This website, produced by a Latin enthusiast, is dedicated to English translations of Virgil's first-century BCE epic poem, the Aeneid. Publication details are given for a range of different renderings of the text in English (these include both verse and prose versions. Links are also given to several online translations, along with a list of other sites of interest. The most interesting feature of this resource, however, is the page which places side-by-side ten different English translations (along with the original Latin) of a short passage of the text (Aeneid 4.693-705, describing the death of Dido). The wide variety of language used here allows the reader to appreciate the ways in which different translators may interpret the same piece of text. The resource will be of value to anyone interested in the modern reception, translation and adaptation of ancient Latin texts; it would also be very useful for tutors involved in teaching Classics in translation as a way of demonstrating to students the potential for variation (or even inaccuracy) when a text is translated from the original language.
Ancient Journeys is the online Festschrift in honour of the distinguished American classicist and ancient historian Eugene Numa Lane, and contains the full-text of 20 articles written by his colleagues and students on a wide range of subjects dealing with Greek and Roman art, archaeology, history, religion and literature. The resource also offers biographical information, a tabula gratulatoria and series of personal memoirs by his associates, as well as a bibliography of Lane's published work. Published by the Stoa Consortium, the Festschrift is notable for its broad range of topics but also for the absence of a paper version. A hypertext medium is used throughout and links are provided to Perseus for Latin and Greek words. Many of the articles are illustrated and the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at larger scales. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Greek and Roman studies.
Aoidoi is a website dedicated to archaic and classical Greek poetry, from the early Homeric epics (eighth century BC) to the late antique Anacreontea. The author aims to appeal to amateurs as well as academics, although the level of depth here is most suited to university study and research. Featured articles give information on dialects (Lesbian Aeolic, Choral Doric and Bucolic Doric) and an introduction to Greek metre, with further information on the dactylic hexameter and the use of the epic caesura. There are also guides to Greek verse composition, with some of the author's own compositions. One page offers articles which help with Pharr's textbook on Homeric Greek. The most detailed part of the site is a series of downloadable ancient Greek poetic texts. In many cases the poems are accompanied by an English introduction and commentary written by the author, along with information on metre and vocabulary. Poets whose works are included are: Anacreon and the Anacreontics; the Greek Anthology; Archilochus; Hesiod; Ibycus; Mimnermus; Pindar; Sappho; Simonides of Ceos; and Theognis.
This is a free-to-view online edition of Gregory Nagy's book The Best of the Achaeans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry, which was first published in 1979. The version which appears here is the 1999 revised edition published by Johns Hopkins University Press. The book looks at the epics of Homer (both the Iliad and the Odyssey) and other forms of archaic (pre-fifth-century BC) Greek poetry, most notably the so-called Homeric Hymns (with a particular focus on the Hymns to Apollo, Demeter and Aphrodite), and the Theogony and Works and Days of Hesiod. There is also reference to the poetry of Pindar and Archilochus and the early versions of Aesop's fables. Each chapter is based around a reading of a section of ancient text and focuses particularly upon what these texts reveal about the concept of the hero (figures such as Achilles and Hector) in the archaic Greek world, whilst looking at the ancestral practices of hero-cults as well as the poetry, prose and song relating to the figures of the heroes. This machine readable text is presented in a number of versions including HTML, although it may be necessary to download Greek font.
Catullus is a website devoted to the Roman writer of Latin lyric verse, Gaius Valerius Catullus (84-54 BC). The site, created and maintained by Dr Rudy Negenborn of Delft University of Technology, contains the Latin texts of Catullus' work and translations of it in many languages, including, among others English, Dutch, German, Swedish, Italian, Estonian, Chinese, Spanish, Hungarian and Norwegian. Users may compare translations in different languages side-by-side with one another or with the original Latin texts. The modern-language translations should perhaps be approached with some caution, however, as although the site lists translators there is no guarantee of the credentials of the contributors. Also included is a brief biography of Catullus and a listing of Latin and Greek related links. There is a discussion forum on Catullus, to which users may contribute.
This is the website of The Chicago Homer, a multilingual database of early Greek epic and twentieth-century scholarship. The website presents all of the texts of ancient Greek epic (including the works of Hesiod and the Homeric Hymns as well as the poetry attributed to Homer) in the original language, as well as English and German translations. These include: Richmond Lattimore's translation of the Homer's Iliad; Daryl Hine's translations of Hesiod's Theogony, Works and Days, and Homeric Hymns; and the 18th century German translations of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey by Johann Heinrich Voss; and an English translation of the Odyssey by James Huddleston. The Greek texts in the Chicago Homer are derived from the electronic texts used in the Perseus Project. The database supports all scholarly searches of the text archive of the almost the entire extant corpus of Early Greek epic. There are excellent pages of supporting information, to help the new user manipulate the database and un derstand the source material. The Chicago Homer is also associated with other scholarly projects online. Each line, for example, links to early papyri, manuscripts or printed texts and other research work in the field. All the functionalities of the Chicago Homer work with modern Web browsers. The transliterated Greek can be displayed on any browser, but the display of Greek characters requires a browser with a Unicode (UTF-8) font that includes the extended Greek character set.
