This is an online narrative overview of Athens' history, from neolithic to contemporary times. The text is divided into chapters which give an easily-accessible chronological survey of the city from around 5000 BC to the late twentieth century. Key periods covered include: Mycenaean Athens (1500-1200 BC); archaic Athens (750-478 BC); classical Athens (478-339 BC); Hellenistic Athens (339-168 BC); Roman Athens from republic to empire (168 BC-AD 303); Byzantine Athens (AD 303-1205); Crusader Athens (AD 1205-1456); Ottoman Athens (AD 1456-1821); the Greek War of Independence (AD 1821-1833); Bavarian rule (1833-1862); and twentieth-century Athens. Timelines are also given for ancient, medieval and modern Athens, and the site also features a bibliography of secondary material (without annotation).
The website of the American Journal of Archaeology (AJA) publishes free full-text electronic versions in PDF format of all published papers from 2002 to 2007 as well as additional online-only contents such as books and museums reviews; image galleries; supplementary data (e.g. bibliography of osteological research in classical archaeology); and forums. Only abstracts are available for articles published since 2008; the full-text PDF files can only be accessed via a subscription. The journal focuses on Greek, Roman and Etruscan archaeology, and publishes also a few papers on Aegean (Minoan and Mycenaean) archaeology and the archaeology of the ancient Near East and Mesopotamia. The website can be searched and prospective authors may find guidelines and a form to submit their papers for publication. Issues of the journal dating before 2001 can be searched and accessed via JSTOR. It is possible to subscribe to a mailing list (AJA e-Update) for updates on the journal and the current activities of the American Institute of Archaeology.
The American Journal of Archaeology was founded in 1885 and is now one of the most prestigious journals in the field of Classical Archaeology. Anyone interested in the archaeology of the Mediterranean region will find this website useful.
The Ancient City of Athens is an excellent website which has an extensive range of photographs of principal archaeological sites in Athens, taken from the slide collections of Prof. Kevin Glowacki and Nancy Klein of Texas A&M University. There are photographs of the following areas: the Acropolis; the agora; the Arch of Hadrian; the city Eleusinion; the Kerameikos; the Library of Hadrian; the Lysicrates monument; the Olympieion and south-east Athens; the Philopappos monument; the pnyx; and the Roman agora. There is also a section on the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron, in Attica. Within the different sections there is a good range of general and detailed views. The photographs from the Acropolis' slopes are particularly useful, not only because they are annotated but since access to these sites is difficult for most visitors to Athens. In addition, the Acropolis section provides far more than the usual snapshots, with detailed photos of architectural sculpture and pre-classical building works. The photos of the Agora and Kerameikos offer an excellent and comprehensive selection. In addition to the photographic archive the site offers a number of other resources, which are: an introductory essay on the topography and monuments of Athens; a very brief outline of Greek history to AD 1453; information about the tribes and eponymous heroes of the ancient Athenians. Bibliographic details are given, as well as links to other relevant websites.
Ancient Greece is a website consisting of a general introduction to Greek history and culture from the archaic to the Hellenistic period. There are pages on the culture and organisation of the city states Sparta and Athens, and on the Delian League (centred on Delos) and the Theban Hegemony. Other pages describe the background to, and consequences of, the important wars and conflicts fought by the Greeks. Philip II and Alexander the Great both receive attention. As well as describing the historical events, the website introduces some of the key elements of Greek philosophy, from the pre-Socratics to Hellenistic thought. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are all featured, with extracts from their key works reproduced. Pages on Greek literature and drama include extracts from Homer's 'Odyssey' and Thucydides' 'History of the Peloponnesian War'. The origins and significance of comedy and tragedy are explained. The site also includes two rather rudimentary maps of the Greek regions and cities. 'Ancient Greece' forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
The Ancient Greek and Roman coins website is written from the perspective of a collector, but is nevertheless a very informative and detailed site which is particularly useful for those who are new to numismatics. An introductory section on the 'vocabulary of ancient coins' gives detailed information about what to look out for when examining coins from different ancient periods. There are also detailed secions on Roman coins (arranged chronologically from the Republic to the fifth century AD and Greek coins (covering the Athenian empire, Alexander the Great, the Ptolemies, and the Greek cities under the Roman empire). There are also (smaller) sections on Eastern empires (Parthia and Persia) as well as the Byzantine period. The site also features information on a miscellany of other topics aimed primarily at those wishing to collect and photograph coins. It is richly illustrated throughout, and the accounts of the coins are very detailed - the historical background is explained as well as information about the particular coins in question.
Ancient Greek Cities is an attractive and easily navigable website which gives detailed information on a number of key cities of the ancient Greek world. Featured places are: Athens; Sikyon; Corinth; Sparta; Thebes; Argos; Mycenae; Delphi; and Olympia. Each city has a section of the website devoted to it; these sections are then divided into further sub-sections dealing with topics such as: history; legend; art and architecture; coinage; athletics; and famous individuals from the cities (for example, writers, people of historical importance and legendary characters). Pages are clearly set out and accompanied by a wealth of images from ancient art, as well as maps. The site is also fully searchable. This is an ideal starting-point for anyone seeking to find out more about particular locations in ancient Greece, although unfortunately the lack of referencing and failure to cite sources means that it is unsuitable for more advanced study.
Contained here is information about three ancient Greek wars. The Persian Wars (499 BCE to 479 BCE) occurred when the Persian empire attempted to conquer Greece. Mostly land battles are described but it does include the sea battles of Salamis and Mycale. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) was a contest between a great sea power, Athens and its empire, and a great land power, Sparta and the Peloponnesian League. The last war described is the Trojan Wars, a legendary conflict between the early Greeks and the people of Troy in western Anatolia, dated to have happened in the 12th or 13th century BCE. There is also a paragraph about ancient types of artillery. This site is maintained by an enthusiast.
Compiled by Timothy J. Moore of the Department of Classics, University of Texas at Austin, this ancient music bibliography is a themed online bibliography (which, at the time of reviewing, had last been updated in 2008) that lists books and papers, of relevance to the classics or music student, interested in the study of music from Ancient Greece or Rome. Specific sections cover various elements of music making, including: singing and speaking; the voice; rhythm; and musical instruments, such as strings, auloi/tibiae, extant pipes, auletai/tibicines, and kroupezai/scabellum. There are also sections on music on: the Greek and Roman stage; Livy VII.2, the origins of Roman theatre, and the performance of 'cantica'; Plautus and Terence; music in art; dance; music, education and ethics; the Carmina Convivalia; and Byzantine music. The majority of the works listed here are written in English, although there are several in German, French and Italian.
This is a commercial website focusing on the ancient Greek town of Olympia, the site of ancient Olympian Games, which have inspired modern Olympic Games. There are useful contents aimed at the general public, school pupils and first year undergraduates. In section "History" brief biographies of mythological characters and real historic people as well as a page on ancient daily life introduce the reader to the world of ancient Greece. Further pages focus on ancient music (with a reconstructed piece of Classical music), athletics, and the Games then and now (short videos accompany the pages). Section "Archaeological site" focuses on the ancient town of Olympia, presenting the principal monuments, including stadium; temple of Hera; and temple of Zeus. More locations are planned, but were not available at the time of review. There is a short video on the lighting of the torch of the Olympic Games at the temple of Hera and a video presenting a virtual reconstruction of the temple of Zeus. Of interest to both archaeologists and classicists may be the galleries of images accessible clicking on "Gallery" in the menu. Most of the other contents will be useful only to tourists or people planning a visit to Olympia. Some of the contents in this website may be useful to students studying ancient Greece and the Olympian Games; the contents focusing on Olympia at the time of review were too incomplete for use even on a student essay.
Focusing on the ancient Olympics, this is a special online exhibit of the Perseus Digital Library Project and was created in 1996 as a tribute to the Centennial Olympic Games held in Atlanta, Georgia. It provides insights into ancient sports and athletes as well as looking at the site of Olympia itself. The website is divided into the following sections: Ancient and Modern Olympic Sports (a rundown of the different events in ancient athletic contests, illustrated by images from Greek vases); A Tour of Ancient Olympia (featuring images, plans and explanatory text describing the site of Olympia as it looks today); The Context of the Games and the Olympic Spirit (with detailed illustrated pages on the religious aspect of the games, the competitive spirit, politics and spectators among other things); and Athletes' Stories (featuring information on particular individuals referred to in the ancient sources). There is also a section of FAQs relating to the ancient Olympics. This deals with topics such as: the presence of women; prizes and judging; the origin of the Olympics; and the origin of the marathon race. A page of bibliographic material provides suggestions for further reading on the topic. This well-organised and beautifully illustrated site is aimed primarily at those who are new to the topic (a school or undergraduate audience) and is therefore a good starting-point for finding information about ancient athletics.
