This site publishes some thousand images from the 1905 - 1907 Breasted expedition to Egypt and Sudan. The American Egyptologist James Henry Breasted was director of the Haskell Oriental Museum and the University of Chicago, the forerunner to the Oriental Institute. In 1905 - 1907 he led an expedition to Egypt and Sudan where monuments and inscriptions were recorded using photography. This site is a part of the website of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago. Some 1055 images from the expedition are available on the site along with some background information. This site is easy to navigate and useful for anyone interested in Egyptology and Ancient History.
Absolute Egyptology is a site that is focussed on ancient Egyptian history. It contains sections with articles about the different dynasties and kings of ancient Egypt. The articles are fairly extensive and illustrated with images and drawings. There is a virtual tour of the mastaba at Beit Khallaf in Middle Egypt. Although the site is hosted by a commercial company that designs websites it is obviously a labour of love by the Swedish amateur Egyptologist Ottar Vendel. The site is easy to navigate and pleasant to look at and although the articles have no references the information is balanced and to the point. This site is a good introduction to Egyptology and especially ancient Egyptian history for students and anyone interested in the subject.
The Amarna Project is dedicated to the exploration and preservation of the ancient Egyptian site of Amarna. The city of Amarna was for a short period of time, during the 18th dynasty (14th century BC), the capital of Egypt. It was founded by the king Akhenaton, the king who promoted the worship of the sun disk, Aten, and who came into conflict with the traditional religious organisations because of that. It is an interesting site in that it tells us about this very special period of ancient Egyptian history as well as everyday life of ordinary citizens. The site contains texts about the site and the projects on the site, as well as maps and images. There is also an extensive bibliography of publications concerned with the site of Amarna.
The American Research Center in Egypt (ARCE) website contains information about the work and mission of the centre. ARCE is a non-profit-making private organisation of educational and cultural institutions in USA which exists to promote research on Egyptian history and culture and to foster a broader knowledge about Egypt among the general public. Its mission is to function as a base for researchers in Egypt, to preserve the cultural heritage of Egypt and to disseminate the results of research. The website is easy to navigate and provides information about the following: current expeditions and conservation projects; membership; key personnel; ARCE publications; the e-newsletter; grants and fellowships; and other activities (including language schools and meetings) run by the centre.
This online resource about Ancient Egypt covers the history of the region from the earliest settlements to the end of the Roman period. The site acts as a general historical overview, with a page describing the major events of each traditional period. Egyptian culture also receives some attention, with a page on hieroglyphics and another on the concept of the underworld. There is an image gallery of the pyramids and some Egyptian art; a timeline of key events (hyperlinked to other pages); an introduction to the 'Book of the Dead'; a short glossary of terms; and a categorised list of links, which was unfortunately in dire need of repair when checked. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
The Ancient Egypt Magazine is a journal concerned with the study of Egyptology. The editorial board is made up, mostly, of Egyptologists from the University of Manchester. The magazine is mostly concerned with the description of artefacts and museums, the articles are geared towards the lighter side of the subject. The articles are written by highly acclaimed scholars in the subject area and cover a wide variety of topics, such as the reconstruction of the life of an Amun priest of the Twentieth dynasty or the non-destructive investigation of mummies. The website contains free online versions of back issues of some of the magazines from volume 1, issue 1, 2000, and forward; the complete text of the older issues and from the newer, contents and text to a varying degree. All back issues have, however, freely available book reviews and lists of links to websites that are deemed to be useful for the readers. This resource is useful for students of Egyptology and anyone interested in the subject area.
The website for the Ancient Egypt Site, which has been developed by a Belgian Egyptologist, introduces users to the culture, history, monuments and language of ancient Egypt. The resource consists of short articles on key topics and important archaeological sites; these are accompanied by maps and photographs. The site also has an alphabetical index, and the 'world wide' section provides a bibliography and links to other online resources as well as information about recent archaeological discoveries. There is also a list of movies relating to ancient Egypt - this may be of interest to those researching the reception of the ancient world in modern times.
The Ancient Egypt Web Site focusses on information about Egyptology through images. It is the personal site of Simon Hayter, a student of Egyptology at Manchester University. The site contains a multitude of images from Egypt and from Egyptological collections from all over the world. In addition to the images, there are written reports and articles. The site also contains a list of ancient Egyptian kings and Sir Alan Gardiner's Ancient Egyptian Dictionary is downloadable as a PDF-file.
'Ancient Egyptian Religion' is a website that serves as a gateway to a short but useful and well-maintained collection of links relating to the religious beliefs of ancient Egyptians. The list, compiled by Andrew Bayuk, is lightly annotated. The materials chosen cover items such as: deities; beliefs; practices; culture; mythology; priesthood; history; philosophy; symbols; death; funeral; embalming; and tombs. The site forms part of the 'Guardian's Egypt' website, which features various other aspects of Egypt and Egyptology. Accessible and informative, this resource is suitable for undergraduate use.
Created and maintained by Professor Nancy Demand (Indiana University Bloomington), the Asclepion is an online resource which presents a series of brief but useful introductory pages and links to the development and characteristics of early medicine in Greece, Mesopotamia and Egypt. The website is divided into the following sections: an introduction to the study of ancient medicine; essays on health and medicine in the geographical areas mentioned above; a picture gallery of images of ancient surgical instruments; a section on texts and articles (with links to translated passages of Hippocrates as well as short essays on particular aspects of ancient medicine); a page of links to other online resources relating to the ancient world. Although not extensive, the material presented on this website should allow anyone to become versed in the general aspects of the field. References, along with a collection of additional links, will significantly aid readers in expanding their research and locating relevant primary texts.
The Association of Curators for Collections from Egypt and Sudan (ACCES) is an organisation for people responsible for collections of artefacts from Egypt and Sudan in the United Kingdom. It is funded by Museums Libraries Archives Council (MLA) which is Non-Departmental Public Body (NDPB), sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). The site contains mainly information about how to contact the association, about membership and frequently asked questions about collections in the UK. There are some reports in PDF format that are downloadable.