The website Classical Epic, designed by Robin Mitchell-Boyask, accompanies a course on Classical Epic at Temple University and makes accessible a wide range of resources to assist the student of both Greek and Latin epic poetry. Of particular relevance to classicists are the extensive sections on Homer and Virgil. There is also information on the Indian Mahabharata and the Sumerian epic Gilgamesh (for comparative study) Whilst the site provides several annotated links to relevant pages of external sites (with, for example, images and scholarly works relating to epic poetry) it also contains a number of specific resources created by staff at Temple. The most useful of these are the study guides accompanying the Homeric poems; these provide book-by-book guides to the Iliad and Odyssey, and include questions for discussion.
This website was set up by Dr Robin Mitchell-Boyask of Temple University to accompany his course in classical mythology. It is focused largely on Greek mythology, and is written primarily with undergraduates in mind, covering a range of mythological subjects, such as the gods and the Trojan War. Included are a series of study guides, compiled by Dr Mitchell-Boyask and featuring the following works: Homer's Iliad and Odyssey; selected Homeric Hymns; Sophocles' Oedipus and Antigone; Euripides' Medea and Hippolytus. Also featured are: a list of links for studying ancient mythology; details of the myths relating to Zeus; and links to images of myths relating to Heracles, Apollo, the city of Athens and the Trojan War (these lead ultimately to relevant pages of the Perseus website). This resource is a very straightforward site which would be of use to any student of Greek mythology.
This website accompanies a course on Classical Mythology run by Professor William A Johnson at Bucknell University. Whilst some of the information here is specific to that particular course, there is much which will be of interest to those looking for information on the myths of the ancient world in general. Individual pages of the site contain notes on particular topics and questions for discussion, and would be useful aids to anyone preparing tutorials or lectures relating to the themes covered here. Many pages are also accompanied by images from ancient art. The focus is primarily on ancient Greek myth, and individual sections deal with the following subjects: myth in literature (including the Near Eastern background, Gilgamesh, Homer and Hesiod, and the Greek dramatists Aeschylus and Sophocles); myth in art (with images relating to the myths of Heracles, Medea and Jason, and Perseus); myth in religion (including both gods and heroes); myth and thought (covering some of the ways in which philosophy and science deal with myth); and theories of myth. There is also a quick-reference study guide dealing with key names, concepts and episodes in myth. A further section gives sample exam/essay questions.
Written by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, this is an excellent online study guide to classical Greek and Roman culture through its key literary, historical and philosophical writers. The resource, which is intended for use by undergraduates taking classics options, combines historical, critical and literary material with practical exercises and questions in reading, comprehension and interpretation. The authors featured are: Homer; Thucydides; Sophocles; Euripides; Aristotle; Aristophanes; Plato; Lucretius; and Virgil. Each literary genre is accompanied by sections providing cultural and intellectual background. The entries are hyperlinked to Perseus for easy reference, as is the excellent glossary of personal names, technical terms and placenames, though there is no bibliography. This resource provides a clear and reliable learning resource for classics and ancient history students.
Classical Receptions in Drama and Poetry from c.1970-Present is a research project based within the Department of Classical Studies at the Open University (UK) and directed by Professor Lorna Hardwick; this is its online presence. The project aims to document and analyse the theatrical and literary interest in Greek texts and drama. This aim is accomplished through two broad aspects of the project. First, the project is publishing a series of case studies which examine relationships between the ancient texts and their corresponding modern creative art forms. Second, the project is developing a database of performances staged in the late twentieth century. Evidence is drawn from programmes, acting scripts, interviews and other texts. The Reception of Classical Texts database can be searched online after registration. A Poetry database is under development. The project publishes two peer-reviewed ejournals: New Voices and Practitioners' Voices, which are available from the website, as is the series of critical essays: 'Documenting and Researching Modern Productions of Greek Drama: The Sources'. The project has set up an electronic seminar series to enable informal contact and discussion among researchers working in the area, and these eseminars are archived and available on the project site (going back to 1998). The website also contains: information about the project and its methodology; a list of project publications; a specialist bibliography of material relating to modern productions of ancient Greek drama; and information about their Masks Workshop (2000). The project publishes listings of current and forthcoming productions in UK & Ireland and conferences, seminars and lectures, and the site makes avalable a list of links to related online resources.
This online concordance to the fourth book of Virgil's Aeneid (first century BC) allows the user to look up and compare occurrences of particular Latin words. An alphabetical list of every word in the book has been compiled, and each entry is accompanied by a list of references to the points in the poem where the vocabulary occurs. The user may then click on the required reference and is taken to the relevant line of the poem in a full Latin text of Book IV. As no translation of either individual words or complete text is given this electronic tool will be of most use to accomplished Latinists who are interested in researching the use of words in specific contexts.
