This site, part of the larger LacusCurtius resource (q.v.), contains an online version of Platner and Ashby's seminal Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. This large reference work contains valuable information on almost every monument of ancient Rome, and was for many years the standard work of first call for students of the ancient city. Although subsequently eclipsed by the works of Richardson and latterly Steinby, it is still an invaluable work (enjoying the considerable merits of brevity and of being in English) and the version presented here is very useful. The Dictionary is accessible through a hyperlinked page of buildings usefully sorted by type, and one click will take you directly to the required entry. Cross-references to other entries in the Dictionary are also hyperlinked. Furthermore, in cases where Platner and Ashby refer to ancient literary sources mentioning a specific building, Mr Thayer, the website's owner, has included a link to the relevant passages in his own collection of online texts (for Cassius Dio, Suetonius, Pliny, Martial and others). This is an intelligent use of the Internet's advantages over the printed page, and makes this online version even more useful than the original book. Mr Thayer has also appended his own pictures and notes to some of the Dictionary entries. This site is rather more useful for public or large commercial buildings than private dwellings, and much has been discovered since the Dictionary was originally published in 1929. There are more complete versions elsewhere on the Internet, but this one is particularly well presented and a supremely useful resource.
This is the website of The American Institute for Roman Culture (IRC), which aims to promote the culture and history of ancient Rome by running educational programs and cultural heritage projects. Details of these activities are provided here. Included is information about: excavations at the Villa delle Vignacce and Ostia Antica; the excavation of the Roman forum run in conjunction with the universities of Oxford and Stanford (a link is also provided to the official website of this particular excavation); study abroad programs in aspects of Roman culture and archaeology; voluntary opportunities at the Institute itself (which is based in Rome); other events organised for the general public by the Institute; and the people involved in running the organisation.
Felix Just's resource provides a succinct overview of the different periods of Israelite, Jewish, and early Christian history, ranging from 3000 BCE to the Edict of Milan in 313 CE (plus a very brief summary of the major phases of the history of Israel up to the present day). Several additional charts open up specific periods and events into greater detail. Containing Biblical genealogy as well as historical chronology, this site is intended for beginners in the field and people wanting basic information on the periodisation of Biblical history.
The 'Ancient China' website provides a basic introduction to Chinese history and intellectual culture. Beginning with the prehistoric Yellow River Valley settlements and ending with the fall of the Chou dynasty in 256 BCE, the site describes the major events and developments in Chinese civilisation. There are pages on Chinese philosophy, covering: the Five Classics; Confucius (Kung Fu Tzu); Mencius; Lao Tzu and Taoism; Mo Tzu; and the legalists. Also included are extracts from Confucius's 'The Analects' and selections from the Tao Ching (Book of Changes), along with an abstract of the 'Dream of the Red Chamber'. There is also a short glossary of key terms. Unfortunately, the site appears to have been abandoned before it was complete, and hence some sections listed on the contents page - those on ancient Chinese culture, and the historical atlas - appear not to exist. The extensive links list has also suffered from lack of regular maintenance, with a high proportion of broken links. Nevertheless, the rest of the site forms a useful starting point for those interested in this subject. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates. The site is part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project.
The Ancient City of Athens is an excellent website which has an extensive range of photographs of principal archaeological sites in Athens, taken from the slide collections of Prof. Kevin Glowacki and Nancy Klein of Texas A&M University. There are photographs of the following areas: the Acropolis; the agora; the Arch of Hadrian; the city Eleusinion; the Kerameikos; the Library of Hadrian; the Lysicrates monument; the Olympieion and south-east Athens; the Philopappos monument; the pnyx; and the Roman agora. There is also a section on the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron, in Attica. Within the different sections there is a good range of general and detailed views. The photographs from the Acropolis' slopes are particularly useful, not only because they are annotated but since access to these sites is difficult for most visitors to Athens. In addition, the Acropolis section provides far more than the usual snapshots, with detailed photos of architectural sculpture and pre-classical building works. The photos of the Agora and Kerameikos offer an excellent and comprehensive selection. In addition to the photographic archive the site offers a number of other resources, which are: an introductory essay on the topography and monuments of Athens; a very brief outline of Greek history to AD 1453; information about the tribes and eponymous heroes of the ancient Athenians. Bibliographic details are given, as well as links to other relevant websites.
The website 'Ancient economies I' is a series of illustrated essays on various aspects of the economy of the ancient world by Dr Morris Silver of the Economics Department, City College of New York. The essays, written from an explicitly formalist perspective, cover a wide range of topics of economic interest such as landholding, labour, exchange and coinage in ancient Egypt and the Near East, the biblical world and the pre-historic and classical Mediterranean. Archaeological, textual and iconographic evidence are employed throughout including extensive use of mythological material. The texts are based on Silver's 'Economic Structures of Antiquity' (Greenwood Press 1995) and 'Taking ancient mythology economically' (Brill 1992). The author's CV which accompanies the website provides a bibliography of his other works on the ancient economy. All of the textual evidence is translated from the original Sumerian, Akkadian, Ugaritic, Greek, Hebrew and Hittite sources. Extensive bibliographies are provided for a number of the essays and many of the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at full-size. While Silver's approach is fairly explicit throughout, the website is not intended to provide a disinterested account of the source material or of the wider intellectual debate. This resource will interest a wide audience of archaeologists and ancient historians at undergraduate and research level but will also benefit economic historians in search of historical and cross-cultural parallels for their work.
The primary focus of the well-presented and easy-to-use website 'Ancient Greece' is the art, architecture and archaeology of ancient Greece. It is divided into sections on the following topics: archaeology; history; culture; maps; architecture; museums; art; photographs; and a timeline. Three key locations are discussed: the Athenian acropolis, Delphi and Crete. Explanatory text describes in detail the construction and appearance of a range of key buildings. The Parthenon (fifth century BC) is particularly well-covered, with other Athenian buildings described here including the Propylaia, Erechtheion and Temple of Athena Nike. Highlights of the information on Delphi include the Temple of Apollo, treasuries, theatre, stadium and tholos. The coverage of Crete includes the Minoan sites (c 3000-1000BC) Knossos, Malia, Phaistos, Zakros and Palekastro and the classical/Hellenistic sites of Itanos, Tripitos and Xerokampos. The website is richly illustrated with images of ancient art, archaeological finds and modern images of the sites discussed. Also featured are satellite images, maps and plans of key areas, and the website gives links to the sites of modern museums where ancient treasures can be found. Overall this is an excellent resource for Greek archaeology and history.
Ancient Greece is a website consisting of a general introduction to Greek history and culture from the archaic to the Hellenistic period. There are pages on the culture and organisation of the city states Sparta and Athens, and on the Delian League (centred on Delos) and the Theban Hegemony. Other pages describe the background to, and consequences of, the important wars and conflicts fought by the Greeks. Philip II and Alexander the Great both receive attention. As well as describing the historical events, the website introduces some of the key elements of Greek philosophy, from the pre-Socratics to Hellenistic thought. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are all featured, with extracts from their key works reproduced. Pages on Greek literature and drama include extracts from Homer's 'Odyssey' and Thucydides' 'History of the Peloponnesian War'. The origins and significance of comedy and tragedy are explained. The site also includes two rather rudimentary maps of the Greek regions and cities. 'Ancient Greece' forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
The Ancient Greek and Roman coins website is written from the perspective of a collector, but is nevertheless a very informative and detailed site which is particularly useful for those who are new to numismatics. An introductory section on the 'vocabulary of ancient coins' gives detailed information about what to look out for when examining coins from different ancient periods. There are also detailed secions on Roman coins (arranged chronologically from the Republic to the fifth century AD and Greek coins (covering the Athenian empire, Alexander the Great, the Ptolemies, and the Greek cities under the Roman empire). There are also (smaller) sections on Eastern empires (Parthia and Persia) as well as the Byzantine period. The site also features information on a miscellany of other topics aimed primarily at those wishing to collect and photograph coins. It is richly illustrated throughout, and the accounts of the coins are very detailed - the historical background is explained as well as information about the particular coins in question.
Ancient Greek Cities is an attractive and easily navigable website which gives detailed information on a number of key cities of the ancient Greek world. Featured places are: Athens; Sikyon; Corinth; Sparta; Thebes; Argos; Mycenae; Delphi; and Olympia. Each city has a section of the website devoted to it; these sections are then divided into further sub-sections dealing with topics such as: history; legend; art and architecture; coinage; athletics; and famous individuals from the cities (for example, writers, people of historical importance and legendary characters). Pages are clearly set out and accompanied by a wealth of images from ancient art, as well as maps. The site is also fully searchable. This is an ideal starting-point for anyone seeking to find out more about particular locations in ancient Greece, although unfortunately the lack of referencing and failure to cite sources means that it is unsuitable for more advanced study.
The Ancient Greek World Web presentation is a virtual exhibition created by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. It deals with aspects of ancient Greek history and society from the sub-Mycenaean period to the Hellenistic period (c. 1100-31 BC). A section entitled 'Land and Time' gives a chronological overview of the history of the periods which are covered. Other sections cover the following broad topics: daily life; religion and death; and the economy. Each section is divided into several sub-sections and is illustrated using images of ancient Greek art (vase paintings, sculpture and coins); accompanying text provides important details about these artefacts. The site is well presented, and the images which are used to depict important aspects of ancient Greek life would be very useful particularly for those studying or presenting a variety of classical courses, who require easy access to the primary sources.
This resource makes available online several texts relating to the study of ancient history, archaeology and Biblical studies. Included are English translations of some inscriptions and works by ancient authors as well as papers written by modern scholars. Whilst the works of ancient writers which are provided here (Julius Caesar; Tacitus; Livy; Herodotus; and Plutarch) are easily accessible elsewhere on the Internet, one area where this site is unusual is in providing texts relating to Assyria, Babylon and Persia. The following inscriptions are included in English translation: inscription of Tiglath Pileser I; black obelisk of Shalmaneser II; annals of Assur-Nasir-Pal; inscription of Nebuchadnezzar; and the Behistun inscription of Darius I. There is also: a translation of the Assyrian epic of Ishtar and Izdubar; the Babylonian law code of Hammurabi (1780 BC); the text of a 1937 article on Susa by H. G. Spearing; two articles on the Behistun inscription; and the full text of Austen Henry Layard's 1854 work Discoveries at Nineveh. Several resources for bible study are also provided here.
Ancient Journeys is the online Festschrift in honour of the distinguished American classicist and ancient historian Eugene Numa Lane, and contains the full-text of 20 articles written by his colleagues and students on a wide range of subjects dealing with Greek and Roman art, archaeology, history, religion and literature. The resource also offers biographical information, a tabula gratulatoria and series of personal memoirs by his associates, as well as a bibliography of Lane's published work. Published by the Stoa Consortium, the Festschrift is notable for its broad range of topics but also for the absence of a paper version. A hypertext medium is used throughout and links are provided to Perseus for Latin and Greek words. Many of the articles are illustrated and the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at larger scales. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Greek and Roman studies.
Ancient Worlds: The Hellenic World is a lively interactive online community for devotees of ancient Greek history. For academic purposes, the most useful feature of the site is a list of Greek regions with links to maps, images, and historical and geographical details on each. The regions featured are: Attica; the Peloponnese; Macedon; Thessalia; the Greek islands; Boeotia; Phocis; and Greek Asia Minor. Also featured on the website is a series of chatrooms on a vast array of specific topics relating to Hellas. Themes include: Sparta; Alexander the Great; Greek theatre; Greek mythology and religion; modern Greek; papyrology; and the Aegean Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages. QuickTime is required for some of the dynamic views on the site. Whilst the site as a whole is aimed at the enthusiast rather than the serious academic, there is much here which may be of interest to undergraduate students. The site is also a good demonstration of the appeal and relevance of ancient history in the modern world.
The Romans website is based on the book 'The Romans: an introduction' published by Routledge (2008). In addition to many pages of information there are 24 detailed timelines covering the whole of Roman history and literature, as well as interactive quizzes, picture galleries of images (some from museums like the Hunterian and from the VRoma Project), and maps (from the Ancient World Mapping Center). This resource is connected with a 'parent' site, The Classics Pages, and the sites share a search engine. Clear copyright information is provided for all resources such as text (Taylor & Francis Books) and images.
Created and maintained by Professor Nancy Demand (Indiana University Bloomington), the Asclepion is an online resource which presents a series of brief but useful introductory pages and links to the development and characteristics of early medicine in Greece, Mesopotamia and Egypt. The website is divided into the following sections: an introduction to the study of ancient medicine; essays on health and medicine in the geographical areas mentioned above; a picture gallery of images of ancient surgical instruments; a section on texts and articles (with links to translated passages of Hippocrates as well as short essays on particular aspects of ancient medicine); a page of links to other online resources relating to the ancient world. Although not extensive, the material presented on this website should allow anyone to become versed in the general aspects of the field. References, along with a collection of additional links, will significantly aid readers in expanding their research and locating relevant primary texts.
This website brings to life the social world of ancient Greek and Roman associations, Christian congregations and Jewish synagogues using inscriptions, monuments, archaeological finds, and literary texts from the Roman empire, especially Asia Minor (Turkey) in an interactive context. The site's author is Philip Harland of York University, Toronto, and it accompanies his 2003 book 'Associations, synagogues and congregations: claiming a place in Ancient Mediterranean Society' (reviews and a table of contents for the book can be found here). Several of the author's other published articles are available to view on the website. As well as this the site provides information about courses taught by the author on topics including: religion in ancient Asia Minor; early Christianity; early Jewish and Christian apocalypticism; personified evil in early Judaism and Christianity. Course outlines, discussion notes and detailed handouts can be accessed here. The site is clear and easy to navigate and will be useful for those teaching, studying or researching these aspects of ancient religion.
Attalus is a website which provides information about the sources for Greek and Roman history from 322-48 BC (from the conquests of Alexander the Great to the end of the Roman republican period). Its principal feature is a year-by-year chronology which allows the user to click on a date in order to find out key events which took place in that year. Each entry is then linked to online passages (usually from external websites such as Perseus or LacusCurtius) of relevant ancient sources (in English translation); this means that the site acts as an easy quick-reference point for locating primary evidence. Attalus itself does provide a selection of translations of some texts which are difficult to locate elsewhere. These include works by: Athenaeus; Eusebius; Josephus; and Julian, among others. There is also a list of sources which is useful in a more general way as a means of locating online versions of particular texts. A search facility also allows the user to enter a particular name in order to be provided with a list of events relating to that name.