This website is an outstanding visual resource for the study of ancient Greek and Roman theatres, and is an ideal introduction to the study of theatre architecture. Its main feature is a series of panoramic views from various observation points outside and inside the remains of archaeological sites across Europe, which allow the user to 'walk' around the ruins of several theatres (QuickTime software is required to access the virtual tours). At the time of writing this review, the website appeared to be still under construction, with some locations covered more fully than others. Theatres in modern Turkey are given the most attention, presenting sites at Aspendos, Aphrodisias, Bodrum, Ephesus, Hierapolis, Miletus, Pergamon and Priene. Other featured locations are Epidaurus (Greece) and Ostia Antica (Italy). A clickable map of Europe shows the location of each theatre. Each tour is accompanied by details including: information on the location of the theatre; dates of construction and renovation; dimensions; brief details of excavations. Plans of the theatres, and in some cases reproductions, are also present, and there is a glossary of relevant architectural terms. In addition to the ancient theatres, there is also a tour of the Opéra National de France in Paris, built in the years from 1862 to 1875.
Ancient Worlds: The Hellenic World is a lively interactive online community for devotees of ancient Greek history. For academic purposes, the most useful feature of the site is a list of Greek regions with links to maps, images, and historical and geographical details on each. The regions featured are: Attica; the Peloponnese; Macedon; Thessalia; the Greek islands; Boeotia; Phocis; and Greek Asia Minor. Also featured on the website is a series of chatrooms on a vast array of specific topics relating to Hellas. Themes include: Sparta; Alexander the Great; Greek theatre; Greek mythology and religion; modern Greek; papyrology; and the Aegean Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages. QuickTime is required for some of the dynamic views on the site. Whilst the site as a whole is aimed at the enthusiast rather than the serious academic, there is much here which may be of interest to undergraduate students. The site is also a good demonstration of the appeal and relevance of ancient history in the modern world.
Anemi is primarily a bibliographic database about Greek Modern literature. However, this website also contains full-text editions of some books and periodicals (about 600 at the time of review) and the collections included in the database include many works regarding Greek and Byzantine culture. The available collections are: Neoellinistis; the Greek Digital Bibliography 1476-1900; rare collections from the Library of University of Crete (including travel literature); the Markos Mousouros collection; the Library of the Educational Association of Adrianoupolis; the Goettinger Digitalisierungs-Zentrum collection; the University of Ioannina collection; Gallica; Hellinomnimon; and works digitised by Google. Most works in the database are in Greek, but other languages (primarily French, Italian and German) are also represented. The interface is neat and allows to browse or search for the records. Users should be aware that Greek works have been inserted in the database using Greek characters and no transliteration into Latin characters is available. Researchers and students of Greek Modern Literature will find this website very useful, but some works may be of interest also to Classicists.
This well-presented resource is the website for the archaeological excavations at Aphrodisias (in the ancient Roman province of Caria, in modern Turkey) undertaken by the Institute of Fine Arts in cooperation with the Faculty of Arts and Science at New York University. Introductory information is provided on the history of the site and the excavations, and then the user may access more detailed pages on key areas of the archaeological site. The following locations are covered: the temple of Aphrodite; the cult image of Aphrodite; architecture and sculpture of the bouleuterion (council chamber); the sculptor's workshop; the north agora; the Sebasteion; the basilica; and the stadium. Within each section images and plans are accompanied by detailed explanatory text. An overall plan of Aphrodisias is provided and the user can move the mouse over this to be given names of buildings; on clicking on the building a closer view is given. One can then click on this building for a closer view. There is also a map based on the geophysical survey carried out between 1995 and 1998. Finally, there is an extensive bibliography of relevant material (divided into sections for ease of use), with a particular emphasis on excavation reports.
This atlas of archaeological sites in the Aegean region is published by the Hellenic Ministry of the Aegean and University of Athens. The atlas includes most sites on or near the Aegean coast. The atlas provides information on many archaeological sites from the Neolithic to the late antiquity; for each site a short summary and a few pictures (click to view enlarged version in new window) are available. However, the atlas does not cover the entire regions of important civilisations such as the Mycenaean or Greek ones. For instance, large parts of the Peloponnesus are missing. Furthermore, at the time of this review the records of some maps (such as the one covering Thera) were unavailable. In spite of these problems, the atlas is a valuable tool for the general public and students up to undergraduate level, especially for culturally homogeneous regions such Crete and the Anatolian coast. The atlas can be accessed via the "overview of maps", which details the included regions. By clicking on any region, a map with clickable sites appears. It is possible to scroll the map and access any adjacent map in this way. The "maps" section just opens a random map. The "index of sites" provides a list of sites. The "archaeological sites" gives direct access to the first site in alphabetical order; it is possible to see all the sites in that order. There is also a glossary of terms and a "time chart".
These Web pages contain photographs of archaeological remains (architectural features and sculpture) from Athens and the surrounding region of Attica. The following sites are featured: the Akropolis (Acropolis); the agora; the Kerameikos; the Pnyx; the Olympieion; the region of Attica; Sounion; and Thorikos. Each has its own section of the website where the user may access images of buildings (in their present state), sculptures and some inscriptions. Brief descriptions are provided for each photograph, along with relevant bibliography. The photographs are clear, and the site is easy to navigate; this is therefore a useful visual resource for archaeologists and classicists.
The Barbarians on the Periphery website offers an informative and well-illustrated hypertext presentation, based on a doctoral thesis by Constanze Maria Witt (University of Virginia, 1997) on the origins of Celtic art in Central and Western Europe in the Urnfield and Hallstatt periods (circa 1000-500 BC). Witt attempts to combine contemporary anthropological theory with up-to-date art historical analysis. The site includes six essays covering contemporary perception of Celtic art and culture, methodological issues, 'Mediterranean interactions', ethnic and cultural identity, mortuary analysis, drinking and banquets, and sex and gender. Furthermore, there are excellent picture essays (including maps) on ten of the main Celtic archaeological sites of Continental Europe (Dürnberg; Glauberg; Hallstatt; Heuneburg; Hirschlanden; Hochdorf; Kleinaspergle; Reinheim; Vix; and Waldalgesheim). The site also provides dedicated picture essays on flagons and wagons, and a substantial bibliography.
One of the finest and most diverse collections in Athens, and also the oldest in Greece, it is no surprise to find that the Benaki Museum's website is exemplary in form and content. It offers all the necessary information for the prospective visitor, including QuickTime movies of many of the galleries, details of past, present and future collections, and overviews of the collections. A journey through the museum passes through Ancient Greece and the Roman period, the Byzantine period, the Frankish and Ottoman occupations, to the struggle for independence in the nineteenth century and the establishment of the Greek state thereafter. Each section is represented by a selection of choice artefacts, the illustrations of which can be enlarged. The Museum also holds important collections of historic heirlooms, over 6000 paintings and drawings by Greek artists and those who visited or were inspired by the country, as well as Coptic, Chinese (largely the gifts of George Eumorphopoulos) and Islamic art and a collection of Toys and Games from Greece and the wider world. There is admirable attention to the history of the museum, with special features on the founder, Antonis Benakis, and other significant donors, as well as the building itself (the Benakis' residence in Athens) and plans for the division of the collection (the Islamic collection, the Department of Historical Archives, and the collection of Toys and Games) and their prospective homes. The Museum's Archive collection is particularly important, and there are separate pages for the Historical (much relating to the Greek War of Independence and the later rise of Eleftherios Venizelos), Neo-Hellenic Architecture and Photography archives. The last has further links to pages devoted to James Robertson, Nelly's, Voula Papaioannou and Dimitris Harissiadis, all of which are well illustrated. All three archives are responsible for publications, details of which are listed.
This website publishes the free and full-text online edition of the "Bibliothèques de l'Ecole française d'Athènes et de Rome - Série Athènes", a series of monographs published by the French School of Athens. Almost all volumes have been made available; it is possible that missing volumes will be published in the future. This collection of volumes is often outdated in many parts, but can still be a precious reference for researchers. It focuses on Greek archaeology, history, art and literature. Among the studies are those on the Athenian trireme (La Trière athénienne. Étude d’archéologie navale); the frontier on the Euphrates (La frontière de l’Euphrate de Pompée à la conquête arabe); Etruscan and Villanovan Bologna (Bologne étrusque et villanovienne); Aelius Aristide; Cycladic pottery (La céramique des Cyclades); Callimacus (Callimaque et son oeuvre poétique); several volumes on Delos; the sphinx; the defeat of 404 BC for Athens (Athènes devant la défaite de 404. Histoire d’une crise idéologique); Minoan tholoi, especially from the Mesara Plain, and Mycenaean tholoi (Tholoi, tumuli et cercles funéraires. Recherches sur les monuments funéraires de plan circulaire dans l’Égée de l’Âge du Bronze); Mycenaean ivories; Lysander of Sparta; the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age of Greece (Le Néolithique et le Bronze Ancien égéens); the sanctuary of Poseidon and Amphitrite at Ténos (Ténos. Le sanctuaire de Poséidon et d’Amphitrite); and many others. This website may be useful to both researchers and students.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
Chiron is an organisation formed by Spanish teachers of Classics and their website acts as a portal providing general information on the group (including on the courses organised by Chiron). Among the services are a space for blogs; a Wiki; a collection of bookmarks; a gallery of photographs that can be used for teaching (over 20,000 pictures at the time of review); and a series of online videos relating to classical topics. The aim of the group is to provide a series of Web tools useful in teaching classics that are relevant and tested by other teachers. Many of the resources are in Spanish, but the community is already starting to translate some resources and aims at creating an international community. Teachers in Classics (and classical archaeology) at all levels should visit this website and possibly participate and contribute in developing this community.
