reviews are also published in the international printed journal, Scholia. Reviews tend to be between 1500-2500 words long. The Scholia Reviews website also includes details of books received and requiring review and guidelines for review authors (including the system for transcribing Greek).
The website of the School of History, Classics, and Archaeology at Birkbeck College, University of London, essentially provides information for those considering courses at Birkbeck, or who are already on one of the courses. However, the website also has a excellent set of resources aimed at its students which can be used by any interested party. The sections Undergraduate, Classics, and Medieval resources point the student towards useful websites and other resources in the field. There is also information on forthcoming conferences and projects within the School, as well as links to pertinent lecture and seminar lists at IHR and ICS. Each individual department has listings of its staff, their research interests, and contact details.
The website Skenotheke: Images of the Ancient Stage has been developed by John Porter, a classical archaeologist based at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. The site is dedicated to images of ancient Greek and Roman theatre which are available on the Web; as such, whilst it does not feature original content, it is a very useful one-stop resource for those interested in ancient drama and the locations where this was performed. Links are provided to virtual reconstructions of ancient theatres, as well as to images of modern productions of classical plays. Images of ancient theatres are arranged by geographical location. Sections are dedicated to the following: the theatre of Dionysus at Athens; deme theatres; other theatres across mainland Greece (including those at Corinth, Delphi and Epidauros); the theatres of Asia Minor; and those on the Greek islands. There are also resources on Roman theatre including that at Pompeii. In addition, the site offers a collection of images of Greek and Roman drama shown in ancient art (including: vase paintings; figurines; mosaics; frescoes; and architectural decoration). These images would be useful for those studying acting in the Greek theatre and related topics such as Greek masks. The site offers resources for the study of satyr plays and comedy as well as Greek tragedy.
This is the website of the Society for Libyan Studies, founded in 1969 with support from the British Academy. The Society aims to encourage and coordinate the activities of researchers working on Libya in Britain and elsewhere. The Society is interested in a broad range of research including: archaeology; history; linguistics; natural sciences; and religion. The site is a valuable resource for information on current academic activities and potential sources of support for researchers. The Society provides some grants and scholarships and organises fieldwork trips. It also publishes the Journal of Libyan Studies, and the site provides tables of contacts for the volumes for 1983-1999, plus abstracts for some of these volumes. Details of forthcoming lectures and meetings concerning Libya are given, plus details of relevant collections in British libraries and archives. The site links to: archaeological sites in Libya; Libyan and British institutes; and other relevant sites.
This is the website of the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, the main organisation in the United Kingdom encouraging the study of Roman history, archaeology and culture down to the early Byzantine period circa 700 AD. The website provides useful information on the structure and activities of the society, such as: forthcoming conferences and meetings; information on grants and bursaries; details of the library; and recent society news. Also included are details of Roman Society publications such as the journals Britannia and the Journal of Roman Studies, and their associated monographs. The contents page and abstracts of volumes of these journals published from 2002 onwards is available online, in addition to the content pages of volumes dating back to 1996. There is also a useful series of weblinks to similar associations and societies involved in classical studies. This website will benefit students and researchers in the field of Roman and ancient Mediterranean studies.
The hydraulics of Roman aqueducts website is written by a professor in civil engineering, hydraulic and applied fluid mechanics at the University of Queensland. Offered on the website is, therefore, a civil engineer's perspective, rather than that of an archaeologist, which provides a basic introduction to the subject of Roman aqueducts. As well as focusing on aqueducts, the author also includes information on other water management systems (such as various types of modern dams) including a history of arch dams. Detailed photographs of a limited selection (about half a dozen) of Roman aqueducts are shown. These are are largely confined to aqueducts in France (such as the Gier and Brévenne aqueducts in Lyon), as this is where the finest examples are to be found. A select, but useful introductory, bibliography on Roman aqueducts is included, as are a handful of links to other websites relating to specific aqueducts (such as the Mons and Gorze aqueducts).