The 'Barbarians and Bureaucrats' website from Washington State University outlines the history of the Minoan and Mycenaean Greek civilizations, which were followed by the Greek Dark Ages, lasting until about 700 BC. The Minoan civilization, based on the Aegean island of Crete and centred around palaces such as the one at Knossos, flourished in the second millennium BC. The website describes the Minoan people and customs, looking at their religion and visual culture. There are also pages on the role of women in their society, and the peculiar practice of bull-jumping. The smaller section on the more militaristic early Greeks describes their origins and religion, and attempts to ascertain the cause for the fall of the Mycenaean civilisation during the twelfth century BC. The historicity of the siege of Troy is touched upon, and introductory information about Homer's epic poetry is provided. The site also links to other online resources, although many of these are more relevant to the study of Greece in the period after 700 BC.
The Barbarians on the Periphery website offers an informative and well-illustrated hypertext presentation, based on a doctoral thesis by Constanze Maria Witt (University of Virginia, 1997) on the origins of Celtic art in Central and Western Europe in the Urnfield and Hallstatt periods (circa 1000-500 BC). Witt attempts to combine contemporary anthropological theory with up-to-date art historical analysis. The site includes six essays covering contemporary perception of Celtic art and culture, methodological issues, 'Mediterranean interactions', ethnic and cultural identity, mortuary analysis, drinking and banquets, and sex and gender. Furthermore, there are excellent picture essays (including maps) on ten of the main Celtic archaeological sites of Continental Europe (Dürnberg; Glauberg; Hallstatt; Heuneburg; Hirschlanden; Hochdorf; Kleinaspergle; Reinheim; Vix; and Waldalgesheim). The site also provides dedicated picture essays on flagons and wagons, and a substantial bibliography.
This excellent online resource, from the BBC, is an accessible and vibrant introduction to various aspects of the ancient Greek world. The site consists of a series of articles contributed by respected UK academics but pitched at the general user or student with an interest in ancient history. Topics which are covered include: the Olympics, ancient and modern (with illustrated sub-sections on religion and the Olympics; prizes; women at the games; and victory statues); Athenian democracy; Lord Elgin and the Acropolis marbles; Alexander the Great; Minoan civilisation; the lost city of Atlantis; and Jason and the Golden Fleece. Articles are clearly set out and accompanied by images from ancient art and architecture. Links are given to relevant BBC radio and television programmes, along with links to other related articles on the BBC website and selected external sites.
The BBC History website "Romans" examines the enduring traces of Roman rule (43-410 CE) to be found in Britain - the language, culture and the landscape. Aimed at students of all ages, this website complements recent BBC broadcasts and includes considerable contributions from presenters and producers for example: Roman military historian and associate producer of "Simon Schama's History of Britain", Dr Mike Ibeji asks what the careers of Roman soldiers reveal about life in Roman Britain; Lindsay Allason-Jones (University of Newcastle Upon Tyne) explores the lives of Romano-British women; Adam Hart Davis, presenter of "Local Heroes" asks "What did the Romans do for us?" Other topics include: Roman Empire (Andrew Wallace-Hadrill); Roman Amphitheatre (Kathleen Coleman); Pompeii: Its Discovery and Preservation (Salvatore Ciro Nappo). As well as numerous interpretative texts there are multimedia resources taking advantage of the Internet's versatility as a teaching/learning medium. These include: galleries of images of Hadrian's Wall and Roman mosaics; five FAQs about Roman Britain answered; audio dramas (with script) of the Boudiccan Rebellion in 60 CE; and an interactive 3D reconstruction of Housesteads fort on Hadrian's Wall circa 3rd Century CE. For earlier Internet browsers a text-only version is available for much of the content. The "Romans" site maintains the design of BBCi History - such as the links to History content from the left and top navigation bars (which also identifies which area of the site you are currently in). The search box allows you to search History and the rest of the BBCi website. The bottom navigation bar offers access to: the "reading room" (feature articles authored by prominent historians); the "multimedia zone" (interactive content - games, 3D reconstructions, animations, audio and video); "For kids" (content designed for both primary and secondary school ages); the "how to" section (that offers advice on local and family history, house history, and amateur archaeology).
Britannia : the Roman Army and Navy in Britain 55BC - 410 AD is an excellent online resource which relates to the military history of the Roman province of Britain from the first century until the early fifth century AD. It is mainly the work of one enthusiast, with some academic input on the bibliography. There is an overview of the organisation and equipment of the Roman army which includes: explanations of some of the more common Roman military terms and unit names from the British garrison; descriptions of the types of Roman military sites with reconstructions and plans of typical fortresses, forts, watchtowers, temporary camps, depots, and industrial sites; a summary (timeline) of the major military events in the Province and their relationship to military sites; reconstructions of typical structures and drawings of soldiers; and links to other Roman websites on the Internet. A Gazetteer presents this information accessibly via the geography of the Province. Regional maps and browsable pages organise this into modern regions, and then the location of sites can be seen by counties and unitary authorities throughout England, Wales and Scotland. Detailed maps cover the northern frontiers. A searchable database of more than 550 military sites and army units includes photographs of remains still visible today. There is also a detailed bibliography of works relating to Roman military history in Britain.
The British School at Rome (BSR) is a centre for research on the archaeology, history and culture of Italy, and for contemporary art and architecture. It is one of a large group of national academies in Rome. This website includes information about: residential awards for researchers and artists; a programme of exhibitions in contemporary art; a programme of lectures and conferences on the humanities; a specialist research library; a publications programme; and a virtual tour of the School. Also included are pages relating to archaeology fieldwork projects, including excavations at Forum Novum (villa, church and amphitheatre) since 1997 directed by the Birmingham University Field Archaeology Unit, the British Museum and the British School at Rome, and carried out in collaboration with the Soprintendenza Archeologica del Lazio. This project aims to complement other urban studies being carried out as part of the Tiber Valley project, in particular to the study of the larger scales of urban form currently being carried out by the University of Southampton. Interdisciplinary research projects also detailed here include: the Pompeii Project (an archaeological and multimedia investigation of a small section of the extinct city, known as Insula 9, which includes a virtual tour of Insula I.9 on this website); the Tiber Valley Project (an integrated project examining the hinterland-city relationship in central Italy); and the Roman Ports Project, which traces at the development of Portus, the port of imperial Rome.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
The Institute for Antiquity and Christianity (IAC) is part of the Claremont Graduate School and is a research centre which focuses on the origins of western civilisation; its bulletin is made available online by the Claremont Colleges Digital Library. Volumes available here date from 1970 to 1997. The user may browse contents lists for each volume and then access each volume page-by-page in PDF format. Of particular academic interest are the texts of IAC public lectures, and a wide range of topics is covered by these, including: archaeology relating to Biblical sites; the writing of the New Testament; ancient Roman education; Judaism and Christianity; Alexandrian poetry; ancient magic; the synagogue; and papyrology.
This is the website of the Cambridge School Classics Project (CSCP), which aims to promote the teaching of classics and ancient history to students of all ages. This excellent resource offers teaching aids, practical advice, and news and Web links to students and teachers with a dual emphasis on Latin and Roman history, myths and storytelling. The website features a very useful and extensive series of free online resources for Latin learners and their teachers, many in the form of web links, as well as providing a guide to the Cambridge Online Latin Project and its paper version, the Cambridge Latin Course. A subscription is required for the online Latin course. Resources also include an online vocabulary tester and dictionary. Information is also provided on the Iliad Project, which aims to develop child literacy skills via the medium of storytelling, and on other initiatives to support the teaching of Greek and Roman culture in primary schools. The CSCP website will be a fundamental resource for anyone interested in classical civilisation at all levels of education.
Capitolium.org is an extensive and detailed website devoted primarily to the imperial fora in the city of Rome, and to the ongoing archaeological work there. A historical overview of ancient Rome, from its traditional foundation date (753 BC) to the imperial period, is given here, accompanied by a detailed chronological table of events, an index of Roman emperors and a map of the empire. Details are also given of the archaeological excavations taking place in the area of the fora, with specific information on each individual forum, its history, buildings and functions (included here are sections on the fora of Caesar, Augustus, Nerva and Trajan, and on the Temple of Peace in the forum of Vespasian, as well as Trajan's market). A section on daily life describes ancient Roman food and drink, family life and housing. Finally the website has a 'Ludi' (games) section with pages on Roman numerals, the calendar of Roman holidays, Latin phrases and sayings, a quiz based on information found on the site, and a limited list of films set in ancient Rome. The website is equally navigable in English and Italian.
The publication of 'Centuries of Darkness' by Peter James et al in 1991 provoked a stormy scholarly debate about the nature of the chronological frameworks used by archaeologists to study the Mediterranean and Near Eastern world in the second and first millennia BC. The discussion of the so-called Dark Ages between 1200 and 700 BC was especially controversial as it advocated a drastic downdating of many major historical events and archaeological horizons by several centuries. This website, published by several of the original authors in 2000, provides an interesting angle on the debate in the form of 100 reviews of the book and a sample of the responses made to the critics derived from a wide range of academic and popular publications. Also included is a series of frequently asked questions about the 'Centuries of darkness' debate in which the authors address many of the specific criticisms of their argument. A very useful page listing websites devoted to ancient chronological studies and details of other books by the authors complete the resource.
This resource is by no means an exhaustive guide to the debate about Bronze and Iron Age chronology in the Mediterranean and Near East and the authors' partisan position, which is rejected by the majority of contemporary archaeologists and historians working in the field, is clear throughout. Nonetheless, the website is a valuable source of bibliographic reference to publications on ancient chronology. It also provides important insights into the politics and polemics of scholarly discourse and the nature of academic authority. It will benefit in particular third-level students and researchers in archaeology and the Bronze Age history of the Near East.
The website "Chester : A Virtual Stroll Around the Walls" is an excellent and relatively informative site which provides photographs of Chester's famed historic city walls. Dating partially from the Roman era, the walls were added to through the ages and form a complete circuit around the centre of Chester, a must on any tourist's itinerary. Chester was one of the few original Roman camps, and was known as Deva. The site provides varied information on Chester from Roman times, the history of the city, its architecture and topography. There is information here of interest to both the casual tourist and inhabitant of Chester alike. Facts about Chester's long history are presented in a lively and interesting way. The site provides reminiscences and updates about other buildings of historic importance in Chester, as well as a gallery of images of Chester, old Chester and of the famous Mystery Plays. The paintings of Chester by Louiss Rayner together with a biography of the artist can be seen on the site.
Written by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, this is an excellent online study guide to classical Greek and Roman culture through its key literary, historical and philosophical writers. The resource, which is intended for use by undergraduates taking classics options, combines historical, critical and literary material with practical exercises and questions in reading, comprehension and interpretation. The authors featured are: Homer; Thucydides; Sophocles; Euripides; Aristotle; Aristophanes; Plato; Lucretius; and Virgil. Each literary genre is accompanied by sections providing cultural and intellectual background. The entries are hyperlinked to Perseus for easy reference, as is the excellent glossary of personal names, technical terms and placenames, though there is no bibliography. This resource provides a clear and reliable learning resource for classics and ancient history students.
The Oxford University Classics website provides details about the sub-faculties of Classical Languages and Literature, and Ancient History. It includes: online listings of lectures, seminars and events; a gateway of online classical resources; information on a range of current research projects in Classics; contact details of faculty members; Oxford Classics job advertisements; and details of undergraduate and graduate courses, as well as of the application procedures for prospective students. One of the most useful features of the resource is, however, the access which it provides to online bibliographies to the classical subjects taught at the University of Oxford.
Classics Ireland is the journal of the Classical Association of Ireland; this website provides the online version of the printed edition. Volumes 1-12 (1994-2005) are available here at the time of writing. Classics Ireland publishes scholarly articles and reviews on all aspects of the ancient world. Topics covered in the journal's articles, of which the full-text is available to view here, include: ancient Greek and Latin drama and poetry; Greek and Roman history and historiography; the reception of classical works and themes in modern literature; sexuality and gender; slavery; art and architecture; and teaching and learning classical subjects.
Andrew Wilson's Classics Pages form an extensive and well-designed website devoted to all aspects of ancient Greece and Rome. Several of the features have an interactive element, and there is something here to appeal to all levels of interest, from school to university teaching. A huge range of topics is covered here, with featured sections on: Greek literature (Homer's Iliad, Sappho, Aeschylus' Agamemnon, Sophocles' Oedipus and Antigone, Euripides, Aristophanes' Lysistrata and Peace, and Lucian); Latin literature (Catullus, Sulpicia, Virgil, Horace, Propertius and Apuleius, with extracts from texts in English and Latin); Plato's philosophy; a guide to figures from Greek mythology; an introduction to Greek architecture, pottery and sculpture (with images of artefacts); women in ancient Greece; the symposium; ancient technology; Eros; the Olympic Games; oracles; and the archaeology of ancient Greece and Sicily (accompanied by photographs and interactive tours of ancient sites). There is also a commentary, notes and vocabulary for Andrew Wilson's ancient Greek translation of Harry Potter. A lighthearted entertainment section features: quizzes and word games; rude Latin; classical phrases in everyday usage; the etymology of modern English names and words; and famous people who have had a classical education. The site is searchable by keyword, and if the search does not return an answer then the author is open to receiving email questions on any aspect of Classics. This resource is an excellent example the way in which the classical world can be made accessible to the current generation.
The Classics Technology Center is a website which provides a wealth of free electronic resources for the teaching and learning of Classics-based subjects. These range from school to university level and cover Greek and Latin languages, ancient history, archaeology and literature, as well as more general material and teaching tools to help with the use of web-based Classics resources. Also featured are pedagogical guidelines for teachers of Latin and Greek, and advice from classicists relating to the teaching of a range of topics based on personal teaching experience (themes covered include: classical literature; the Olympics; Alexander the Great; Latin mottoes; Roman gladiators; Plato; Troy; the Greek gods; Latin and Greek languages). There is also a 'showcase' of academic papers on teaching Classics, an extensive glossary of Greek and Latin terms, and a variety of word games and trivia quizzes, including a classical crossword. There is so much material here that the site can be difficult to navigate but teachers of classical topics will find that it is certainly worth spending time exploring what is available.
