This is an online narrative overview of Athens' history, from neolithic to contemporary times. The text is divided into chapters which give an easily-accessible chronological survey of the city from around 5000 BC to the late twentieth century. Key periods covered include: Mycenaean Athens (1500-1200 BC); archaic Athens (750-478 BC); classical Athens (478-339 BC); Hellenistic Athens (339-168 BC); Roman Athens from republic to empire (168 BC-AD 303); Byzantine Athens (AD 303-1205); Crusader Athens (AD 1205-1456); Ottoman Athens (AD 1456-1821); the Greek War of Independence (AD 1821-1833); Bavarian rule (1833-1862); and twentieth-century Athens. Timelines are also given for ancient, medieval and modern Athens, and the site also features a bibliography of secondary material (without annotation).
The Ancient Greek World Web presentation is a virtual exhibition created by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. It deals with aspects of ancient Greek history and society from the sub-Mycenaean period to the Hellenistic period (c. 1100-31 BC). A section entitled 'Land and Time' gives a chronological overview of the history of the periods which are covered. Other sections cover the following broad topics: daily life; religion and death; and the economy. Each section is divided into several sub-sections and is illustrated using images of ancient Greek art (vase paintings, sculpture and coins); accompanying text provides important details about these artefacts. The site is well presented, and the images which are used to depict important aspects of ancient Greek life would be very useful particularly for those studying or presenting a variety of classical courses, who require easy access to the primary sources.
The American School of Classical Studies has been excavating in the area of the Athenian Agora since 1931. The main focus of attention has been the Agora of the 5th and 4th centuries BC but finds from the archaeological site span the periods from the Late Neolithic to the 20th century. The website presents an extensive "Site Tour" including Quicktime panoramas. There are (section "Plans and Drawings") plans of the site at various historical phases and reconstruction models (again as Quicktime) of some of the major buildings as well as pictures of the outdoor sections of the agora ("Architecture and Topography"). Section "Excavations" contains short excavation reports which focus particularly on the artefacts. Some of the artefacts presented are still unpublished and therefore to access these artefacts in the catalogue it is necessary to have permission and registration details from the American School of Classical Studies. The rest of the illustrated catalogue is freely accessible and divided in sections "Black and Plain Pottery"; "Red Figured and White Ground"; "Hellenistic Pottery and Wheelmade Table Ware"; and "Greek Coins". The latest preliminary report can be found in section "Recent Excavations". Section "Resources" outlines the contents of the webiste. Anyone interested in ancient Greece may find this website useful.
Several publications have been made available in HTML format or through Google Books and can be freely accessed in section "Agora Publications". Among the publications are guides; a few volumes of the Athenian Agora Monographs (Vol.12 Black and Plain Pottery; Vol. 26 The Greek Coins; Vol. 29 Hellenistic Pottery; and Vol. 30 Attic Red-Figured and White-Ground Pottery); "The Birth of Democracy" (catalogue of exhibition); "The Athenian Citizen: Democracy in the Athenian Agora"; "The Games at Athens"; "Horses and Horsemanship in the Athenian Agora"; "Ancient Athenian Building Methods"; "Graffiti in the Athenian Agora"; books on coins; "Waterworks in the Athenian Agora"; "Miniature Sculpture from the Athenian Agora" and others. At the time of review access to some titles was difficult and some titles appears mixed (e.g. "Amphoras and the Ancient Wine Trade"); the alternative "list of all publications" may be used.
The 'Barbarians and Bureaucrats' website from Washington State University outlines the history of the Minoan and Mycenaean Greek civilizations, which were followed by the Greek Dark Ages, lasting until about 700 BC. The Minoan civilization, based on the Aegean island of Crete and centred around palaces such as the one at Knossos, flourished in the second millennium BC. The website describes the Minoan people and customs, looking at their religion and visual culture. There are also pages on the role of women in their society, and the peculiar practice of bull-jumping. The smaller section on the more militaristic early Greeks describes their origins and religion, and attempts to ascertain the cause for the fall of the Mycenaean civilisation during the twelfth century BC. The historicity of the siege of Troy is touched upon, and introductory information about Homer's epic poetry is provided. The site also links to other online resources, although many of these are more relevant to the study of Greece in the period after 700 BC.