The Boletín Español de Investigación Egiptológica "ISIS" is an online free and full-text journal that publishes papers and reviews on ancient Egypt; readers are advised immediately that the quality of published papers and articles is highly variable. All articles and papers are referenced and most are illustrated, but some are really short essays rather than papers. The articles focus on archaeological; historical; religious and philological issues as well as linguistics and musicology. There are preliminary reports of excavations that are usually of a more consistent high quality. For each article it is mentioned the original place of publication (some articles are adaptations or republication of previously published works). The "reviews" section collects both positive and negative reviews for each reviewed book; some reviews originally were not authored for the journal. Abstracts are provided for all articles. Overall, this website may be useful primarily to researchers as some shorter articles contribute to the archaeological and linguistic debate, but they are unsuitable for students being short notes or comments on specific issues. Some articles are works in progress (and at the time of review some articles were inaccessible because they were being re-edited): unsupervised students should therefore not read or use the articles without guidance or until they have gained enough experience to assess the validity of the arguments put forward on their own.
The Book of the Dead is part of the Internet Sacred Text Archive, run by amateur John B. Hare as a free, non-profit archive of e-texts on religion and mythology. The site does not promote the views of John Hare or any other individual but simply presents sacred texts from original scans and printed anthologies. A bibliography of these texts and a code of standards in scanning is provided on the site. Mainly, the texts are given in English translation although a few texts are accessible in their original language. The Internet Sacred Texts Archive is a partner of Distributed Proofreading for Project Gutenberg in developing e-text projects. The page on the Egyptian Book of the Dead provides free access to E.A. Wallace Budge's 1895 translation of this sacred text. Texts are grouped under the Plate format of the Book, while Budge's extensive introductory material is reproduced in full. All material on the site is available free of charge, although Sacred texts also offer its archive on CD-ROM in order to fund the running of the site. An excellent resource.
British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan is an online reviewed free journal of Egyptology published by British Museum. It publishes articles within the area of studies of ancient Egypt and Sudan and is not limited to research that is directly connected to the British Museum. The articles are all in PDF format and are freely downloadable. The first issue was published in January 2002. Submissions of papers is welcome. The covered topics range from social archaeology to individual depictions (i.e. Fayum portraits). This website is a valuable resource for both researchers and students in Egyptology.
The website of the Center for the Tebtunis Papyri (CTP) which is devoted to the study of papyri excavated at the Greco-Roman site of Tebtunis in Egypt in the winder of 1899/1900. The main feature of the website is a developing searchable database of the collection. Records provide key details relating to each papyrus, as well as a series of images and, where possible, links to online transliterations of the text provided by Perseus. The Tebtunis papyri include documents from the the cartonnage of both human and crocodile mummies and those from the town and temple of Soknebtunis. Most of the papyri are in Greek, but some are in demotic Egyptian. The website also provides a series of 'online exhibits', which are illustrated essays on related topics, including ethnic identity in Graeco-Roman Egypt and religion, magic and medicine in Ptolemaic and Roman Tebtunis. There is also information about the history of the Tebtunis collection (including details of the archaeological excavation) and about the activities and personnel of the CTP.
The Center of Studies of History of the Ancient East was founded in 2002 at the Argentine Catholic University to promote research within the field of egyptology and history. The centre helps students get their fieldwork and it publishes Antiguo Oriente an annual peer-reviewed journal. The centre organises an annual conference. The website is published in both Spanish and English although the Spanish part is more elaborate and complete than the corresponding English part. The site contains abstracts from the journal Antiguo Oriente and a short bibliography along with a newsletter in PDF-format.
The publication of 'Centuries of Darkness' by Peter James et al in 1991 provoked a stormy scholarly debate about the nature of the chronological frameworks used by archaeologists to study the Mediterranean and Near Eastern world in the second and first millennia BC. The discussion of the so-called Dark Ages between 1200 and 700 BC was especially controversial as it advocated a drastic downdating of many major historical events and archaeological horizons by several centuries. This website, published by several of the original authors in 2000, provides an interesting angle on the debate in the form of 100 reviews of the book and a sample of the responses made to the critics derived from a wide range of academic and popular publications. Also included is a series of frequently asked questions about the 'Centuries of darkness' debate in which the authors address many of the specific criticisms of their argument. A very useful page listing websites devoted to ancient chronological studies and details of other books by the authors complete the resource.
This resource is by no means an exhaustive guide to the debate about Bronze and Iron Age chronology in the Mediterranean and Near East and the authors' partisan position, which is rejected by the majority of contemporary archaeologists and historians working in the field, is clear throughout. Nonetheless, the website is a valuable source of bibliographic reference to publications on ancient chronology. It also provides important insights into the politics and polemics of scholarly discourse and the nature of academic authority. It will benefit in particular third-level students and researchers in archaeology and the Bronze Age history of the Near East.
The Demotic Dictionary Project website contains information about dictionary project conducted by the Oriental Institute in Chicago. The idea behind the project is to publish a complement to the Demotisches Glossar by W. Erichsen from 1954. The new dictionary concentrates on demotic texts published between 1954 and 1975 with inclusions of some more recent studies. The website contains an online version of the dictionary, freely available for downloading as PDF-files. Demotic is a version of written ancient Egyptian that was prominent in Egypt from around the 26th dynasty to the fifth century AD. The text is a simplified version of hieroglyphic writing mostly used on papyri and ostraca. This website is an invaluable resource for any researcher or student working within the fields of Egyptology or the languages of the ancient world.
This Web page, 'Classical documents for Christian research', features a series of links to English translations of ancient texts (originating from Greece, Rome, and Egypt) which may be of use to those undertaking research into parallels between Biblical texts and stories featured in classical literature. As the full-text of many of the works is included, these may also be of interest to anyone seeking online translations of the featured authors. Works which appear here are: Aristophanes' 'Peace', 'Clouds' and 'Ecclesiazusae'; Euripides' 'Bacchae'; Hesiod's 'Theogony' and 'Works and Days'; the Homeric Hymns; selected works of Plato; Herodotus' Histories; and extracts from Catullus, Pausanias, Aristotle and Athenaeus, as well as a number of Egyptian texts.
The website "Cleopatra : a multimedia guide to the Ancient World" is a wonderful online exhibition published by The Art Institute of Chicago. It focuses specifically on Egypt, Greece, and Italy between 3100 BCE and 600 CE, and provides photographs and descriptions of important artefacts (sculpture, vases, coins and wall paintings) from each historical period. This richly illustrated site also contains a timeline, glossary of terms and maps. There are also lesson plans based on the artefacts; whilst these are aimed at teachers of school-age children the website itself stands alone very well as an online exhibition or basic reference site.