Classics@ is an online peer reviewed journal published by the Center for Hellenic Studies at Harvard University, which aims to bring contemporary classical scholarship to a wide Internet audience. Each issue dedicated to in-depth exploration of a single important problem in the field of Classics. Volume 1 is devoted to the 600 new lines of Hellenistic epigrammatic poetry attributed to Posidippus of Pella (fl. 300) discovered in the wrappings of an Egyptian mummy in 2001, and provides introductory material, translations and commentary based on original Italian edition. The Internet format allows on-going revision of the texts and their interpretation and facilitates academic discussion. Volume two is a valuable series of papers on the nature and future of electronic publication in classics ('Ancient Mediterranean cultural informatics') based on a workshop at the CHS in 2003, with articles on the issue of reconciling traditional standards and conventions of text editions with the technical potential of the Web. The text of each issue is regarded as an in-progress project which is subject to future revision so will lack the static nature of traditional journals and allow rapid dissemination of new research.
The website "Cleopatra : a multimedia guide to the Ancient World" is a wonderful online exhibition published by The Art Institute of Chicago. It focuses specifically on Egypt, Greece, and Italy between 3100 BCE and 600 CE, and provides photographs and descriptions of important artefacts (sculpture, vases, coins and wall paintings) from each historical period. This richly illustrated site also contains a timeline, glossary of terms and maps. There are also lesson plans based on the artefacts; whilst these are aimed at teachers of school-age children the website itself stands alone very well as an online exhibition or basic reference site.
Compitum is a French-language website which is aimed primarily at researchers and is devoted to news about events and publications relating to the study of Roman antiquity, Latin language and literature. Information is given here about relevant conferences and lectures (some in France itself, others taking place elsewhere in the world). There is also an extensive (and annotated) section listing useful online resources (including bibliographies and publications as well as websites on particular themes relating to the ancient Roman world). Recent publications on ancient Roman themes are also listed here, with brief details of contents. Users may register in order to receive Compitum's newsletter via email.
The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon, hosted by the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, USA, aims to create a lexicon of all Aramaic words from 900 BCE till the Early Middle Ages. The resource consists of a database section with facilities allowing for concordance, dictionary, dialect and lexicon searches, and a searchable, very well updated bibliography. A few pages introduce the Aramaic language, which is still spoken today.
This is the wiki-based website of Concordia, a JISC/NEH-funded project. Concordia will create a new digital collection of engraved inscriptions from the Roman monuments of Tripolitana (northern Libya). The digitised texts may be integrated with geographic datasets to allow: integrated text searching; dynamic mapping; and geographical linkages for these and other relevant collections. The project is completed in 2009, and the The website remains active in aprts, with schedule of Web chats online. The site also includes: a short description of the primary sources used; a minimal project plan; project news; and information on the ORE (Object Reuse and Exchange) and other interoperability standards that are used. Other major resources may be presented as the project outputs become available. Indeed, elsewhere on the Web some outputs from this project are in evidence, for example in the Pleiades website which gives geographical information on the ancient world
This is the website for the Corinth Computer Project, which is based at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States. The project was founded in 1988 with the aim of developing a computerized architectural and topographical survey of the Roman colony of Corinth. The project is particularly concerned with uncovering information about the different stages of the city's development and the impact of non-Roman influences, including Hellenistic, Byzantine and Venetian. There is also an emphasis on research into Roman strategies of city planning. The site offers a detailed methodological essay about the project as well as information about Corinth in Greek, Roman and modern times. The text in each section is accompanied by city plans and photographs, including a number of photographs of the process of excavation, and of the regional landscape. The 'reference' section of the site also provides a glossary of archaeological terms used, a bibliography and links to selected resources for classicists on the Internet. The Corinth Computer Project is a well thought-out scholarly website which has won a number of awards.
De Imperatoribus Romanis (On the Roman Emperors, or DIR) is a high-quality, online scholarly encyclopaedia about the rulers of the Roman Empire from 27 BC to 1453 AD, (Augustus to Constantine XI Palaeologus). The contents of DIR have been prepared by scholars but are intended to be accessible to non-specialists as well. This is an award winning online resource based at Salve Regina University, useful for teaching and learning about the history of Roman Emperors and many other aspects of Roman life, and easy to navigate. (There are frames and non-frames versions of the site, and a search engine). It includes biographical essays on the individual emperors, and descriptions and maps of significant battles in the empire's history. Each article is rigorously peer reviewed for quality and accuracy by the editorial board (drawn from universities from the USA, Germany, Canada, and Australia) before it can be included in the DIR, and authors undertake to keep their information current. Much of this material is cross-referenced by hyperlinks to: the Imperial Index (an index of all the emperors who ruled during the empire's 1500 years); Imperial Stemmata (family trees of important imperial dynasties); the DIR and ORB Ancient and Medieval Atlas providing maps of the empire at different times; the Imperial Battle Index; and the Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins for emperors before the fall of Rome in 476 AD (sourced from Cohen's "Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire romain", 1880-1892, and from Justin Paola's online "Collection of Roman Emperors"); as well as other recommended links to related sites.
'Demos : Classical Athenian democracy' is a on-going digital project aiming to provide a comprehensive online guide to Athenian political life in the 5th and 4th centuries BC in a fully interactive, hypertext medium. This attractively presented digital encyclopaedia, sponsored and published by the Stoa Consortium, makes extensive use of original historical and epigraphic source material as well as providing detailed essays on many aspects of the political institutions and leaders of Athens in the classical period. Extensively cross-referenced with the Perseus project, the resource also includes much iconographic material and many bibliographic citations. The long-term aim is to provide information on many aspects of Athenian life in this period for a wide audience at all levels of academic and general interest. Useful features include: details of tribal heroes and personifications of political and social ideas; a series of essays on ancient historians and literary genres; a section on the nature of the sources themselves; and a list of relevant inscriptions and potted accounts of political institutions. A general A-Z index is complemented by a more specialised index of historical sources. All of the major articles can be downloaded as PDF files. Other useful features include a series of FAQs and a guide to work-in-progress. This useful and stimulating website will benefit students, teachers and researchers in ancient history, classics and classical archaeology as well as those from the wider disciplines of politics and sociology who are interested in a comparative and historical perspective.
Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project is an online collection of digital photographs and measurements based on a large marble street plan of the ancient city, completed around the start of the third century AD. Parts of it survive in numerous fragments, the assembly of which into a coherent 'jigsaw' has long challenged archaeologists. Stanford University's Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project has collected high definition digital photographs and computer measurements of the 1186 surviving fragments (these may be viewed here) and is now aiming to develop computer algorithms that might help to establish a more useful searchable version of the map. The user interface for the selection from Stanford's database which been made so far is available online. This site, though, is the news page for the technical side of the project. It contains a detailed description of the process which the Stanford team is developing, which will be of interest to those who seek to bring the latest technology to bear on ancient problems. The site also offers background information on the original map itself, as well as a detailed annotated bibliography of relevant reference works. There are also useful press reports and news updates about the progress of the project.
Digressus, launched in 2001, is a fully refereed online journal whose primary aim is to provide opportunities for graduate students in classics and related subjects to publish book reviews and articles in their subject areas. Articles deal with a wide variety of aspects of the classical world, including ancient Greek and Roman history, literature, philosophy, art and archaeology. The journal also features reviews of academic books. A collaborative project between the Universities of Nottingham and Birmingham, the journal accepts reviews and articles in English, German, French, Italian and Spanish as well as publishing proceedings of conferences. The papers are presented in PDF format. The resource also includes a guide for contributors and a page of external links to conferences and events of interest to classicists; the editors invite their readers to submit news and information for inclusion on the website.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
This excellent website provides a series of historical, linguistic and mythological maps of the ancient world. The site is divided into the following sections: maps of ancient Italy (from the sixth to the third centuries BC); maps of the Roman world in the republican period; maps of the Roman world in the imperial period; Latin and Romance languages (showing the geographical spread of these languages throughout Europe and under the Roman empire); the return of Odysseus (featuring an interactive map with locations featured in Homer's Odyssey; the accompanying description here is written in Spanish); and the voyages of Aeneas (this section is similar to that on Odysseus' journey). The maps are clearly annotated and easy to understand, and can be used to illustrate the changing boundaries of the territories of Europe at various points in the history of the ancient world. Most of the maps are also available in several languages: English; Catalan; Spanish; Dutch; French; Italian; Galician; and Latin.
The early Church website covers the history of the Church from its foundation until c.600 CE. This site is a bibliographic guide listing primary and secondary sources by topic. Topics include: the Bible; councils; heresies and sects; famous individuals within the Church (listed alphabetically); ecclesiastical history; philosophy (Aristotle, Plato, Neo-Platonism, Cynicism, Epicurianism and Stoicism); and study aids. The inclusion of non-Christian philosophy means that the coverage period actually dates back to the fifth century BCE, and thus provides a useful bibliography for students of (Classical) philosophy as well as those studying early Christianity. There, are, however, no accompanying descriptions of the books, but given the extensiveness of the lists, this is understandable.The site is maintained by Robert Bradshaw, who has a Cambridge diploma in religious studies from Mattersey Hall (Assemblies of God Bible College).
First published in 1993, Electronic Antiquity is an online peer reviewed journal which carries articles, reviews and notices (including job vacancies and conference information) relevant to the study of Greek and Roman classics and ancient history. Topics covered by articles published here include, among others: Greek and Latin poetry; biography; ancient drama; ancient philosophy; social history; ancient mythology; and Egyptology. The full-text of all articles published since the first volume is available at no cost to the user. Contents may be browsed by volume and issue or via a general search interface. Submission guidelines are also provided for those wishing to contribute. Greek text is transliterated. Articles since July 2004 are available to download in PDF format.
The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature is based at the University of Oxford. It contains nearly 400 literary works composed in the Sumerian language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) during the late third and early second millennia BCE. The materials available include a variety of historical, mythological, and literary texts from a number of different Sumerian city-states including Ur, Babylon and Nippur. All resources are available in non-ASCII character transliterations and are accompanied by a typically brief, but essential bibliography. As the vast majority of texts are also available in English, this resource is open to researchers at all levels, whether they are student or professional. The texts are grouped thematically, and may be browsed by category or number, or searched via a customised search engine. The editors of the site plan to introduce English labels to further facilitate searching the Sumerian transliterations. The list of bibliographic references is impressive, and those both new and familiar with this field may wish to spend some time browsing the references. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme. This corpus can also be ordered via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)), on completion of a request access form.
The Encyclopaedia Romana is an enthusiast's website providing short narrative essays on topics relating to Roman history and culture, and Roman Britain. The essays brought together on the site are arranged under the headings: Nexus (the Roman province of Britannia, and some about Classical Greece); Notae (Roman history and culture); Roma (Roman architecture); and SPQR (the various access options for the information). The topics are of personal interest for the author and are self-evidently the work of a conscientious writer. There is plenty of evidence that the author has checked primary sources (in translation) and secondary sources - bibliographies and relevant online links are given. A more systematic view of the site is provided by the Site Map (a table of contents) or the excellent Site Index (which organises the wide range of topics covered and puts them in alphabetical order).
The Encyclopedia of the Hellenic World is a growing online resource which aims to collect, record and present data relating to the influence of Hellenism all over the world from antiquity to modern times. At the time of writing this review only the first volume of this encyclopaedia was available: this deals with the Hellenic presence in Asia Minor. Categories of information included in the resource are: place names; people; events; buildings; and issues of social, economic and cultural history. The site is attractive and easy to navigate and will potentially cover a vast range of subjects relating to Greek influence. The user can first access a summary of each topic (with geographical and chronological details) and may then view a more detailed article: many of the entries are also accompanied by images or maps. For each entry there is also a bibliography, a glossary of unfamiliar terms and a list of Web resources relating to the topic.
From University College London's Department of History, the website of the Festus Lexicon Project provides comprehensive information on the Lexicon of Festus, or 'De verborum significatu', an encyclopaedic Latin dictionary compiled in the Roman Imperial era. Despite the fragmentary state of the dictionary, it is a rich source of information and citations, from and about the period. It is of use to those interested in Roman history, Latin grammar, legal and antiquarian learning, culture, politics, religion and social aspects of the period. The project will prepare a database of texts, a complete translation, extensive commentary, and bibliography. At the time of cataloguing there were no sample database entries available. There is information about the four main writers conected with the Festus Lexicon: Marcus Terentius Varro; Verrius; Festus; and Paul the Deacon. Also included is a bibliography of secondary works. Working from an eleventh century text, the project team aims to reconstruct the lexicon from medieval tomes, glossaries, and manuscripts. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
This website (which is published by the Wesley Center for Applied Theology) contains the complete works of Flavius Josephus, including the 'Antiquities' (an history of the Jewish people), the 'Jewish War' (an historical account of the revolt against Rome from AD 66-70), Josephus's 'Autobiography', the 'Discourse on Hades' and, 'Against Apion' (an apology of the Jewish people and customs). All the translations are those of William Whiston (who translated them in the seventeenth/eighteenth century). The book version of Whiston's translation was updated in 1906 and more recently in 1988. The version which appears here is based upon the 1906 edition. The translation into English is therefore somewhat archaic, but elegant and eminently readable. There is, however, no commentary on the text, nor even the smallest background detail on any of the works, Josephus, or Whiston. Josephus was born in AD 37 to a priestly Jewish family, and as such was destined for the priesthood himself. At the age of sixteen Josephus spent several months studying with the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes before deciding to become a Pharisee. During the Jewish Revolt against Rome (AD 66-70), Josephus was appointed commander of the region around Galilee. The Romans captured Josephus in AD 67, and he remained a prisoner of Vespasian (the military commander and future emperor) until AD 69, when Josephus was given his freedom for prophesying Vespasian's rise to the purple. Josephus remained in Rome after the revolt was put down, and retained close connections with the imperial family (with both Vespasian and Vespasian's sons Titus and Domitian when they also became emperor). Although Josephus became a Roman citizen, he retained his Jewish religion - choosing to remarry a Jewess in AD 73/4. The date of Josephus' death is unknown, but is conjectured to have been around AD 92/3. Josephus's works are clearly set out and the individual chapters (or books) are labelled so that one can click on to a particular book without having to wade through the entire opus. There is no search engine, however. One can also download the complete works as a Zip file from this site.
The Fondazione Niccolò Canussio [Niccolò Canussio Foundation] aims to promote the study of Ancient Greek and Roman culture, history, art and literature, whilst also taking into account the civilisations' influence on today's society. A biography of Niccolò Canussio (d. 1500) is given, as well as full-text of his work "De restitutione Patriae", dated 1499. An English translation with the title "On the restoration of the Fatherland" has recently been added to the website. The work of Vittorio Canussio, founder of the institution, entitled "Scritti sul mondo antico" [Writings on the Ancient World] is likewise available to read in PDF. A digital library allows users to access various publications relating to ancient history. A section of the site is dedicated to the works and study of Julius Caesar, with links to related Web resources and an extensive bibliography. The Foundation organises an annual conference, details of which are provided. This website is a useful source of bibliographic material and secondary sources on ancient Greece and Rome.