The Claros website is a computerised concordance of the editions of ancient Greek inscriptions aimed at making it easier for specialist epigraphers and more general linguists, archaeologists and classicists to locate new editions of epigraphic texts published in the last 100 years. The database, published by the Diccionario Griego-Espanõl at the Instituto de Filologia in Madrid, assembles all the concordances found at the end of epigraphical publications as well as providing some new concordances for volumes of the Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum and other corpora which were originally published without them. While not exhaustive, the selection of material in the database is impressive and, along with the large bibliography which is also included, will be a major resource for researchers in classics, archaeologists and related. The website is available in Spanish, English and French.
This website provides commentary and images as well as practical details for visitors to a variety of major ancient Greek archaeological sites. Areas covered include Attica, northern Greece, the Peloponnese, and the islands of Aigina and Poros/Kelauria. A page of the resource is dedicated to each ancient site, and includes a detailed description, photographs and bibliographical information, as well as links to other relevant websites. There are also links to extracts from the accounts of 19th century topographers, which may be of interest to those studing the history of classical scholarship. The style of this online resource is informal but also informative and transcends the level of a mere travelogue which makes this website a useful complement to more academic publications on the topography of classical Greece.
Written by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, this is an excellent online study guide to classical Greek and Roman culture through its key literary, historical and philosophical writers. The resource, which is intended for use by undergraduates taking classics options, combines historical, critical and literary material with practical exercises and questions in reading, comprehension and interpretation. The authors featured are: Homer; Thucydides; Sophocles; Euripides; Aristotle; Aristophanes; Plato; Lucretius; and Virgil. Each literary genre is accompanied by sections providing cultural and intellectual background. The entries are hyperlinked to Perseus for easy reference, as is the excellent glossary of personal names, technical terms and placenames, though there is no bibliography. This resource provides a clear and reliable learning resource for classics and ancient history students.
Classics Ireland is the journal of the Classical Association of Ireland; this website provides the online version of the printed edition. Volumes 1-12 (1994-2005) are available here at the time of writing. Classics Ireland publishes scholarly articles and reviews on all aspects of the ancient world. Topics covered in the journal's articles, of which the full-text is available to view here, include: ancient Greek and Latin drama and poetry; Greek and Roman history and historiography; the reception of classical works and themes in modern literature; sexuality and gender; slavery; art and architecture; and teaching and learning classical subjects.
The research section of the British Museum website has provided this online version of their occasional paper no.146 entitled ‘Cleaning and Controversy: the Parthenon Sculptures, 1811-1939’, by Ian Jenkins. Following newspaper interest in the story of the notorious cleaning of the sculptures in the 1930s, which an independent scholar had published in 1998, the British Museum held a public conference to discuss all aspects of this cleaning. This volume puts this controversy in context, and includes an overview of the press scandal in 1939. Eleven appendices provide transcripts of all the museum‘s documents, including some which were only found during research for the conference. The paper is provided in PDF format.
The website "Cleopatra : a multimedia guide to the Ancient World" is a wonderful online exhibition published by The Art Institute of Chicago. It focuses specifically on Egypt, Greece, and Italy between 3100 BCE and 600 CE, and provides photographs and descriptions of important artefacts (sculpture, vases, coins and wall paintings) from each historical period. This richly illustrated site also contains a timeline, glossary of terms and maps. There are also lesson plans based on the artefacts; whilst these are aimed at teachers of school-age children the website itself stands alone very well as an online exhibition or basic reference site.
This is a website detailing the collection of coins from the ancient Greek city of Ephesus in the Museum of Ancient Cultures in Macquarie University; it is presented as a study aid for students of ancient history and related subjects but also for the interest of the general public. Ephesus was famous throughout classical antiquity for its great temple of Artemis, which no doubt contributed to the prosperity of the city, but the site is also important for producing the earliest finds of coinage in the ancient world and from the 6th century BC was producing distinctive issues recognisible by the use of the deer and the bee as symbols of the polis. The website consists of a series of 10 illustrated chapters outlining the history, iconography and cultural and religious symbolism of the coinage of Ephesus. There are also chapters on women from the ruling class in Ephesus, the relationship between the city and its neighbours (and ultimately with the expanding Roman republic), and on the temple and cult of Ephesian Artemis, together with a succinct bibliography. Finally, there is also an interactive gallery of the coins themselves. The result is a fascinating social, economic and political history as reflected in its monetary issues.
This specialist resource is an online edition of Dr Nicolle Hirschfeld's 1996 book The PASP database for the uses of scripts on Cyprus (Minos Supplement 13) which aims in the long-term to provide a comprehensive account of all the ancient inscriptions and glyphs from Cyprus, whether on stone, clay or metal and coin. The people of the island of Cyprus employed a variety of writing systems to record their spoken languages in the Bronze and Iron Ages, including the syllabic Cypro-Minoan and Cypro-Classical scripts as well as alphabetic Greek and Phoenician letters. The current database includes Cypro-Minoan writings from the Late Bronze Age circa 1700-1000 BCE which record an undeciphered language (or languages) and the closely related Cypro-Classical script of the succeeding Iron Age which lasted down to the 3rd century BC when it was displaced by the Greek alphabet. Cypro-Classical was used to record both the local Greek dialect and an undeciphered tongue called Eteo-Cypriot. Phoenician and Roman inscriptions will be added in future editions of the database, in addition to the inscriptions in cuneiform, Egyptian and Ugaritic which have also been found in the island. The database is searchable by inscription number, object type, geographical context, nature and material and is prefaced by various instructions on how to use the data. This resource will benefit researchers in the ancient writings and scripts of the Mediterranean world, particularly those interested in the transmission of the alphabet to the Greek world and the interaction of cultures in the region in the Bronze and Iron Age, as well as more general students of Cypriot and Near Eastern archaeology.
This is the website of the David M Robinson collection at the University of Mississippi's University Museum. The Museum holds over 2000 objects, a collection built up principally by Dr Robinson, the excavator of Olynthos, his wife and Mr and Mrs Frank Peddle. The website puts online photographs of a significant and diverse proportion of the museum's holdings. Of Greek artefacts, there are inscriptions, coins, sculptures, mosaics and other objects, mainly small bronzes and terracottas. The Roman objects are organised in the same categories. In addition there is an important collection of Greek and South Italian vases, of which there are around ninety photographs presented here. There is also a small section on Egyptian artefacts. In all cases, there is a brief accompanying description, but no dimensions. A bibliographical reference is provided for most of the inscriptions, vases and sculptures. Many of the Greek vases are also linked to the relevant entry on the Perseus website. A number of the photographs of vases are out of focus, so whilst the images provide a general impression they may in some cases be inadequate for detailed study.
This database contains references to written records of people (prosopography) living in the Soknopaiu Nesos area of Al Fayyūm from Demotic and Greek sources dating from the seventh century BC to the fifth century AD. The database can be searched, and each record has appropriate bibliographic references; there is also a general bibliography. The high number of personal written documents in the area makes this area particularly suitable for a prosopographic study. Each record can be printed selecting the printable version. This specialist database may interest primarily researchers in Classics and archaeology.
This website publishes an etymological dictionary of Greek myths initiated by Carla Zufferli, then an undergraduate student, and now carried forward by an international team. The dictionary can be accessed by clicking on "dizionario etimologico" and then "consulta" on the top menu and then "consulta" on the page (or using the direct hyperlink on this page); it can only be browsed by word ("voce"; in each record the part of the title in capital letters, e.g. "ACHILLE"); ancient name ("indice"; in each record the first part of the title, e.g. "Achillèus"); category ("categoria") or theme ("tema") accessing the menu on the top and then the required word on the menu on the right looking towards the screen. For each word in the dictionary there are short definitions; references to ancient texts; the etymology of each name starting where possible from Linear B words; category and theme where available; pictures of archaeological artefacts in which relevant characters are depicted (not always available and there are some broken links). The dictionary is in Italian, but Spanish and French translations are being completed. It is necessary to have installed a special font for Greek words, which can be downloaded from the website. Another important part of this website is labelled "materiali": here there are short articles ("saggi") on miscellaneous aspects of Greek religion and mythology; original texts ("testi") from both ancient and modern poets (e.g. the "snake women" from "Mythos Libykí²s" by Dionis Chrysostomi; "Narciso al fonte" by Umberto Saba) and reviews ("recensioni e notizie") of recent publications. Some pages also provide more details on the project and the team writing the dictionary. This advanced dictionary is a useful research tool for researchers and postgraduate students of Greek religion and possibly Mycenaean Linear B.