This website brings together film studies, costume history and the reception of Classics by examining portrayals of the clothes worn by the figure of Cleopatra on stage and screen. It begins with an examination of the ancient sources in an attempt to deduce what Cleopatra (69-30 BC) really wore, and further sections then take a chronological look at the theatrical dress given to Cleopatra since 1604. Inevitably much of the text focuses on performances of William Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra (first presented in 1606) through the centuries, but there is also information on other versions of the story, including Dryden's All For Love (1677), Sardou's Cleopatra (1890) and Bernard Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra (1906). Where movies are concerned, attention is paid to the film versions of the above plays as well as to other screen Cleopatras, including her character in Serpent of the Nile (1953), The Story of Mankind (1957), A Queen For Caesar (1962), Cleopatra (1963, with Elizabeth Taylor in the title role) and Carry on Cleo (1965). Each section is accompanied by images, quotations from press reviews and bibliography. There is also a brief chronological list of stage and screen Cleopatras for quick reference.
This is the wiki-based website of Concordia, a JISC/NEH-funded project. Concordia will create a new digital collection of engraved inscriptions from the Roman monuments of Tripolitana (northern Libya). The digitised texts may be integrated with geographic datasets to allow: integrated text searching; dynamic mapping; and geographical linkages for these and other relevant collections. The project is completed in 2009, and the The website remains active in aprts, with schedule of Web chats online. The site also includes: a short description of the primary sources used; a minimal project plan; project news; and information on the ORE (Object Reuse and Exchange) and other interoperability standards that are used. Other major resources may be presented as the project outputs become available. Indeed, elsewhere on the Web some outputs from this project are in evidence, for example in the Pleiades website which gives geographical information on the ancient world
The Centre for Computer-aided Egyptological Research (CCER) website provides four Coptic fonts, which may be downloaded free of charge. These fonts include that used by Glyph for Windows. The fonts are TrueType, and available in bold, italic, and plain text. Accented characters are available through the keyboard. Once loaded on one's machine, the fonts can be also be used in other Windows programs.
This is the official website of Current Research in Egyptology, a UK postgraduate conference. The website announces new conferences and lists past ones. An edited book is produced from the papers presented at each conference, a complete list of these with individual authors and titles is available on a page. The individual papers can also be searched and browsed through the "database" interface. Postgraduate students in Egyptology may find this website useful.
This is the website of the David M Robinson collection at the University of Mississippi's University Museum. The Museum holds over 2000 objects, a collection built up principally by Dr Robinson, the excavator of Olynthos, his wife and Mr and Mrs Frank Peddle. The website puts online photographs of a significant and diverse proportion of the museum's holdings. Of Greek artefacts, there are inscriptions, coins, sculptures, mosaics and other objects, mainly small bronzes and terracottas. The Roman objects are organised in the same categories. In addition there is an important collection of Greek and South Italian vases, of which there are around ninety photographs presented here. There is also a small section on Egyptian artefacts. In all cases, there is a brief accompanying description, but no dimensions. A bibliographical reference is provided for most of the inscriptions, vases and sculptures. Many of the Greek vases are also linked to the relevant entry on the Perseus website. A number of the photographs of vases are out of focus, so whilst the images provide a general impression they may in some cases be inadequate for detailed study.
The Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan at the British Museum houses an extensive collection of objects. In addition to the care and display of the collection the department organises the study and publication of the objects. The website contains information about the collections, images and. The department publishes a journal, British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan (BMAES). In addition to the information about the objects and research, the site includes a reading list and a link list to web resources concerned with Egyptology.
The website of the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures: Egyptology at the University of California, Los Angeles, contains information about courses at the department along with information about current and past research. One of the main projects is the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, which is aiming to be a modern major reference for the study of Egyptology.
This database contains references to written records of people (prosopography) living in the Soknopaiu Nesos area of Al Fayyūm from Demotic and Greek sources dating from the seventh century BC to the fifth century AD. The database can be searched, and each record has appropriate bibliographic references; there is also a general bibliography. The high number of personal written documents in the area makes this area particularly suitable for a prosopographic study. Each record can be printed selecting the printable version. This specialist database may interest primarily researchers in Classics and archaeology.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
The Edfu project is conducted by the Archeological Institute of the University of Hamburg and aims at translating and publish all text material that is found at the Horus temple of Edfu in Egypt. The temple at Edfu was built during the Ptolemaic era (around 300 to 30 BC) and is one of the best preserved temples of ancient Egyptian times and was dedicated to the worship of the falcon god Horus. The temple is inscribed with a great number of religious inscriptions and is a invaluable source of knowledge about ancient Egyptian religion. Despite its comparably late date the texts are considered to be based on much older traditions and is, because of that, deemed to be of great interest for the study of older stages of Egyptian religion. The website contains information about the project, images and a bibliography. In addition there is a virtual library with links to publications regarding the temple in PDF-format.
Enim is a free and full-text online journal focusing on Nilotic and Mediterranean Egypt launched in 2008. Only a few papers were available at the time of the review, and these concentrate on the study of the hieroglyphic language. The papers are in French only and can be downloaded as PDF files. Abstracts and the general website are also available in English. It is possible to read the submission guidelines for the journal. This is a specialist resource that will be useful primarily to researchers.
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), Egypt Art website gives online access images of the museum's collection of ancient Egyptian artefacts. There are some two thousand objects in the collection. The site allows browsing by different kind of classification, such as by time period or by category of artwork. In addition there is information about the collection and a short list of suggested reading. This is a valuable resource for anyone interested in getting an overview of the collection of Egyptian objects at LACMA.
The online version of a lecture given 21 June, 1995, at Brown University, by William A. Ward deals with the status of women in ancient Egypt society. Although pharaonic Egypt was in most respects a male society, with men holding positions in public life while women dominated the private life, Ward points to the fact that there is plenty of evidence that women, throughout ancient Egyptian civilisation could own, bequeath and inherit land. Furthermore women seem to have been able to hold positions of some importance in administration and there are examples of female scribes. Ancient Egypt was not an egalitarian society in any modern meaning of the word but it seems as if women were not barred from public life or prevented from getting education or owning land. This site is of interest to anyone interested in ancient Egyptian civilisation and the status of women in particular.
The Egyptian Genealogy website is an ambitious project conducted by Chris Bennett. The aim is to create a website with a webpage for each ancient Egyptian dynasty with a genealogy, timeline and information, with references, about each ruler. At the time of review only the Ptolemaic dynasty was completed. Although, only a fraction of the whole project is completed, the information that is there is very useful for anyone interested in Egyptology or Egyptian history.