The basis of the website "Die Sprache Alkmans : Textgeschichte und Sprachgeschichte" is the PhD thesis of George Hinge, written at the University of Aarhus and completed in 2001. The thesis is based upon the dialect and language used by Alcman of Sparta, the archaic Greek lyric poet (seventh century BC). Whilst the main text of the thesis is given in German, there are also summaries in English and Danish. Individual sections of the thesis focus on the following themes: the performance of Alcman's poems in antiquity; phonetics; morphology; phraseology; and metrical forms. There are also discussions of pronunciation of the Doric dialect. The overall argument of the thesis is that Alcman's dialect was fundamentally the same language as that used in other archaic poetry, but that the poetry which has been transmitted to us looks more like the Laconian vernacular because of local performance in Sparta. The site includes an extensive bibliography. The text is available either in HTML or as a PDF.
The Divine Sappho is an excellent website devoted to the Greek female lyric poet who lived on Lesbos in the late seventh and early sixth centuries BC. It brings together a range of useful resources for the study of the poet, including a variety of modern translations of the surviving fragments of her poetry, original Greek texts and articles relating to her life and works. An index of first lines allows the user to access and compare the different English translations of Sappho's poetry. The text of Henry Thornton Wharton's 1895 Life of Sappho is also given here; this is particularly interesting for the Victorian perspective which it gives on the issue of Sappho's sexuality. In addition, other highlights of the site include: Pope's 1707 translation of Ovid, Heroides XV, (Sappho to Phaon); articles on Sappho contributed by Joseph Addison to the Spectator in 1707; translated passages on Sappho from Demetrius' On Style (probably first century BC) and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (first century BC); and post-Renaissance literary and artistic responses to Sappho from, among others, Laurent Chapman, Gilbert Murray and K. O. Müller. There is also an extensive series of annotated links to other relevant Web pages.
This text is concerned with the love poems of Horace and written with the assumption that they reflect autobiographical episodes in his life. The poems are given a fresh translation and are made the subject of an individual analysis and commentary. Poems in parallel Latin and English text with a biography. The text is available for download as an HTML file from the Oxford Text Archive. After downloading this text, click on the file "Contents.html" to begin at the Contents page of the text. Please note that the file must be extracted to a local folder on your computer to enable the HTML linkage. Transcribed to form part of the "De res historiae antiqua" website which presents some recent writing, in the form of books and articles, concerned either with new thoughts on classical history and literature or comparisons between contemporary situations and their historical equivalents.
This series of eight online essays, part of the Johnstonia pages created by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, deals with a range of different aspects of Homer's Iliad. The author is keen to stress the importance and relevance of this epic poem for modern readers, and does so by considering Homer's fatalistic view of war as an unchanging condition of human life. The essays deal with the following topics: Homer's war; Homer's similes; the gods; the heroic code; arms and the men; Hector and Achilles; Homer and the modern imagination; and modern English translations of the Iliad. Throughout, the Iliad itself is quoted in English translation, and there is also a bibliography listing works cited in the essays.
This website, from Harvard University Classics Department, aims to foster an understanding of the performative aspect of ancient literature by providing recordings of extracts from ancient Greek and Latin texts (both poetry and prose) as recited by staff and students. Each recording is accompanied by the original-language text and notes. Featured works are: Ovid's Amores; Homer's Iliad; Propertius; Statius' Silvae; Virgil's Aeneid; Catullus; Cicero's first Catilinarian. A further section features students' declamations (in English) in the style of Ovid and Seneca. There is also a link here to the Homer in Performance pages which feature readings of selected parts of the Iliad, accompanied by Greek text and notes by Gregory Nagy.
The Hellenistic Bibliography - an online resource from the University of Leiden - is a compilation of a series of bibliographies on post-classical Greek poetry and its influence. Most sections feature a list of the most recent publications as well as a list of modern editions of the ancient works and a general bibliography (arranged alphabetically according to author surname) of important articles and books on each author. The resource records works written in most major European languages and will be of particular value to scholars seeking secondary material on some of the less well-known Greek authors. More obscure poets such as Anyte, Colluthus and Phanocles appear alongside the more familiar names of Callimachus and Theocritus, for example. There is also a section cataloguing bibliography on the influence of Hellenistic poetry on Latin writers such as Horace, Ovid and Virgil, as well as a topic-based section featuring works on Hellenistic history, Ptolemaic Egypt, ideology and patronage and Alexander the Great.