'Dr. J's Illustrated Guide to the Classical World' is a mélange of texts, images and weblinks illustrating many aspects of the ancient Greek and Roman World assembled by Dr Janice Siegel of Illinois State University and is designed to open up the world of classical antiquity to students of all levels. This is an on-going project and will be added to over time. It provides much useful supplementary study material for school children and preliminary undergraduate students in Classics, ancient history and classical archaeology. Illustrated lectures and texts feature items on ancient history, myth, drama, art and archaeology sites and art. The many images and photographs are provided by the author herself or else derive from the major archaeological museums of the world. The website, the core of which is the author's personal webpage, is largely designed to facilitate undergraduate appreciation of the Classics in their studies and is particularly suitable for browsing but is also intended to provide learning aids for teachers. Siegel's colloquial text and selection of images draw numerous parallels between the ancient world and modern political and military events. These also serve a didactic purpose for students and faculty, as will the inclusion of course materials and accounts of her teaching experiences since 1994. Other features of the site include a wide-ranging survey of audio-visual teaching resources in classics, available either online or in video or CD versions.
First published in 1993, Electronic Antiquity is an online peer reviewed journal which carries articles, reviews and notices (including job vacancies and conference information) relevant to the study of Greek and Roman classics and ancient history. Topics covered by articles published here include, among others: Greek and Latin poetry; biography; ancient drama; ancient philosophy; social history; ancient mythology; and Egyptology. The full-text of all articles published since the first volume is available at no cost to the user. Contents may be browsed by volume and issue or via a general search interface. Submission guidelines are also provided for those wishing to contribute. Greek text is transliterated. Articles since July 2004 are available to download in PDF format.
The Encyclopedia of the Hellenic World is a growing online resource which aims to collect, record and present data relating to the influence of Hellenism all over the world from antiquity to modern times. At the time of writing this review only the first volume of this encyclopaedia was available: this deals with the Hellenic presence in Asia Minor. Categories of information included in the resource are: place names; people; events; buildings; and issues of social, economic and cultural history. The site is attractive and easy to navigate and will potentially cover a vast range of subjects relating to Greek influence. The user can first access a summary of each topic (with geographical and chronological details) and may then view a more detailed article: many of the entries are also accompanied by images or maps. For each entry there is also a bibliography, a glossary of unfamiliar terms and a list of Web resources relating to the topic.
The website 'Eras' is an online journal produced by postgraduate students from the School of Historical Studies at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. The journal focuses on the areas of history, archaeology, religion and theology, and Jewish civilisation. Readers are encouraged to respond through the discussion page. Eras is intended to provide a platform to showcase recent Masters and doctoral research. There are links to back editions and each edition contains five or six full articles plus some book reviews. The articles are presented in both abstract and full form (in PDF format). The journal lacks a thematic approach, which would help or even engage the reader. Instead, each issue contains random material and it is necessary to trawl through the issues to discover if there is anything useful. Guidelines for contributors are available on the site together with calls for papers. There is scope to contact the editors and contribute to the discussion page.
This website publishes a series of free and full-text final reports produced by the French School of Athens on excavations carried out in Crete, and primarily at the Minoan palace of Malia. The series was incomplete at the time of review, but even so the available volumes are a reference resource for anybody studying or researching Minoan archaeology. In addition to several volumes on the palace of Malia (including some of the "Le Palais de Malia" series and some on the quartier Mu), there are volumes on the Minoan palace of Knossos ("La Palais du second millénaire à Knossos" by Jacques Raison, 1993); the necropolis of Mirabello; Linear A tablets ("Recueil des inscriptions en Linéaire A" by Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier); ideograms on Linear B tablets ("Les idéogrammes archéologiques du Linéaire B" by Jean-Pierre Olivier and Frieda Vandenabeele, 1979); the hieroglyphic inscriptions from Crete ("Corpus Hieroglyphicarum Inscriptionum Cretae" by Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier, 1996); archaeological anthropology (by Robert Charles, 1965); and wine amphorae in the Classical to Roman Imperial period ("Le Vin et les Amphores de Crète de l’époque classique à l’époque impériale" by Antigone Marangou-Lerat, 1996). The reference volumes on hieroglyphic, Linear A and B volumes as well as the fundamental monographs on the palaces of Malia and Knossos are essential tools for many scholars and students specialising on Aegean archaeology.
The free and full-text online edition of the "Études épigraphiques" journal is published by the French School of Athens. At the time of review there were four issues available: "Inscriptions de Thessalie I. Les cités de la vallée de l’Enipeus"; "Corpus des inscriptions grecques d’Illyrie méridionale et d’Épire. I. Inscriptions d’Épidamne-Dyrrhachion et d’Apollonia"; and "Retour à la liberté. Libération et sauvetage des prisonniers en Grèce ancienne. Recueil d’inscriptions honorant des sauveteurs et analyse critique". These studies focus on Greek sites in Thessaly, Illyria and Epirus excavated by the French School of Athens and are final publications. More issues should appear online. The available issues may be useful to anyone interested in Greek epigraphy.
This website publishes the free and full text version of the final reports of the archaeological excavations at Delphi carried out by members of the French School of Athens. Delphi was considered by the ancient Greeks to be the centre of the world. Delphi was once the site of an oracle of the earth goddess Gaea. Later, Apollo substituted Gaea, after the Greek god defeated the monstrous serpent Python, which guarded Gaea, and expelled her from the sanctuary. Apollo was the main divinity worshipped at Delphi, but the sanctuary also honoured Dionysus. The sanctuary became famous for the oracle: it was believed that the word of the local sacerdotess, referred as Pythia, were the words of the god. The Pythia was very influential in the Greek world and because of this several wars were fought to control the town and the oracle. Recently scientists discovered in the area of the sanctuary a source of natural ethylene gas, which could have been responsible for the trance-like state of the sacerdotess and the vapours noted by ancient authors. A sacred way connected the sanctuary to the proper temple of Apollo and it was lined with treasuries that several Greek cities had offered to Apollo (those offered by Athens and Thebes are the subject of specific volumes). The Athens treasury contained a wall covered with inscriptions, including musically annotated hymns to Apollo, which are the subject of one of the available volumes. Several volumes focus also on Greek art and especially sculptures. Of particular importance is the "Charioteer of Delphi" (about 470 BC), a bronze cast of "Severe" style, which represents the passage from Archaic to Classical art (an entire monograph focus on this statue, and several more describe art works of Archaic period). Delphi was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.
Since Delphi is a fundamental archaeological site for the study of ancient Greece, this website may be useful to a broad range of scholars and students, from those seeking the picture of a particular monument or art work to anybody carrying out research on any subject (archaeology, classics and art history primarily) related to ancient Greece.
The Frankfurter elektronische Rundschau zur Altertumskunde (FeRA) is an electronic journal that publishes papers and reviews in German primarily by younger authors. The journal focuses on Greek and Roman Classical archaeology with topics such as Roman ceramics with painted birds; the Odeion of Pericles in Athens; the lighthouse of Pharos; the cult of Vulcanus at Ostia; frescoes at Municipium Claudium Virunum; and Callimachus' Hymn to Apollo. Most papers are written in German, with a few written in English and Italian. Contributions are welcome especially from young scholars. This website may be useful primarily to researchers.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Greek and Roman antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on the Greek, Etruscan, Roman and Byzantine civilisations as well as several pages on individual objects from the collections of the museum (about 250 at the time of review). There is a map and a timeline. The presentations of individual objects are highly recommended as many are masterpieces of art. Most objects have artistic value and are described and interpreted in detail. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long).
Acting as an introduction to the history of Greece from the Neolithic to the Byzantine periods, this website provides information about developments during each of the eras which it covers, as well as related images. Descriptive text is accompanied by a wide variety of photographs showing historical and archaeological sites in Greece as well as images of artefacts which are on display in museums. Overviews of the following historical periods are provided: Neolithic; Cycladic; Minoan; Mycenean; Geometric; Classical; Hellenistic; Roman; and Byzantine. Each of these sections is divided into further subsections on topics such as economic and social developments, art, religion or poltical history. Further pages are devoted to particular archaeological sites in Greece: the Acropolis of Athens; the sanctuary at ancient Olympia; and Eleusis. These are perhaps the most detailed and informative parts of the resource, providing images of and information on individual buildings (for example temples and theatres) at each location. Other areas of the website look at the Olympic games and the Eleusinian mysteries, and there is a brief dictionary of Greek mythology. Links to news articles on various aspects of Greek history are also provided. The site will be of particular interest to those who are new to the study of Greek history and culture.
The website accompanies the PBS documentary series "The Greeks : Crucible of Civilization". One focus of the televised series was on individuals, and the website devotes mini-sections to Cleisthenes, Themistocles, Pericles, Aspasia and Socrates. Each outlines their importance in Athenian politics and life, and there are links to diverse related subjects, such as: the role of Greek women; ostracism; how Pisistratus took power; and the Sophists. Each short account is written in the lucid manner that typified the television series, and most of the illustrations are taken from the series. All of these background pages can be accessed from the site index, under the broad topics of: Greek politcs; culture; warfare; architecture; other people in Greek history; and other places and cultures. A time-line provides access to key dates and events. "The Acropolis Experience" offers 3D animation of the Parthenon and information on how it was built. This section requires Quicktime. "The Greeks Interactive" helps the user to get an idea of Athenian life, including a guide to pronunciation of Ancient Greek, an interactive map of Athens and the Piraeus. The "Life in Athens" section, in which one can find out who you might have been if you had lived in Ancient Athens requires Flash 4. There is also information on the making of the series and lesson plans based on the programmes. The site serves as an excellent source of information to accompany a ground-breaking documentary series.