A site as wonderful in its detail as it is frustrating in its navigation, Egyptian Royal Tombs of the New Kingdom is a website providing information about and diagrams of major Egyptian burial sites constructed between the 16th and 11th centuries B.C. (Dynasties XVIII-XX). With extensive descriptions, Kelley Ross (of Los Angeles Valley College) takes us through the tombs and various chambers of pyramids and the Valley of the Kings, highlighting their major features and offering brief inventories of their contents, along with scholarly theories from some of the more recent secondary sources. The majority of material is directed towards an undergraduate or general interest user who is specifically interested in the physical construction and setting of Egyptian funerary rituals, both of whom will appreciate the number of diagrams and their level of detail.
The Egyptology and The Giza Pyramids website is a collection of articles written by John Legon. The articles are not concerned only with the pyramids at Giza but include subjects such as other ancient Egyptian pyramids, the canon of arts and the Kahun papyrus. This is a valuable resource for anyone interested in Egyptology.
Egyptology Resources is a website from the Newton Institute at the University of Cambridge that functions as a gateway to Egyptological information online. The site was established in 1994 and was the first website to especially focus on the study of Egyptology. The opening page leads to a number of categories: essential resources; institutions; museums; digs; publishers and booksellers; journals and magazines; organisations and societies; interesting Egypt Web pages; and other resources of interest. Each section lists Internet resources from all over the world, together with some commentary. The site hosts a searchable database of ancient Egyptian words based on the 'Beinlich wordlist', and a large number of email addresses for Egyptologists. Some news and notices of conferences can also be found on this website. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
ETANA is a cooperative project between ten scholarly institutions and organizations, funded by the Mellon Foundation, with the aim of enabling wider access to Abzu (the Internet gateway for Ancient Near East studies) and the digitization of core texts in the field. At the time of review, there were over 350 digitized texts, covering topics including ancient Egyptian and Babylonian history, biblical archaeology, and the religion of the Semites. There are also over 180 digitized cuneiform texts. Texts include an electronic version of the 'Pantheon Babylonicum: Nomina Deorum e Textibus Cuneiformibus Excerpta et Ordine Alphabetico Distributa' by Deimel, Panara, Patsch and Schneider. The site also offers a short list of links to archaeological projects and organizations affiliated with ETANA. The ETANA core texts collection can be browsed alphabetically, or keyword searches can be performed using the Abzu interface. Abzu also offers details of a vast array of websites, online journals, and ebooks relevant to academics and students working in this area.
The Eternal Egypt project is an online database of Egyptian historical and cultural resources, and is available in English, French and Arabic. In partnership with the Egyptian Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage and the Supreme Council of Antiquities and with the financial and technical backing of IBM, the resource features the following: high resolution images of key artefacts; panoramic webcam views of live sites of historical importance in Egypt; and reconstructions of lost or damaged sites. The library section provides a series of essays on key aspects of ancient Egyptian civilisation, accompanied by a useful glossary, while an interactive map of the country provides a selection of objects, with commentary, from the most important archaeological sites. There is also a detailed timeline. The resource can be browsed by topic, artefact, character or location. Topics covered include: arts and crafts; science; agriculture; commerce; culture and society; and government. A QuickTime plugin is necessary to view some of the features of the site. Eternal Egypt was winner of Museums and the Web 2005 Best of the Web: Best Innovative or Experimental Application.
George Ortiz spent over 40 years collecting works of art, and this website publishes online the complete corpus of his private collection. His predominant interest is Greece, and this is reflected in the dominance of Greek objects, ranging from a Neolithic steatopygus idol of the sixth millenium BC to a Late Hellenistic glass bowl of the first century AD. The collection is particularly rich in small archaic and classical bronzes. There are smaller quantities of Ancient Near Eastern, Egyptian, Etruscan, Achaemenid and Romance artefacts, and the total of 280 pieces also includes Polynesian, American, Chinese and African works amongst others. The website is attractively simple in presentation and each entry includes a photograph that can be enlarged and a well-written and referenced commentary. Twenty items can be viewed in 3-D, but QuickTime needs to be installed. There is also a search facility, and a glossary of relevant terms relating to ethnography and archaeology.
The Griffith Institute website contains information about the activities of the institute. The Griffith Institute is a part of The University of Oxford and and specialises in Egyptology and Ancient Near Eastern studies. The website contains many valuable resources, such as a collection of images from Egypt, lists of the institute's publication and the Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings, partly in an online version in PDF-format. Although the site is not easy to navigate it is a valuable resource both for students of Egyptology as well as researchers within the field.
The Hawara Papyri is a website dedicated to describing the papyri excavated by William Flinders Petrie at Hawara in 1888. None of the Hawara papyri, except for very few extracts, have ever been shown in photographs. There are plans to make digital images of at least the published papyri accessible on the Internet. The papyri are indexed and listed by SB number, by Petrie Hawara inventory number, by date and by content. Each papyrus has a detailed record containing information about its physical characteristics, content, any publication details and bibliography. Links to the text of the papyrus if reproduced elsewhere are also given. Most records also have a recto and verso image of the papyrus. The site is intended for the specialist.
The Heidelberger Gesamtverseichnis der Griechischen Papyrusurkunden Ägyptens (HGV) is a searchable index of Greek documentary papyri from Egypt, made available over the Web by the Institute for Papyrology, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. The project aims to provide a complete register of all documentary papyri (in Greek) from Egypt, and is therefore a highly valuable research tool. The user-interface is in German, though some help is available in English and Dutch. The index is taken from published corpora of Egyptian papyri and ostraka in the Greek language, and currently holds over 50 000 records. For each papyrus, a unique HGV number is given, along with a brief citation for the print publication, a date where available, place of origin, the material inscribed, and keywords summarising the content, where available. The collection has two indices: the 'hauptregister' which contains all papyri, and the 'erwähnte daten', listing the more than 9000 papyri which can be securely dated. Both can be searched on all fields. Results are in the form of a simple list, with links to more detailed information for each papyrus. These can be copied, saved, and printed, according to the limitations of one's Web browser. As well as the HGV, the Institute for Papyrology has created the Griechische Papyri der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung, an anthology of Greek papyri. This is a much smaller collection, but for each papyrus one can view a brief citation and description, an image, and transcription (the latter taken from the Duke Databank of Digital Papyri, which is also available on the PHI 7 CD).
