The main feature of the website '15 Ancient Greek Heroes from Plutarch's Lives', compiled by Wilmot McCutchen, is a set of English translations of fifteen of the ancient Lives originally written in Greek by Plutarch (c46-120 AD). This easily-navigable site contains the following Lives: Theseus; Lycurgus; Solon; Aristides; Pericles; Nicias; Agesilaus; Pelopidas; Dion; Timoleon; Alexander the Great; Phocion; Pyrrhus; Agis; and Philopoemen. There is also a short biography of Plutarch himself, and a timeline of events in ancient Greece, which enables the reader to place the personalities in their relevant chronological context. For ease of reference the site also has a set of shortcuts which allows the user to jump to sections in Plutarch's work on particular key topics (for example: the Trojan War; the battles of Salamis, Marathon and Plataea; Atlantis; Plato). A glossary of terms also provides definitions of key English words in the texts; this feature, the site explains, is aimed at students wishing to improve their SAT verbal score, or at adults learning English as a second language.
This website, produced by a Latin enthusiast, is dedicated to English translations of Virgil's first-century BCE epic poem, the Aeneid. Publication details are given for a range of different renderings of the text in English (these include both verse and prose versions. Links are also given to several online translations, along with a list of other sites of interest. The most interesting feature of this resource, however, is the page which places side-by-side ten different English translations (along with the original Latin) of a short passage of the text (Aeneid 4.693-705, describing the death of Dido). The wide variety of language used here allows the reader to appreciate the ways in which different translators may interpret the same piece of text. The resource will be of value to anyone interested in the modern reception, translation and adaptation of ancient Latin texts; it would also be very useful for tutors involved in teaching Classics in translation as a way of demonstrating to students the potential for variation (or even inaccuracy) when a text is translated from the original language.
Aesopica is an excellent online resource which collects the fables of Aesop (probably originally composed in the sixth century BC) in one easy-to-use reference tool. It offers a range of available versions of each fable, in ancient Greek as well as in Latin and English translations, as recorded by later writers. Included are, for example, William Caxton's 1484 English translation as well as those of Roger L'Estrange (1692), George Townsend (1887), Joseph Jacobs (1894) and recent translations made by the site's author, Laura Gibbs. The Latin versions given range from Phaedrus (first century AD) to the thirteenth-century AD Odo of Cheriton. Greek texts include those of Babrius (second century AD) and Chambry's 1925/6 edition. Many of the texts are accompanied by explanatory notes as well as details of the writer who recorded them. Several of the English texts are also accompanied by illustrations. The fables are fully cross-referenced, which allows for ease of comparison between different versions (prose and verse, and in different languages) of the same story. The site is also searchable by key word. As well as being of use to those with a particular interest in Aesop, this site is also a good source of Latin and Greek reading exercises as the text is in manageable chunks for language practice.
This website acts as an introduction to ancient rhetoric, and was constructed by Malcolm Heath of the classics department at the University of Leeds in order to assist students taking his course on the ancient art of persuasion. As well as a very useful downloadable course handbook (in PDF format) which provides an introduction to ancient rhetorical theory, the site also provides: papers on rhetorical invention and declamation; an introduction to Hermogenes' On Issues; and translations of parts of some ancient textbooks on rhetoric, Aphthonius' and Libanius' Preliminary Exercises (progymnasmata). Given the less familiar nature of these texts, this site is a useful contribution to rhetoric studies on the Internet.
The Ancient World website offers free (and copyright-free) downloads of English translations of a variety of ancient Greek and Latin texts from the archaic period (eighth century BC) to the Second Sophistic (second century AD). These are available as zipped files. Greek authors whose works can be found here include: Homer (Iliad and Odyssey); Hesiod (Works and Days, Theogony, Homeric Hymns and Homerica); Aesop; Herodotus; Sophocles (the Oedipus trilogy and Philoctetes); Euripides (Iphigenia in Tauris); Plato (philosophical dialogues); Epictetus; and Plutarch (Lives). Featured Latin authors are: Lucretius (De rerum natura); Caesar (Gallic War); Cicero (orations and letters, De senectute, De amicitia); Augustus (Res gestae); Propertius; Virgil (Aeneid, Eclogues, Georgics); and Tacitus (Germania). Many of the texts found here are provided by Project Gutenberg.
This online resource consists of a substantial miscellany of items relating to the ancient mathematician and technologist Archimedes of Syracuse (?287-212BC); it was compiled by Dr Chris Rorres, a member of the mathematics department at Drexel University (Philadelphia, USA) who has a strong amateur interest in Archimedes' life and work. The site is illuminated throughout by translated extracts from the works of Polybius, Livy, Plutarch, Cicero, Vitruvius and other writers, discussing familiar episodes such as the siege of Syracuse - the defence against which is traditionally held to have relied on Archimedes' mechanical ingenuity - and Archimedes' subsequent death and burial. The site includes: a summary timeline of Archimedes' life; a narrative account of the siege; some historical background material, including information on the ruling family of Syracuse; discussions of Archimedes' known or supposed mathematical concerns, including the 'cattle problem and the Archimedean solids; and numerous paintings, engravings and contemporary illustrations (some highly speculative) depicting Archimedes' claw, burning mirrors, screw and other legendary innovations, plus a number of "portraits" available at various resolutions.