This website publishes the free and full text version of the final reports of the archaeological excavations at Delphi carried out by members of the French School of Athens. Delphi was considered by the ancient Greeks to be the centre of the world. Delphi was once the site of an oracle of the earth goddess Gaea. Later, Apollo substituted Gaea, after the Greek god defeated the monstrous serpent Python, which guarded Gaea, and expelled her from the sanctuary. Apollo was the main divinity worshipped at Delphi, but the sanctuary also honoured Dionysus. The sanctuary became famous for the oracle: it was believed that the word of the local sacerdotess, referred as Pythia, were the words of the god. The Pythia was very influential in the Greek world and because of this several wars were fought to control the town and the oracle. Recently scientists discovered in the area of the sanctuary a source of natural ethylene gas, which could have been responsible for the trance-like state of the sacerdotess and the vapours noted by ancient authors. A sacred way connected the sanctuary to the proper temple of Apollo and it was lined with treasuries that several Greek cities had offered to Apollo (those offered by Athens and Thebes are the subject of specific volumes). The Athens treasury contained a wall covered with inscriptions, including musically annotated hymns to Apollo, which are the subject of one of the available volumes. Several volumes focus also on Greek art and especially sculptures. Of particular importance is the "Charioteer of Delphi" (about 470 BC), a bronze cast of "Severe" style, which represents the passage from Archaic to Classical art (an entire monograph focus on this statue, and several more describe art works of Archaic period). Delphi was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.
Since Delphi is a fundamental archaeological site for the study of ancient Greece, this website may be useful to a broad range of scholars and students, from those seeking the picture of a particular monument or art work to anybody carrying out research on any subject (archaeology, classics and art history primarily) related to ancient Greece.
The Gladius website is the online arm of a Spanish academic journal which publishes on the following issues: Arms and Armour; and Military History and Polemology, from the earliest times until the end of the Eighteenth century, mainly in the Iberian Peninsula, Europe, Islam and the Americas, although other contributions will be considered. The full-text articles can be downloaded six months after the initial publication, although subscribers can get access straight away. The website is easy to navigate: there is a 'current' issue section (which links to the papers' abstracts for non-registered users); an 'archives' section, which holds the fully-available back-catalogue of publications from 1999 to the present; and an 'advanced search' option which allows keyword searching (by author, keyword, title and so on) through all issues. The articles are mostly either in English or Spanish and are in PDF format.
Published to accompany an exhibition on the second golden age of Byzantine art (843-1261) held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, from March 11 to July 6, 1997, this website includes examples of art from the first golden age of Byzantine art (324-730) and the later period ending with the Turkish conquest in 1453. The online exhibition includes various pieces of art (busts, caskets and medallions), which range from the time of Constantine (AD 324) to 1453. There is also a brief history of Byzantium, which is divided into the early (324-730 CE), middle (843-1261 CE) and late (1261-1453 CE) periods. The website consists of: enlargeable images of the works of art; a section on the themes in Byzantine art; a history of Byzantium; and a glossary. In addition, there is a 'teacher resources' section designed to introduce schoolchildren to Byzantine works of art, providing several examples which serve as starting points for discussions. Useful elements include a timeline of important dates and an extensive glossary. A brief description accompanies each image, and the pictures can be enlarged for a more detailed view. The images are clear and well-photographed, but the collection of images is only small (numbering only 15 items).
This websitse was compiled by students of Classics at Williams College in the United States. The site is dedicated to the life and achievements of the Macedonian general, Alexander the Great, 356-323 BCE.The site provides detailed biographical information about every stage of Alexander's life. There are individual pages on his parents, Philip II of Macedonia and his wife, Olympias. The site details Alexander's invasion of the Persian Empire, his battles against the Persian King Darius, and his invasions of Egypt and India. There is also a section on Alexander and sexuality, and a discussion of his belief in his own divinity. The material on this site is written in an informal rather than a scholarly style. None of the information is referenced, making it unsuitable as a source for research at an advanced level; nonetheless it provides useful introductory reading on the topic. One major strength of the site is its images of Alexander, taken from coins, busts and other artefacts of the period.
Acting as an introduction to the history of Greece from the Neolithic to the Byzantine periods, this website provides information about developments during each of the eras which it covers, as well as related images. Descriptive text is accompanied by a wide variety of photographs showing historical and archaeological sites in Greece as well as images of artefacts which are on display in museums. Overviews of the following historical periods are provided: Neolithic; Cycladic; Minoan; Mycenean; Geometric; Classical; Hellenistic; Roman; and Byzantine. Each of these sections is divided into further subsections on topics such as economic and social developments, art, religion or poltical history. Further pages are devoted to particular archaeological sites in Greece: the Acropolis of Athens; the sanctuary at ancient Olympia; and Eleusis. These are perhaps the most detailed and informative parts of the resource, providing images of and information on individual buildings (for example temples and theatres) at each location. Other areas of the website look at the Olympic games and the Eleusinian mysteries, and there is a brief dictionary of Greek mythology. Links to news articles on various aspects of Greek history are also provided. The site will be of particular interest to those who are new to the study of Greek history and culture.
Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies (GRBS) is a journal which has been published quarterly online since 2004 by Duke University and which focuses on Classics. The website lists tables of contents for all volumes since 1958, and provides access to abstracts and the full text of all articles written since 2004. These can be viewed in PDF format. Most of the published articles concentrate on classical and Byzantine literature, but archaeology is represented too. Papers include general literary themes such as "ancestors as icons" and the titanic origin of humans" as well as authors such as Homer, Herodotus and Plutarch. There are also papers on classical epigraphy and the archaeological excavations investigating late antique Palestine.
The website accompanies the PBS documentary series "The Greeks : Crucible of Civilization". One focus of the televised series was on individuals, and the website devotes mini-sections to Cleisthenes, Themistocles, Pericles, Aspasia and Socrates. Each outlines their importance in Athenian politics and life, and there are links to diverse related subjects, such as: the role of Greek women; ostracism; how Pisistratus took power; and the Sophists. Each short account is written in the lucid manner that typified the television series, and most of the illustrations are taken from the series. All of these background pages can be accessed from the site index, under the broad topics of: Greek politcs; culture; warfare; architecture; other people in Greek history; and other places and cultures. A time-line provides access to key dates and events. "The Acropolis Experience" offers 3D animation of the Parthenon and information on how it was built. This section requires Quicktime. "The Greeks Interactive" helps the user to get an idea of Athenian life, including a guide to pronunciation of Ancient Greek, an interactive map of Athens and the Piraeus. The "Life in Athens" section, in which one can find out who you might have been if you had lived in Ancient Athens requires Flash 4. There is also information on the making of the series and lesson plans based on the programmes. The site serves as an excellent source of information to accompany a ground-breaking documentary series.
This site provides an attractively illustrated introduction to the coins and measures of Judaea from early times until the crusader period with historical background and a useful basic bibliography. Before the adoption of Greek and, later, Persian coins (or 'darics') in the 7th-4th centuries BC, a sophisticated system of inscribed weights, based on the unit of the Shekel, was used in Jewish areas. The first Judaean issues proper were not struck until the 4th century BC under Persian and Seleucid licence and were based on the widely used Athenian owls or Persian modes. The Seleucid Antiochus VII also struck hybrid Syrian-Jewish issues in the later 2nd century. The first properly 'Jewish' coins, with Hebrew inscriptions and lacking the portrait heads of earlier issues for religious reasons, did not appear until the time of John Hyrcanus (135-104 BC) and his successors when Judaea became fully independent. The series of coins from the reign of the Herodian dynasty and the Roman conquest down to the Late Empire and Byzantine period provide a fascinating potted history of Judaea as well as important insights on economic and iconographic matters. There is also a short section on the revival of coins of Israel in the 20th century, both in the Mandate period and after independence in 1948. The resource is part of the Jewish History Ring published by Amuseum.org (The Jewish Museum in Cyberspace) and associated with the American Jewish Historical Society. It is a useful complementary source for students of ancient history and archaeology working in the East Mediterranean or those studying general numismatics as well as an attractive introduction for the interested amateur.
'The Hebrews: A Learning Module' provides an excellent introduction to the history of the Hebrew peoples from the Age of the Patriarchs (beginning c. 1950 BC) to the Diaspora of the Jews in the first century AD. Based largely on the testimony of the Torah and the rest of the Old Testament, the account provided here also introduces corresponding evidence where available. The history is divided into separate chronological web pages, covering periods such as: Egypt and the wanderings; the occupation of Canaan; the Monarchy (with accounts of Saul, David, and Solomon); the two kingdoms (of Israel and Judah); the exile; and the Greeks and the Jews. The site includes a separate section on the Hebrew religion. This looks at the evolution of Jewish scripture and beliefs from the pre-Mosaic period, to monotheism and the prophetic books, to the post-exile reforms. There is a page on the Torah and a glossary of Hebrew terms and concepts. An anthology of Hebrew readings includes extracts from Genesis, Exodus, and Judges. The site also includes a map of ancient Israel, and a list of links to other sites (although a few of these were not in operation at the time this record was reviewed). This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
This Word document describes the AHRC-funded project ‘The Hellenistic West’. Despite an increasing interest in research and teaching in the Hellensitic period (usually taken as the period between Alexander and Actium, 323-31 BCE) the Western Mediterranean tends to be considered as ‘Roman’ history, and discussed only in so far as it relates to the development of this. This project aims to challenge the “orthodox” opposition of ‘Greek East’ and ‘Roman West’ and restore “significance to the non-Roman cultural traditions of the western Mediterranean”. The project will be the first comprehensive study of the Hellenistic Western Mediterranean, and will be published as an edited collection of essays.
Hispania epigraphica is an online free and full-text academic journal publishing new Latin inscriptions and indexes of inscriptions found in Iberia. Each issue of the journal publishes a number of articles in PDF format, usually including an extensively commented list of new inscriptions from both Spain and Portugal (each in a separate section) and an updated list of words that takes in account all inscriptions known. It is an essential research tool for epigraphists interested in Roman Iberia.
Aimed at students who are new to the study of the classical world, this online resource provides an introductory overview of the history and geography of ancient Greece. The resource is part of the Johnstonia website prepared by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Vancouver. Included are the following: a note on the rendering of ancient Greek names into English; a detailed description of the geographical regions of ancient Greece, accompanied by a map; background information on the origin of the Greeks, including details on Minoan and Mycenaean civilisation; and a brief chronological table summarising key events from the third millennium BCE to the fourth century BCE. The clarity and succinctness of this resource make it a useful tool for those wishing to familiarise themselves briefly with ancient Greece.
This Web page belongs to the History of Western Civilization course page by Dr Ellis L Knox of Boise State University, and provides a chronological account of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). Written for undergraduates, the style is easily readable, if informal. The straight narrative is divided into seventeen short parts. Sometimes this leads to a glossing over of important events: the First Peloponnesian War is described as a 'nasty war' between Sparta and Athens, Sphacteria receives an undetailed mention, and the establishment of the oligarchy in 411 is discussed in the simplest terms. The account will be of most use to those requiring an easy introduction to this difficult period of Greek history. A brief reference page offers full-texts (in English) of Thucydides' history, Plutarch's Lives of Alcibiades and Pericles and a very brief bibliography.
This is the website of the historiographical journal HISTOS, from the Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Durham. The scope of the journal is relatively broad and includes historiographical texts of Greece and Rome, the historiography of Byzantium and other ancient cultures, ancient biography and the influence of historiography and biography on other literary genres. Modern theory relevant to the study of historiography is also covered by the publication. The journal also addresses the use of non-literary sources for the study of the past. The emphasis of the journal is on the historical texts themselves rather than on the historical problems that they are being used to solve. The first issue of the journal was published in 1997 with volumes published annually up to and including 2000. Because the journal is no longer in publication links on the site to historiographical conferences and research projects are out of date.
This is a simple website explaining the Hittite and Hurrian deities, their forms, roles, and relations. The information is divided into sections on the following topics: 'Who were the Hittites?'; 'What deities did they worship?'; and 'Cosmology and the structure of the universe'. There is also a short annotated bibliography of relevant sourc material. Within the explanatory text of each section the descriptions for each god or goddess contain hyperlinks to other deities, allowing for easy navigation around this single-page website.
The House of Ptolemy is a resource guide, intended as a study aid and to provide bibliographical material for students of Greco-Roman Egypt. The main focus of the site, as its name suggests, is the period of the Ptolemaic kings (331 BCE - 30 BCE), descendants of Macedonian Greeks. There are also compendious sections on Roman, Byzantine and modern Egypt. Within these periods, links are arranged by theme into sets and subsets, in a fashion that is generally clear and efficient. Topics covered include: historical overviews; Ptolemaic numismatics; Ptolemaic genealogy and king lists; the transition to Roman provincial Egypt; the city of Alexandria; the culture of Ptolemaic Egypt; the Ptolemaic empire outside Egypt; the Jews of Egypt. Most of the links are presented with a comment from the site's author: this is a personal list, not a faculty or institutional webpage. The selection of items is therefore prone to subjectivity and its completeness cannot be guaranteed; furthermore, material of widely varying intellectual depth, rigour, and specialisation is included among the links. At the time of writing this review, the site was last updated in 2002 - this meant that some of the links were no longer functional. Nonetheless, there is a wealth of material here, well organised; the numerous awards garnered by the page indicate its worth. This site is a useful starting point for students.
This website provides extensive histories of Rome's founding, Kings, the Early and Late Republic, the Imperial era, the Decline, the Collapse, Constantinople, Religion, Society and the Army. Biographies of Emperors and famous Romans are provided. Also available is a list of Roman place names and their modern equivalents, a register of all major battles involving Roman (or Byzantine) forces and a timeline plotting the reigns of the Emperors. The texts are supported by many photograph galleries of Roman remains from throughout the Empire, while interactive maps are on hand to provide locational information about towns, provinces, tribal incursions and the extents of the Empire at different points in time. The website also includes a search engine, bulletin board, children's section, timelines and a site guide.