From the Department of Classics at Skidmore College, the excellent Hexametrica website is designed as an introduction to the dactylic hexameter, the most common Latin poetic metre. Aimed specifically at intermediate Latin students reading Virgil, the site also proclaims that it will be of use to those interested in Horace, Catullus, or even Homer. The resource, which is clearly set out and easy to understand, has three key sections, on rhythms, scansion and recitation. 'Rhythms' explains the concept and structure of the hexameter, with reference to the units comprising it, and explanation of dactyls and spondees. 'Scansion' demonstrates the means by which we divide a line into its component uses, and looks at vowel quantities, syllables, elision and caesurae. Finally, 'Recitation' shows how these principles work in practice when the poem is read aloud. Each section is accompanied by diagrams illustrating the breakdown of the Latin text. There is also a glossary of key terms.
This online resource, produced by Malcolm Heath, is designed to support a module on Homer's Iliad taught at Leeds University's Classics Department. There is much here which will be of interest to any student of Homer (and perhaps also to tutors seeking ideas about course structure and content). An outline of this specific module is given; more broadly applicable is the synopsis of Homer's epic and the extensive bibliography. This is divided into sections on general works (commentaries, translations, introductions and collections of essays) as well as further sections on specific topics including: religion; ethics; society; history; oral poetry; the epic tradition; and later reception of Homer. A further section of the site gives detailed lecture notes with reference to specific parts of the text. Themes covered include: the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon; the poem's structure; Achilles; the Trojans; Hector; gods and humans; and composition, performance and transmission.
Based around Homer's archaic Greek epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey (probably eighth century BC), this online resource provides detailed summaries of the texts as well as short discussions of a range of aspects of the ancient epics. It is aimed primarily at those who are new to the study of Homer. Further sections look at Greece in Homeric times and the historical background to Homer and his work. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of the site is, however, a series of explorations of other (modern) texts which are based on Homer. These include: Joyce's Ulysses (with a chapter-by-chapter summary of the novel as compared with the Odyssey); Tolkien's Gondolin; and Scott's Ivanhoe. A basic bibliography is also provided.
Homerica is a French website devoted to the life and works of the archaic Greek epic poet Homer. Featuring a bibliography, and filmography; information on iconography; and chronologies of the Trojan War; Homerica is a valuable resource for understanding the Iliad and Odyssey. Although the site is primarily a gateway to seminars, conferences and publications, it also contains many images; extracts from the Homeric texts in the original Greek; reviews of exhibitions; and catalogues. The section on the historical versus mythical Homer is particularly rewarding, detailing some of the evidence pertaining to the poet's life, and providing helpful links to other material available on the Internet. Some sections may be useful to archaeologists, such as the one on Mycenology (photo and drawing of tablet Ta 641) and various sections on the Trojan War. As a portal to Homeric studies this site is essential reading for those working on literature, Greek culture and archaeology.
HyperEpos: Epic on the Internet is an annotated web gateway for those interested in both Classical (Greek and Roman) epic poetry, and English language epics from the Middle Ages to the present day. In addition to the more familiar categories of Renaissance and Medieval epic, the site lists an extensive number of sub-genres. These include Women's epic, American epic, Modernist epic and Contemporary epic. A further category, Non-Western epic, provides a range of resources for the study of texts such as the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Epic of Shahnameh Ferdowsi. The site covers Indian epic, African epic, Arabic epic, Japanese epic, and Turkish and Persian epic. Resources on these topics include texts, commentaries, and translations.The site is a valuable resource for genre-based study and would be particularly useful for students and scholars working on comparative or cross-cultural studies.
This website acts as a very basic introduction to Homer's Iliad for those reading the epic for the first time, contextualising the poem both chronologically and geographically. It includes a map showing the locations of key sites and events in the poem, as well as timelines locating the work in relation to real historical events and other ancient Greek literature of the archaic and classical periods (covering very briefly the period from 3000BC to the fourth century BC). A concise book-by-book outline of the Iliad is also given, as well as several images of Greek vases which relate to the Homeric epic. The site also gives links to the relevant pages of Perseus, which offers English and Greek texts of the Iliad as well as information on key sites for Homeric archaeology (Mycenae, Pylos and Troy).
These pages collect together online a vast range of excellent teaching materials for classical subjects compiled by John R Porter, an associate professor of history at the University of Saskatchewan. A variety of aspects of Greek and Roman culture and civilisation feature here, including literature, history, art and archaeology. Although they relate to specific courses taught at the University the notes relate to key themes of most classical syllabi and will therefore be of use to both students and teachers elsewhere. Broad topics which are covered include: Homer's Iliad; fifth-century BC Athens; Greek tragedy (Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides), comedy (Aristophanes) and historiography (Herodotus and Thucydides); Roman republican and early imperial history; Latin poetry (Catullus, Virgil and Ovid); Latin satire (Petronius); daily life in antiquity (including education, dress, food, women's life, slavery, and entertainment). Each section features detailed notes on themes, historical periods or individual authors and texts; bibliographies and chronological tables are also given.