This website publishes the free and full-text Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft journal that focuses on Classical archaeology, literature, and philosophy with several papers on religion, cult and rituals. The individual papers are available in PDF format and are mostly in German, but there are also a few in Italian. The journal also publishes numerous reviews of books, which can be found alongside the papers. There is a full-text search form that returns as results the list of PDF files in which the searched keyword appears. It is possible to subscribe to a mailing list to be notified of new issues. Researchers in particular will find this journal useful.
This site provides an attractively illustrated introduction to the coins and measures of Judaea from early times until the crusader period with historical background and a useful basic bibliography. Before the adoption of Greek and, later, Persian coins (or 'darics') in the 7th-4th centuries BC, a sophisticated system of inscribed weights, based on the unit of the Shekel, was used in Jewish areas. The first Judaean issues proper were not struck until the 4th century BC under Persian and Seleucid licence and were based on the widely used Athenian owls or Persian modes. The Seleucid Antiochus VII also struck hybrid Syrian-Jewish issues in the later 2nd century. The first properly 'Jewish' coins, with Hebrew inscriptions and lacking the portrait heads of earlier issues for religious reasons, did not appear until the time of John Hyrcanus (135-104 BC) and his successors when Judaea became fully independent. The series of coins from the reign of the Herodian dynasty and the Roman conquest down to the Late Empire and Byzantine period provide a fascinating potted history of Judaea as well as important insights on economic and iconographic matters. There is also a short section on the revival of coins of Israel in the 20th century, both in the Mandate period and after independence in 1948. The resource is part of the Jewish History Ring published by Amuseum.org (The Jewish Museum in Cyberspace) and associated with the American Jewish Historical Society. It is a useful complementary source for students of ancient history and archaeology working in the East Mediterranean or those studying general numismatics as well as an attractive introduction for the interested amateur.
This Word document describes the AHRC-funded project ‘The Hellenistic West’. Despite an increasing interest in research and teaching in the Hellensitic period (usually taken as the period between Alexander and Actium, 323-31 BCE) the Western Mediterranean tends to be considered as ‘Roman’ history, and discussed only in so far as it relates to the development of this. This project aims to challenge the “orthodox” opposition of ‘Greek East’ and ‘Roman West’ and restore “significance to the non-Roman cultural traditions of the western Mediterranean”. The project will be the first comprehensive study of the Hellenistic Western Mediterranean, and will be published as an edited collection of essays.
Aimed at students who are new to the study of the classical world, this online resource provides an introductory overview of the history and geography of ancient Greece. The resource is part of the Johnstonia website prepared by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Vancouver. Included are the following: a note on the rendering of ancient Greek names into English; a detailed description of the geographical regions of ancient Greece, accompanied by a map; background information on the origin of the Greeks, including details on Minoan and Mycenaean civilisation; and a brief chronological table summarising key events from the third millennium BCE to the fourth century BCE. The clarity and succinctness of this resource make it a useful tool for those wishing to familiarise themselves briefly with ancient Greece.
This free and full text collection of monographs by members of the French School of Athens may be useful to both researchers and students in Greek and Aegean archaeology. There are volumes on recognising the signatures of ancient Greek sculptors; Thasos; Delphi; Kirrha (Phocis); the necropolis of Myrina; Turkey; and the disk of Phaistos ("Le disque de Phaistos" by Jean-Pierre Olivier, 1992).
The volume on the disk of Phaistos includes a brief summary of the discovery and past researches as well as pictures of all the ideograms. The disk itself remains undeciphered.
Household and City Organization at Olynthus website is the electronic version of Nicholas Cahill's book 'Household and City Organization at Olynthus' (Yale UP 2002), a major study of the domestic architecture and social and economic life of a classical Greek settlement of the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. A searchable database of the excavated artefacts and interactive GIS/ Virtual Reality plan of the site plan and architectural units from the final publication (1929-1952) is planned for the future. Olynthus, located in the Chalcidice peninsula of northern Greece, provides a rare example of a well excavated and published classical Greek domestic quarter. The city was laid out on a Hippodamian street grid from 432 BCE onwards but was destroyed and largely abandoned in 348 BCE. The level of architectural preservation was very high and many domestic artefacts were found in situ when excavated. It is a text-book example of Greek town planning and provides a unique insight into the relationships between the public and private spheres in Greek society. The text provided on this website is fully searchable. The website is hosted by Stoa.org, a consortium for electronic publications in the humanities, and is also connected to the Perseus Lookup Tool which provides a comprehensive guide to the Greek passages texts quoted throughout the text. This site will interest a wide range of students and researchers working on Greek archaeology, social and economic history.
This website provides a lecture-style illustrated introduction to ancient Greek and Roman comedy, an excellent overview (by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College) of the subject for school and undergraduate level students of classics and related disciplines. The 29 sections introduce the origins of classical comedy and its role in the religious festivals of Athens, which were established in honour of the god Dionysius. It particularly relates to the Great (or City) Dionysia, one of the two Dionysian festivals (the other being the Rural Dionysia) that was probably established in the 6th century BC, but that is best documented from the 5th century BC onwards. The website outlines the form and function of the theatres and their technical equipment with reference to surviving literary, iconographic and archaeological evidence. There is much useful information on genre, aspects of performance, the role of actors and chorus, and on music, as well as a modest bibliography suitable for undergraduate reading. The text is hypertexted throughout to the Perseus digital library for convenient reference, which makes it an ideal online resource for students taking classical civilisation at an elementary level.
This online resource is a clearly-written and well-illustrated introduction to Greek tragedy aimed at undergraduates studying Classics and related subjects, by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, New York. Presented in lecture form, the course consists of 24 sections which include the following: an explanation of the origins of tragedy in the religious festivals of ancient Greece (particularly the City Dionysia in Athens); information about the locations of ancient theatres and an analysis of their architectural and technical details; a discussion of the written and iconographic sources for the Greek theatre; and sections on the actors, chorus, music and production of a play. The only drawback is the absence of a bibliography or of sources for the archaeological material such as the admirable series of painted vase scenes which reflect the origin of the text in the lecture hall. Nonetheless, the resource will benefit school and undergraduate students of ancient literature and society, as well as those interested in comparative literature and drama.
This wide-ranging and attractively produced website, 'Underwater archeology', available in French, English and Arabic, provides an illustrated introduction to the history, methods and major discoveries of underwater explorers, particularly those carried out by the research teams of DRASSM, the Départment des recherches archéologiques subaquatics et sous-marines of the French Ministry of Culture. Underwater archaeology has had a long, though sporadic, history, from the time Roman divers salvaged the cargo of amphoras from a shipwreck in the first century BC to the development of the modern aqualung by Cousteau and Gagnan in 1943. The resource features: a historical chronicle of major developments in maritime archaeology particularly since the designs of Leonardo da Vinci followed by the practical attempts to construct artificial breathing apparatus in the 17th century; an outline of the principal methods of underwater prospection and excavation of wrecks together with notes about the conservation of submerged organic materials; a major survey of shipwrecks around the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of France (a sample of some 700 known) in addition to others sites in Malta, Gabon, Martinique and the Indian Ocean; an account of underwater archaeology in Egypt, in particular the spectacular rediscovery of the submerged parts of Alexandria and of the numerous Greek and Roman wrecks off the Egyptian coast. This notable didactic resource will benefit and improve both amateurs and professionals alike, especially undergraduate students of Mediterranean archaeology and history but also anyone interested in wider issues of world archaeology, trade routes, conservation of underwater finds and heritage issues related to shipwreck sites.
This website is devoted to the archaeological site of Lefkandi, a Mycenaean settlement on the Greek island of Euboea. The resource contains sections on the following topics: the Dark Ages; Bronze and Iron Age movements; excavations at Lefkandi; Toumba (an important Archaic tomb); and heroic burial. The website has been written by students and thus the text is written at undergraduate level; there are some accompanying illustrations and maps. There is also a short bibliography and a list of links to other relevant online resources. The website is a useful introduction to this classical archaeological topic.
The Leonidas Expedition, consisting of a group of academics from the USA, Greece and the UK, has on several occasions revisited the site of the Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC) in Greece with the aim of investigating various aspects of the ancient accounts (primarily found in Herodotus) relating to this key engagement of the Persian wars. This website is devoted to publicising the findings of the expeditions. Much of the site is dedicated to expedition reports, detailing the progress of the team in locating areas where key events of the battle took place. These reports give information about the geography of Thermopylae as it appears now (with OS co-ordinates) as compared with its appearance during Xerxes' invasion. More generally, the website also gives the historical details of the Persian invasion of Greece, accompanied by maps and photographs of the site.
