This site, part of the larger LacusCurtius resource (q.v.), contains an online version of Platner and Ashby's seminal Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. This large reference work contains valuable information on almost every monument of ancient Rome, and was for many years the standard work of first call for students of the ancient city. Although subsequently eclipsed by the works of Richardson and latterly Steinby, it is still an invaluable work (enjoying the considerable merits of brevity and of being in English) and the version presented here is very useful. The Dictionary is accessible through a hyperlinked page of buildings usefully sorted by type, and one click will take you directly to the required entry. Cross-references to other entries in the Dictionary are also hyperlinked. Furthermore, in cases where Platner and Ashby refer to ancient literary sources mentioning a specific building, Mr Thayer, the website's owner, has included a link to the relevant passages in his own collection of online texts (for Cassius Dio, Suetonius, Pliny, Martial and others). This is an intelligent use of the Internet's advantages over the printed page, and makes this online version even more useful than the original book. Mr Thayer has also appended his own pictures and notes to some of the Dictionary entries. This site is rather more useful for public or large commercial buildings than private dwellings, and much has been discovered since the Dictionary was originally published in 1929. There are more complete versions elsewhere on the Internet, but this one is particularly well presented and a supremely useful resource.
The basis of this website is a lecture given by Roger Dunkle, professor at Brooklyn College Classics Department, on the subject of the Roman comedy 'Miles gloriosus' ('The Swaggering Soldier') by Plautus (c.250-184BC). The site is divided into sections devoted to different aspects of the play. These include: the figure of the clever slave (a Plautine stock character) and the comedy of intrigue around which the plot is based; the character of the soldier; the supporting characters; and comic devices and conventions. This last section is the most detailed and of the broadest interest for the study of Roman comedy, as it looks at many of the generic techniques employed by the comic playwright. Included are: mistaken identity; surprise/incongruity; coincidence; hyperbole; double entendre; comic use of language (including the play on characters' names); puns; and breaking the dramatic illusion.
This website, produced by a Latin enthusiast, is dedicated to English translations of Virgil's first-century BCE epic poem, the Aeneid. Publication details are given for a range of different renderings of the text in English (these include both verse and prose versions. Links are also given to several online translations, along with a list of other sites of interest. The most interesting feature of this resource, however, is the page which places side-by-side ten different English translations (along with the original Latin) of a short passage of the text (Aeneid 4.693-705, describing the death of Dido). The wide variety of language used here allows the reader to appreciate the ways in which different translators may interpret the same piece of text. The resource will be of value to anyone interested in the modern reception, translation and adaptation of ancient Latin texts; it would also be very useful for tutors involved in teaching Classics in translation as a way of demonstrating to students the potential for variation (or even inaccuracy) when a text is translated from the original language.
Aesopica is an excellent online resource which collects the fables of Aesop (probably originally composed in the sixth century BC) in one easy-to-use reference tool. It offers a range of available versions of each fable, in ancient Greek as well as in Latin and English translations, as recorded by later writers. Included are, for example, William Caxton's 1484 English translation as well as those of Roger L'Estrange (1692), George Townsend (1887), Joseph Jacobs (1894) and recent translations made by the site's author, Laura Gibbs. The Latin versions given range from Phaedrus (first century AD) to the thirteenth-century AD Odo of Cheriton. Greek texts include those of Babrius (second century AD) and Chambry's 1925/6 edition. Many of the texts are accompanied by explanatory notes as well as details of the writer who recorded them. Several of the English texts are also accompanied by illustrations. The fables are fully cross-referenced, which allows for ease of comparison between different versions (prose and verse, and in different languages) of the same story. The site is also searchable by key word. As well as being of use to those with a particular interest in Aesop, this site is also a good source of Latin and Greek reading exercises as the text is in manageable chunks for language practice.
Developed by Jan Willem Drijvers, the Ammianus Marcellinus Online Project introduces the fourth century AD Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus and his work. A detailed biography of Ammianus is given, and further sections of the website are devoted to providing comprehensive bibliographical lists to provide the user with a starting point for further research. These pages include details of editions, translations (into a wide range of modern languages), concordances and commentaries, as well as of articles and books on aspects of his Roman history. There is also a section on the structure of his work, and a series of essays on particular topics. Included here are papers looking at Ammianus' treatment of the following: Constantius II; Christianity; Julian; military history; geographical digressions; and barbarians and ethnography.