The website "In Boudica's Footsteps" accompanied an edition of the Channel 4 programme Fact or Fiction. One of the specially created microsites, it seeks to overturn the myths surrounding the warrior queen of the Iceni, about even whose name (Boadicea, Boudicca, Boudica) there is dissent. Her revolt, led in AD 60 against the Romans, ensured her a place in British national history, and she was revived as a heroine queen in the Victorian era. The site explores the events that led the queen, humiliated by the Romans, to sack Colchester (Camulodunum), London and St Albans (Verulamium), while Suetonius Paulinus was campaigning in North Wales. The website is easy to navigate and outlines the story well, being divided into sections corresponding to the geographical progress of Boudica's rebellion (Thetford to Colchester; Colchester to London; London to St Albans; and St Albans to Mancetter). It is useful as a basic introduction to one of the most fascinating figures in British, and English, history.
The Inscriptions of Aphrodisias Project, which began in February 2004, is funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council under the Resource Enhancement Scheme and has an international team of scholars at its head; this is the project's website. This excellent resource makes available in electronic form the corpus of inscriptions excavated from Aphrodisias (South West Turkey), relating to the period of the Roman Empire. Information about the provenance of each inscription is provided, along with images, original ancient Greek text and English translation. The site is arrange in such a way that the user may search for an inscription by any of the following criteria: date; text category; monument type; or decorative features. There is also a concordance of other publications of these inscriptions, along with further bibliographical material. A section of the site also makes accessible the notebooks of earlier travellers to Aphrodisias (Robert Wood in 1750; W. Kubitschek and W. Reichel in 1893 and P. Boulanger in 1913).
The Inscriptions of Israel/Palestine website aims to publish an electronic version of all inscriptions found in Israel dating from the Hellenistic period (ca. 330 BCE) to the Islamic Conquest (640 CE). A search engine allows users to access some 15,000 inscriptions, with searches possible for individual inscriptions or words, including proper names, occurring in one or more inscriptions. There is, however, no browse function, which makes general access to the site difficult without prior knowledge of sources. Ultimately users should be able to access detailed maps of every single archaeological site that contains inscriptions of the period concerned, as well as photographs of every inscription with a translation. The site also provides a bibliographic database and lists related links; links to some scholarly essays on epigraphy were broken at the time of last review.
The Internet Classics Archive offers access to online editions of classical texts. It currently offers over four hundred works by over fifty different authors, primarily Greek and Roman but also some Chinese (for example Confucius) and Persian (for example Omar Khayyam). All texts are in translation. The site offers a facility (through a link to the Perseus website) by which texts can be searched by work, author or by the entire archive. Users can view brief biographical information on each author through links to the online Encyclopaedia Britannica. The site has been affected by some technical problems which mean that searches can be slow. This is a resource which would mainly be of use to undergraduates looking for translations of major texts. It would be less useful for advanced or specialist research.
'Into His Own' focuses on the historical study of Jesus and the New Testament. It consists of a number of primary texts in translation, including extracts from the works of Josephus and Tacitus, and from the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Talmud, and the Mishna, on the political, social and religious situation in 1st-century Palestine. In addition to the primary material, these pages offer information (including maps) on the historical sites and sources on which this study is based. Thorough and scholarly, but still aimed at an audience of non-experts, this resource is an excellent teaching and introductory research tool. The site also features a blog and a short list of related links.
This website provides a lecture-style illustrated introduction to ancient Greek and Roman comedy, an excellent overview (by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College) of the subject for school and undergraduate level students of classics and related disciplines. The 29 sections introduce the origins of classical comedy and its role in the religious festivals of Athens, which were established in honour of the god Dionysius. It particularly relates to the Great (or City) Dionysia, one of the two Dionysian festivals (the other being the Rural Dionysia) that was probably established in the 6th century BC, but that is best documented from the 5th century BC onwards. The website outlines the form and function of the theatres and their technical equipment with reference to surviving literary, iconographic and archaeological evidence. There is much useful information on genre, aspects of performance, the role of actors and chorus, and on music, as well as a modest bibliography suitable for undergraduate reading. The text is hypertexted throughout to the Perseus digital library for convenient reference, which makes it an ideal online resource for students taking classical civilisation at an elementary level.
This online resource is a clearly-written and well-illustrated introduction to Greek tragedy aimed at undergraduates studying Classics and related subjects, by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, New York. Presented in lecture form, the course consists of 24 sections which include the following: an explanation of the origins of tragedy in the religious festivals of ancient Greece (particularly the City Dionysia in Athens); information about the locations of ancient theatres and an analysis of their architectural and technical details; a discussion of the written and iconographic sources for the Greek theatre; and sections on the actors, chorus, music and production of a play. The only drawback is the absence of a bibliography or of sources for the archaeological material such as the admirable series of painted vase scenes which reflect the origin of the text in the lecture hall. Nonetheless, the resource will benefit school and undergraduate students of ancient literature and society, as well as those interested in comparative literature and drama.
This website deals with the life and work of the Greek mathematician, Euclid (c. 300 BC). The site has been compiled by Donald Lancon, a freelance mathematical enthusiast who was educated at the University of Houston in the United States. The site consists mainly of an extended essay prepared by Lancon while he was a student at Houston. This includes biographical information about Euclid, which would be of general interest to classicists and ancient historians. Source references are given throughout. The site deals in some detail with Euclid's contributions to geometry and mathematics, paying particular attention to the Elements. This work by Euclid deals with topics including plane geometry, solid geometry and number theory. The site also provides a detailed bibliography of suggestions for further study relating to works on Euclid and other aspects of Greek mathematics.
The Italic Epigraphy project is an online database of photographs, translations, archaeological contexts, and other scholarly information about the ancient inscriptions of Central Italy. The database contains photographs of epigraphic material written in the Italic languages and makes accessible a body of photographic material with a systematic account of each inscription's archaeological context that direct attention to the ‘inscription as monument’. The database contains a photograph of the original or occasionally a drawing, a description of its material and measurement, a transcription, and an account of its archaeological context. The project is based at the Institute of Classical Studies, London, and funded by a major grant from the Arts and Humanities Research Board.
The "Jerusalem Archaeological Park" website boasts a virtual reconstruction model of Israel's most important site stretching from Temple Mount to the Mount of Olives. The park is an open museum and the archaeological discoveries span a range of 5,000 years from the Bronze Age to the Middle Age. The park also contains the Davidson Center within a palace dating from the Umayyad period, which has been combined with modern architecture in an innovative way. The website provides historical notes on three key periods: First Temple period; Second Temple period; and the Early Islamic period. There are also sections on water systems; the history of research; biographies of excavators of the site and historical figures; a bibliography; and historical sources. There are maps and a comprehensive timeline. A section on virtual panoramas publishes a few small panoramas, and interestingly it documents each step undertaken in their production with a series of illustrated articles. This is a wonderful site for those interested in archaeology, Biblical History, Jewish Studies and may be useful to both students and researchers.
This online classics resource was created by John Paul Adams, a professor in the department of Modern and Classical Languages and Literature at the California State University. His website is of benefit to all students of Classics, as it contains numerous links to detailed resources, as well as presenting many useful passages of text in translation. Impressive in its scope, the site is divided into themed sections, each of which contains study notes, teaching handouts, links to relevant websites and English translations of relevant ancient texts. Sections cover the following broad topics: Greek and Roman history; Greek and Roman art and archaeology; Greek and Roman literature; Greek mythology; ancient texts; a Roman army bibliography; resources on ancient Sparta. Other parts of the site link information on the Latin courses taught by John Adams; these in turn offer handouts and links with information on Latin language, vocabulary and grammar. There is much here which will be of interest and value both to the teacher and student of classical subjects.
These pages collect together online a vast range of excellent teaching materials for classical subjects compiled by John R Porter, an associate professor of history at the University of Saskatchewan. A variety of aspects of Greek and Roman culture and civilisation feature here, including literature, history, art and archaeology. Although they relate to specific courses taught at the University the notes relate to key themes of most classical syllabi and will therefore be of use to both students and teachers elsewhere. Broad topics which are covered include: Homer's Iliad; fifth-century BC Athens; Greek tragedy (Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides), comedy (Aristophanes) and historiography (Herodotus and Thucydides); Roman republican and early imperial history; Latin poetry (Catullus, Virgil and Ovid); Latin satire (Petronius); daily life in antiquity (including education, dress, food, women's life, slavery, and entertainment). Each section features detailed notes on themes, historical periods or individual authors and texts; bibliographies and chronological tables are also given.
This attractive website is devoted to exploring the life of Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE). It is divided into the following sections, each looking at an aspect of his life: Caesar's youth to his consulate; Gaul to the Rubicon; the Civil War; the conspiracy and his death; the aftermath of his murder; Caesar's legacy; the private man; battles and campaigns (giving detailed information about individual military campaigns); his contemporaries (with biographies of individuals such as Cicero, Brutus, Antony and Cato). The site is illustrated throughout with maps and images from ancient art, and the author makes good use of both primary and secondary source material (although specific references to passages cited are rarely given). There is also a detailed timeline of key events in Caesar's life, and an annotated bibliography of primary and secondary source material, which includes links to other Web resources. This resource provides a useful introduction to Caesar for those studying him for the first time.
K C Hanson's website may be a chaotic montage of loosely connected resources, but within this eclectic host of sub-directories, there are several topics worth exploring by those interested in history, culture or religion. Dr. Hanson's primary interest seems to lie with the interactions between various ancient and classical communities spanning from the apogee of the Egyptian to the Roman Empire (in particular the relationship between the later and the early Christian communities). He has assembled a series of dynastic chronologies for both Israel and Rome, along with a selection of texts relevant to this period. With a little searching one can find ancient documents from Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Greek civilizations, along with a selection from Semitic cultures. These texts, all translated, tend to cluster between the eighth century BCE and the third century CE but there are a number which predate these.
Part of the site provides useful support resources for the textbook 'Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts', which Dr Hanson co-authored with Douglas E. Oakman. Those wishing to delve further into a particular topic may also wish to consult Hanson's robust series of web links to the ancient world and/or his bibliographic collections on rituals on ancient Greco-Roman society; Hellenic, Semitic and Anatolia Cultures; and The Old Testament. An attractive collection of images from many of these cultures has been compiled.
"L'aventure des écritures" is a French-language site that provides a detailed, multi-layered and richly illustrated introduction to the history of writing. There are three section: one dealing with the origin and diffusion of some 25 world writing systems from ca. 3300 B.C. to ca. 1200 A.D (Naissances); one introducing the various supports for writing (Matters and forms - Matière et formes); and the third introducing "the page" (La page) namely presenting the history of the printed paper and the book. The website reflects an exhibition at the BNF in 1999. Using a hypertext medium, the reader is guided through the history, mythology and cultural context of the world major writing systems: Cuneiform, Egyptian, Chinese, African and Pre-Columbian and related scripts. These are complemented by sections outlining theoretical and cultural aspects of writing systems such as signs and cryptography, the relationship between writing and speech, and the symbolic and religious associations of letters and scripts. In addition to the wide-ranging bibliography and glossary of terms, there is extensive citation of academic and literary reflections on writing. The related, and equally splendidly presented 'dossiers pédagogiques' deal with the physical aspects of writing, book making and printing from inscribed clay tablets to illuminated manuscripts to the CD-rom. The excellent education section provides a very useful resource for teachers at all levels of education though it will be particularly useful for schools. This website has a wide potential audience from the general public to students, teachers and researchers of archaeology, classics and ancient languages or else to those interested in e-publication and education.
LacusCurtius : Into the Roman World is a significant online collection of a range of useful resources for students of Classics. The site features a Roman Gazetteer, which consists of a photographic guide to various Roman towns and monuments, along with descriptions of archaeological excavations and visitor information. Featured locations include, among others: Rome; Assisi; Ostia; Perugia; and Rimin. The site also hosts around 40 Latin texts by authors such as: Pliny the Elder; Isidore of Seville; Suetonius; Polybius; Quintilian; Celsus; Cato; Procopius; and Macrobius. Some texts are available in Latin, some English, and some in both Latin and English translation. Each text is introduced by the site editor, Bill Thayer, with information about the copy text used (often old Loeb editions now in the public domain) and editorial notes. Other significant online resources include a variety of public-domain reference works. These include a selection of entries from William Smith's 1875 'Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities' and Samuel Ball Platner's 'Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome'. Other resources include: a Roman atlas; a catalogue of Roman Umbria; a section on Latin inscriptions; and an online version of W. R. Lethaby's 'Tomb of Mausolus'. This is an impressive site both in terms of the quantity and quality of the materials it offers.
The Leonidas Expedition, consisting of a group of academics from the USA, Greece and the UK, has on several occasions revisited the site of the Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC) in Greece with the aim of investigating various aspects of the ancient accounts (primarily found in Herodotus) relating to this key engagement of the Persian wars. This website is devoted to publicising the findings of the expeditions. Much of the site is dedicated to expedition reports, detailing the progress of the team in locating areas where key events of the battle took place. These reports give information about the geography of Thermopylae as it appears now (with OS co-ordinates) as compared with its appearance during Xerxes' invasion. More generally, the website also gives the historical details of the Persian invasion of Greece, accompanied by maps and photographs of the site.
This is an excellent resource offering articles on ancient history and archaeology together with an impressive library of photographic images of ancient sites which can be down-loaded for free for non-commercial use. The website is laid out geographically with sections on Greece, Persia, Anatolia, Carthage and Punic Sicily, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Judaea, Germania and Rome (as well a Dutch language resource on Dutch history) while the authoritative but very readable text has many cross links between them. There is no overall structure to individual sections: the Greek entries have a strong emphasis on Alexander the Great and his successors, on various authors such as Plutarch and Herodotos (including selections of extracted texts) and a series of short encyclopaedia-style entries on politicians, philosophers and literary figures. The Judaean passages discuss, for instance, Messianic claimants, the Diaspora and anti-Semitism in the ancient and mediaeval worlds, alongside more linear accounts of the Roman wars and potted biographies of leading Jewish figures. This website will benefit both students and teachers of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern world but the author makes the pointed observation that students must combine the use of electronic resources with proper library research for which the Web is not a substitute.
'Lost Trails' is a non-commercial educational resource whose main aim is to provide an English language version of the 'Histories' or 'Enquiries' of the 5th century BC Greek historian Herodotus. The site features many high quality photographs and maps illustrating the locations mentioned in the text, which will help to elucidate the complex and wide-ranging narrative. The photographs are hyperlinked to the translation, which is divided into 48 convenient instalments. The website also features folk handicrafts and music from Greece and other parts of south-eastern Europe as well as a notice board for feedback and comments on the various items featured. Donations are solicited from individuals who wish to support the work of the project. A caveat for less experienced A level or undergraduate students of ancient history (or the general reader) is that, at present, this edition of Herodotus falls short of academic standards in that it lacks line numbers, glosses of words or unfamiliar terms, or footnotes. The project is however work in progress, and these features should be added at some point. Users should also be aware that several of the photographs lack commentary and, inevitably given later rebuilding, depict structures or objects that post-date the events recorded in the Herodotean text. Nevertheless this is a useful online supplement to existing printed or electronic resources for students of classics, ancient history or archaeology.