The Latin Library website houses a large collection of Latin texts, available for viewing online. Authors and works present include: the younger and elder Plinys; the oratorical, philosophical, and epistolary works of Cicero; Catullus; Martial; Seneca; Suetonius; Horace; Vitruvius; and about 50 others. As well as works of classical literature, the site offers legal and religious texts, along with a selection of medieval works. The texts are divided by book, chapter, and paragraph, so navigating to the right part of the required work is fairly straightforward. No translations, commentary, apparatus or vocabulary help are provided, but the range of texts is so broad that the site is still a very valuable resource. The texts come from a variety of sources, either scanned in by the site's compiler from public domain sources, or submitted by other online Latinists around the world. The compiler gives a list of links to the providers of the texts, and is careful to point out that his collection is not a substitute for published critical editions.
The basis of this website is the text of a lecture on the Metamorphoses of Ovid (43BC-AD17) delivered by Ian Johnston, a Research Associate of Malaspina University College, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The content of the lecture is suitable for those who are new to the study of this Latin poet. After a brief insight into the historical events preceding the composition of Ovid's poem, the author focuses primarily on the reasons why the Metamorphoses has remained so popular since its composition. Specific sections examine the following: Ovid's popularity since classical times; elements of Ovid's narrative style; Ovid's vision of life in relation to the concept of metamorphosis; the poet's transformation of mythological themes. There is also a short introductory bibliography. All extracts from the text are given in English translation.
Founded in 2002, Leeds International Classical Studies is an open-access online journal associated with the Leeds International Classics Seminar. It publishes articles and interim discussion papers on all aspects of Greek and Roman antiquity, and of the history of the classical tradition. Topics covered by journal articles include: comedy; didactic poetry; marriage and sex; oratory and rhetoric; philosophy; and tragedy. As well as presenting the full text of journal articles in PDF format, the website also provides: guidelines for those who wish to contribute articles to the journal; a statement of editorial policy; and information regarding the copyright of articles submitted.
This bilingual (Spanish/English) website, created by researcher and teacher Martín Pozzi of Buenos Aires University, is devoted to the study of the first century AD Latin poet Marcus Manilius, whose best known work is the Astronomica, a 4500 line hexametric poem which combines astrology with Stoic philosophy. The site offers links to online editions of the text (Loeb and Intratext) as well as commentaries, articles, secondary literature and reviews. A useful and extensive bibliography of works on Manilius also provides a list of publications on ancient astrology and the zodiac. Much of the secondary material referenced in the bibliography is in English. There is an excellent range of links including ones on the wider history of astrology. There is also a discussion group to which readers can subscribe. This resource will benefit researchers and teachers in classics and related subjects, including the history of science and religion.
This website is a blog dedicated to the epigrams of the 1st-century CE Latin poet Martial. The author of the blog aims to post a Latin text accompanied by an English translation of each of Martial's 1,565 poetic epigrams, as well as the five prose prefaces to the published works. Since the blog started in June 2004 he has posted the epigrams at a rate of around one a day (with a gap in 2005). The site can be used as a quick-reference guide for anyone seeking a text or translation of one of Martial's poems, although the lack of any commentary or referencing means that the user would need to look elsewhere for further clarification.
Minerva Systems, written by Dr Cora Angier Sowa, is a website dealing with various aspects of the classical world. The author, whose academic background is in classical studies and computing, is interested in the use of computers in the humanities; this site is primarily aimed at presenting some of her work on the relationship between modern technology and the study of the ancient world. Here users may access the first chapter of her work, 'The Loom of Minerva : an Introduction to Computer Projects for the Literary Scholar'. The site also features essays on the following themes: verbal patterns in Hesiod's Theogony; the themes of the Homeric Hymns and other early Greek oral poetry; and ancient myths in modern movies. There is also an archived section on 'quotations of the month' which contains miscellaneous extracts (in English translation) from ancient texts with explanatory information and accompanying images from ancient and modern art.
Montclair Electronic Text Archive, from Montclair State University, is an online repository for a limited selection of ancient Latin and Greek texts. Featured authors at the time of writing this review included: Boethius; Caesar; Catullus; Demosthenes; Horace; Persius; Propertius; Prudentius; Tibullus; and Vergil. Texts are available in XML, HTML, and PDF format, but may be of limited use as they are not accompanied by English translation. Viewing many of the texts requires the DJVu software which is available for free download from the home page. There is also a search facility which enables the user to search for specific words in the Latin texts. Also included on the site is a range of secondary texts relating to classical antiquity. These include works on Greek and Roman philosophy, grammar and literature. The site also gives details of the broader projects and activities of the Technology Awareness Group (TAG) which promotes discussion of the use of leading edge technologies in an academic context.