Aristoteles Latinus is a project aiming to produce a multi-volume critical edition of all the medieval translations of Aristotle from Greek to Latin, including a critical apparatus evidencing the way in which Aristotle's texts became known in the West. The project is under development at the De Wulf-Mansion Centre, Catholic University, Louvain and it is receiving support from the International Union of Academies. Twenty-seven volumes have already been published during the last 50 years and they are listed on the project website. They include the entire corpus of Aristotle's logical works; his Metaphysics and Nicomachean Ethics; and several versions of the physical and technical works. The complete texts are available in printed form and in an electronic database (ALD-1) on CD-Rom. The two are not identical, however, as much of the critical apparatus, indexes and other tools have not been included in the electronic version. On the website there is also a list of editions in progress as well as a list of future editions to be considered. There is other useful information on the website including information about related research projects, lectures and events.
This website consists of an online text of Aristotle's Rhetoric and a short bibliography of secondary works. The text used as the basis for this is W Rhys Roberts' English translation of 1954. Each of the three books of the rhetoric is given its own web page, with Roberts' extended indexes linking to precise paragraphs within the work. The entire site may be searched by keyword, and a Bekker index is also included to allow users to access sections of the text using the referencing system based on the definitive text. Although unannotated, the secondary bibliography is extensive, and organised in reverse chronological order of publication (that is, with the most recently-published items listed first). The entire site may also be downloaded in HTML format.
Attalus is a website which provides information about the sources for Greek and Roman history from 322-48 BC (from the conquests of Alexander the Great to the end of the Roman republican period). Its principal feature is a year-by-year chronology which allows the user to click on a date in order to find out key events which took place in that year. Each entry is then linked to online passages (usually from external websites such as Perseus or LacusCurtius) of relevant ancient sources (in English translation); this means that the site acts as an easy quick-reference point for locating primary evidence. Attalus itself does provide a selection of translations of some texts which are difficult to locate elsewhere. These include works by: Athenaeus; Eusebius; Josephus; and Julian, among others. There is also a list of sources which is useful in a more general way as a means of locating online versions of particular texts. A search facility also allows the user to enter a particular name in order to be provided with a list of events relating to that name.
The Augustine of Hippo site was initially created by James J. O'Donnell to support a series of online seminars. The site has grown to provide access to a range of resources for the study of Saint Augustine of Hippo, many of which are authored by O'Donnell. The site is divided into a number of sections and navigated through frames. Sections include: an introduction to the life and works of Augustine; texts and translations; commentaries; research materials; a record of the online seminars; and digital images relating to Augustine. The introductory section includes a number of essays written by O'Donnell as well as links to resources such as encyclopaedia entries. The texts and translations section brings together a number of online works of Augustine ranging from the City of God to sermons. Many of the texts are available in both Latin and English translation. Perhaps the most significant resource available in this section is O'Donnell's own edition and commentary on Augustine's Confessions (Augustine: Confessions, a text and commentary. Oxford: 1992. ISBN 0198143788). Research materials include bibliographies, maps, and a collection of online research papers. Throughout the site are scattered annotated links to other Augustinian resources on the Web.
The Boethius website is created and maintained by James J. O'Donnell of Georgetown University. It focuses on the Roman philosopher, poet and politician who lived from ca. 480 to ca. 525 CE, offering a brief biography and the Latin text of his 'Consolation of Philosophy (Consolatio Philosophiae)' with translation tools, a line-by-line commentary, an English translation and a bibliography. It is intended as a teaching resource for students of classics and/or history and for this it serves its purpose very well. There are also links to related resources but a number of these were not functioning at the time this record was reviewed.
Catullus is a website devoted to the Roman writer of Latin lyric verse, Gaius Valerius Catullus (84-54 BC). The site, created and maintained by Dr Rudy Negenborn of Delft University of Technology, contains the Latin texts of Catullus' work and translations of it in many languages, including, among others English, Dutch, German, Swedish, Italian, Estonian, Chinese, Spanish, Hungarian and Norwegian. Users may compare translations in different languages side-by-side with one another or with the original Latin texts. The modern-language translations should perhaps be approached with some caution, however, as although the site lists translators there is no guarantee of the credentials of the contributors. Also included is a brief biography of Catullus and a listing of Latin and Greek related links. There is a discussion forum on Catullus, to which users may contribute.
This online resource is a concise guide to the major classical writings which provide our source material for the myths of the Olympian gods and goddesses, illustrated with a selection of images from ancient and modern artists. The classical passages are taken from the Perseus Digital Library; this allows the interested reader to delve more deeply into the original sources and to pursue further research. No knowledge of Latin or ancient Greek is required or assumed. The resource also features a short but critical bibliography for further reading, a guide to identifying divinities from their iconographic attributes, and a timeline of Greek history and literature. While this modest website will largely benefit a general or undergraduate audience (it is intended for undergraduate students in Greek and Roman studies at the University of Victoria, BC) it will also serve as a quick and useful reference source or aide-memoire to the more knowledgeable or experienced student of classical myth, particularly for its iconographic content.
Written by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, this is an excellent online study guide to classical Greek and Roman culture through its key literary, historical and philosophical writers. The resource, which is intended for use by undergraduates taking classics options, combines historical, critical and literary material with practical exercises and questions in reading, comprehension and interpretation. The authors featured are: Homer; Thucydides; Sophocles; Euripides; Aristotle; Aristophanes; Plato; Lucretius; and Virgil. Each literary genre is accompanied by sections providing cultural and intellectual background. The entries are hyperlinked to Perseus for easy reference, as is the excellent glossary of personal names, technical terms and placenames, though there is no bibliography. This resource provides a clear and reliable learning resource for classics and ancient history students.