This website has placed online a large collection of maps held in the Perry-Castañeda Library of the University of Texas at Austin -- although some maps are available through links to other sites. The site is extensive and clearly laid out, with maps listed alphabetically according to continent and country. There are maps with geographical, topographical, economic and demographic information. Most offerings are current, but there is a special section for historical maps, with most translated at least partly into English. These would constitute a helpful tool both for research and teaching, and afford the opportunity for comparison with more recent versions. There is a links site to other online maps sites and to maps dealers, and an instructions page for viewing and printing site content. Navigation throughout is straightforward. There is an online form for general enquiries to the University of Texas librarians.
Created by Philip Harland of York University, Toronto, this website is devoted to an ongoing seminar within the Sociey of Biblical Literature. The seminar originated in 2002 and looks at the way in which meals and dining can provide an insight into the social and religious lives of ancient Greeks and Romans, as well as aiding understanding of early Christianity and Judaism. Users may access full text versions of papers given by members of the seminar (these are available to download in PDF format). Topics covered include: women and dining; the Greco-Roman banquet; biblical references to meals; dining, the eucharist and Christianity; meals and Judaism; and ancient philosophy and food. There is also a list of the academics who are members of the seminar.
This website provides a brief introduction to, and English translation of, the Notitia Dignitatum, a document which was originally written c. 395 AD (and later revised in the early fifth century AD), and which lists all of the various units of the Roman army and the locations where they were stationed. together with a brief introduction. The text used here is taken from William Fairley's 1551 English edition entitled 'Notitia Dignitatum or Register of Dignitaries, which appears in his 'Translations and reprints from Original Sources of European History, Volume 4'.
The Mesopotamia website traces the history and culture of the peoples that lived between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, from the first cities (c. 3000 BC) to the conquest of the region by Alexander (330 BC). Beginning with the Sumerians, the site narrates the events and cultural changes (and continuities) through the periods of dominance enjoyed by the Akkadians, Amorites, Hittites, Kassites, Assyrians, Chaldeans, and finally the Persians. The page devoted to the Persians seems to have been omitted from the main index, but can be reached from a link in the drop-down menu in the History and Peoples section. There is a section on the evolution of the Cuneiform script used in the region, and a further section of resources. These include a timeline, glossary, and links to other sites. A 'Mesopotamian readings' page includes the complete text of the Code of Hammurabi, translated by L. W. King, and a summary of the Epic of Gilgamesh. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
Under the direction of Frank Unlandherm (East & Jewish Studies Librarian), the Columbia University Libraries have constructed a superior gateway to "research-orientated" Internet resources covering ancient and modern periods in the Middle East and Sinai Peninsula. Part of Columbia University’s larger library network, these easily navigable selections begin with the simple division between Middle Eastern and Jewish resources and then focus on more specific aspects of the region’s history and culture. Links are organized both by topic and nation, and include (but are not limited to) economic, linguistic, religious, and contemporary political issues. Of special interest to researchers will be the very large collection of links to bibliographies, maps, and libraries with major Middle Eastern collections and news resources.
This website provides access to Nestor, an international bibliography of: Aegean studies (including all of Greece, Albania, the southern coast of Bulgaria, the western and southern coasts of Turkey, and Cyprus); Homeric society; Indo-European linguistics especially concerning the development of Greek; and related fields (such as Philistine culture and the Classical Cypriot syllabary). It is published in print by the Department of Classics, University of Cincinnati, and editions published since 1959 are available here on this site. Nestor includes over 37,500 citations for all articles, books, monographs, and journals on prehistoric, ancient and classical Greece, and neighbouring areas. For each reference, Nestor gives the author, year of publication, title, place of publication, and publisher, but does not give any indication of the content of the article. The digital collection is searchable by author, title, journal name, and year (but not by subject or keyword), and results give a list of references. The website also provides access to a searchable International Dictionary of Aegean Prehistorians, via which it is possible to trace academics working in this field.
'Numismatics' is a website created by an enthusiast with an interest in ancient coins: it features essays, images and weblinks relating to this topic. There are also digital reprints of classic numismatic works such as a complete illustrated edition of Barclay Head's 'Historia Numorum', first published in 1886 and one of the seminal works on Greek and Roman coinage. Also included are some 70 plates from Head's guide to the coin collection of the British Museum (with the preface to the 1895 edition) and some high resolution maps of ancient Greece. There is also a selection of plates from the British Museum's coin catalogue. The site author's own contributions include articles on the Greek alphabet, the coins of Apollonia Pontika and the Gorgon issues of Parion. These are not footnoted or referenced and lack detailed bibliographies but will interest amateurs and undergraduates who can use them alongside standard academic works on ancient numismatics. More experienced numismatists will find it a useful source of small but clear images for teaching purposes and quick reference.
This is the website of The Oath in Archaic and Classical Greece, a research project funded by the Leverhulme trust, directed by Alan H Sommerstein and based at the University of Nottingham's Department of Classics. The project's main focus is a database of all references to oaths or acts of swearing found in Greek texts dating from the introduction of alphabetic writing to the year 322 BCE; the website makes this database, which features over 3,700 records, available online. A search facility allows the user to look for references to particular oaths according to a wide range of criteria, including: author; work; genre; date; swearer or swearee (this can be broken down further into gender, age, status and citizenship of the swearer/swearee); and god to which the oath refers. Search results include both literary and epigraphic references to swearing and are given in the form of detailed descriptions to the content and context of the oaths, with references to the sources in which they may be found. The website also provides: a brief explanation of the definition of an oath; information about the project team; and details of the project's publications.
This Web page gives access to the full-text of 'Orient: Report of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan' (1960-2004), and despite the word 'report' in the title this is actually a substantial academic journal. Tables of contents, abstracts, and PDF files of articles are all freely available online. The journal was published in English, with occasional articles in German and French, and was devoted to reports and scholarly articles on archaeological and historical topics, with forays into linguistics. Example article titles include: 'Historical problems of the early Achaemenian period'; 'Hadiths as historical sources for a biography of the prophet'; 'A Japanese view of Lord Cromer's rule in Egypt'; and 'A Century of Turkish Studies in Japan', among many others. The latest issue available at 2009 is the 2004 issue, a special on the history of glass and glass-making. This will be a useful full-text resource for those engaged in the historical study of the Near East. The journal issues are held on the Japanese central online archive of ejournals (which is presented in English, but which otherwise contains only scientific journals), and as such the page does not have details of editors and Editorial Board - but these may be found by browsing the preface of recent issues or by searching Google.
This detailed website is devoted to the study of Ostia, the principal harbour of Imperial Rome. Detailed plans and descriptions are given for 52 of the buildings of Ostia Antica, and there are many photographs of the sites as they look now. Another section describes the history of the excavations, with links to other excavation reports available on the Internet. An extensive section on current research provides up-to-date scholarly reports, and there are also summaries of recent colloquia. Reference materials include an extensive but non-annotated bibliography, maps, plans, topographical indexes, and 3D models available only as pictures. A further section provides ancient textual sources of information on Ostia. Texts include passages from classical historians, inscriptions, and graffiti found on the buildings. Another section provides information on the relationship between Rome and Ostia and the significance of the town on the Tiber. This includes more general material on Mediterranean harbours and maritime history. The website also provides links to various other sites connected with the Soprintendenza of Ostia, Rome and Roman archaeology.
This website details the archaeological research conducted in the Sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia (Ancient Korinth or Corinth, Greece) by Ohio State University. Isthmia was one of the four great Panhellenic sanctuaries, active from the Archaic period through the end of Antiquity, with a rich period of medieval use as well. This website details this work, and information can be found about: the site, including the sanctuary of Poseidon and the Roman bath; preliminary reports since 1992; the fieldwork carried out by The Ohio state University since 1987; related projects including Dokos and Agios Vasilios; bibliography and other resources; and news. This website has been identified as a model site by the staff of Archaeology magazine, an official publication of the Archaeological Institute of America.
Made available online by the Perseus project, this is a digital version of Thomas R Martin's comprehensive book An Overview of Classical Greek History From Mycenae to Alexander. It covers the history (political, social and cultural) of Greece from approximately 1200 BC (the collapse of Mycenean civilisation) to 323 BC (the death of Alexander the Great). Chapters of the work cover the following topics: a geographical and historical introduction; the early Greek dark age; remaking Greek civilisation; the archaic age; the late archaic city-state; an introduction to the fifth century; the clash between Greeks and Persians; the Athenian empire in the 'golden age'; Athenian religious and cultural life; Athenian social and intellectual history; the Peloponnesian War; the fourth century and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War; philosophy and education; and the development of Macedonian power. Users may browse the whole text or view it chapter-by-chapter or section-by-section. Throughout, as is customary for Perseus resources, key words are hyperlinked to pages which then allow the user to view other relevant resources (images as well as text from both primary and secondary sources) on the website.
The carved frieze from the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis is the most famous, and controversial, collection of sculpture to survive from the classical Greek world. This clearly written and attractively illustrated resource, available in Greek and English, brings together all the surviving fragments of the frieze, presently housed in the British Museum, the Louvre and the Acropolis Museum, in a digital format. The site provides a concise and fascinating introduction to many aspects of the Parthenon and its sculpted decoration, including a history of the frieze and the building itself since its execution by Athenian statesman Pericles between 447 and 438 BC. The reader is given an outline of the religious significance of the Parthenon and the Panathenaic festival for the Athenian people as well as a discussion of the various interpretations of the temple iconography. The frieze itself is presented stone by stone with a commentary on each fragment, including reproductions of drawings by Carrey (1674) and Stuart (1757) which preserve details no longer visible on the surviving sculptures. Usefully, the sculpture from each of the four sides of the temple is presented initially as a series of continuous thumbnail images which allows the iconographic scheme to be viewed as a whole as well as detail by detail. This excellent website, produced by the Acropolis Restoration Service and published by the National Documentation Service (EKT), is intended by the authors to appeal to a wide-ranging audience from the general public to university level academics.
This online encyclopaedia from the Perseus digital library is a comprehensive reference source for a vast range of aspects of the classical world. Via the encyclopaedia's table of contents the user is able to click on the first letter of the term for which they are searching and then browse through entries beginning with that letter. Alternatively they may type in a search term. The breadth of information here to some extent defies summary, but among other things the following are included: key individuals (authors and statesmen, for example); important sites throughout the Greek and Roman world; mythology and religion; art and architecture; historical events; literary works. Each encyclopaedia entry provides hyperlinks to relevant resources in the Perseus library, including cross references to other articles in the encyclopaedia and direct links to primary and secondary sources as well as to any related images. The encyclopaedia is an excellent starting-point for those seeking information on classical topics.
The Studia Philonica Annual is a scholarly journal devoted to the study of Hellenistic Judaism, and in particular the writings of Philo, an Alexandrian Jew who lived in the 1st century CE. The journal's website offers tables of contents and indexes of articles from 1989 onwards, but the articles themselves are not currently available online. Subscription details are available from the site, as is information on ordering back copies. The Studia Philonica Annual is published annually by Brown Judaic Studies under the aegis of SBL (Society of Biblical Literature) publications. The journal has an international advisory board, consisting of academics from America, France, the United Kingdom and Norway.
This is the website of the Phoenix journal, a publication of the Classical Association of Canada, whose stated aim is to publish articles in all the major aspects of classics (literature, history, archaeology, philosophy, religion, art, architecture and so on) up to AD 600. Although Phoenix is a specialist journal it claims that its articles are also written for the more general reader. Two editions of Phoenix are produced each year (the first was in 1946). The site provides access to abstracts of current articles as well as to contents lists for previous editions of the journal. There is a search facility which allows the user to search the titles of all articles published in the journal. (Note that the full text of the journal is provided by J-STOR for those affiliated to institutions which subscribe to the service). The website also provides information for those wishing to contribute to the journal.
This regularly updated online resource, produced by Dr Marc Huys of the Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, provides an annotated list of links to bibliographical sites for Classics. As well as listing general bibliographies, there are also links to bibliographies grouped by theme, including those on: literature; linguistics and grammar; mythology and religion; history; and archaeology. A further list details bibliographies arranged alphabetically according to the ancient author to whom they relate. This is a useful resource which will be a good starting point to those studying or teaching Classics and seeking details of secondary source material on specific topics.
Based on the life's work and surviving archive of renowned Oxford epigrapher Lilian ('Anne') Jeffery (1915-1986), this online resource provides a major database and scholarly tool for the study of early Greek writing and literacy from circa 800-500 BC. Published by the University of Oxford's Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD), the website provides information on thousands of inscriptions and their archaeological context as well as a biography of Jeffery by David Lewis reproduced from the Proceedings of the British Academy. The inscriptions can be searched by publication sequence, script types, letter form, site context, object type, region and sub region, and date range. Each entry is given an individual data sheet which includes detailed information about the inscriptions, as well as images, transcriptions and translations. There is also a series of maps showing the distribution of the inscriptions. Jeffery's book 'The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece' (first published in 1961) remains a seminal text for early Greek epigraphy but her archive contains a far larger collection of drawings, notes and supplementary material not included in the original publication or in the revised second edition edited by Alan Johnston in 1990. The archival material provided here is of considerable interest in expanding and elucidating the original publication.
This website presents information and photographs relating to archaeological surveys undertaken in the forum at Pompeii, which was destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79. The Pompeii Forum Project is a collaborative venture sponsored by the National [USA] Endowment for the Humanities and the University of Virginia (amongst others). A large archive of black and white images of the buildings found there is online here, along with detailed reports on the technology and instruments used to undertake the surveys. Further reports give details of a project which uses the principles of structural engineering to investigate the reconstruction of Pompeii after an earthquake there in AD 62 (seventeen years before the eruption of Vesuvius). The focus is on the urban centre of the Roman city of Pompeii, and its urban history through to modern times. There are also links to further resources on Pompeii for use by teachers and students, and a list of lectures and publications relating to the project.