The Multitext Homer is an on-going research project, supported by Harvard University's Center for Hellenic Studies and the Stoa Consortium, which aims to provide a definitive and interactive Web edition of the Homeric and related texts based on all of the surviving evidence from the pre-Classical to mediaeval periods as preserved in manuscripts and papyri and in ancient commentaries and scholiasts. The absence of a definitive edition of Homer is due in part to the lack of academic agreement as to which of the various texts and fragments of Homer, between which there are often considerable variations, may be regarded as 'primary'; this project is addressing this problem by including all of the relevant testimonia supported by modern critical commentaries.The website publishes numerous components of the wider research project and includes: a fully searchable relational database of the Homeric papyri based on the original research of Dana Sutton; an edition of Comparetti's 1901 facsimile of the Venutus A manuscript and of Villoison's 1788 edition of the Iliad; a translation of Proclus' summary of the Epic Cycle; a major commentary on the poems of Theognis of Megara. The full-text of Nagy's important 1996 work 'Homeric Questions' is also available. This is an important and expanding Web project which will benefit students and researchers of Greek literature and culture and those interested in manuscript studies and literary transmission from the ancient world.
Hosted by the Department of Classical Studies at the Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands, this website is the home page of the Network for the Study of Archaic and Classical Greek Song, which was founded in 2007. The network is devoted to the study of lyric, elegiac and iambic poetry in archaic and classical Greece, and was co-founded by Ewen Bowie of the University of Oxford and André Lardinois of the Radboud University Nijmegen. The site gives details of the activities of the network (including meetings and conferences), as well as names and contact details of its members. Perhaps the most useful aspect of the site for researchers is, however, the extremely comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography of publications on archaic and classical Greek poetry. This is divided into the following sections: Greek song (general); Greek elegy and iambus; Greek lyric poetry; and dramatic chorus. Each of these sections is then divided into sub-sections devoted to individual poets and playwrights. Where articles or abstracts are available online, links to these are provided. There is also a list of forthcoming publications on relevant topics, as well as a list of postgraduate dissertations-in progress.
Dedicated to the American poet Charles Bukowski (1920-1994), this website is devoted to obscene expressions in the classical Latin language, particularly in the poetry of Catullus (c 84BC - c 54BC). The site's author is keen to see similarities between Catullus' poetry and that of Bukowski: whilst this is open to interpretation, the site nonetheless provides a range of useful resources for the study of Catullus in particular and Latin obscenity in general. On offer here is a full Latin text of each of Catullus' poems, along with a concordance which lists vocabulary and gives references to enable the reader to locate recurring words in Catullus' work. Also featured is a Latin-English vocabulary list of obscene Latin words.
This excellent online resource, put together by an enthusiast, is devoted to the Odes (carmina) of the Latin poet Horace (65-8 BCE). The key feature of the website is a selection of Horace's poetry, in both Latin and English translation; each ode is accompanied by a synopsis and detailed critical notes/commentary. Among other things, the commentaries clarify linguistic points, elaborate upon obscure references, give cross-references to other ancient texts, and provide links to other relevant websites. Each ode is accompanied by a selection of different English translations in a variety of styles; this feature will be invaluable for anyone teaching these texts in translation and wishing to compare different versions of the poems. Featured translators include: Robert Herrick (1591-1674); Richard Fanshawe (1608-1664); Thomas Creech (1659-1700); Samuel Johnson (1709-1784); Edward George Earle Bulwer Lytton (1803-1873); William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898); and Franklin P. Adams (1881-1960). Also provided is a variety of other literary responses to, and adaptations of, the poetry of Horace; these will be of particular interest to those researching the modern (post-Renaissance) reception of classical texts. Other featured texts on the website include: Suetonius' Life of Horace (in Latin and English); poems on Horace by Eugene Field (1850-1895), Austin Dobson (1840-1921) and Alfred Austin (1835-1913); the Encyclopaedia Britannica's entry on Horace; and Latin prose paraphrases of Horace's odes. The site is easy to navigate and contains a wealth of useful resources relating to this ancient Latin poet who has received little attention elsewhere on the Web.
The University of Virginia Electronic Text Center, whose website this is, hosts a wide variety of resources related to Ovid's Metamorphoses. This Ovid collection includes a number of Latin and English versions of the Metamorphoses, as well as an excellent archive of Renaissance responses to the poem. Readers can view eight digitized versions of the original Latin, some scanned and some fully transcribed. The site also hosts five English translations by Golding, Sandys, Garth, Brookes More and Kline. The ca. 1904 Ehwald Latin text is cross-linked with three of the English translations so readers can browse or search texts together. The site's growing archive of Renaissance pictorial and textual responses to the Metamorphoses is particularly excellent, and includes readings and reworkings in Latin, French, German, Dutch, Italian and English.
Taken from the rare book department of the University of Vermont, this website is an image database of engravings of illustrated works of Ovid by the 17th-century German artist, Johann Wilhelm Bauer (1607-1642). The exhibition is divided into two sections: images from 'The Metamorphoses' by Ovid, with engravings by Baur - the 1703 edition printed in Nuremberg; and secondly, Ovid's 'Metamorphoses' "Englished mythologized and represented in figures", translated by George Sandys - the 1640 edition. Other classical images from the Department of Classics at the University of Vermont are also available. This resource will be useful to anyone interested in the post-classical reception of the work of Ovid.