Classical Receptions in Drama and Poetry from c.1970-Present is a research project based within the Department of Classical Studies at the Open University (UK) and directed by Professor Lorna Hardwick; this is its online presence. The project aims to document and analyse the theatrical and literary interest in Greek texts and drama. This aim is accomplished through two broad aspects of the project. First, the project is publishing a series of case studies which examine relationships between the ancient texts and their corresponding modern creative art forms. Second, the project is developing a database of performances staged in the late twentieth century. Evidence is drawn from programmes, acting scripts, interviews and other texts. The Reception of Classical Texts database can be searched online after registration. A Poetry database is under development. The project publishes two peer-reviewed ejournals: New Voices and Practitioners' Voices, which are available from the website, as is the series of critical essays: 'Documenting and Researching Modern Productions of Greek Drama: The Sources'. The project has set up an electronic seminar series to enable informal contact and discussion among researchers working in the area, and these eseminars are archived and available on the project site (going back to 1998). The website also contains: information about the project and its methodology; a list of project publications; a specialist bibliography of material relating to modern productions of ancient Greek drama; and information about their Masks Workshop (2000). The project publishes listings of current and forthcoming productions in UK & Ireland and conferences, seminars and lectures, and the site makes avalable a list of links to related online resources.
Andrew Wilson's Classics Pages form an extensive and well-designed website devoted to all aspects of ancient Greece and Rome. Several of the features have an interactive element, and there is something here to appeal to all levels of interest, from school to university teaching. A huge range of topics is covered here, with featured sections on: Greek literature (Homer's Iliad, Sappho, Aeschylus' Agamemnon, Sophocles' Oedipus and Antigone, Euripides, Aristophanes' Lysistrata and Peace, and Lucian); Latin literature (Catullus, Sulpicia, Virgil, Horace, Propertius and Apuleius, with extracts from texts in English and Latin); Plato's philosophy; a guide to figures from Greek mythology; an introduction to Greek architecture, pottery and sculpture (with images of artefacts); women in ancient Greece; the symposium; ancient technology; Eros; the Olympic Games; oracles; and the archaeology of ancient Greece and Sicily (accompanied by photographs and interactive tours of ancient sites). There is also a commentary, notes and vocabulary for Andrew Wilson's ancient Greek translation of Harry Potter. A lighthearted entertainment section features: quizzes and word games; rude Latin; classical phrases in everyday usage; the etymology of modern English names and words; and famous people who have had a classical education. The site is searchable by keyword, and if the search does not return an answer then the author is open to receiving email questions on any aspect of Classics. This resource is an excellent example the way in which the classical world can be made accessible to the current generation.
The Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum (CSL), part of the Forum Romanum site, is a collaborative project among scholars from a variety of disciplines with the main purpose of creating a digital library of the entire body of Latin literature, including translations and commentaries. This resource represents the first phase of this project by providing a comprehensive index to all available text editions on the Internet together with supplementary texts and resources. The website can be searched by author, title, genre or date, or browsed by author; other indices are still being compiled so are not yet available for browsing. The list of available authors and writings is impressive, from the earliest inscriptions recording the Latin language to Neo-Latin writers of the 18th century, although many texts remains to be added and the editors solicit contributions from interested scholars.
Other links provide access to secondary sources which are out of copyright; these include Johnson's 'Private life of the Romans' (1903), Morley's 'Outline of Roman history' and Buck's Grammar of Oscan and Umbrian (1904), though the latter is now very dated. Individual pages are enhanced by scenes from the ancient world imagined by 18th and 19th century painters. In its present state this resource will benefit more advanced students and scholars of classics and related subjects. The many links to translated texts will also benefit undergraduates, although the latter will need to exercise judgement in using old or out-of-date editions and translations which may not represent modern scholarship.
The online Database of Nordic and Neo-Latin Literature contains English-language descriptions of publications in Latin, of any length, produced in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland between the Reformation (c.1530) and 1800. An example is Ludvig Holberg's influential utopian satire Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum: Niels Klim, originally published in Latin in 1741. The database is designed as a research tool for students of literature, history of science and intellectual history, and makes available otherwise inaccessible information about the Latin literature prevalent in Scandinavia in the period. Entries primarily aim to describe the contents of each work registered, and the descriptions are mostly based on independent examination of the texts recorded. Basic data such as author, short title, and year and place of publication, are always provided. In addition to this, many entries include more detailed information, including: a closer summary of contents; full-text of the title page; a table of contents; details of secondary authors; key words; and first lines of poems. The database, which numbers over 2,400 entries, is fully searchable and provides helpful information about its own scope, structure and rationale. It is a result of a collaborative project between Scandinavian Latin scholars that formally ended in 1991, though records continue to be added.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
The Divine Sappho is an excellent website devoted to the Greek female lyric poet who lived on Lesbos in the late seventh and early sixth centuries BC. It brings together a range of useful resources for the study of the poet, including a variety of modern translations of the surviving fragments of her poetry, original Greek texts and articles relating to her life and works. An index of first lines allows the user to access and compare the different English translations of Sappho's poetry. The text of Henry Thornton Wharton's 1895 Life of Sappho is also given here; this is particularly interesting for the Victorian perspective which it gives on the issue of Sappho's sexuality. In addition, other highlights of the site include: Pope's 1707 translation of Ovid, Heroides XV, (Sappho to Phaon); articles on Sappho contributed by Joseph Addison to the Spectator in 1707; translated passages on Sappho from Demetrius' On Style (probably first century BC) and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (first century BC); and post-Renaissance literary and artistic responses to Sappho from, among others, Laurent Chapman, Gilbert Murray and K. O. Müller. There is also an extensive series of annotated links to other relevant Web pages.