The House of Ptolemy is a resource guide, intended as a study aid and to provide bibliographical material for students of Greco-Roman Egypt. The main focus of the site, as its name suggests, is the period of the Ptolemaic kings (331 BCE - 30 BCE), descendants of Macedonian Greeks. There are also compendious sections on Roman, Byzantine and modern Egypt. Within these periods, links are arranged by theme into sets and subsets, in a fashion that is generally clear and efficient. Topics covered include: historical overviews; Ptolemaic numismatics; Ptolemaic genealogy and king lists; the transition to Roman provincial Egypt; the city of Alexandria; the culture of Ptolemaic Egypt; the Ptolemaic empire outside Egypt; the Jews of Egypt. Most of the links are presented with a comment from the site's author: this is a personal list, not a faculty or institutional webpage. The selection of items is therefore prone to subjectivity and its completeness cannot be guaranteed; furthermore, material of widely varying intellectual depth, rigour, and specialisation is included among the links. At the time of writing this review, the site was last updated in 2002 - this meant that some of the links were no longer functional. Nonetheless, there is a wealth of material here, well organised; the numerous awards garnered by the page indicate its worth. This site is a useful starting point for students.
This is a collection of pictures originally prepared for the course "Notions d'histoire de l'art et d'archéologie : Egypte et Proche-Orient anciens" by the late Prof. R. Tefnin. The collection contains over 500 colour and B&W photographs at medium resolution reproducing mainly tomb frescoes, artistic artefacts and architectural masterpieces such as the pyramids; there are also a few didactic drawings. The photographs are listed with a small thumbnail; clicking on the thumbnail it is possible to access a larger version of the photograph. However, only part of the picture can be seen, and the website requires minimal interactivity to display other parts of the picture. Metadata with information on the subject are provided on each page, and users should be aware that some pictures are taken from books. All photographs are copyrighted and suitable only for personal or internal use only. Although students may find here some useful pictures, the collection remains most useful to lecturers to prepare their courses.
Internet-Beiträge zur Ägyptologie und Sudanarchäologie (IBAES) is an online free and full text series of thematic edited volumes on Egyptology; all contents are in German with a few contents available also in English. Several volumes are available (abstracts and full contents in PDF format) from the simple interface of the website. Among the topics are: the mummy as cultural phenomenon; gender studies in Egyptology (especially differences between king/queen and male/female divinities); "Statue and Cult. A study of funerary practice in non-royal tombs of the residence during the Old Kingdom"; animal cults; genealogy; "Tomb decoration in the Old Kingdom"; economy and religion; and the site of Musawwarat al-Sufrah in Sudan. Several monographs focus on Egyptian religion and related issues. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
An Introduction to the History and Culture of Pharaonic Egypt is a website dedicated to the study of Egyptology. It is a labour of love for André Dollinger and although not written by an Egyptologist it is rich with references and includes an extensive bibliography. The website covers a diverse collection of topics, such as: history; mythology; life in ancient Egypt; the dynasties; and chronology. Each section consists of an extensive set of short articles, dealing with a number of sub topics. For example, the section on mythology contains sub sections on individual goddesses and gods. This nice looking site is easy to navigate. The site functions as an extensive introduction to the culture and history of ancient Egypt and is useful for any student of the area.
K C Hanson's website may be a chaotic montage of loosely connected resources, but within this eclectic host of sub-directories, there are several topics worth exploring by those interested in history, culture or religion. Dr. Hanson's primary interest seems to lie with the interactions between various ancient and classical communities spanning from the apogee of the Egyptian to the Roman Empire (in particular the relationship between the later and the early Christian communities). He has assembled a series of dynastic chronologies for both Israel and Rome, along with a selection of texts relevant to this period. With a little searching one can find ancient documents from Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Greek civilizations, along with a selection from Semitic cultures. These texts, all translated, tend to cluster between the eighth century BCE and the third century CE but there are a number which predate these.
Part of the site provides useful support resources for the textbook 'Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts', which Dr Hanson co-authored with Douglas E. Oakman. Those wishing to delve further into a particular topic may also wish to consult Hanson's robust series of web links to the ancient world and/or his bibliographic collections on rituals on ancient Greco-Roman society; Hellenic, Semitic and Anatolia Cultures; and The Old Testament. An attractive collection of images from many of these cultures has been compiled.
The Karnak Hypostyle Hall Project website contains information about the research project conducted by the Memphis University at the site. Karnak was the main temple for the worship of the Theban triad of gods during the New Kingdom in ancient Egypt. The triad consisted of the god Amun, his consort Mut and their son Khonsu. The hypostyle hall was built by the 19 dynasty rulers Seti I and Ramses II. The website contains field reports from the research and general information about the project. An image gallery is under construction.
This website contains a line by line (unreliable) translation in German of the ancient Egyptian text of the story of Sinuhe. For each line, the text is given in hieroglyphic and German; colour pictures of the papyri containing the text are also provided. Differences in the ancient text between some papyri and ostraka are also highlighted. There is a general introduction and a basic bibliography. This is the work of an amateur archaeologist, and therefore the German translation should not be relied upon for teaching or research purposes. However, the line by line presentation of the text and the notation of differences in the ancient text may be very useful in teaching when accompanied by a reliable translation of the ancient text. Teachers and lecturers only should use this website as a basis to present the text.
This website provides a catalogue of hieroglyphic texts on temples dating to the Ptolemaic and Roman period. All texts are translated in French and can be browsed through a simple interface. The temples integrated in the catalogue at the time of review were: Deir el-Medina; Opet; Aswan; Bigge; Dakka; and Dendour. The texts reveal mostly religious aspects. This website is a work in progress that may be already useful to specialists.
This is an excellent resource offering articles on ancient history and archaeology together with an impressive library of photographic images of ancient sites which can be down-loaded for free for non-commercial use. The website is laid out geographically with sections on Greece, Persia, Anatolia, Carthage and Punic Sicily, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Judaea, Germania and Rome (as well a Dutch language resource on Dutch history) while the authoritative but very readable text has many cross links between them. There is no overall structure to individual sections: the Greek entries have a strong emphasis on Alexander the Great and his successors, on various authors such as Plutarch and Herodotos (including selections of extracted texts) and a series of short encyclopaedia-style entries on politicians, philosophers and literary figures. The Judaean passages discuss, for instance, Messianic claimants, the Diaspora and anti-Semitism in the ancient and mediaeval worlds, alongside more linear accounts of the Roman wars and potted biographies of leading Jewish figures. This website will benefit both students and teachers of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern world but the author makes the pointed observation that students must combine the use of electronic resources with proper library research for which the Web is not a substitute.