This is an excellent resource offering articles on ancient history and archaeology together with an impressive library of photographic images of ancient sites which can be down-loaded for free for non-commercial use. The website is laid out geographically with sections on Greece, Persia, Anatolia, Carthage and Punic Sicily, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Judaea, Germania and Rome (as well a Dutch language resource on Dutch history) while the authoritative but very readable text has many cross links between them. There is no overall structure to individual sections: the Greek entries have a strong emphasis on Alexander the Great and his successors, on various authors such as Plutarch and Herodotos (including selections of extracted texts) and a series of short encyclopaedia-style entries on politicians, philosophers and literary figures. The Judaean passages discuss, for instance, Messianic claimants, the Diaspora and anti-Semitism in the ancient and mediaeval worlds, alongside more linear accounts of the Roman wars and potted biographies of leading Jewish figures. This website will benefit both students and teachers of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern world but the author makes the pointed observation that students must combine the use of electronic resources with proper library research for which the Web is not a substitute.
This website has placed online a large collection of maps held in the Perry-Castañeda Library of the University of Texas at Austin -- although some maps are available through links to other sites. The site is extensive and clearly laid out, with maps listed alphabetically according to continent and country. There are maps with geographical, topographical, economic and demographic information. Most offerings are current, but there is a special section for historical maps, with most translated at least partly into English. These would constitute a helpful tool both for research and teaching, and afford the opportunity for comparison with more recent versions. There is a links site to other online maps sites and to maps dealers, and an instructions page for viewing and printing site content. Navigation throughout is straightforward. There is an online form for general enquiries to the University of Texas librarians.
Marbles Reunited is a British-based group co-ordinating the campaign activites of a number of individuals and groups who wish to see the repatriation of the Psrthenon sculptures, currently housed in the British Museum. It thus serves as an organising body for establised groups such as Parthenon 2004 and the British Committee for the Restitution of the Parthenon Marbles. This includes support for the proposal of the Greek government to reunite the sculptures with fragments still in Athens in a purpose-built musuem, on permanent loan. The website is distinctly forward looking; there is little exploration of how the sculptures got to the British museum, nor Greek and English responses through the nineteenth and twentieth century. What is clear is the organisation's disatisfaction with the current situation, where the sculptures are "displayed in a side hall and a couple of corridors of the British Museum." The website concentrates on future plans, detailing the Greek proposal and the new Akropolis museum, but also the advantages to the British Museum, "a 'win-win' situation" as the organisation terms it. In addition to contact details and resources for those interested in joining the campaign, there is a list of high-profile supporters and relevant links, an archive of press releases, and a page of responses to frequently asked questions. At the time of writing, a significant proportion of the site was still under construction. In addition to the text, there is an interactive guide that requires Macromedia Flash Player
This is the website of an AHRC funded project which is imaging 3D ancient mask miniatures relating to the New Comedy of Menander and create full size reproductions. The aim is to explore the “innate dramatic properties of the ancient artefacts” and demonstrate their inherent theatrical qualities, giving a new insight into the way these qualities were exploited by ancient dramatists, combining “literary, dramatic and iconographic approaches to Greek New Comedy”. The website includes a short section of project news and publications, informative video clips exploring the project in more detail and a lists of technical standards the project has employed.
The website of the Museum of Cycladic Art contains useful information on all collections and activities at the museum, and is aimed primarily at the general public. The website is very neat and easy to navigate, and contains sections on the "museum" with practical information and an online version of a DVD presenting the museum ("virtual tour"). Section "permanent collections" is the most interesting, especially for undergraduate students. It includes artefacts from the Cycladic Collection and Collections of Ancient Greek Art and Ancient Cypriot Art, pictured and described in some detail. The selection of Cycladic artefacts follows an educational criterion, for example several figurines out of the very few in existence with traces of paint have been included. Figurines are one of the key topics, and this evident also in section "special topics", where there are also diagrams ordering the know types. There are also sections on Greek art and Cypriot antiquities (the latter focusing on trade), also with selected artefacts presented in greater detail. For each of the three sections there is a ”Special topics” area. These are thematic essays on various issues (including a large number of texts on Ancient Greek Art). Bibliographies are given in some pages, concentrating on publications of the museum (a section on these is also available). "Donators" (sic) is an interesting section on the donors that from the start gathered the collections of the museum. It may interest anybody who is interested in the sometimes difficult relationship between collectors and public museums. Section "education" is also noteworthy, and is aimed at schoolchildren. It includes a "resources" area, which provides online virtual tours to all the collections and museum publications, available as PDF files. Section "activities" outlines the research carried out by staff or promoted by the museum, and some occasional lectures and seminars organised by the museum may interest researchers. The "exhibitions" section provides information about current and upcoming exhibitions, as well as all previous exhibitions - whether art or archaeological exhibitions - presented at the MCA. There are many colour illustrations, maps and diagrams throughout the website, making this website an excellent educational tool up to undergraduate level.
This resource is an online collection of over 800 images depicting inscriptions on stone from the sanctuary of the Eleusinian Mysteries at Eleusis, Greece. Most of the images are photographs taken by Kevin Clinton of the Department of Classics at Cornell University. For each inscription details of the publication in which it features are given, although transcriptions/translations are not provided here. The images are of high quality; the use of black and white photographs enhances the readablility of the texts. The collection is also fully searchable. The website also provides bibliographic details of relevant publications as well as information about the digitisation project itself.
Nordlist is an free full-text journal published by the University of Tromsø. There are papers on classical and modern literature; archaeology; and a variety of other topics that reflect the research carried out in that university. Papers are in Norwegian, German or English. Topics include community and place (e.g. the Americans and the Grand Canyon); dramatist John Webster; Anna Akhmatova, Leo Tolstoy and Russian literature; T. S. Eliot; rhetoric; Romanticism; Northern minorities (e.g. Sámi, Nenets, etc.); semiotics; Aksum stelae; Harold Pinter; narrative in Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre; Fridtjof Nansen; the Hellenistic Toledo krater; game boards in Iron Age Northern Europe; and others. A few papers are not accessible online and many are available in PDF format. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
'Numismatics' is a website created by an enthusiast with an interest in ancient coins: it features essays, images and weblinks relating to this topic. There are also digital reprints of classic numismatic works such as a complete illustrated edition of Barclay Head's 'Historia Numorum', first published in 1886 and one of the seminal works on Greek and Roman coinage. Also included are some 70 plates from Head's guide to the coin collection of the British Museum (with the preface to the 1895 edition) and some high resolution maps of ancient Greece. There is also a selection of plates from the British Museum's coin catalogue. The site author's own contributions include articles on the Greek alphabet, the coins of Apollonia Pontika and the Gorgon issues of Parion. These are not footnoted or referenced and lack detailed bibliographies but will interest amateurs and undergraduates who can use them alongside standard academic works on ancient numismatics. More experienced numismatists will find it a useful source of small but clear images for teaching purposes and quick reference.
This is the website of The Oath in Archaic and Classical Greece, a research project funded by the Leverhulme trust, directed by Alan H Sommerstein and based at the University of Nottingham's Department of Classics. The project's main focus is a database of all references to oaths or acts of swearing found in Greek texts dating from the introduction of alphabetic writing to the year 322 BCE; the website makes this database, which features over 3,700 records, available online. A search facility allows the user to look for references to particular oaths according to a wide range of criteria, including: author; work; genre; date; swearer or swearee (this can be broken down further into gender, age, status and citizenship of the swearer/swearee); and god to which the oath refers. Search results include both literary and epigraphic references to swearing and are given in the form of detailed descriptions to the content and context of the oaths, with references to the sources in which they may be found. The website also provides: a brief explanation of the definition of an oath; information about the project team; and details of the project's publications.
This website details the archaeological research conducted in the Sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia (Ancient Korinth or Corinth, Greece) by Ohio State University. Isthmia was one of the four great Panhellenic sanctuaries, active from the Archaic period through the end of Antiquity, with a rich period of medieval use as well. This website details this work, and information can be found about: the site, including the sanctuary of Poseidon and the Roman bath; preliminary reports since 1992; the fieldwork carried out by The Ohio state University since 1987; related projects including Dokos and Agios Vasilios; bibliography and other resources; and news. This website has been identified as a model site by the staff of Archaeology magazine, an official publication of the Archaeological Institute of America.
Made available online by the Perseus project, this is a digital version of Thomas R Martin's comprehensive book An Overview of Classical Greek History From Mycenae to Alexander. It covers the history (political, social and cultural) of Greece from approximately 1200 BC (the collapse of Mycenean civilisation) to 323 BC (the death of Alexander the Great). Chapters of the work cover the following topics: a geographical and historical introduction; the early Greek dark age; remaking Greek civilisation; the archaic age; the late archaic city-state; an introduction to the fifth century; the clash between Greeks and Persians; the Athenian empire in the 'golden age'; Athenian religious and cultural life; Athenian social and intellectual history; the Peloponnesian War; the fourth century and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War; philosophy and education; and the development of Macedonian power. Users may browse the whole text or view it chapter-by-chapter or section-by-section. Throughout, as is customary for Perseus resources, key words are hyperlinked to pages which then allow the user to view other relevant resources (images as well as text from both primary and secondary sources) on the website.