The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL) publishes nearly 400 Sumerian literary compositions from ancient Mesopotamia and dating to the late third and early second millennia BC. The corpus contains Sumerian texts in transliteration, English prose translations and bibliographical information for each composition. The transliterations and the translations can be searched, browsed and read online using the tools of the website. No further additions are planned. Both students and researchers interested in reading some Sumerian texts (including Gilgame, Sumerian poetry and royal correspondence) may find this website useful.
The project has been funded by the AHRB; the Leverhulme Trust; the University of Oxford; the British Academy; and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Elpenor is a website which offers a bilingual anthology of Greek literature, featuring extracts of texts written in ancient, New Testament and modern Greek and accompanied by English translations. These are easily accessible and manageable chunks of original Greek works which could be used as a language learning tool. Both prose and poetry appear here, with featured authors including (among many others): Homer; Thucydides; Aristophanes; Plato; Origen; Plotinus; Gregory of Nyssa; and Cavafy. The site also offers a course in the Greek language, from learning the alphabet to the basics of Greek grammar, accompanied by extracts from original texts. A further section, entitled Libraries, offers: extracts from post-classical authors referring to classical themes or texts (this will be of use to those with an interest in the modern reception of the ancient world); Greek pronunciation audio files; extracts from secondary texts on aspects of the ancient world; a section dedicated to Constantinople; and an image gallery of paintings of Greece. The website also provides a discussion forum, and links to downloadable fonts to enable the user to read or write Greek. Whilst the site offers a range of useful resources, the presence of several advertisements on every page is distracting for the academic user and can make it tedious to navigate.
This is a very simple website containing a complete electronic text (in English translation) of The Discourses by the ancient philosopher Epictetus (c. AD50-120). The Discourses record exchanges between Epictetus and his students after formal teaching had concluded for the day. They are a record of intimate, though earnest, discussions in which Epictetus gets his students to consider carefully what the philosophic life, for a Stoic, consists of, and how to live it oneself. A wide range of topics are touched upon, from friendship to illness, from fear to poverty, on how to acquire and maintain tranquillity, and why we should not be angry with other people. The electronic text is divided into four books, with each book containing several chapters.
Epicurus and Epicurean Philosophy is a website which aims to introduce Epicureanism both to the serious student of philosophy and to anyone seeking useful and inspiring ideas. Epicurus (341-270 BC) helped to lay the intellectual foundations for modern science and for secular individualism, with many aspects of his system still highly relevant some twenty-three centuries after they were first taught to his students at his school, known as 'The Garden', in Athens. The site includes: translations of Epicurean texts (including works by, as well as Epicurus himself: Diogenes Laertius; Lucretius; Cicero; Horace; Lucian; Cornelius Nepos; Plutarch; and Lactantius); background information on the period in which he and his followers wrote; general material on ancient philosophy; and pages of annotated links to other relevant online resources. There is also a discussion list associated with the site.
Facta et Verba is an online collection of classical electronic texts, produced by a project that describes itself as 'a laboratory that investigates the automatic processing and presentation of data'. In practice, there is little discussion of the theoretical issues surrounding text encoding and presentation to be found in this website, which acts rather as a page allowing the user to see the results of such encoding. Items featured on the site include: an annotated hypertext edition of Suetonius's Vita Augustus, with links to an English translation; text, commentary, translation of and concordance to Boethius' Consolatio Philosophiae; a concordance to Virgil's Aeneid (Book IV); and an extract (in English translation) from Aeschylus' Agamemnon, with commentary (lines 266-316, the section containing Clytemnestra's famous monologue). At the time of writing this review, the site had not been updated since March 2001.
From University College London's Department of History, the website of the Festus Lexicon Project provides comprehensive information on the Lexicon of Festus, or 'De verborum significatu', an encyclopaedic Latin dictionary compiled in the Roman Imperial era. Despite the fragmentary state of the dictionary, it is a rich source of information and citations, from and about the period. It is of use to those interested in Roman history, Latin grammar, legal and antiquarian learning, culture, politics, religion and social aspects of the period. The project will prepare a database of texts, a complete translation, extensive commentary, and bibliography. At the time of cataloguing there were no sample database entries available. There is information about the four main writers conected with the Festus Lexicon: Marcus Terentius Varro; Verrius; Festus; and Paul the Deacon. Also included is a bibliography of secondary works. Working from an eleventh century text, the project team aims to reconstruct the lexicon from medieval tomes, glossaries, and manuscripts. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
This website (which is published by the Wesley Center for Applied Theology) contains the complete works of Flavius Josephus, including the 'Antiquities' (an history of the Jewish people), the 'Jewish War' (an historical account of the revolt against Rome from AD 66-70), Josephus's 'Autobiography', the 'Discourse on Hades' and, 'Against Apion' (an apology of the Jewish people and customs). All the translations are those of William Whiston (who translated them in the seventeenth/eighteenth century). The book version of Whiston's translation was updated in 1906 and more recently in 1988. The version which appears here is based upon the 1906 edition. The translation into English is therefore somewhat archaic, but elegant and eminently readable. There is, however, no commentary on the text, nor even the smallest background detail on any of the works, Josephus, or Whiston. Josephus was born in AD 37 to a priestly Jewish family, and as such was destined for the priesthood himself. At the age of sixteen Josephus spent several months studying with the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes before deciding to become a Pharisee. During the Jewish Revolt against Rome (AD 66-70), Josephus was appointed commander of the region around Galilee. The Romans captured Josephus in AD 67, and he remained a prisoner of Vespasian (the military commander and future emperor) until AD 69, when Josephus was given his freedom for prophesying Vespasian's rise to the purple. Josephus remained in Rome after the revolt was put down, and retained close connections with the imperial family (with both Vespasian and Vespasian's sons Titus and Domitian when they also became emperor). Although Josephus became a Roman citizen, he retained his Jewish religion - choosing to remarry a Jewess in AD 73/4. The date of Josephus' death is unknown, but is conjectured to have been around AD 92/3. Josephus's works are clearly set out and the individual chapters (or books) are labelled so that one can click on to a particular book without having to wade through the entire opus. There is no search engine, however. One can also download the complete works as a Zip file from this site.