This website has placed online a large collection of maps held in the Perry-Castañeda Library of the University of Texas at Austin -- although some maps are available through links to other sites. The site is extensive and clearly laid out, with maps listed alphabetically according to continent and country. There are maps with geographical, topographical, economic and demographic information. Most offerings are current, but there is a special section for historical maps, with most translated at least partly into English. These would constitute a helpful tool both for research and teaching, and afford the opportunity for comparison with more recent versions. There is a links site to other online maps sites and to maps dealers, and an instructions page for viewing and printing site content. Navigation throughout is straightforward. There is an online form for general enquiries to the University of Texas librarians.
Moheb's Coptic Pages is an online collection of information on the encoding of Coptic texts in Unicode. The site includes: instructions on typing and displaying Coptic texts in an X-terminal; a collection of Unicode Coptic fonts; keyboard mappings; and instructions on proofing Coptic texts using Hunspell. The site also includes downloadable digital editions of various versions of the Coptic Bible.
The National papyrological funds website is an online repository of papyrological collections held in Spain. Among the digitised collections are: the Abadia de Montserrat Collection; the Palau-Ribes Collection; and the Fundación Pastor Collection. There are currently thousands of papyri digitised, but the team expects to produce a catalogue of all Spanish papyri. The texts range from small fragments to whole parchments. They are written in different languages (Egyptian demotic, hieratic and hieroglyphics, Coptic, Arabic, Latin, and Syriac Hebrew) and cover a broad temporal range, from the seventh century BC to the tenth century AD. There are literary and religious texts as well as writing pertaining to daily life, including receipts and invoices, contracts, and letters. The texts are transcribed in the original language in which they were written and are not translated. Accessing the catalogue is easy from section "Digital Catalogue". Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
Developed and compiled by Scott Noegel (University of Washington), Okeanos is a comprehensive and detailed online gateway to a large cache of electronic resources related to the study of the culture of the ancient, Biblical, classical and late antique Near East. Sections covering the following types of resources are included: atlases; Bible; bibliographies; general resources; journals; discussion lists; museums; and philology. The structure of the site makes navigating these links simple, and sections are typically organized by topic and then by geographic location. Overall, the material presented by Okeanos will be most relevant to students and academics already involved in some aspect of ancient near-eastern studies who wish either to locate a particular journal or to familiarize themselves with the entire breadth of scholarly activity in the field.
The OsirisNet website is constructed by the amateur Egyptologist Thierry Benderitter with the help of Jon J. Hirst for translations to English. The site is centred around a number of descriptions of ancient Egyptian tombs. The site contains descriptions of royal tombs as well as tombs of Egyptian noble men. Each tomb is described at length with images and, most often, a bibliography for the sources. In addition to the descriptions of the tombs there are virtual tours of some tombs and some articles about different topics, such as ancient Egyptian gods, monuments and artefacts. There is one section of the site that is dedicated to monuments that contain descriptions and slide show with literally thousands of images. This site is not mainly aimed at researchers of Egyptology but is a good introduction to the subject for students and anyone interested in Egyptology.
The papyrus Egerton 2 is a fragment of an unknown gospel, dated between 150 and 200 CE and found in Egypt in the 1930s. This home page is a private site published under the University of Bremen Web pages, containing high quality images of the Egerton 2 papyrus, with full transcription and translations into English and German. The author has also provided a brief history of the papyrus and the scholarly debate it has provoked, information on its palaeography and a discussion of its canonical parallels. Finally, this resource holds an extensive bibliography and a number of online secondary sources.
Papyrus of Ani; Egyptian Book of the Dead website is a translation of the ancient Egyptian book of Going Forth by Day, more commonly referred to as the Book of the Dead. The translation was made by the famous English Egyptologist Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge (1857 - 1934). The text is a funerary text that was used during the New Kingdom in Egypt and is based on Old Kingdom pyramid texts and the coffin texts from the Middle Kingdom. It describes the journey of the dead through the nether world and is thus an important source of information about the concepts of death during this era. The website consists of the translated text from the papyrus of Ani which is dated to the 19th Dynasty of the New Kingdom in Egypt. The text contains, in addition, alternative sections from other papyri with the same or similar texts. This is a useful resource for anyone interested in Egyptology or the religions of the ancient world.
This website publishes a searchable database of all articles published in the Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde (ZÄS) since volume 90 (year 1963). The search can be performed by author, title or year. Abstracts are not available. This is a basic, specialist database that may be useful primarily to researchers.
Part of the World Art Treasures project, which is based on a collection of slides and photographs by Jacques-Edouard Berger, founding director of the Swiss-based Foundation Jacques-Edouard Berger (Jacques-Edouard Berger Foundation), this website brings together a number of Roman portraits found attached to mummies in Fayyum, Egypt. They are currently scattered world wide in museums and collections. The Fayyum portraits are either painted on wood or cloth and all date from the end of the first to the end of the fourth century AD. The website includes some images of the portraits and these are organised by their present location. Information is provided about tombs and burial rites and the techniques and the materials used. The role of the Fayyum portraits is discussed and a history of Fayyum (the region) is also provided. Information about certain images is only available in French and two lectures can also be listened to in French, for which a RealAudio Player is required.
The Russian Academy of Sciences: Centre for Egyptological Studies website contains basic information about the research centre. In addition there is a list of publications and information about research projects and archaeological excavations conducted by the centre. The centre was created in 1999 and its main activities include education of researchers, conducting research projects and excavations as well developing educational program in Russia in Egyptology. The centre runs an institute in Cairo. The site is easy to navigate and although the translations to English of the original Russian texts are not of highest quality there is no problems understanding the texts. This resource is valuable for researchers and students in Egyptology.
The Rylands Papyri website gives online access to the extensive collection of papyri held at the Manchester University, John Rylands University Library. The collection contains some seven Hieroglyphic, 19 Hieratic, 166 Demotic papyri along with numerous Coptic, Arabic and Greek texts. It is one of the largest collections of its kind in Britain. The collection contains the so called Rylands Library Papyrus P52 or St John’s fragment which is thought to be the earliest extant copy of New Testament canonical writing. The website gives access to images of the papyri and the interface allows the user to zoom in and study the texts in detail. The website is instructive and easy to access. This is a valuable resource for students and researchers alike.
Saqqara Online is a website that describes the Dutch archaeological expedition to Saqqara in lower Egypt. The site describes the work on the site that started in 1975 as an Anglo-Dutch expedition. Since 1999 the excavations have been organised by the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden and the Leiden University. Saqqara is an important site since early dynastic time I ancient Egyptian history and has been inhabited since then. It is also the site for the step pyramid of the third dynasty king Djoser, the first pyramid ever built. The site is extensive and contains information about the site and the various excavations conducted on the site. It is a valuable resource for students and researchers of Egyptology.