The British School at Athens' website provides information about the School; its activities and organised events; its museum and archive; its library; and the archaeological site of Knossos. A list of present and past members is available and there is information on how to become a member. The website provides access to the library of the School; lists the publications by the School including the Annual; and publishes events organised by the School; field and bursary opportunities in Greece; it details how to become a friend or member; and how to apply for permits or the facilities available to the School's members, including the Fitch Research Laboratory and the hostels. The School organises courses for both undergraduates and postgraduates. This websites is an essential resource for researchers wishing to carry out research in Greece.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
The publication of 'Centuries of Darkness' by Peter James et al in 1991 provoked a stormy scholarly debate about the nature of the chronological frameworks used by archaeologists to study the Mediterranean and Near Eastern world in the second and first millennia BC. The discussion of the so-called Dark Ages between 1200 and 700 BC was especially controversial as it advocated a drastic downdating of many major historical events and archaeological horizons by several centuries. This website, published by several of the original authors in 2000, provides an interesting angle on the debate in the form of 100 reviews of the book and a sample of the responses made to the critics derived from a wide range of academic and popular publications. Also included is a series of frequently asked questions about the 'Centuries of darkness' debate in which the authors address many of the specific criticisms of their argument. A very useful page listing websites devoted to ancient chronological studies and details of other books by the authors complete the resource.
This resource is by no means an exhaustive guide to the debate about Bronze and Iron Age chronology in the Mediterranean and Near East and the authors' partisan position, which is rejected by the majority of contemporary archaeologists and historians working in the field, is clear throughout. Nonetheless, the website is a valuable source of bibliographic reference to publications on ancient chronology. It also provides important insights into the politics and polemics of scholarly discourse and the nature of academic authority. It will benefit in particular third-level students and researchers in archaeology and the Bronze Age history of the Near East.
The Corinth Excavations website gives brief details of the excavations at Corinth which serve as a field laboratory and training ground for the American School of Classical Studies. The web pages concentrate on the facilities available at the excavation site and the staff involved in the research. There are also brief reports on the results of the excavations carried out between 1998 to 2002 together with links to other web sites about excavation in and around Corinth.
This website publishes a series of free and full-text final reports produced by the French School of Athens on excavations carried out in Crete, and primarily at the Minoan palace of Malia. The series was incomplete at the time of review, but even so the available volumes are a reference resource for anybody studying or researching Minoan archaeology. In addition to several volumes on the palace of Malia (including some of the "Le Palais de Malia" series and some on the quartier Mu), there are volumes on the Minoan palace of Knossos ("La Palais du second millénaire à Knossos" by Jacques Raison, 1993); the necropolis of Mirabello; Linear A tablets ("Recueil des inscriptions en Linéaire A" by Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier); ideograms on Linear B tablets ("Les idéogrammes archéologiques du Linéaire B" by Jean-Pierre Olivier and Frieda Vandenabeele, 1979); the hieroglyphic inscriptions from Crete ("Corpus Hieroglyphicarum Inscriptionum Cretae" by Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier, 1996); archaeological anthropology (by Robert Charles, 1965); and wine amphorae in the Classical to Roman Imperial period ("Le Vin et les Amphores de Crète de l’époque classique à l’époque impériale" by Antigone Marangou-Lerat, 1996). The reference volumes on hieroglyphic, Linear A and B volumes as well as the fundamental monographs on the palaces of Malia and Knossos are essential tools for many scholars and students specialising on Aegean archaeology.
Acting as an introduction to the history of Greece from the Neolithic to the Byzantine periods, this website provides information about developments during each of the eras which it covers, as well as related images. Descriptive text is accompanied by a wide variety of photographs showing historical and archaeological sites in Greece as well as images of artefacts which are on display in museums. Overviews of the following historical periods are provided: Neolithic; Cycladic; Minoan; Mycenean; Geometric; Classical; Hellenistic; Roman; and Byzantine. Each of these sections is divided into further subsections on topics such as economic and social developments, art, religion or poltical history. Further pages are devoted to particular archaeological sites in Greece: the Acropolis of Athens; the sanctuary at ancient Olympia; and Eleusis. These are perhaps the most detailed and informative parts of the resource, providing images of and information on individual buildings (for example temples and theatres) at each location. Other areas of the website look at the Olympic games and the Eleusinian mysteries, and there is a brief dictionary of Greek mythology. Links to news articles on various aspects of Greek history are also provided. The site will be of particular interest to those who are new to the study of Greek history and culture.