This site contains Martin Guy's 1996 online edition of 'The Golden Asse' by Lucius Apuleius and is published by EServer, a Web archive of arts and humanities texts, based at the University of Washington. Though characters have been modernized, spelling contemporary to the late 16th century has been preserved within the text which has been made freely available for the use of undergraduates, postgraduates and scholars. Guy's edition is based on the London : Simpkin Marshall, 1933 reprint of the 1639 edition, and provides, in addition, direct access to translator William Adlington's 1566 dedicatory epistle, the Notes to the reader, the Preface, each of the text's eleven chapters, and 'The Life of Lucius Apulius', as well as Guy's brief 20th century bibliography of the title.
This is the website of the International Boethius Society. This society is dedicated to the study of the life, works, and times of Boethius (c.480-c.525 CE), the Roman philosopher, poet and politician. The society is a non-profit organisation, and this website is hosted by the English Department of the Middle Tennessee State University. Conference information and membership details are provided online along with a link to details of the society's journal 'Carmen Philosophiae' - essentially only a call for submissions, and a guide for submissions.
The Internet Classics Archive offers access to online editions of classical texts. It currently offers over four hundred works by over fifty different authors, primarily Greek and Roman but also some Chinese (for example Confucius) and Persian (for example Omar Khayyam). All texts are in translation. The site offers a facility (through a link to the Perseus website) by which texts can be searched by work, author or by the entire archive. Users can view brief biographical information on each author through links to the online Encyclopaedia Britannica. The site has been affected by some technical problems which mean that searches can be slow. This is a resource which would mainly be of use to undergraduates looking for translations of major texts. It would be less useful for advanced or specialist research.
This online classics resource was created by John Paul Adams, a professor in the department of Modern and Classical Languages and Literature at the California State University. His website is of benefit to all students of Classics, as it contains numerous links to detailed resources, as well as presenting many useful passages of text in translation. Impressive in its scope, the site is divided into themed sections, each of which contains study notes, teaching handouts, links to relevant websites and English translations of relevant ancient texts. Sections cover the following broad topics: Greek and Roman history; Greek and Roman art and archaeology; Greek and Roman literature; Greek mythology; ancient texts; a Roman army bibliography; resources on ancient Sparta. Other parts of the site link information on the Latin courses taught by John Adams; these in turn offer handouts and links with information on Latin language, vocabulary and grammar. There is much here which will be of interest and value both to the teacher and student of classical subjects.
K C Hanson's website may be a chaotic montage of loosely connected resources, but within this eclectic host of sub-directories, there are several topics worth exploring by those interested in history, culture or religion. Dr. Hanson's primary interest seems to lie with the interactions between various ancient and classical communities spanning from the apogee of the Egyptian to the Roman Empire (in particular the relationship between the later and the early Christian communities). He has assembled a series of dynastic chronologies for both Israel and Rome, along with a selection of texts relevant to this period. With a little searching one can find ancient documents from Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Greek civilizations, along with a selection from Semitic cultures. These texts, all translated, tend to cluster between the eighth century BCE and the third century CE but there are a number which predate these.
Part of the site provides useful support resources for the textbook 'Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts', which Dr Hanson co-authored with Douglas E. Oakman. Those wishing to delve further into a particular topic may also wish to consult Hanson's robust series of web links to the ancient world and/or his bibliographic collections on rituals on ancient Greco-Roman society; Hellenic, Semitic and Anatolia Cultures; and The Old Testament. An attractive collection of images from many of these cultures has been compiled.
The Last Days of Socrates is a website designed by two faculty members of Clarke College, Iowa, and intended to provide help for those students who are reading the work of Socrates (469-399 BC) for the first time (typically first year undergraduates). It provides the complete texts (in English translation) of the Euthyphro, Apology, Crito and the Phaedo, the four central addresses attributed to Socrates and reported by Plato (429-347 BC). Each text is accompanied by explanatory notes of the important philosophical issues such as those that are concerned with Socratic irony, value and reason. The translations include cross-references with clickable links giving explanations of key terms or proper nouns. The site also offers a series of audio links to recordings of extracts from the speeches (RealPlayer is required in order to access these). A less comprehensive Spanish language version of the site is also available.
The Library of Ancient Texts Online (LATO) is a gateway site which has been created by Peter Gainsford, a classicist in New Zealand, as a catalogue of online editions of ancient Greek texts, both in the original language and in English or modern Greek translation. The sites are listed alphabetically by ancient author, and alternative online versions are given where they exist. The editor has omitted sites which require a subscription or registration or those which are not easily navigable. This resource will interest in particular school and university students of classics and related subjects and encourage the judicious use of online editions of ancient Greek texts.