The Sefkhet website is an annotated list of links to various resources in the area of Egyptology. The descriptions are short but to the point and the links have been classified and put into different sections, such as Egyptological Databases and Online Resources, Excavation Sites and Foundations, and Electronic Museums with Online Egyptological Collections. There is even a section of links to be avoided, for example to discussion lists where extremely biased opinions are dominant. Although the site is very anonymous and no references are made to the creator of it, the title of the link list makes a reference to Sackler Library, Oxford University. There is a good collection of useful links on the page and this makes this to a valuable resource for students and researchers alike.
The story of Sinuhe is one of the best known and most discussed literary texts from ancient Egyptian sources. Therefore, the amount of articles and discussions is more than abundant. This website publishes an exhaustive bibliography (up to about the year 2000) by Barbara Lüscher, who started working on it in the 1980s as a student at the University of Basel. The bibliography is quite impressive. A series of PDF files includes a precise bibliography for each ancient word, hieroglyph, or grammatical problem, and a general bibliography. Researchers or advanced students may find this specialist website useful.
Coptic is the name given to the latest stage of the ancient Egyptian language from the first century BC and written in an alphabet deriving from Greek and Demotic. The term is applied more generally to the distinct culture of Egyptian Christianity and its diaspora which still uses the Coptic language in its religious rituals. This website, produced by the St Shenouda the Archimandrite Coptic Society of Los Angeles, is part of an on-going project to preserve and promote Coptic culture by providing digital resources for Coptic language, literary, archaeological and artistic study. Projects include the Coptic Microfilm Library (CML) which aims to put all relevant Coptic and Arabic texts online and the Mapping of Coptic Monuments project, which will record all Egyptian Christian architectural and archaeological sites. The Manual of Coptic Studies (at the time of review almost completely empty and not updated since 1996) includes: the liturgy and texts of Coptic Christianity; a history of the language; a guide to Coptic writing; a directory of Coptic scholars. Other features include a useful slide show of frescoes from Coptic churches and monasteries. There is also a run of newsletters from the mid-1990s and downloadable software. The links page provides further information on websites of Coptic interest.
The website of the Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur journal publishes the contents and abstracts (since 1994) of this German Egyptological journal published by the Archaeological Institute of the University of Hamburg. The abstracts (and papers in the printed edition) are mostly in German with some written in English or French. There are guidelines for prospective authors.
The Theban Necropolis Database website is a web interface to a database of private tombs on the west bank of the Nile at Luxor, Egypt. There are over 400 rock cut tombs in this area and many of them have been excavated during the 19th century and some of them are now in a poor state of preservation. The idea behind this project is to collect data about the tombs in a database and to make this database available to the public. Luxor is the site of the ancient Thebes, the capital of Egypt during the 18th dynasty and besides the temples and the royal tombs, in the Valley of the Kings, there are many private tombs that often contain vivid descriptions of life in ancient times. The website is very sparse but contains a search page with a search interface and a map to facilitate searching the database. The resulting pages contain, names of the tomb owner, maps and images, titles held by the owner and references to where the tombs are described in detail. This is a very specialised site but is a valuable resource for students or researchers interested in New Kingdom private tombs of Thebes.
This website publishes some useful information for researchers (especially philologists) on the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead. The contents are available in German, but at least the interface is also available in both English and French. There is some information on the project and a least of scholars actively studying the Book of the Dead. The prosopography (Online-Prosopographie) is the main part, which contains a FileMaker 8 database with information and bibliography about all known ancient sources of the Book of the Dead. A PDF printout of the database is also available, but researchers should try accessing the proper database. There are also indexes of names and titles. Researchers and postgraduate students may find this specialist website (essentially a bibliographic database) useful.
Created by the University of Michigan Library, Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity offers a good visual and descriptive introduction to magical practices, devices and ornamentation from the pre-Christian period. Developed around the University's own extensive collection of papyri texts, each section begins with the description of a specific type of magical object, ranging from a early magic recipe books to a protective amulet. This description is followed by a series of related images that detail the features, significance and functionality of these apparatuses. The objects described come predominantly from the Mesopotamian and Egyptian regions, between the first and fifth centuries C.E. The site will be of appeal to anyone who has an interest in early magical rituals and practices during the height and decline of the Roman Empire. Those new to the subject may also wish to explore the brief, but helpful, bibliography at the end of the exhibit.
The Travellers in Egypt website is dedicated to the stories of people who have travelled Egypt through history. It is an on-line journal with contribution of many scholars and writers. Egypt has for a long time been considered a land of mysteries where the remains of ancient times seem to function as a beacon for adventurers and curious travellers. There are a plethora of descriptions and reports from the multitude of journeys to Egypt and this site is dedicated to publishing some of those writings along with articles about those people that were drawn to Egypt and their journeys. The site has the appearance of a blog with links to archives and different themes. It is easy to navigate and contains a mass of information. This is a site about the travels to Egypt where the Egyptologically interesting material is secondary to the descriptions of the journeys themselves. It is still a valuable site for anyone interested in Egyptology or the history of Egyptology as well as those interested in travel writing or the culture of Egypt.
Trismegistos is an online 'platform' or service which enables the cross-searching of a variety of projects dealing with metadata of published documents relating to the study of late period Egypt (roughly 800 BCE - 800 CE). The aim of this developing service is to overcome any barriers of language and discipline in the study of documents written not only in Greek, Latin, and Egyptian in its various scripts, but also in Aramaic, Carian, and other languages. In total it contains nearly 100,000 records. The basis of the online resource is a searchable database, of collections of papyrological and epigraphic texts by the Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections and the project Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in Graeco-Roman Egypt. The 'Leuven home page of papyrus collections' is a comprehensive and invaluable database of information on collections of papyrus and ostraca from the ancient Mediterranean world (circa 2000 B.C.- circa 500 A.D.) scattered in almost 30 countries and 350 institutions. It includes contact details and URLs of many of the scholars and institutions active in papyrological research. The database appears to be an on-going project and the level of detail and number of links listed for individual collections vary considerably. There is a straightforward keyword search but the collection can also be browsed by country of origin, by institution and, where known, by archive provenance. References to literary papyri are cross-linked with the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB), though this is not immediately apparent. Several useful sections describe and contextualise public and private archives in antiquity and describe how they have survived and come down to us in the modern world. Many of the entries on individual institutions also provide brief accounts of their collection history in addition to summaries of past and present research projects. This is a valuable resource, particularly as a gateway site, for researchers in archaeology and Egyptology, ancient history, classics and biblical studies who are interested in papyri and related materials.