This is the official website of the Superintendence of Pompeii, the public organisation responsible of the excavations and conservation of Herculaneum; Oplontis; Stabiae; Boscoreale; and Pompeii, the wealthy Roman city near Naples destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. An English translation is provided for some pages, but is often rather unidiomatic. Navigating the website is unnecessarily difficult. Several useful resources are buried deep within it - suggested itineraries, a history of the excavations, pictures and descriptions of the individual buildings. The English version sometimes difficult and incomplete. The Italian version is substantially different and with more contents: it is a pity that the main website of UNESCO site could not be translated in English. A Flash animation (the world of Caius) is aimed specifically at children and is available in the English version. There are many virtual panoramas (QuickTime, Flash, and IPIX plugins required), also in the English version.
The Italian version contains important sections, briefly reviewed here. Section "La Soprintendenza" focuses on the organisation and activities of the Superintendence. Clicking on "modulistica" (forms) there are the forms and bureaucratic procedure to submit the request for an authorisation to publish photographs and videos, which is required also for published scholarly works. Clicking on "laboratorio di ricerche applicate" (the archaeobotanical lab) and then on "banca dati" it is possible access to an updated list of plant remains found during the excavations at Pompeii; going back one level and clicking on "bibliografia" instead it is possible to access the bibliography. Clicking on "ufficio stampa" (press office; also a separate section) will provide access to all recent official communications (comunicati stampa), and there are also the links to the "mediacenter" (a simple selector of virtual panoramas) and the "fotopiano interattivo" an interactive aerial view of Pompeii from where virtual panoramas of 24 buildings can be accessed. The panoramas are larger than usual, but also of low quality. "Mediacenter" and "fotopiano" are also accessible from other sections. Section "siti archeologici" has very limited contents, useful are just the PDF maps of the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum; practical information to visit the archaeological sites (more information in section "info visita"); some information on the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD (including poignant pictures of casts of victims); and the "mediagallery" (gallery of pictures). Sections "mostre ed eventi" (exhibitions and events) as well as "progetti e ricerca" (projects and research) are very similar and provide some information on recent projects and other activities. This website has some contents for everyone, but there are very few contents for researchers since most sections contain images and virtual panoramas (useful for students and in teaching), news, or practical information. The short texts (mostly in Italian) appear inadequate for use at academic level and target the general public.
This website was initially designed to support Ancient History students at the University of Calgary, but offers freely accessible online versions from key Latin and Greek texts in English translation. A selection of sources relating to Greek history, Roman republican and imperial history and late antiquity may be found here. Texts relating to fifth-century BC Greek history include: Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War (Book I); Aeschylus' Persians; the pseudo-Aristotelian Athenian Constitution; and Plutarch's Alcibiades, Aristides, Cimon, Nicias and Pericles. The section on Roman republican history features several of the comparisons from Plutarch's Lives; for the Roman imperial period Tacitus' Annals (Book I) features. Electronic texts for the study of late antiquity (the fourth century AD onwards) are generally more difficult to find, and it is here that the site offers a convenient compilation of useful resources. Featured authors here are: Gregory Thaumaturgus; Lactantius; Eusebius; Athanasius; the Cappadocian Fathers; Symmachus; Ambrose; Jordanes; and Priscus. Each cited text is accompanied by a brief introduction to its author.
In the website “Theorizing Satire: A Bibliography”, Brian A. Connery, Associate Professor of English at Oakland University, provides an online bibliography of critical works on satire and satirical writing. The bibliography contains a contents page and focuses on works that treat satire generically rather than concentrating upon individual works. An extensive amount of bibliographical material is listed and a diverse range of historical periods (classical, medieval and beyond) and national literatures (mostly Roman, British and American) are encompassed. An index of categories is provided with links to the relevant bibliographical material. None of the material catalogued appears to be available online, but this resource is nonetheless of use to anyone studying or researching satire in almost any of its numerous forms.
Created by the University of Michigan Library, Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity offers a good visual and descriptive introduction to magical practices, devices and ornamentation from the pre-Christian period. Developed around the University's own extensive collection of papyri texts, each section begins with the description of a specific type of magical object, ranging from a early magic recipe books to a protective amulet. This description is followed by a series of related images that detail the features, significance and functionality of these apparatuses. The objects described come predominantly from the Mesopotamian and Egyptian regions, between the first and fifth centuries C.E. The site will be of appeal to anyone who has an interest in early magical rituals and practices during the height and decline of the Roman Empire. Those new to the subject may also wish to explore the brief, but helpful, bibliography at the end of the exhibit.