This website describes itself as the 'home of Alexander the Great' (Alexander III of Macedon, 356-323 BC) on the Web and features pages on all aspects of this historical figure. The articles here are primarily narrative accounts without scholarly analysis or reference to primary sources, yet the scope of the information included makes this resource a useful introduction to the topic. Key themes which are covered include: Alexander's life and his family; art and legends relating to Alexander; his horse, Bucephalus; wars, campaigns and battles; the geography, culture and religion of Alexander's world; other key historical figures of the period; Alexander's sexuality; his death; and movies relating to Alexander. There is also a 'showcase' of summaries and extracts from new Alexander novels and books (some of which are still works in progress), and an extensive range of reviews of both scholarly works and fiction on all aspects of Alexander. The site also has a discussion forum.
Forming part of the author's Johnstonia Web pages, this online resource is the text of a lecture on the fifth-century BCE Greek historian Thucydides which was written for an undergraduate Liberal Studies class by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Vancouver. As its title suggests, the lecture provides an introduction to Thucydides and his history of the Peloponnesian War. The author concentrates primarily upon some of the issues raised by Thucydides in the opening to his historiographical work. After a brief introduction the lecture is divided into sections on the following topics: the methods of history; history and myth; the forces of history; the shape of history; the Hebrew and the Greek imagination; and the Peloponnesian War as a dramatic structure. This would be a good starting point for anyone studying Thucydides for the first time.
This online resource focuses on the first emperor of Rome, Augustus Caesar (Octavian, 63 BC-14 AD) and provides a detailed introduction to the man himself and to the history of ancient Rome during his lifetime. The website is divided into clear sections detailing the key points of Augustus' life, with information on his early life, his political career and his role as triumvir as well as his time as princeps, or emperor. Further sections look at Augustus' legacy and his private life. The site is easy to navigate and richly illustrated throughout. There is also a bibliography of primary and secondary source material, including links to other relevant websites. This is a good starting point for anyone who is looking for an overview of this key figure in Roman history.
This is the website of 'Projet Volterra', a research project funded by the British Academy through the AHRB (Arts and Humanities Research Board), based at the History Department of University College, London. The project is named in memory of Edoardo Volterra, a distinguished 'Roman lawyer' who died in 1987, leaving his collection of books to the École Française de Rome. The stated aim of the project is to 'promote the study of Roman legislation in its full social, political and legal context'. The site is predominantly a database for Roman edicts issued between AD 305 and AD 383, and uses a variety of sources, (including both epigraphic and papyrological, but mainly the Law Codes). An online version of books one to eight of the Theodosian Code is available (based upon Mommsen's 1905 edition), and the team have aimed to present this as close to the original format as possible. Additionally, the site offers reviews of books on Roman law relevant to the project. Such reviews are not the team's own, but have been taken from the Bryn Mawr Classical Review and the Medieval Review. A list of emperors from Pertinax (AD 192) to Marcian (died AD 457) is present on the site, as is a list of other relevant Web resources.
The website for the project "Prosopography of the Byzantine World" (PBW) formerly known as the "Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire" (PBE) provides details about a database compiled on individuals mentioned in Byzantine sources. It is the aim of the project to produce a computerised database with information on the ethnicity, offices, activities, and other attributes of individuals mentioned, gathered from a wide range of sources in Greek, Latin, Arabic, Syriac and other languages. This site is excellent for students, teachers, and researchers, and covers the period from 641 to 1261. The first volume of the project is already available on CD and covers the period between 641-867. The site also provides information on sigillography, with links to online catalogues and descriptions of seals from collections in Greece, Turkey, the UK, the US, Germany, Italy, Romania, and Bulgaria among others. Links to academic departments and centres, prosopographical projects and Byzantine research projects are listed on a separate page. The project is funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Resource Enhancement and the Research Grants schemes.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Religion, Dynasty and Patronage in Rome, c.440-840' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as tab delimited files. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. Religion, Dynasty, and Patronage in Rome, c.440-c.840 aims to offer a new approach to the social history of Christianity in Europe in the formative period from the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire to the rise of the Carolingians. By compiling a relational database of patronage (both ecclesiastical and secular) in Rome from the mid-fifth to the mid-ninth centuries, the project seeks to make visible the social basis of the much-discussed process of 'Christianization.' The goal of the database is to make possible new kinds of comparative work through the 'levelling' effect of entering data from sources and periods not usually considered together. It also aims at making some of the sources (narrative sources, inscriptions, charters) directly available to users. The database covers patronage transactions in the city of Rome (including the suburban basilicas) from the mid-fifth to the mid-ninth centuries. The database includes different sources for patronage such as narrative sources, inscriptions, charters and letters. Due to the broad variety of source types, a relational database model was employed where several aspects of patronage such as the birth place of donors, the places where a transaction has been issued and the location of particular objects are related to this sources.
This website is an enthusiast's collection of illustrations of the Roman Emperors. This started as a set of photographs of busts taken by the author in various museums, and now includes acknowledged contributions from others. This resource is arranged into a list of the Roman emperors and whenever possible, their busts and/or any other contributions they made to Roman art or architecture. There are links to biographies and further background material drawn from other online resources. Clicking on the emperor's name displays his coin portrait. Although not all emperors have photographic images, this does provide a good visual introduction and contextual information for school students and undergraduates.
This website accompanies a television series, The Roman Empire in the First Century, which was first broadcast by the US Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) in 2001. As well as providing details of the programme's production, the site also features a range of resources relating to the history of ancient Rome. It includes an introduction to this period of history, with information on the transition from Republic to Empire and details on the period from the age of Augustus (27 BC-AD 14) to the rule of Trajan (AD 98-117). There are also features on: writers of the period, including Virgil, Ovid, Seneca, Petronius, and the Elder and Younger Plinys; the social order, with information about emperors, senators, equestrians, plebeians and slaves; and daily life, covering marriage and the family, the home, Roman baths, entertainment and religion. A timeline and a Julio-Claudian family tree are also provided. Although the site is primarily aimed at schools (including lesson plans related to the topics it covers) it offers a broad and clear overview of the historical period which serves as a useful introduction to anyone studying the Roman Empire for the first time.
"Roman Forum Excavation" is the website of a collaborative archaeological excavation between the American Institute for Roman Culture and the Universities of Oxford (UK) and Stanford (USA). This is an almost unique opportunity to excavate part of the great forum of the capital of the Roman empire as permission to dig is rarely conceded by the Italian Ministry of Culture (Italian Ministero per i Beni ed Attività Culturali) to non-Italian projects. The aim of the dig is to investigate the part of the edge of the Forum, between the Oratory of the Forty Martyrs, the so-called 'Domitianic aula' and the Temple of Castor, an important commercial zone on the edge of the Roman Forum in the Republican, Imperial, and late Roman periods, known as the area post aedem Castoris (the area behind the Temple of Castor and Pollux), as well as the related area on the adjacent Vicus Tuscus. Among the results of the first season (1 July - 7 August 2003) was the discovery (sensationally reported in the press as evidence of insane power-hunger) that Caligula appears to have suppressed the street to the south of the Temple of Castor in order to extend his palace right up to the temple podium, probably to make the temple a monumental entrance to the palace as described by Suetonius and Dio Cassius. Subsequently the street was restored and the palace facade apparently remodelled, probably by Claudius later in the the first century CE. The report of the 2004 season is also available. The project was led in the field by Dr Andrew Wilson, Oxford University Institute of Archaeology, and co-directed with Wilson by Dr Jennifer Trimble, Stanford University Department of Classics, and Dr Darius Arya, the American Institute for Roman Culture, Inc. (IRC). The IRC hosts the website.
As its title suggests, this website is devoted to the Roman gladiatorial games, and provides a significanct amount of information on the subject. The author of the site is Professor Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, in New York. The following topics are coveres: on the origins of the gladiatorial shows; the political and cultural overtones associated with the games; the various types of gladiators; venationes (fighting with animals); capital punishment; and the amphitheatres (the most famous of which is the Colosseum in Rome) in which such shows occurred. The descriptive text provides a series of sound basic introductions to the subject; each of these is accompanied by images taken from Roman mosaics depicting gladiators. There is also a short bibliography of further reading.
Roman Law Resources is a website containing a great deal of material relating to Roman law, and which also acts as a gateway to other sites that may be of interest to researchers in this field. The site itself is fully searchable by keyword and offers information on the following topics: secondary literature; reviews of publications; teaching materials; primary sources; bibliographies; electronic reprints; errata in Roman Law books; corrections to Alan Watson's English translation of Justinian's Digest; and palingenesiae of Latin private rescripts and imperial Latin laws. Websites which are listed are each given a full description. Several of the resources available via this website are searchable databases providing a wealth of primary information. In addition to these materials, there are several information sections, detailing journals, web portals, prominent historians of ancient law, future events, etc. This is a clear and comprehensive website which provides an excellent starting page for research. It is navigable in German as well as in English.
The Roman Numerals and Calendar Web pages have been compiled by Paul Lewis, a freelance journalist and broadcaster. The site is not intended to function primarily as a conversion tool but to provide background information about the history of the Roman calendar and the formulation of dates in Latin. The site shows users how to form combinations of Roman numerals and offers detailed information about variant forms which were used in antiquity. There is also material on apparent anomalies in the Roman numeric system, including the expression of Roman numbers on clock-faces. There is an online quiz with answers provided although this is probably too advanced for use in secondary schools. The site is mainly aimed at a general interest audience, although it could prove useful for ancient historians wanting clarification on issues of dating.
"Roman Provincial Coinage Online" is a database containing photographs of Roman coins from the provinces. The database of about 45,000 coins (over 13,000 types) from the Antonine period (138-192 CE) is searchable by iconography, place, and time from "coin database". After selecting the parameters of search (intuitive, but tutorials are available), the results include a small picture of the coins and some essential information, including the town of provenance. By clicking on the picture, it is possible to access a high resolution version of the photograph, and additional data such as any inscriptions, type of metal, diameter, weight and bibliographic references. By clicking on the town name, a Flash map will show its location. It is also possible to use the mapping feature independently from the database accessing section "maps". The website also contains a referenced introduction to coinage in the Roman provinces and short biographies of the Roman emperors (including portraits in sculpture) that ordered the coinage of the coins in the database. This project has been funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council and the University of Oxford.
Compiled by Mary Harrsch, Director of Information Technology at the University of Oregon's College of Education, this weblog acts as an online 'magazine' which focuses on the Roman empire and the civilisations which interacted with it. Blog posts feature updates about topics such as: developments in the study of ancient history; museum news relating to Roman artefacts; information on classical pedagogy; and references to Roman history in popular culture. The website also features sub-sections on the following related themes: Roman archaeology; scholars working in the field of Roman studies; academic presentations on the Roman empire (with extracts from articles and links to any online versions of these); recently published books and novels on various aspects of the ancient world; and news about games and entertainment based on Roman themes. This diligently-updated blog will be of particular interest to those interested in the modern reception of classical history, as well as to those with a broader interest in ancient Rome.
This is the website of the BBC Radio 4 programme The Roman Way, first broadcast in 2003 and presented by journalist David Aaronovitch, which explores the daily lives of the vast and diverse population which made up the Roman empire. The resource allows users to listen to the series online and provides a commentary on each of the four episodes together with insights on the programme from the presenter and the producer. Other features include a fact file of basic information on the Roman empire, a selection of recipes from the cook book of 1st century AD gourmet Marc Apicius, a list of colloquial Latin phrases and a page of useful external links to relevant webpages. Technical advice is provided for those who need audio help to listen to the programme online. Although aimed largely at the general public, 'The Roman way' will also interest A level candidates and undergraduates studying classics, ancient history and archaeology.
This is the website to accompany Guy de la Bédoyí Ã‚Â¨re's Television series "The Romans in Britain" telling the story of the Roman occupation and its lasting impact - "The Romans helped shape the modern world, but as we are entering a new millennium their influence seems to be waning. How wide is the gap between our perceptions of the Romans and what we actually know about them?". This was broadcast on BBC2 and as part of the Open University's Open2 presentations. Contributors to the series in support of the prolific writer (and now presenter) de la Bédoyí Ã‚Â¨re are archaeologists Gustav Milne (Museum of London), Professor Martin Millett (Southampton University), Simon James, Stewart Ainsworth (Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, and Channel Four's "Time Team"), Lindsay Allason-Jones (Museum of Antiquities, University of Newcastle upon Tyne), Bill Griffiths (Tyne and Wear Museums); Gerald Brodribb; Sally Grainger ; David Rudkin (Fishbourne Roman Palace ) and Eugene Fraser (Butser Ancient Farm), and the prolific and respected writer, and director of the Vindolanda Trust - Robin Birley. The website is separated into the 3 episodes: Fact and Fable; Coming Of Age; and Hadrian's Wall. The full transcript of the programmes are available under "Script" and they are the most interesting part of the website. The left navigation provides links to: a timeline; details of the main locations visited in the series; an extensive reading list, links to other sites; and more information about the Open University courses that the programmes support.
Sacred Texts: the Classics is part of the Internet Sacred Text Archive, a free repository of ebooks run by amateur John B Hare. This site includes English translations of several Greek and Latin literary texts. Featured Greek authors include: Homer; Sophocles; Euripides; Sappho; and Plato. Latin authors include: Virgil; Apuleius; and Julius Caesar. This website makes available non-copyrighted books and for this reason most of the translations were completed over a century ago. In addition to ancient works, a section of the site contains many scholarly books, dating from the eigtheenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These include Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776-88). The works may be of interest to those tracing the history of classical scholarship. Sacred Texts sells a CD-ROM with all the ebooks in order to fund the running of the site.
Scholia : Studies in Classical Antiquity is an international journal of classical and related studies published by the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university. This website provides an index of articles from 1992 onwards as well as information about the staff, editors and advisory committee of the journal and the usual advice to prospective contributors. (You need to be in an institution which subscribes to ProQuest or to LOCKSS to make full use of this journal, e.g. to browse by author and volume, view thumbnails of the articles and of course to download abstracts and texts of articles.) The site is linked to Scholia Reviews, a related electronic site from the University of Natal which publishes a wider range of reviews that those printed in the paper publication of Scholia. The remit of the journal is very broad and includes articles on late antiquity and the mediaeval world, as well as the reception of classical learning during the renaissance and early modern periods and the continued relevance of classical studies in the modern world. The editors advise the use of Netscape 7.0 for optimal results when downloading papers. This online publication will benefit students and researchers in classical studies and ancient history.