This website is devoted to the archaeological site of Lefkandi, a Mycenaean settlement on the Greek island of Euboea. The resource contains sections on the following topics: the Dark Ages; Bronze and Iron Age movements; excavations at Lefkandi; Toumba (an important Archaic tomb); and heroic burial. The website has been written by students and thus the text is written at undergraduate level; there are some accompanying illustrations and maps. There is also a short bibliography and a list of links to other relevant online resources. The website is a useful introduction to this classical archaeological topic.
This website has placed online a large collection of maps held in the Perry-Castañeda Library of the University of Texas at Austin -- although some maps are available through links to other sites. The site is extensive and clearly laid out, with maps listed alphabetically according to continent and country. There are maps with geographical, topographical, economic and demographic information. Most offerings are current, but there is a special section for historical maps, with most translated at least partly into English. These would constitute a helpful tool both for research and teaching, and afford the opportunity for comparison with more recent versions. There is a links site to other online maps sites and to maps dealers, and an instructions page for viewing and printing site content. Navigation throughout is straightforward. There is an online form for general enquiries to the University of Texas librarians.
The extensive and impressive collection of Greek and Roman antiquities in New York's Metropolitan Museum is represented in this well-presented website by photographs of fifty highlights. These range from the third millennium BC (Early Cycladic I/II period) to the third century AD, and include vases, sculptures and metal objects. Each object is accompanied by its inventory numbers, dimensions, and details of material. Descriptions are provided for all pieces, although without reference to notable bibliography. The high-quality photos can be enlarged by being clicked on, and alternate views are offered. There is a search facility restricted to the fifty highlights. The links to other parts of the museum's website are straightforward, and include a history of the gallery of Greek and Roman art and its collections.
Minos is a journal focusing on Aegean philology (largely Linear B) and this website publishes its archive with the free and full text PDF editions of many early issues (vol. 1-14; 18; and 25). It is possible to contact the editors ("acerca de"); search by keyword or author ("buscar"); and the browsable archives ("archivos"). Some readers may find useful the possibility to register to the journal and be notified when new issues are published. Minos is an essential resource for students and researchers of Mycenaean Greece and Linear B. The papers are in English; Spanish; French; and Italian and aimed at an advanced readership. Some postgraduate students and researchers will find this website very useful.
The website of the Museum of Cycladic Art contains useful information on all collections and activities at the museum, and is aimed primarily at the general public. The website is very neat and easy to navigate, and contains sections on the "museum" with practical information and an online version of a DVD presenting the museum ("virtual tour"). Section "permanent collections" is the most interesting, especially for undergraduate students. It includes artefacts from the Cycladic Collection and Collections of Ancient Greek Art and Ancient Cypriot Art, pictured and described in some detail. The selection of Cycladic artefacts follows an educational criterion, for example several figurines out of the very few in existence with traces of paint have been included. Figurines are one of the key topics, and this evident also in section "special topics", where there are also diagrams ordering the know types. There are also sections on Greek art and Cypriot antiquities (the latter focusing on trade), also with selected artefacts presented in greater detail. For each of the three sections there is a ”Special topics” area. These are thematic essays on various issues (including a large number of texts on Ancient Greek Art). Bibliographies are given in some pages, concentrating on publications of the museum (a section on these is also available). "Donators" (sic) is an interesting section on the donors that from the start gathered the collections of the museum. It may interest anybody who is interested in the sometimes difficult relationship between collectors and public museums. Section "education" is also noteworthy, and is aimed at schoolchildren. It includes a "resources" area, which provides online virtual tours to all the collections and museum publications, available as PDF files. Section "activities" outlines the research carried out by staff or promoted by the museum, and some occasional lectures and seminars organised by the museum may interest researchers. The "exhibitions" section provides information about current and upcoming exhibitions, as well as all previous exhibitions - whether art or archaeological exhibitions - presented at the MCA. There are many colour illustrations, maps and diagrams throughout the website, making this website an excellent educational tool up to undergraduate level.