The website and database of the Ure Museum of Greek Archaeology at the University of Reading, which possesses the fourth largest corpus of Greek vases in Britain in addition to an interesting collection of Egyptian material. Founded in 1922 to house the collection of antiquities at the then University College, the collection has expanded considerably since that time through further purchases and gifts. In 2005 the museum benefitted from an Arts and Humanities Research Council funded 'renewal', vastly improving the presentation and interpretation of its collections. This website provides a useful thematic guide to the museum holdings as well as a very detailed and well illustrated searchable database which is described as work-in-progress. In addition to sections on the history and techniques of Greek vases and on the Egyptian material, the thematic sections features: 'Athens and Sparta'; the 'Symposium'; 'Childhood'; 'Men and women'; 'Athletics and warfare'; 'Health and death'; 'Mythology and the gods'. The online database, developed in cooperation with the Max Planck Institute for the history of science in Berlin, contains detailed descriptions and captioned images of individual objects and can be searched according to a wide range of fields, including shape, fabric, period, provenance, artist, bibliography and Beazley cross-reference. Both the website and the database are extensively hypertexted. The site also provides visitor information, an online tour, lists of events and brief information for schools (including 'A' level students). This is a very helpful resource for undergraduates studying classical archaeology and ancient history but also provides much useful material for researchers from a relatively unknown but richly endowed museum.
The Victoria Museum of Egyptian Antiquities website contains information about the museum at Uppsala University. The museum is named after the crown princess Victoria, the wife of king Gustav V of Sweden who travelled Egypt and collected artefacts. Her collection was later to become a part of the university's collection of ancient Egyptian artefacts. The website contains an overview of the museum and a catalogue with descriptions and images of the objects. There are also some publications that are accessible on-line. Although, the information is sparse it gives the researcher in Egyptology an overview what kinds of objects are in the museum with some basic information about them.
This online resource offers access to Walter Ewing Crum's A Coptic Dictionary. First published in 1939, the text remains a key resource in the study of Coptic texts, and has gone through a number of reprints, including that of Sandpiper Books, London, and Powell's Books, Chicago in 2000. The scope and size of the publication makes it an expensive text, prohibitively so for many scholars. Therefore, while recommending purchase of the hard text as an opening statement, this website provides access to the full work of over nine hundred and fifty pages, through scanned images of each page. While the use of scanned images prevents a text search being made available, the unusual appearance of the site is the key to its usability. Each page is presented in a large table, with indicators as to where the entries for each new letter begin. Also included are the English, Greek and Arabic indexes of the original. Despite its initially bewildering appearance, this site is very easy to use and simple to navigate.
The Women and Gender in Ancient Egypt website is an online version of an exhibition at the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology at the University of Michigan, between March 14 and June 15, 1997. The exhibition was curated by Terry G. Wilfong, associate professor of Egyptology at the Department of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Michigan and consists of artefacts from the collections of the Kelsey Museum and the University of Michigan Library. It examines the lives and roles of women in ancient Egyptian society. It appears that women had higher status and were able to hold higher offices in ancient Egypt than what was possible in later Greek and Roman times. Although there are examples of women ruling as kings, the society was still a male dominated society. The site consists of a number of pages or chapters that covers certain areas such as; gender and religion; gender and power; other genders; and gender, fertility and sexuality. Each page consists of a short text and links to images of a number of artefacts relevant for the topic. This resource is easy to navigate and is useful for any student of Egyptology and especially those interested in gender studies.
The Women in the Ancient Near East website is a select bibliography of resources found in the research archive of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. The Oriental Institute is a research organisation and museum devoted to the study of the ancient Near East, founded in 1919 by the famous Egyptologist James Henry Breasted. The bibliography is compiled by Terry Wilfong, associate professor of Egyptology at the Department of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Michigan. The study of women in ancient Near East has attracted an increased amount of attention in recent years and this bibliography is an attempt to collect some of the more useful resources. The website contains the bibliography, a book review index and a subject index. It is a select bibliography and covers mainly acquisitions to the archive between 1988 and 1992. The bibliography is still a useful resource for anyone interested in ancient history and especially the history of women.
The World of the Pyramids website provides access to online seminars and papers on ancient Egypt. The seminars are learning texts adapted from published books and are entitled 'Ancient Egyptian society and family life' (with sub-sections on marriage, child-bearing, dress and entertainment) and 'Agatha Christie and archaeology' (focusing on the excavations which the crime novelist visited in the 1930s). The latter seminar merges English literature, history of archaeology, the social role of train travel and Egyptology into a singular collection of stories, anecdotes and research. The papers focus on various arguments from different perspectives as varied as history, religion, gender studies, literature, historical photographs, literature and myth; each is illustrated throughout. A short illustrated paper also presents the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamen.
This website publishes a bibliographic database by Barbara Lüscher from the University of Basel on ancient Egyptian words that is updated annually. The database, available as a series of PDF files, provides alphabetic lists of words (according to the Egyptian alphabet), lists of texts and lists of personal names. Each entry is accompanied by a relevant bibliography, limited to articles from academic journals. The list is easy to use and some journal issues included are fairly old. This is a specialist database that will be useful primarily to researchers or postgraduate students.
The Yare Egyptology website is a commercial site selling digital versions, on CD-Roms, of old and out-of-copyright books in Egyptology. The site allows the visitor to browse the archive or search for specific books. The database contains bibliographic information about the books and in some cases reviews. The site allows the visitor to purchase digitised version of those books. Getting copies of old or rare books is a problem for researchers and students in Egyptology and despite this being a commercial site it is a valuable resource for the reason alone that it gives access to material not easily found otherwise.
The website of the research institute "Ägyptologisches Seminar der Universität Basel" publishes some information on the institute as well as institute- and research-related news. Section "Forschung" (research) is particularly interesting as it contains pages describing some of the current projects run by members of the staff. Among the projects are "Diachronic Grammar of Egyptian and Coptic" and Mission Siptah - Rames X. As part of the latter project the institute is carrying out fieldwork in some tombs of the Valley of the Kings, namely KV 47 (Siptah); KV 32 (Tiaa); KV 18 (Ramses X); KV 54 (Tutankhamun's cache, not the tomb); and some ancient houses of workers. A series of linked websites have been produced by the research centre, including one for a bibliography; one for VisualGlyph, a hieroglyphic text-processing program (further information may be requested); and a list of Egyptian hieroglyphic words discussed and translated in German. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.