Trajan's Column is an online collection of images and background material on the Roman monument, a 100 foot stone column recording the military victories of the Roman Emperor Trajan (reigned 98-117 CE) over the Dacians and the Germans in the second century CE,which is one of the most remarkable and best preserved survivals of monumental art from classical antiquity. This website provides a searchable database of over 500 images focusing on various aspects of the design and execution of the column's sculptural decoration as well as several introductory essays on the historical background, subject matter and wider physical context of the monument within the Forum of Trajan in Rome, presented throughout within a hypertext medium. This highly user-friendly resource is designed to be accessible to individuals at varying levels of knowledge and experience of the subject. An elaborate search engine allows you to explore highly specific aspects of the monument while Claudio Martini's interactive cartoon of the entire column provides an excellent introduction to the overall design and layout of the monument and contextualises the individual details provided by the database of images. The site can also be explored through the use of indices organised according to: subject; sculptural technique; and scene number or location. The high quality images (slides and drawings) were generated by sculptor Peter Rockwell, over the course of his study of Roman stone-carving practices, and can be viewed at three different resolutions. Technical information on all the imaging and programming details (including the programming code) is also provided. This detailed, stimulating and attractively presented website will interest archaeologists and classicists as well as art and military historians at many levels from the general public and novice undergraduate to the more experienced researcher.
This is the website of the US Epigraphy Project, which is based at Brown University and is devoted to information about Greek and Latin inscriptions which are preserved in the USA. The digital catalogue is based on the contents of the book Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the USA : A Checklist, written by J Bodel and S Tracy. The key feature of the online resource is a searchable database of these inscriptions. The user may browse by collection or publication, or by using a search form which has a range of fields including: language; place of origin; date; type of inscription; type of object; and type of material. Searches then produce an image of the inscription along with essential information (provenance, date, material and object type) and bibliographic details, along with the inscription's US epigraphy number. There is also a list of links to other epigraphy websites and relevant search engines.
Virgil Resources is a website which provides a comprehensive range of resources for students and scholars of the ancient Latin poet Virgil (Vergil 70-19 BC). The site is attractively designed and illustrated, and provides comprehensive bibliographies and book reviews of recently published secondary works on Virgil. There is also biographical material on the poet's life, including a translation of Aelius Donatus' fourth-century AD Life of Virgil. The site provides well-annotated links to internet resources relating specifically to Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus, as well as to other web pages on Virgil and Latin poetry. There are also images of maps relating to Aeneas' Italy and the ancient world. The site provides particularly useful information about the post-classical reception of Virgil. Also provided here is a link to the Mantovano mailing list for discussion of Virgil and related studies.
This online resource applies modern computer technology to create digital impressions of what 15 ancient Greek and Roman sculptures might have looked like in their original painted state, showing images of the pieces in their present format alongside the imagined polychromatic originals. Featured sculptures include: kouros and kore statues; statues of Apollo; a Parthenon metope; and Trajan's column. Contextual and historical information is minimal but there is a useful basic bibliography and a series of hyperlinks to sources of images of ancient art. The website also provides technical and methodological information on how the reconstructions were made. The 'Virtual Gallery' provides useful complementary learning materials for undergraduates studying classical art and archaeology and their teachers. It will also benefit art historians and artists interested in comparative historical materials.
Put together by Philip A Harland of York University, Toronto, this website allows the user to view images of artefacts in the Greek and Roman collections of several archaeological museums in Turkey. The emphasis is on objects which shed light on religious life in the ancient world. The museums which feature are those in: Aphrodisias; Ephesus (Selçuk); Hierapolis; Istanbul; and Smyrna (Izmir). Included are images of gods and emperors as featured in statues, reliefs and monuments (including sarcophagi). Most date from the first and second centuries CE. Each image is labelled with its subject and date, but no further detail is given. The site also contains links to Philip Harland's other websites featuring articles which shed light on relevant topics relating to ancient religion. There is also a link to a bibliography relating to the museums featured here.
This is a chronological list of Roman emperors (27 BC to 476 AD) with enlargeable images of portraits for many of them. These include busts, sculptures and other contributions they made to Roman art or architecture. There is also a list of links to Roman art websites.