This website provides access to Nestor, an international bibliography of: Aegean studies (including all of Greece, Albania, the southern coast of Bulgaria, the western and southern coasts of Turkey, and Cyprus); Homeric society; Indo-European linguistics especially concerning the development of Greek; and related fields (such as Philistine culture and the Classical Cypriot syllabary). It is published in print by the Department of Classics, University of Cincinnati, and editions published since 1959 are available here on this site. Nestor includes over 37,500 citations for all articles, books, monographs, and journals on prehistoric, ancient and classical Greece, and neighbouring areas. For each reference, Nestor gives the author, year of publication, title, place of publication, and publisher, but does not give any indication of the content of the article. The digital collection is searchable by author, title, journal name, and year (but not by subject or keyword), and results give a list of references. The website also provides access to a searchable International Dictionary of Aegean Prehistorians, via which it is possible to trace academics working in this field.
This online catalogue of buildings found at archaeological sites throughout the ancient Greek world is provided by the Perseus digital library. The user may enter a search term for a particular site or building, or may browse the catalogue via the alphabetical table of contents. A wide range of types of buildings is covered and includes the following: temples; stoas; treasuries; theatres; palaces; and gymnasia. Featured archaeological sites include, among others: Aegina; Athens; Delos; Delphi; Eleusis; Epidauros; Miletus; Mycenae; Olympia; Priene; and Samos. Full catalogue entries include a description of the building as well as links to other resources on the Perseus website. These include images, maps, plans and links to secondary source material, as well as links to information on other related or comparable buildings.
The Program in Aegean Scripts and Prehistory (PASP) website presents the work of a research centre at the University of Texas. There are news presented in the form of a blog; reports of activities; editorials and articles by staff members; the Studies in Mycenaean Inscriptions and Dialect (SMID) online database; The PASP database for the use of scripts on Cyprus; the Alice Kober, Michael Ventris and Emmett L. Bennett, Jr. archive (finding aids only available online, but a full digitisation program is underway); and other information. Researchers or postgraduate students interested in Aegean scripts (Linear A and B primarily) may find this website useful.
This website presents the results of the Pylos Regional Archaeology Project (PRAP), which investigated the history of land use and landscape development around the Late Bronze Age palace (the so-called Palace of Nestor) near Pylos in Messenia, south-western Greece. In addition to preliminary reports of fieldwork between 1992-1997 and a bibliography of research by PRAP members, the site also provides detailed reports on the re-examination of finds from 1998-2005. The site also contains the following: a gazetteer of archaeological sites with accompanying thumb-nail maps; pottery and small finds databases, with images and descriptions of finds; a three-dimensional tour of the Palace of Nestor (this requires Quick Time); and photographs of the study area. This resource will be of particular use to undergraduate students and researchers interested in Mediterranean landscapes and survey methodology and in the long-term economic and social history of south-western Greece.
This is the highly detailed and well thought-out website of the Sphakia Survey, an interdisciplinary archaeological project whose main objective is to reconstruct the sequence of human activity in a remote and rugged part of Crete (Greece), from the time that people arrived in the area, by c. 3000 BCE, until the end of Ottoman rule in AD 1900. The project's research covers three major epochs, Prehistoric, Graeco-Roman, and Byzantine-Venetian-Turkish, and has involved the work of many people using environmental, archaeological, documentary, and local information. The website includes: photographs of Cretan landscapes, objects and archaeological finds; illustrated versions of the project's preliminary articles; a searchable database of the site catalogue; a case study based on one period (Graeco-Roman) in one of the eight regions surveyed; and a description of the project's research methodology. This resource is a joint project between the Sphakia Survey project and the Humanities Computing Development Team at the University of Oxford. The website is part of an online course for adult learners; an educational video based on research at Sphakia is available. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
The Unicode Fonts for Ancient Scripts website by George Douros is a simple page from which a set of fonts with typefaces created from ancient scripts can be freely downloaded. The fonts can be used and modified free of charge. There fonts are Unicode compatible and include the Aegean (Linear B and other scripts such as the Phaistos Disk); Egyptian (both hieroglyphics and translitteration characters); Akkadian; and Greek sets. The fonts need to be installed on a local computer to be usable (access a PC as administrator) in Word or similar software packages.