An online text of Gregory Nagy's book 'Pindar's Homer: the Lyric Possession of an Epic Past' (originally published in 1980) may be found here. The book explores the relationship between the poetic traditions of Pindar (518-after 446 BC) and other lyric traditions as well as the poetry of Homer. Although the focus is primarily on Pindar, Nagy also considers the archaic Greek poetry of Alcman, Stesichorus, Alcaeus, Sappho, Ibycus, Anacreon, Simonides and Bacchylides. Themes which are considered include: the definitions of oral poetry and song; connections between the ritual of athletics and the ritual of epinician poetry; the ideology which links athletes, heroes and poets; the parallelism between poetry and the fifth-century BC prose writing of Herodotus; choral performance; and the evolution of the democratic poetics of Athenian theatre as compared with the aristocratic poetics of Pindar's poetry. An appendix offers a comparative survey of the poetic metres used by Pindar. This machine readable text is presented in a number of versions including HTML, although it may be necessary to download Greek fonts.
This short Web page, compiled by Dr Norman Prinsky of Augusta State University, is a useful basic starting point for anyone interested in the post-classical reception and translation of Virgil's Latin epic poem, the Aeneid. The site provides a list of English translations of the poem since the sixteenth century, with details of whether these are in verse, blank verse or prose. It also makes available a collection (although rather limited) of images of post-Renaissance artistic works (sculptures and paintings) based on scenes from the Aeneid. There is also a list of musical works which are based on the poem. Finally, a series of sample essay questions on the Aeneid is given - these could be used or adapted by tutors at university level.
Written by William Harris, Professor Emeritus at Middlebury College, this web page consists of the text of an article designed to encourage independent study of Homeric poetry by those who already have a basic knowledge of the ancient Greek language. Harris puts forward some of the reasons why Homer is a good author with which to begin reading original texts (although many courses favour beginning with other authors), and also looks at some of the problems which may be encountered by the student reader of his epic poems. The text contains links to articles on other relevant topics, also written by William Harris (Greek musical pitch, and the Homeric tradition in the modern world). The paper also gives a detailed summary of some of the key texts and resources available to the student of Homeric Greek, as well as annotated bibliography on scholarly works providing background information.
Rheinisches Museum für Philologie is a scholarly journal for classicists with papers primarily written in German, and this is its website. Here the user can access, free of charge, the full-text of articles from issues 93 (1950) to 147 (2004) are now accessible online (at the time of writing this review). Further articles will be added regularly (three years after publication), and currently the tables of contents are also available here for all issues since 1990. To access the full-text papers in PDF format readers should click on the small arrow next to each title. Papers deal with ancient Greek and Latin texts and authors in a range of genres (poetry, drama, historiography, epic and satire, for example). Authors discussed in some of the papers include, among others: Aeschylus; Aristophanes; Lucian; Martial; Sappho; Seneca; Suetonius; Theophrastus; and Virgil.
This website provides detailed information on the archaic Greek lyric poet Sappho, her poetry and the historical and literary background.It is designed to provide background detail to help to explain the context of a choral work entitled 'Lesbos' by the Danish composer H. W. Gade, but contains much of interest to the student of classical poetry. A wide range of topics is covered, including: the history of Lesbos; Greek religion and individual gods; Sappho's biography; the transmission of the texts and reception of her poems, including modern translations and musical compositions based on her work in a range of languages; metre, dialect and rhythm; the history and pronunciation of ancient Greek; ancient Greek music; and a timeline of Greek history and culture. Information is also given here about Gade's choral work, which may be of interest to those studying the reception of classical texts.
The Silver Muse is an online reader and companion to Roman imperial poetry. The website features poems by Ovid, Lucan, Valerius Flaccus, Statius, and Silius Italicus. Most of the poetry excerpts are relatively short, but enhanced by every word being hyperlinked to a Latin-English dictionary and a grammatical and syntactic commentary. This feature should make the resource a helpful tool for students learning the Latin language. In addition to the reading guides, the site includes a biography and a number of secondary essays about each of the featured authors, along with overviews and bibliographies of their works. Introductory materials include notes on epic versification, and an extract from H. E. Butler's essay on post-Augustan poetry. Appendices include: a glossary of rhetorical terms; an explanation of Roman names; a Roman calendar; a guide to Roman money, weights, and measures; sample syllabi; and excerpts from Allen and Greenough's 'New Latin Grammar'. This is an excellent site which should be of particular use to classics undergraduates.
This is the website of the Society for the Oral Reading of Greek and Latin Literature (SORGLL), which adheres to the principle that literature written in the classical Greek and Latin languages was intended primarily for oral performance and that therefore the sounds of these languages are crucial for our understanding. As well as giving general information relating to the Society and its officers, this website contains downloadable recordings of spoken Latin and Greek accompanied by extracts of texts in both the original language and English translation. Greek authors who feature are: Homer; Archilochus; Alcman; Sappho; Sophocles; Pindar; Aristophanes; and Demosthenes; these are accompanied by a written and spoken guide to Greek pronunciation. Extracts in Latin are taken from works of: Terence; Cicero; Virgil; Catullus; Horace; Seneca; and Martial. Users will need to download RealPlayer in order to listen to the recordings.