The Little Sailing is an online resource providing access to downloadable texts written in both ancient and modern Greek. Ancient texts available here as PDF or zipped files date from the archaic period (eighth century BC) to the Second Sophistic (second to third century AD) and a wide range of genres is covered. This includes: epic and lyric poetry (Homer, Hesiod, Pindar); tragedy (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides); historiography (Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon); comedy (Aristophanes, Menander); oratory (Aeschines, Isocrates, Lysias); philosophy (Aristotle, Epictetus, Epicurus, Plato); biography (Diogenes Laertius, Plutarch); medicine (Hippocrates); satire (Lucian); and geography (Pausanias). Many of the ancient Greek texts are accompanied by modern Greek translations which may be browsed alongside the original. There are also poems and short stories by the modern Greek authors Giannis Skaribas and Stelios Doumenis as well as a range of miscellaneous extracts from Greek literature. The site is fully searchable.
'Lost Trails' is a non-commercial educational resource whose main aim is to provide an English language version of the 'Histories' or 'Enquiries' of the 5th century BC Greek historian Herodotus. The site features many high quality photographs and maps illustrating the locations mentioned in the text, which will help to elucidate the complex and wide-ranging narrative. The photographs are hyperlinked to the translation, which is divided into 48 convenient instalments. The website also features folk handicrafts and music from Greece and other parts of south-eastern Europe as well as a notice board for feedback and comments on the various items featured. Donations are solicited from individuals who wish to support the work of the project. A caveat for less experienced A level or undergraduate students of ancient history (or the general reader) is that, at present, this edition of Herodotus falls short of academic standards in that it lacks line numbers, glosses of words or unfamiliar terms, or footnotes. The project is however work in progress, and these features should be added at some point. Users should also be aware that several of the photographs lack commentary and, inevitably given later rebuilding, depict structures or objects that post-date the events recorded in the Herodotean text. Nevertheless this is a useful online supplement to existing printed or electronic resources for students of classics, ancient history or archaeology.
Medicina Antiqua (ancient medicine) is a website hosted by the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at University College London and intended as a central resource for researchers in the history of ancient medicine. The site contains: online transcripts of English translations of several works by Galen, with links to a few other transcript sites; a small collection of short analytical essays on aspects of ancient medicine (topics covered include poisons, Hippocrates, dreams, and Galen); and external links to other relevant resources on ancient medicine.
This website provides a brief introduction to, and English translation of, the Notitia Dignitatum, a document which was originally written c. 395 AD (and later revised in the early fifth century AD), and which lists all of the various units of the Roman army and the locations where they were stationed. together with a brief introduction. The text used here is taken from William Fairley's 1551 English edition entitled 'Notitia Dignitatum or Register of Dignitaries, which appears in his 'Translations and reprints from Original Sources of European History, Volume 4'.
This excellent online resource, put together by an enthusiast, is devoted to the Odes (carmina) of the Latin poet Horace (65-8 BCE). The key feature of the website is a selection of Horace's poetry, in both Latin and English translation; each ode is accompanied by a synopsis and detailed critical notes/commentary. Among other things, the commentaries clarify linguistic points, elaborate upon obscure references, give cross-references to other ancient texts, and provide links to other relevant websites. Each ode is accompanied by a selection of different English translations in a variety of styles; this feature will be invaluable for anyone teaching these texts in translation and wishing to compare different versions of the poems. Featured translators include: Robert Herrick (1591-1674); Richard Fanshawe (1608-1664); Thomas Creech (1659-1700); Samuel Johnson (1709-1784); Edward George Earle Bulwer Lytton (1803-1873); William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898); and Franklin P. Adams (1881-1960). Also provided is a variety of other literary responses to, and adaptations of, the poetry of Horace; these will be of particular interest to those researching the modern (post-Renaissance) reception of classical texts. Other featured texts on the website include: Suetonius' Life of Horace (in Latin and English); poems on Horace by Eugene Field (1850-1895), Austin Dobson (1840-1921) and Alfred Austin (1835-1913); the Encyclopaedia Britannica's entry on Horace; and Latin prose paraphrases of Horace's odes. The site is easy to navigate and contains a wealth of useful resources relating to this ancient Latin poet who has received little attention elsewhere on the Web.
This website contains the full text of Homer's 'Odyssey' (written 800 BC), in a prose translation by Samuel Butler (1835-1902) first published in 1900. The epic is a mythical narrative of Odysseus' ten-year long voyages and adventures after the Trojan War, which influenced all subsequent maritime literature.
This website contains the text of the first twelve books of George Chapman's rare translation of Homer's Odyssey, published in 1614. The epic is a mythical account of Odysseus' ten year long voyages and adventures after the Trojan War. The site also contains a bibliographic record, a reproduction of the title page, and the original Introduction. Chapman's footnotes are also included. The text is part of Bartleby.com, an Internet publisher of literature.
This Web page is the revised version of a lecture on Aeschylus' fifth-century BCE tragic trilogy, the Oresteia (comprising the Agamemnon, Choephoroi and Eumenides - although the primary focus of this lecture is the Agamemnon). The text was written by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Vancouver, and it forms part of his Johnstonia website. The following topics are covered in the lecture: the Trojan War; the house of Atreus; the revenge ethic; the theme of revenge in the Agamemnon; the role of the Chorus in the Agamemnon; and the characters of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra. There is also a link to an online English translation of the Oresteia, also produced by Ian Johnston.