The Pantheon is a website providing information on the traditions, myths and rituals associated with ancient Greek gods and goddesses, and provides an introduction to Greek religion for those new to the study of the ancient world. Introductory text is divided into the following sections: the five ages of man; the creation of the world; the creation of mankind; the Titans; the Gods of Olympus; and Greek heroes and demi-gods; other Greek legends. The site is also fully searchable, and links to pertinent entries are also embedded into the main text. Unfortunately few references to ancient sources are provided; this limits the usefulness of the site as anything other than a basic starting-point.
The carved frieze from the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis is the most famous, and controversial, collection of sculpture to survive from the classical Greek world. This clearly written and attractively illustrated resource, available in Greek and English, brings together all the surviving fragments of the frieze, presently housed in the British Museum, the Louvre and the Acropolis Museum, in a digital format. The site provides a concise and fascinating introduction to many aspects of the Parthenon and its sculpted decoration, including a history of the frieze and the building itself since its execution by Athenian statesman Pericles between 447 and 438 BC. The reader is given an outline of the religious significance of the Parthenon and the Panathenaic festival for the Athenian people as well as a discussion of the various interpretations of the temple iconography. The frieze itself is presented stone by stone with a commentary on each fragment, including reproductions of drawings by Carrey (1674) and Stuart (1757) which preserve details no longer visible on the surviving sculptures. Usefully, the sculpture from each of the four sides of the temple is presented initially as a series of continuous thumbnail images which allows the iconographic scheme to be viewed as a whole as well as detail by detail. This excellent website, produced by the Acropolis Restoration Service and published by the National Documentation Service (EKT), is intended by the authors to appeal to a wide-ranging audience from the general public to university level academics.
This online resource is dedicated to the marble sculptures - the metopes, frieze, and pediment statues - which originally adorned the Parthenon in Athens. It includes an image gallery of the marbles, and a history of the sculptures from their production in the fifth century BC to their removal to London by Lord Elgin in the early nineteenth century. The site's bias is towards the return of the marbles to Greece, although it provides information on both sides of this debate. This includes updates on the campaign for their return, media coverage of the topic and the arguments of the British government and the British Museum against the return of the sculptures.
This special website from the Guardian newspaper collates reports and commentary covering the debate over the Parthenon Marbles, which are currently housed in the British Museum. There are direct links to the latest stories and access to older articles in the Guardian's archive (going back to May 1999). The interactive guide to the history of the sculptures gives a brief account of the background; a link to a more complete history leads to a website from the Hellenic Electronic Center. In addition, there are reports relating to British and Greek perspectives, as well as those relating to the British government and the British museum. All reports and commentaries come from the Guardian or Observer. This site is a useful place to explore the differing perspectives on whether the marbles should be returned to Greece.
Pathways to Ancient Myth is an online resource initially designed for use by Calvin College's classical mythology students, but which will appeal to others with an interest in looking at locations relevant to the legends of ancient Greece. It presents what are described as five virtual walking tours of places important in history, myth, ritual, and art of the Greek world. Featured sites are the Athenian Acropolis; Delphi; Dodona; Eleusis; and Olympia. Each tour comprises a set of photographs, accompanied by explanatory text describing the history, mythology, and buildings of the sites. This is a clear and easy-to-use resource which brings together visuals and text and could be used as an introduction to Greek history or as an aid to teaching Greek architecture as well as in courses relating to the myths of Greece.
This online catalogue of buildings found at archaeological sites throughout the ancient Greek world is provided by the Perseus digital library. The user may enter a search term for a particular site or building, or may browse the catalogue via the alphabetical table of contents. A wide range of types of buildings is covered and includes the following: temples; stoas; treasuries; theatres; palaces; and gymnasia. Featured archaeological sites include, among others: Aegina; Athens; Delos; Delphi; Eleusis; Epidauros; Miletus; Mycenae; Olympia; Priene; and Samos. Full catalogue entries include a description of the building as well as links to other resources on the Perseus website. These include images, maps, plans and links to secondary source material, as well as links to information on other related or comparable buildings.
This online encyclopaedia from the Perseus digital library is a comprehensive reference source for a vast range of aspects of the classical world. Via the encyclopaedia's table of contents the user is able to click on the first letter of the term for which they are searching and then browse through entries beginning with that letter. Alternatively they may type in a search term. The breadth of information here to some extent defies summary, but among other things the following are included: key individuals (authors and statesmen, for example); important sites throughout the Greek and Roman world; mythology and religion; art and architecture; historical events; literary works. Each encyclopaedia entry provides hyperlinks to relevant resources in the Perseus library, including cross references to other articles in the encyclopaedia and direct links to primary and secondary sources as well as to any related images. The encyclopaedia is an excellent starting-point for those seeking information on classical topics.
This regularly updated online resource, produced by Dr Marc Huys of the Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, provides an annotated list of links to bibliographical sites for Classics. As well as listing general bibliographies, there are also links to bibliographies grouped by theme, including those on: literature; linguistics and grammar; mythology and religion; history; and archaeology. A further list details bibliographies arranged alphabetically according to the ancient author to whom they relate. This is a useful resource which will be a good starting point to those studying or teaching Classics and seeking details of secondary source material on specific topics.
Based on the life's work and surviving archive of renowned Oxford epigrapher Lilian ('Anne') Jeffery (1915-1986), this online resource provides a major database and scholarly tool for the study of early Greek writing and literacy from circa 800-500 BC. Published by the University of Oxford's Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD), the website provides information on thousands of inscriptions and their archaeological context as well as a biography of Jeffery by David Lewis reproduced from the Proceedings of the British Academy. The inscriptions can be searched by publication sequence, script types, letter form, site context, object type, region and sub region, and date range. Each entry is given an individual data sheet which includes detailed information about the inscriptions, as well as images, transcriptions and translations. There is also a series of maps showing the distribution of the inscriptions. Jeffery's book 'The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece' (first published in 1961) remains a seminal text for early Greek epigraphy but her archive contains a far larger collection of drawings, notes and supplementary material not included in the original publication or in the revised second edition edited by Alan Johnston in 1990. The archival material provided here is of considerable interest in expanding and elucidating the original publication.
This website describes itself as the 'home of Alexander the Great' (Alexander III of Macedon, 356-323 BC) on the Web and features pages on all aspects of this historical figure. The articles here are primarily narrative accounts without scholarly analysis or reference to primary sources, yet the scope of the information included makes this resource a useful introduction to the topic. Key themes which are covered include: Alexander's life and his family; art and legends relating to Alexander; his horse, Bucephalus; wars, campaigns and battles; the geography, culture and religion of Alexander's world; other key historical figures of the period; Alexander's sexuality; his death; and movies relating to Alexander. There is also a 'showcase' of summaries and extracts from new Alexander novels and books (some of which are still works in progress), and an extensive range of reviews of both scholarly works and fiction on all aspects of Alexander. The site also has a discussion forum.
Forming part of the author's Johnstonia Web pages, this online resource is the text of a lecture on the fifth-century BCE Greek historian Thucydides which was written for an undergraduate Liberal Studies class by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Vancouver. As its title suggests, the lecture provides an introduction to Thucydides and his history of the Peloponnesian War. The author concentrates primarily upon some of the issues raised by Thucydides in the opening to his historiographical work. After a brief introduction the lecture is divided into sections on the following topics: the methods of history; history and myth; the forces of history; the shape of history; the Hebrew and the Greek imagination; and the Peloponnesian War as a dramatic structure. This would be a good starting point for anyone studying Thucydides for the first time.
This Web page describes AHRC-funded research to re-display the Ancient Greek and Roman collections at the University of Cambridge's Fitzwilliam Museum. The project aims to bring the University's archaeological scholarship into "conversation" with contemporary museum display practices, in the light of recent advances in art history research, moving away from 'thematic' or 'stylistic' displays, towards an understanding of the role of "changing technology, the complexities of workshop practices, and the role of ancient markets" as well the influence of collectors on museum objects. Outputs will include a new public catalogue and Web pages for visitors.
Scholia : Studies in Classical Antiquity is an international journal of classical and related studies published by the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university. This website provides an index of articles from 1992 onwards as well as information about the staff, editors and advisory committee of the journal and the usual advice to prospective contributors. (You need to be in an institution which subscribes to ProQuest or to LOCKSS to make full use of this journal, e.g. to browse by author and volume, view thumbnails of the articles and of course to download abstracts and texts of articles.) The site is linked to Scholia Reviews, a related electronic site from the University of Natal which publishes a wider range of reviews that those printed in the paper publication of Scholia. The remit of the journal is very broad and includes articles on late antiquity and the mediaeval world, as well as the reception of classical learning during the renaissance and early modern periods and the continued relevance of classical studies in the modern world. The editors advise the use of Netscape 7.0 for optimal results when downloading papers. This online publication will benefit students and researchers in classical studies and ancient history.
The website of the School of History, Classics, and Archaeology at Birkbeck College, University of London, essentially provides information for those considering courses at Birkbeck, or who are already on one of the courses. However, the website also has a excellent set of resources aimed at its students which can be used by any interested party. The sections Undergraduate, Classics, and Medieval resources point the student towards useful websites and other resources in the field. There is also information on forthcoming conferences and projects within the School, as well as links to pertinent lecture and seminar lists at IHR and ICS. Each individual department has listings of its staff, their research interests, and contact details.