This online study guide to Virgil's epic poem, the Aeneid, is one of a series of study guides created for students on the website SparkNotes.com. The following features are included: a summary of the poem's historical context; an overview of the complete plot; a brief list summarising the main characters (including gods as well as mortals); more detailed analysis of the major characters (focusing on Aeneas, Dido and Turnus); a discussion of key themes, motifs and symbols. There is also a more in-depth book-by-book plot summary, accompanied by critical analysis. Several important quotations from the poem are given (in English translation) and analysed in more depth. The site also provides a list of suggested study/essay questions, with sample answers, along with a multiple-choice quiz and suggestions for further reading. The site will be of use to those studying the Aeneid for the first time.
Written by Paul Brians of the Department of English, Washington State University, this online resource is designed as part of his course on Love in the Arts. It provides basic introductory notes to accompany the translation by Rolfe Humphries of the Amores and Ars Amatoria of the Latin poet Ovid (43BC-AD17). After brief introduction to Ovid's poetry, a breakdown of several of the individual poems is given, with explanations of important names, key themes and emphasis on points of note in the texts. These notes are accompanied by questions to encourage students to consider important issues in the poems. Whilst this is by no means a comprehensive commentary, it could be used as a starting-point for discussion of the works of this poet and the ways in which he treats the theme of love. It is aimed at students with no knowledge of Latin.
In the website “Theorizing Satire: A Bibliography”, Brian A. Connery, Associate Professor of English at Oakland University, provides an online bibliography of critical works on satire and satirical writing. The bibliography contains a contents page and focuses on works that treat satire generically rather than concentrating upon individual works. An extensive amount of bibliographical material is listed and a diverse range of historical periods (classical, medieval and beyond) and national literatures (mostly Roman, British and American) are encompassed. An index of categories is provided with links to the relevant bibliographical material. None of the material catalogued appears to be available online, but this resource is nonetheless of use to anyone studying or researching satire in almost any of its numerous forms.
This is a downloadable recource from the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website, available as a zipped HTML file. The text seeks to explore Book IV of Horace's Odes not as isolated works of adulatory verse, but as a collection of subliminal vignettes on Roman society in the early days of the Principate. That they were written as individual items over a period of time, ranging from 13 BC. to 8 BC., is not disputed. That they were really intended by Horace as a complete entity in their own right is the primary argument of this work and is supported by a full translation, commentary and analysis of the Latin text in which the order of the odes has been reconstituted. After downloading this text, click on the file "Contents.html" to begin at the Contents page of the text. Please note that the file must be extracted to a local folder on your computer to enable the HTML linkage. English translations are newly done by the editor.
One of the digital text projects, run by the Institute for Learning Technologies at Columbia University in New York, this is the full electronic text of Virgil's Aeneid, as translated into English from the original Latin by John Dryden. The text is taken from the Harvard Classics, Volume 13, first published in 1909. The Aeneid tells the story of the voyage of Aeneas, who has been instructed by the gods to found the city of Rome, following the destruction of Troy. There are links to the text of each of the twelve books.
Virgil Resources is a website which provides a comprehensive range of resources for students and scholars of the ancient Latin poet Virgil (Vergil 70-19 BC). The site is attractively designed and illustrated, and provides comprehensive bibliographies and book reviews of recently published secondary works on Virgil. There is also biographical material on the poet's life, including a translation of Aelius Donatus' fourth-century AD Life of Virgil. The site provides well-annotated links to internet resources relating specifically to Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus, as well as to other web pages on Virgil and Latin poetry. There are also images of maps relating to Aeneas' Italy and the ancient world. The site provides particularly useful information about the post-classical reception of Virgil. Also provided here is a link to the Mantovano mailing list for discussion of Virgil and related studies.
World Mythology is a set of online resources designed to accompany a course run by Michael Webster at Grand Valley State University, Michigan. The materials available offer an insight into the mythology found in archaic Greek poetry, biblical texts, and Norse and Babylonian sources. As well as providing information for students of classics or theology the site will also be of use to anyone interested in comparative mythology. Classical texts covered are the early Greek hexameter poems of Hesiod (Theogony and Works and Days), the Homeric Hymns, and the Odyssey of Homer. The biblical section covers stories from the Book of Genesis, and there are sections on the gods of Norse, Babylonian, and Sumerian myth, as well as on the epic of Gilgamesh and Egyptian myth. A copy of Webster's course syllabus is provided, with accompanying material including: notes and commentary on the relevant texts, with explanations of key terms and names; suggested questions for essays or discussion; extracts from the primary sources; and bibliographies. The pages are cross-referenced, with hyperlinks to other relevant sections of the site.