Taken from the rare book department of the University of Vermont, this website is an image database of engravings of illustrated works of Ovid by the 17th-century German artist, Johann Wilhelm Bauer (1607-1642). The exhibition is divided into two sections: images from 'The Metamorphoses' by Ovid, with engravings by Baur - the 1703 edition printed in Nuremberg; and secondly, Ovid's 'Metamorphoses' "Englished mythologized and represented in figures", translated by George Sandys - the 1640 edition. Other classical images from the Department of Classics at the University of Vermont are also available. This resource will be useful to anyone interested in the post-classical reception of the work of Ovid.
The 'Philo Judaeus: On Ascetics' website contains a copy of the first four chapters of the aforementioned text (based on a translation which appeared in an edition by O. Thatcher in 1907 and which has been adapted by Professor Arkenberg). This is one of many texts which appears in the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. There is a brief introduction, taken from Thatcher's edition, which explains who Philo was and when he wrote (an Alexandrian Jew of the first century CE). This text was composed c.30 CE and focuses on the customs of the Essenes - a particular set of Jews who had an especially rigid modus vivendi (hence the title 'On Ascetics').
The 'Philo Judaeus: The Creation of the World' site is part of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook and contains an English translation (of the first eleven chapters only) of the aforementioned work. Philo was an Alexandrian (Hellenised) Jew of the first century AD, whose most famous work is arguably 'The Embassy to Gaius'. Philo, however, also wrote many works (all in Greek) on the Jewish religion, of which this is one. Professor Arkenberg of Fordham University has modified Thatcher's (1907) edition. This appears to be the standard translation of Philo, by C. Yonge (who is not credited on the site), which first appeared in 1854-5, and which has since been published in much more recent and more accessible editions than Thatcher's. The site, unfortunately, indicates none of this rather essential and elementary information. There is a very brief introduction to the text, taken directly from Thatcher's book, but there is no commentary, and the format of the text is plain and unadorned.
This short Web page, compiled by Dr Norman Prinsky of Augusta State University, is a useful basic starting point for anyone interested in the post-classical reception and translation of Virgil's Latin epic poem, the Aeneid. The site provides a list of English translations of the poem since the sixteenth century, with details of whether these are in verse, blank verse or prose. It also makes available a collection (although rather limited) of images of post-Renaissance artistic works (sculptures and paintings) based on scenes from the Aeneid. There is also a list of musical works which are based on the poem. Finally, a series of sample essay questions on the Aeneid is given - these could be used or adapted by tutors at university level.
This website presents an online English translation of the Geography, written by the little-known Greek astronomer and geographer Claudius Ptolemy some time during the second century AD. The text which features here is based on the 1991 edition by Dover Publications, itself a republication of a public domain work, originally published in 1932. It includes simple maps drawn from Ptolemy's data, with an index of the places mentioned in Ptolemy's text. The website is still a work in progress, which means that the text is not yet here in its entirety. Also included is a brief introduction to Ptolemy and his importance as a geographer, along with links to relevant external sites.
A translation into English and a commentary on Ptolemy's Geographia Books I & II, which contain a discussion of the art of mapmaking and an exhaustive description of the northern Roman Empire. It allows us to see not only the region through Ptolemy's eyes in the second century AD., but also the view of the cartographer Marinus, of unknown date, but almost certainly well before the occupation of Britain in 43AD. This resource is available via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website, and can be dowloaded as a zipped file in HTML format.
Rhetorical Theory is a website providing information on classical and modern rhetoric and rhetoricians. The site also acts as a gateway to a great many related but independent sites offering additional information, criticism, and debate on the subjects covered. Specific authors featured include: Socrates; Plato; Aristotle; Cicero; Quintilian; and Augustine. In addition to these there is a long list of other 'rhetorical scholars' from all periods. The site includes definitions of the various rhetorical divisions, and links are provided to some of the classical treatises on rhetoric. This website forms part of virtualology.com, an educational service aimed primarily at pre-university students, and which publishes students' class assignments on the web. This particular part of the site is however evidently aimed at the more advanced student. Unfortunately commercial advertising on the site is somewhat distracting.
This online study guide to Virgil's epic poem, the Aeneid, is one of a series of study guides created for students on the website SparkNotes.com. The following features are included: a summary of the poem's historical context; an overview of the complete plot; a brief list summarising the main characters (including gods as well as mortals); more detailed analysis of the major characters (focusing on Aeneas, Dido and Turnus); a discussion of key themes, motifs and symbols. There is also a more in-depth book-by-book plot summary, accompanied by critical analysis. Several important quotations from the poem are given (in English translation) and analysed in more depth. The site also provides a list of suggested study/essay questions, with sample answers, along with a multiple-choice quiz and suggestions for further reading. The site will be of use to those studying the Aeneid for the first time.
Textkit is a free online learning resource for the study of Ancient Greek and Latin. Textkit's core site content is Greek and Latin public domain grammar books. These include classics such as North and Hillard's Greek Prose Composition, complete with keys to the exercises. These can be downloaded in PDF format. Featured language-related works include dictionaries, guides to prose composition and Greek and Latin language courses. Textkit also provides an extensive collection of classical ebooks by ancient Greek and Latin authors such as Aristotle, Herodotus, Plutarch, Lucretius, Cicero, Tacitus and Sophocles. Some of the texts are available in the original language, others only in translation. It is possible to search by author or by title of work. In addition to these features, the site provides links to tutorials and other online resources (including supported e-study groups, which are free to use, but which require the user to register with the site) for the study of Greek and Latin.