This is the website of the Hellenic Society, one of the foremost organisations in the British Isles promoting the study of ancient Greek and Byzantine culture. Included here are: information on membership; details of publications (including the Journal of Hellenic Studies, Archaeological Reports and numerous supplementary volumes); details of available grants, prizes and support for schools; listings of events such as lectures and meetings; a list of the Society's current officers. Via the publications section users may also view contents lists for the Journal of Hellenic Studies from 1999-2008, along wiith abstracts for the volumes from 2001 onwards.
The Sparta Pages form a website designed to appeal to enthusiasts who are interested in the history of ancient Sparta. Although the site does not profess to be a scholarly resource, there is much here to interest Classics students or researchers, particularly those looking for information on the modern reception of Sparta and the battle of Thermopylae (480 BC). Among other things the site features: a wide range of images relating to the movie 'The 300 Spartans'; a purchasing guide for those interested in reproduction Spartan armour; reviews of recent works on Sparta, including Frank Miller's graphic novel on Thermopylae, '300'; English translations of ancient poetry on Sparta from the seventh to the fourth centuries BC (including Tyrtaeus, Simonides, Pindar, Alcaeus, Alcman and Terpander); texts of modern writers' literary responses to Sparta (Golding, Cavafy, Byron and Housman). A basic reading list on Spartan matters is provided. This includes: ancient sources; academic texts; and details of novels and films set in Sparta. The site also has an online discussion group, the Phalanx, to which users may subscribe.
This online resource provides edited transcripts (with illustrations) of the television series 'The Spartans', which was first broadcast in 2002 by Channel 4. The Spartans were celebrated in classical antiquity for the austere and militaristic lifestyle which helped them to dominate the Peloponese and much of Greece in the archaic and classical period, particularly after their defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars in the late 4th century BC. The three programmes of the original series examined the myths and reality behind the ancient sources, many of which date from much later than the period of Spartan military supremacy. The style is colloquial, as one would expect from a television programme, and the text, which can also be read as a PDF file, is a useful overview of a complex historical issue. The website also provides further information on the Spartans in the form of weblinks to relevant sites and a short bibliography.
This is the highly detailed and well thought-out website of the Sphakia Survey, an interdisciplinary archaeological project whose main objective is to reconstruct the sequence of human activity in a remote and rugged part of Crete (Greece), from the time that people arrived in the area, by c. 3000 BCE, until the end of Ottoman rule in AD 1900. The project's research covers three major epochs, Prehistoric, Graeco-Roman, and Byzantine-Venetian-Turkish, and has involved the work of many people using environmental, archaeological, documentary, and local information. The website includes: photographs of Cretan landscapes, objects and archaeological finds; illustrated versions of the project's preliminary articles; a searchable database of the site catalogue; a case study based on one period (Graeco-Roman) in one of the eight regions surveyed; and a description of the project's research methodology. This resource is a joint project between the Sphakia Survey project and the Humanities Computing Development Team at the University of Oxford. The website is part of an online course for adult learners; an educational video based on research at Sphakia is available. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
The Suda Online is a large and developing database which makes accessible in electronic format the Suda, a huge Byzantine historical encyclopaedia of the ancient Mediterranean world written in the 10th century. The encyclopaedia is derived from much earlier works and, as such, preserves details and fragments of works no longer extant. The Suda has around 30,000 entries arranged in alphabetical order. The Suda Online Project is a collaborative effort to put online the Greek text of the Suda, an English translation, and commentary. Many of the entries include a bibliography and links to other Internet resources. There are also useful cross-links with the Perseus Project and the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae texts. Users may browse by subject area or perform a more specific search.
Supported by the British Academy, this is an online database of over 25,000 Greek coins found in British museums, institutions and private collections designed to complement the existing 30 printed volumes of the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum (SNG) which was initiated in 1931. The powerful search function allows the reader to search by: collection: country or state of origin; archaeological site; ruler or magistrate; date (600 BC-100 AD); denomination, weight, volume, or standard; obverse and reverse description; die axis; SNG reference. Each item has an individual entry and, in many cases, is accompanied by images of the coins. Although the absence of any introductory material means that this is a largely intended as a specialist resource for numismatists and ancient historians and archaeologists, dedicated undergraduates will also benefit from browsing the corpus of coins from the ancient Greek and Hellenistic world, particularly through using the image gallery function.
This website was initially designed to support Ancient History students at the University of Calgary, but offers freely accessible online versions from key Latin and Greek texts in English translation. A selection of sources relating to Greek history, Roman republican and imperial history and late antiquity may be found here. Texts relating to fifth-century BC Greek history include: Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War (Book I); Aeschylus' Persians; the pseudo-Aristotelian Athenian Constitution; and Plutarch's Alcibiades, Aristides, Cimon, Nicias and Pericles. The section on Roman republican history features several of the comparisons from Plutarch's Lives; for the Roman imperial period Tacitus' Annals (Book I) features. Electronic texts for the study of late antiquity (the fourth century AD onwards) are generally more difficult to find, and it is here that the site offers a convenient compilation of useful resources. Featured authors here are: Gregory Thaumaturgus; Lactantius; Eusebius; Athanasius; the Cappadocian Fathers; Symmachus; Ambrose; Jordanes; and Priscus. Each cited text is accompanied by a brief introduction to its author.
The website Thucydides at Peithô's Web brings together a range of useful resources on the fifth-century BC Greek historiographer Thucydides and his History of the Peloponnesian War. It includes the full-text of Benjamin Jowett's 1900 English translation, which may be viewed as single chapters, series of episodes, or diverse chapters side-by-side for comparison. Jowett's appendix to his first (1881) edition of Thucydides, in which he compares the Greek historian's account of the Athenian plague with accounts of other great plagues, is also given here. The site also presents R.C. Jebb's chronological tables of speeches in Thucydides with links to the relevant passages in the text, as well as the text of Gilbert Murray's essay on Thucydides from 'A History of Ancient Greek Literature' (1897). In addition, there is an English translation of Dionysius of Halicarnassus's letter on the language of Thucydides.
This is the websit of the Trireme Trust, which was formed in 1982 to investigate the design and performance of triremes, Greek warships of the classical and Hellenistic periods. It has achieved this primarily through sea trials involving the rowing of Olympias, the reconstruction of an ancient trireme built by the Hellenic Navy and Greek Ministry of Tourism. The Trust's website presents both pictures and information relating to Olympias as well as newsletters, details of press coverage, conference reports, texts of relevant academic articles and a bibliography. These pages may be of interest to scholars of ancient maritime history and archaeology.
The website and database of the Ure Museum of Greek Archaeology at the University of Reading, which possesses the fourth largest corpus of Greek vases in Britain in addition to an interesting collection of Egyptian material. Founded in 1922 to house the collection of antiquities at the then University College, the collection has expanded considerably since that time through further purchases and gifts. In 2005 the museum benefitted from an Arts and Humanities Research Council funded 'renewal', vastly improving the presentation and interpretation of its collections. This website provides a useful thematic guide to the museum holdings as well as a very detailed and well illustrated searchable database which is described as work-in-progress. In addition to sections on the history and techniques of Greek vases and on the Egyptian material, the thematic sections features: 'Athens and Sparta'; the 'Symposium'; 'Childhood'; 'Men and women'; 'Athletics and warfare'; 'Health and death'; 'Mythology and the gods'. The online database, developed in cooperation with the Max Planck Institute for the history of science in Berlin, contains detailed descriptions and captioned images of individual objects and can be searched according to a wide range of fields, including shape, fabric, period, provenance, artist, bibliography and Beazley cross-reference. Both the website and the database are extensively hypertexted. The site also provides visitor information, an online tour, lists of events and brief information for schools (including 'A' level students). This is a very helpful resource for undergraduates studying classical archaeology and ancient history but also provides much useful material for researchers from a relatively unknown but richly endowed museum.
This online resource applies modern computer technology to create digital impressions of what 15 ancient Greek and Roman sculptures might have looked like in their original painted state, showing images of the pieces in their present format alongside the imagined polychromatic originals. Featured sculptures include: kouros and kore statues; statues of Apollo; a Parthenon metope; and Trajan's column. Contextual and historical information is minimal but there is a useful basic bibliography and a series of hyperlinks to sources of images of ancient art. The website also provides technical and methodological information on how the reconstructions were made. The 'Virtual Gallery' provides useful complementary learning materials for undergraduates studying classical art and archaeology and their teachers. It will also benefit art historians and artists interested in comparative historical materials.
This website is published as part of Diotima (part of the Stoa Consortium), a site which provides materials for studying women and gender in ancient history. This particular part of Diotima publishes excerpts from Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Fant's book, Women's Life in Greece and Rome, a source book published in print by the Johns Hopkins University Press. The excerpts, which are English translations of key texts, are arranged by theme. Topics covered are: women's voices; philosophers; legal status in the Roman world; private life; medicine and anatomy; men's opinions; legal status in the Greek world; public life; occupations; and religion. This is a highly useful collection of primary sources from a wide range of literary, historical and philosophical texts and will be of interest to students and teachers focusing on this area of ancient social history.