Ancient Journeys is the online Festschrift in honour of the distinguished American classicist and ancient historian Eugene Numa Lane, and contains the full-text of 20 articles written by his colleagues and students on a wide range of subjects dealing with Greek and Roman art, archaeology, history, religion and literature. The resource also offers biographical information, a tabula gratulatoria and series of personal memoirs by his associates, as well as a bibliography of Lane's published work. Published by the Stoa Consortium, the Festschrift is notable for its broad range of topics but also for the absence of a paper version. A hypertext medium is used throughout and links are provided to Perseus for Latin and Greek words. Many of the articles are illustrated and the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at larger scales. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Greek and Roman studies.
This is the online presence of Ancient Narrative, a journal which focuses on ancient Greek, Roman and Jewish novelistic traditions as well as early Christian narrative texts and those of the Byzantine era. Although users must subscribe in order to access the full-text of published articles, the tables of contents and abstracts of issues of the journal (dating back to its first volume published in 2000) are free to view here. Topics covered in the past include: Apuleius' Metamorphoses; Xenophon of Ephesus; Achilles Tatius' Leucippe and Clitophon; metaphor in the ancient novel; utopian themes; Bakhtin and ancient narrative; the feminine in the novel; and the overlap between history and fiction. The website also features archives of the newsletter of the Petronian Society, which is free to access. This contains bibliographies of new publications on the ancient novel, details of forthcoming conferences, and book reviews.
This introductory online guide to the ancient Greek and Latin novel, a literary form which flourished from the second century AD onwards, is aimed at university-level students. Ancient Greek authors who are highlighted include Longus, Chariton, Achilles Tatius and Xenophon of Ephesus and Latin works cited include Apuleius' Metamorphoses and the anonymous novel Apollonius, King of Tyre. The site's most useful feature is an annotated bibliography of secondary literature, with comments by student readers and chapter summaries of many of the works mentioned. There is also a study guide to Longus' Daphnis and Chloe, with information on characters, a book-by-book summary, and notes on key themes and ideas. Finally, a series of papers written by student authors on special topics relating to the ancient novel can also be found here. Topics covered include: the romantic hero and heroine; dream interpretation; travel by sea; representations of Persia; literacy and the novel; burial rituals and the afterlife; and the themes of love and desire.
The Ancient World website offers free (and copyright-free) downloads of English translations of a variety of ancient Greek and Latin texts from the archaic period (eighth century BC) to the Second Sophistic (second century AD). These are available as zipped files. Greek authors whose works can be found here include: Homer (Iliad and Odyssey); Hesiod (Works and Days, Theogony, Homeric Hymns and Homerica); Aesop; Herodotus; Sophocles (the Oedipus trilogy and Philoctetes); Euripides (Iphigenia in Tauris); Plato (philosophical dialogues); Epictetus; and Plutarch (Lives). Featured Latin authors are: Lucretius (De rerum natura); Caesar (Gallic War); Cicero (orations and letters, De senectute, De amicitia); Augustus (Res gestae); Propertius; Virgil (Aeneid, Eclogues, Georgics); and Tacitus (Germania). Many of the texts found here are provided by Project Gutenberg.
This site is a lively and extensive online community for devotees of ancient Roman history. Its main feature is a series of chatrooms on a vast array of specific topics relating to Rome, including: classical archaeology; Roman festivals; the Latin language; and Rome in television, movies and the arts. Also featured are trivia quizzes and role play groups (featuring life in various historical periods, for example under the Roman Republic in the first century BC). The site also provides an interactive map (QuickTime required) which locates the Roman provinces (including, for example, Africa, Gaul and Germania) and key sites in the city of Rome itself (such as the Campus Martius, the Forum Romanum and the Capitoline). Users may click on the locations or their names for further detailed information on each region, accompanied by images and maps; this is a useful tool for aiding students with visualising the geography of the ancient Roman empire. If your browser allows them pop-up windows appear including information such as which registered users of the site are online now. Pseudonyms identify the contributors and editors of this resource.