Scholia Reviews is an electronic journal of reviews for classics, ancient history, and related subjects. Subjects of books recently reviewed include: Greek historiography; late antiquity; Roman art and architecture; classical myth; Roman religion; Greek and Roman literature. The journal has been published on an annual basis since 1992. Book reviews are available via email as well as on the website. A selection of reviews are also published in the international printed journal, Scholia. Reviews tend to be between 1500-2500 words long. The Scholia Reviews website also includes details of books received and requiring review and guidelines for review authors (including the system for transcribing Greek).
The website of the School of History, Classics, and Archaeology at Birkbeck College, University of London, essentially provides information for those considering courses at Birkbeck, or who are already on one of the courses. However, the website also has a excellent set of resources aimed at its students which can be used by any interested party. The sections Undergraduate, Classics, and Medieval resources point the student towards useful websites and other resources in the field. There is also information on forthcoming conferences and projects within the School, as well as links to pertinent lecture and seminar lists at IHR and ICS. Each individual department has listings of its staff, their research interests, and contact details.
This is the website of the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, the main organisation in the United Kingdom encouraging the study of Roman history, archaeology and culture down to the early Byzantine period circa 700 AD. The website provides useful information on the structure and activities of the society, such as: forthcoming conferences and meetings; information on grants and bursaries; details of the library; and recent society news. Also included are details of Roman Society publications such as the journals Britannia and the Journal of Roman Studies, and their associated monographs. The contents page and abstracts of volumes of these journals published from 2002 onwards is available online, in addition to the content pages of volumes dating back to 1996. There is also a useful series of weblinks to similar associations and societies involved in classical studies. This website will benefit students and researchers in the field of Roman and ancient Mediterranean studies.
This online resource provides edited transcripts (with illustrations) of the television series 'The Spartans', which was first broadcast in 2002 by Channel 4. The Spartans were celebrated in classical antiquity for the austere and militaristic lifestyle which helped them to dominate the Peloponese and much of Greece in the archaic and classical period, particularly after their defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars in the late 4th century BC. The three programmes of the original series examined the myths and reality behind the ancient sources, many of which date from much later than the period of Spartan military supremacy. The style is colloquial, as one would expect from a television programme, and the text, which can also be read as a PDF file, is a useful overview of a complex historical issue. The website also provides further information on the Spartans in the form of weblinks to relevant sites and a short bibliography.
Studia Humaniora Tartuensia (SHT) is a peer-reviewed scholarly electronic journal which publishes research articles and notes in any area of the humanities, but some emphasis on classical studies, ancient history, neo-Latin studies, classical tradition, and the history of scholarship and philosophy. Published by the University of Tartu in Estonia, and online since 2000, SHT is a well-established and diverse journal which is sure to contain material of interest to scholars of classical studies and ancient history. Articles may be written in English, French, German and Latin. The journal provides a free mailing list to users wishing to keep informed of developments in the journal, and a news section for further information. Full article submission details are also provided.
The Suda Online is a large and developing database which makes accessible in electronic format the Suda, a huge Byzantine historical encyclopaedia of the ancient Mediterranean world written in the 10th century. The encyclopaedia is derived from much earlier works and, as such, preserves details and fragments of works no longer extant. The Suda has around 30,000 entries arranged in alphabetical order. The Suda Online Project is a collaborative effort to put online the Greek text of the Suda, an English translation, and commentary. Many of the entries include a bibliography and links to other Internet resources. There are also useful cross-links with the Perseus Project and the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae texts. Users may browse by subject area or perform a more specific search.
This website was initially designed to support Ancient History students at the University of Calgary, but offers freely accessible online versions from key Latin and Greek texts in English translation. A selection of sources relating to Greek history, Roman republican and imperial history and late antiquity may be found here. Texts relating to fifth-century BC Greek history include: Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War (Book I); Aeschylus' Persians; the pseudo-Aristotelian Athenian Constitution; and Plutarch's Alcibiades, Aristides, Cimon, Nicias and Pericles. The section on Roman republican history features several of the comparisons from Plutarch's Lives; for the Roman imperial period Tacitus' Annals (Book I) features. Electronic texts for the study of late antiquity (the fourth century AD onwards) are generally more difficult to find, and it is here that the site offers a convenient compilation of useful resources. Featured authors here are: Gregory Thaumaturgus; Lactantius; Eusebius; Athanasius; the Cappadocian Fathers; Symmachus; Ambrose; Jordanes; and Priscus. Each cited text is accompanied by a brief introduction to its author.
In the website “Theorizing Satire: A Bibliography”, Brian A. Connery, Associate Professor of English at Oakland University, provides an online bibliography of critical works on satire and satirical writing. The bibliography contains a contents page and focuses on works that treat satire generically rather than concentrating upon individual works. An extensive amount of bibliographical material is listed and a diverse range of historical periods (classical, medieval and beyond) and national literatures (mostly Roman, British and American) are encompassed. An index of categories is provided with links to the relevant bibliographical material. None of the material catalogued appears to be available online, but this resource is nonetheless of use to anyone studying or researching satire in almost any of its numerous forms.
This website provides the complete text of 'Thucydides and the Ancient Simplicity', a 1998 monograph by Gregory Crane which is also published in paper format by the University of California Press. Thucydides, the great Greek historian of the Peloponnesian War in the fifth century BC, is renowned for his apparent rationalism and 'political realism', a trait which Crane analyses as a propensity to view the course of the war as the logical product of the self-centred pursuit of each player's own interests. Athens, in Thucydides' history and Crane's reading of it, emerges as a new power-house, disregarding Greek precedent and custom to meet with initial military success and then catastrophic political failure. Crane argues that Thucydides' political realism is too often taken for granted by modern readers, who can fail to realise that what they view as commonplaces of political thought were, in fact, deeply radical when Thucydides first introduced them: the ruthless pursuit of self-interest, the domination of the strong over the weak and the constant turbulence of interstate relations add up to to what GEM de Ste Croix called Thucydides' 'moral bleakness', an outlook that seems natural in modern political historical scholarship. Crane's contention, though, is that Thucydides 'wrote to shock', and his book is an elaboration of this argument. The site presents the whole book in an easy-to-use format, divided by chapter headings. Footnotes are hyperlinked for ease of reference, and the presence of a search function offsets the lack of index. There is also a complete bibliography.
Traditio is an important journal of ancient and medieval history, thought and religion. Its no-frills website provides two indices to the first fifty of its volumes (to 1995). The first index is most useful for compiling bibliographies, as it categorizes the articles by assigning them to one of nineteen subject headings. The second orders them by name of author. Besides the indices, the text of the foreword to the fiftieth anniversary volume is provided. It outlines the origins and history of the journal.
Trajan's Column is an online collection of images and background material on the Roman monument, a 100 foot stone column recording the military victories of the Roman Emperor Trajan (reigned 98-117 CE) over the Dacians and the Germans in the second century CE,which is one of the most remarkable and best preserved survivals of monumental art from classical antiquity. This website provides a searchable database of over 500 images focusing on various aspects of the design and execution of the column's sculptural decoration as well as several introductory essays on the historical background, subject matter and wider physical context of the monument within the Forum of Trajan in Rome, presented throughout within a hypertext medium. This highly user-friendly resource is designed to be accessible to individuals at varying levels of knowledge and experience of the subject. An elaborate search engine allows you to explore highly specific aspects of the monument while Claudio Martini's interactive cartoon of the entire column provides an excellent introduction to the overall design and layout of the monument and contextualises the individual details provided by the database of images. The site can also be explored through the use of indices organised according to: subject; sculptural technique; and scene number or location. The high quality images (slides and drawings) were generated by sculptor Peter Rockwell, over the course of his study of Roman stone-carving practices, and can be viewed at three different resolutions. Technical information on all the imaging and programming details (including the programming code) is also provided. This detailed, stimulating and attractively presented website will interest archaeologists and classicists as well as art and military historians at many levels from the general public and novice undergraduate to the more experienced researcher.
Travel and Religion in Antiquity is an ongoing seminar (since 2005) within the Canadian Society of Biblical Studies (CSBS); this website makes available its papers and abstracts online. The seminar looks at the ways in which travel affected religious activity and cultural interaction in antiquity (with an emphasis on the Hellenistic and Roman periods, but with some attention to the Persian and earlier periods). Papers and abstracts are available to view as PDF files. Topics covered to date include: Hellenistic, Judaean and early Christian travellers; ethnographic discourses and migration; cultic journeys and early Christian travellers; the interplay of travel and religion; and the realities of travel. There is also a lengthy bibliography, divided into themed sections, on travel and religion in antiquity. Finally, an annotated list of links to relevant external resources is also provided.
This is the website of the US Epigraphy Project, which is based at Brown University and is devoted to information about Greek and Latin inscriptions which are preserved in the USA. The digital catalogue is based on the contents of the book Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the USA : A Checklist, written by J Bodel and S Tracy. The key feature of the online resource is a searchable database of these inscriptions. The user may browse by collection or publication, or by using a search form which has a range of fields including: language; place of origin; date; type of inscription; type of object; and type of material. Searches then produce an image of the inscription along with essential information (provenance, date, material and object type) and bibliographic details, along with the inscription's US epigraphy number. There is also a list of links to other epigraphy websites and relevant search engines.
The website "Vindolanda Tablets Online" is an excellent site which provides an online database of the Vindolanda Tablets found at the Vindolanda fortress near Hadrian's Wall dating from the first century of the common era. The site is extremely easy to navigate and features a help section. The database is intended to be used as a learning tool for teaching Latin and Classics at all levels; primary school (there is a link to the Latin course for primary schools, Minimus), A and AS levels, undergraduate, postgraduate and for research purposes. The website is based on the publication of three volumes of materials on the tablets, but obviously offers many more facilities than the printed form. There is a section on the background history to the fort of Vindolanda, where the tablets were found. The tablets provide information on the social, cultural, and military history of the fortress. There is an online exhibition of the tablets, which features sections on people, places, documents, reading the tablets, and forts and military life. An excellent reference section provides information about Roman systems of dates, measures, currencies, military units and ranks, and Roman nomenclature. The tablets themselves can be viewed individually, and through an image zooming viewer. The tablets are arranged as a fully searchable set of digital materials with information included that is related to the tablets. The texts of the tablets can be searched by document type, people, places, military terms, archaeology, and other terms. A comprehensive links page provides information on over 70 websites and a bibliography of printed material. The project is based within the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University and is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The initial capture of the digital images was supported by an Arts and Humanities Research Board grant.
Vindolanda is a Roman fort and civilian settlement lying just to the south of Hadrian's Wall. The Roman Army Museum, adjacent to the Roman site of Carvoran, 8 miles to the west, (one of the best preserved sections of the Wall), offers an insight into the garrisons of Hadrian's Wall. Roman Vindolanda and The Roman Army Museum are both part of the Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site. Presented in this website is essential visitor information and background to the museum and the Vindolanda Trust (that provides research, education and the public display of the monument and finds from the Vindolanda excavations) and the Trust's base in the country house of Chesterholm. There are also preliminary reports (news) of all the archaeological excavations carried out since 1997 (the most interesting section), a bookshop, tourist information and a growing Roman and general history links page.
This is a chronological list of Roman emperors (27 BC to 476 AD) with enlargeable images of portraits for many of them. These include busts, sculptures and other contributions they made to Roman art or architecture. There is also a list of links to Roman art websites.
A Visual Tour through Late Antiquity provides a selection of images of artistic evidence and material remains from the 4th to 7th centuries. The prime focus of the website is late antique Gaul at the time of Gregory of Tours (538-594) but context is provided by a variety of other images. The collection is divided into five sections: Late Roman court and aristocracy; Imperial art of 6th century Ravenna; Gallic art of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries; Frankish art and artefacts; and Royal grave goods. The Visual Tour through Late Antiquity was originally compiled for the use of students at the Nipissing University (Canada) but it also provides a good general introduction to some famous late Roman and early Frankish images and artefacts.
VRoma is an online collection of resources for the teaching and learning of Latin and ancient Roman culture at secondary school and undergraduate level. It acts as a repository for online teaching material (holding an extensive collection of texts, commentaries, maps, images, teaching resources and more). Its central feature is a virtual classroom based on the city of Rome of c. AD150, where students and staff can log on and travel around the city and hold discussions with others visiting VRoma. Groups based in different institutions can arrange to visit VRoma at the same time and hold collaborative classes. Travel instructions and conversations can be in English or Latin. Using this element of VRoma introduces students to the monuments of ancient Rome, encourages them to use Latin, and to interact with peers. Background information to the VRoma project, help, and guidance on using the virtual city are all available on the website.
Who Was Who in Roman Times is an online illustrated index to Roman culture, compiled by an enthusiast, Michiel Osinga. The site is arranged initially by topic (including: persons; geography; sources; events; religion; images; other miscellaneous subjects), with each topic subdivided further into other subjects arranged alphabetically. Clicking on the links which are given reveals information of varying degrees of detail and usefulness. For example, in some cases only a very short summary of the relevant topic is given, where in others, links are provided to extracts from ancient texts, images and more detailed information. The compiler has attempted to include a vast amount of information here; however, this means that the site is not always easy to navigate in order to find what the user is looking for.
The Women in the Ancient Near East website is a select bibliography of resources found in the research archive of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. The Oriental Institute is a research organisation and museum devoted to the study of the ancient Near East, founded in 1919 by the famous Egyptologist James Henry Breasted. The bibliography is compiled by Terry Wilfong, associate professor of Egyptology at the Department of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Michigan. The study of women in ancient Near East has attracted an increased amount of attention in recent years and this bibliography is an attempt to collect some of the more useful resources. The website contains the bibliography, a book review index and a subject index. It is a select bibliography and covers mainly acquisitions to the archive between 1988 and 1992. The bibliography is still a useful resource for anyone interested in ancient history and especially the history of women.
This is an online version of a paper entitled 'Women, children and men' by Marilyn A. Katz of Wesleyan University, Connecticut; the paper forms Chapter Five of the Cambridge Illustrated History of Ancient Greece (ed. Paul Cartledge, Cambridge 1998). The author examines gender roles and the place held by children in the ancient Greek polis. After an introductory section, the paper is divided into the following sections: 'The polis as a sacrificial community' (on religion and ritual); 'The body of evidence' (dealing with the law courts); 'The body politic' (discussing issues surrounding citizenship); 'Trading places' (on the agora and those who frequented it); 'Athens on display' (focusing on dramatic festivals); 'Demographics' (the division of Athens and Attica into 'demes'); and 'Homebodies' (on the role of women within marriage and the home). Throughout the paper links are also provided to relevant images, which are annotated.