This website was initially designed to support Ancient History students at the University of Calgary, but offers freely accessible online versions from key Latin and Greek texts in English translation. A selection of sources relating to Greek history, Roman republican and imperial history and late antiquity may be found here. Texts relating to fifth-century BC Greek history include: Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War (Book I); Aeschylus' Persians; the pseudo-Aristotelian Athenian Constitution; and Plutarch's Alcibiades, Aristides, Cimon, Nicias and Pericles. The section on Roman republican history features several of the comparisons from Plutarch's Lives; for the Roman imperial period Tacitus' Annals (Book I) features. Electronic texts for the study of late antiquity (the fourth century AD onwards) are generally more difficult to find, and it is here that the site offers a convenient compilation of useful resources. Featured authors here are: Gregory Thaumaturgus; Lactantius; Eusebius; Athanasius; the Cappadocian Fathers; Symmachus; Ambrose; Jordanes; and Priscus. Each cited text is accompanied by a brief introduction to its author.
The website TheatreHistory.com features information about a wide range of theatrical traditions in Europe, North America and Asia. The site offers an index of topics relating to the theatre history of different cultures. There are resources on Irish theatre, British theatre, Russian theatre, Spanish theatre and many more. There is a good cross-section of information about contemporary theatre, as well as pages devoted to ancient Greek and Roman and medieval theatre. There is also general information about the origins and development of the theatre. Under each topic, users can access information on playwrights and dramatic practice. Topics include biographies of key figures in the history of drama, synopses of plays and contextual studies about relationships between drama and society. Links are well-annotated so that information is easy to locate. The site also offers an online script archive. This is not fully comprehensive but there is a variety of full-length plays, one-act plays, short plays and monologues. The archive would be helpful for drama teachers looking for performance pieces. The site has an excellent range of resources and would be of use to those studying almost any dramatic tradition.
This resource, compiled by Charles Lohr of the University of Freiburg, is essentially a vast online bibliography of books and articles relating to the reception of classical authors and texts throughout Europe up to 1650. It deals with publications in most major European languages. Organised alphabetically by ancient author, the list covers works dealing with translations, adaptations and transmission of texts as well as, for example, productions of ancient drama, the influence of ancient philosophy and the broader impact of Greek and Latin texts on modern western literature and education. Every genre of ancient literature is covered here, including: epic; lyric; tragedy; comedy; historiography; oratory; philosophy; and satire. Also included are several medieval and Renaissance authors. Whilst the entries are not annotated (the sheer number of references contained here prohibits this), these pages are nonetheless an excellent starting point for researchers interested in the classical tradition and the reception of ancient texts since the Renaissance. The site is navigable in English and German.
Translations in Progress is a site devoted to translations (primarily by Robert Levine) of Medieval Latin, Middle French, Modern French, and Modern German literary texts, as well as some medieval texts of an historical nature. The main interest of the site lies in the fact that none of the texts have been translated before. However, all the texts have literary merit, and part of the aim of the site is to make known obscure modern European writers. Many of the translations have been used in undergraduate and graduate courses that Levine has taught, the syllabi of which are available on the site, and there are a number of critical articles on the translated texts. Also included are some Realplayer sound files of poets such as W.B. Yeats and Ezra Pound reading their own translations. Numerous colourful paintings accompany the texts. The home page, however, is poorly laid out, making it difficult to locate contents easily.
This is a downloadable recource from the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website, available as a zipped HTML file. The text seeks to explore Book IV of Horace's Odes not as isolated works of adulatory verse, but as a collection of subliminal vignettes on Roman society in the early days of the Principate. That they were written as individual items over a period of time, ranging from 13 BC. to 8 BC., is not disputed. That they were really intended by Horace as a complete entity in their own right is the primary argument of this work and is supported by a full translation, commentary and analysis of the Latin text in which the order of the odes has been reconstituted. After downloading this text, click on the file "Contents.html" to begin at the Contents page of the text. Please note that the file must be extracted to a local folder on your computer to enable the HTML linkage. English translations are newly done by the editor.
One of the digital text projects, run by the Institute for Learning Technologies at Columbia University in New York, this is the full electronic text of Virgil's Aeneid, as translated into English from the original Latin by John Dryden. The text is taken from the Harvard Classics, Volume 13, first published in 1909. The Aeneid tells the story of the voyage of Aeneas, who has been instructed by the gods to found the city of Rome, following the destruction of Troy. There are links to the text of each of the twelve books.
The Vitae Patrum website provides an English translation of a collection of early Saints' Lives of the Desert Fathers which was compiled in the 17th century by Heribert Rosweyde. The translation of the text from Latin and the creation of the website was a personal retirement project of the Reverend Benedict Baker. This website would be of most value to readers who are not predominantly concerned with the nuancing of the original work because the introduction from the translator indicates that this project was undertaken without scholarly apparatus. The outcome is a useful and openly accessible Web resource which provides sections from all ten books of the Vitae Patrum, including: various Saints' Lives from the 3rd, 4th and 5th centuries; Sayings of the Fathers; extracts from the Dialogues of Severus Sulpicius and the Institutes and Conferences of John Cassian; Palladius' Lausiac History; and the Spiritual Meadow by John Moschus.