A Visual Tour through Late Antiquity provides a selection of images of artistic evidence and material remains from the 4th to 7th centuries. The prime focus of the website is late antique Gaul at the time of Gregory of Tours (538-594) but context is provided by a variety of other images. The collection is divided into five sections: Late Roman court and aristocracy; Imperial art of 6th century Ravenna; Gallic art of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries; Frankish art and artefacts; and Royal grave goods. The Visual Tour through Late Antiquity was originally compiled for the use of students at the Nipissing University (Canada) but it also provides a good general introduction to some famous late Roman and early Frankish images and artefacts.
VRoma is an online collection of resources for the teaching and learning of Latin and ancient Roman culture at secondary school and undergraduate level. It acts as a repository for online teaching material (holding an extensive collection of texts, commentaries, maps, images, teaching resources and more). Its central feature is a virtual classroom based on the city of Rome of c. AD150, where students and staff can log on and travel around the city and hold discussions with others visiting VRoma. Groups based in different institutions can arrange to visit VRoma at the same time and hold collaborative classes. Travel instructions and conversations can be in English or Latin. Using this element of VRoma introduces students to the monuments of ancient Rome, encourages them to use Latin, and to interact with peers. Background information to the VRoma project, help, and guidance on using the virtual city are all available on the website.
Who Was Who in Roman Times is an online illustrated index to Roman culture, compiled by an enthusiast, Michiel Osinga. The site is arranged initially by topic (including: persons; geography; sources; events; religion; images; other miscellaneous subjects), with each topic subdivided further into other subjects arranged alphabetically. Clicking on the links which are given reveals information of varying degrees of detail and usefulness. For example, in some cases only a very short summary of the relevant topic is given, where in others, links are provided to extracts from ancient texts, images and more detailed information. The compiler has attempted to include a vast amount of information here; however, this means that the site is not always easy to navigate in order to find what the user is looking for.
This website is published as part of Diotima (part of the Stoa Consortium), a site which provides materials for studying women and gender in ancient history. This particular part of Diotima publishes excerpts from Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Fant's book, Women's Life in Greece and Rome, a source book published in print by the Johns Hopkins University Press. The excerpts, which are English translations of key texts, are arranged by theme. Topics covered are: women's voices; philosophers; legal status in the Roman world; private life; medicine and anatomy; men's opinions; legal status in the Greek world; public life; occupations; and religion. This is a highly useful collection of primary sources from a wide range of literary, historical and philosophical texts and will be of interest to students and teachers focusing on this area of ancient social history.
The Worlds of Roman Women is a Latin reader which is an annotated compilation of texts relating to women's lives in ancient Roman society: this well-organised website is the online companion to the printed text. Its quality and detail mean that it stands out as being exceptional among the wide range of online resources relating to gender studies and the ancient world. It makes available a vast collection of unadapted Latin texts (from inscriptions as well as written texts) by or about Roman women. These are accompanied by illustrative images and short essays relating to women's roles in ancient Rome. The site is divided into two key sections. The first of these, 'Instruction', consists of a variety of resources providing pedagogical support for the use of the texts and images. These include: a bibliography of relevant publications (online and in print); syllabi and lesson plans for the teaching of Roman women in Latin and translation; a selection of activities, based on ancient sources, for classroom use; and a list of links to online resources for the translation and interpretation of Latin. The other section of the site, entitled 'Worlds', consists primarily of Latin texts and images, with commentary. This is divided into ten sub-sections: childhood; learning; marriage; family; body; state; class; work; flirtation; and religion. Texts are hyperlinked to allow cross-referencing between different sections of the site. English translations of key words in the texts can also be viewed by clicking on the Latin word.
This is the website of the Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, an international journal of Greek and Roman antiquity focusing on research into epigraphic and papyrological material. This resource provides a guide to the contents of the journal from 1967 to the present together with the digitised texts of articles from 2001-2004 which are available free of charge for private study (free volumes made available might vary from year to year). The indexes of most volumes can be browsed in PDF format. The reproduced articles are in German, English, French and Italian.Information on the print version of the journal is also provided, such as editorial advice for authors and subscription details.This website provides useful a bibliographic guide to publications in an important classics and ancient history journal for university students and researchers, particularly for those competent in European languages.