The Romans website is based on the book 'The Romans: an introduction' published by Routledge (2008). In addition to many pages of information there are 24 detailed timelines covering the whole of Roman history and literature, as well as interactive quizzes, picture galleries of images (some from museums like the Hunterian and from the VRoma Project), and maps (from the Ancient World Mapping Center). This resource is connected with a 'parent' site, The Classics Pages, and the sites share a search engine. Clear copyright information is provided for all resources such as text (Taylor & Francis Books) and images.
A product of a seminar held at the University of Pennsylvania, this website is devoted to the Latin writer Apuleius (c. AD 123-c. 170). Although Apuleius is best known as the author of the Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass), the resource is concerned not with this text but rather with Apuleius' Apologia (Apology), a declamation defending himself against charges of using magic. The site features Latin texts and English translations of the Apologia as well as a range of detailed articles by university staff and graduate students on topics relating to the work. Themes include: the context of the Apologia; marriage and money; magic; Apuleian rhetoric; and the theme of anger. The site also features a section on bibliography relating to Apuleius.
Arachnion is an online journal specialising in Latin and Greek literature and ancient history. Its website lists the contents of a limited range of previous issues (from 1995 and 1996) and allows the reader access to the full-text versions of all articles from these issues. Although the site is based in Italy, the papers are written in a variety of European languages. The journal's primary content relates to ancient literature, with authors such as Homer, Plutarch, Apollonius, Seneca, Lucan, Statius and Catullus amongst those discussed. Other topics covered in the online articles include computing and the humanities and literary theory, and the journal also contains book reviews of newly published material. At the time of this review no additional issues appear to have been included recently to the site.
This is the online presence of the Archive of Performances of Greek and Roman Drama (APGRD), an inter-disciplinary research project at the University of Oxford which is aimed at establishing the international history of the production and reception of classical plays from the Renaissance to the present day, and to trace all extant evidence for performance and re-performance of plays within antiquity. The purpose of the APGRD is both to serve as a repository of physical materials relating to the stage history of the works in performance (such as playbills, programmes, reviews, drawings, photographs and audio-visual recordings) and to compile a comprehensive production history of ancient drama on the modern stage (revivals and adaptations on stage and film, and in opera and dance). Users may register to search the online APGRD Database of more than 9,000 productions of Greek and Roman drama on the modern stage, plus bibliographical sources for them. Playwrights whose works feature are Euripides, Sophocles, Aeschylus, Aristophanes, Menander, Plautus, Terence, and Seneca. This site provides information about the project, its events (including seminars, conferences and colloquia) and publications, as well as links to further research resources and listings of current and forthcoming productions of ancient drama. Links to relevant online resources include those for the reception of ancient drama, Classics in general and theatre studies. Funding is received from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
The Augustine of Hippo site was initially created by James J. O'Donnell to support a series of online seminars. The site has grown to provide access to a range of resources for the study of Saint Augustine of Hippo, many of which are authored by O'Donnell. The site is divided into a number of sections and navigated through frames. Sections include: an introduction to the life and works of Augustine; texts and translations; commentaries; research materials; a record of the online seminars; and digital images relating to Augustine. The introductory section includes a number of essays written by O'Donnell as well as links to resources such as encyclopaedia entries. The texts and translations section brings together a number of online works of Augustine ranging from the City of God to sermons. Many of the texts are available in both Latin and English translation. Perhaps the most significant resource available in this section is O'Donnell's own edition and commentary on Augustine's Confessions (Augustine: Confessions, a text and commentary. Oxford: 1992. ISBN 0198143788). Research materials include bibliographies, maps, and a collection of online research papers. Throughout the site are scattered annotated links to other Augustinian resources on the Web.
This website provides an online version of MGM van der Poel's Short Bibliography of Latin Language and Literature (fourth edition, published in 1996). Details are given of texts, commentaries and translations as well as of scholarly monographs. The bibliography is divided into two key sections. The first of these is organised thematically, and covers broad topics relating to the study of Latin language and literature. These include: aspects of Latin grammar and linguistics; prose; poetry; drama; satire; rhetoric, education and literary criticism; Roman law; palaeography; philology; and the classical tradition. The second section is organised by ancient author/text. Featured authors include: Vergil; Cicero; Juvenal; Tacitus; Seneca; and Ovid. There are also sections devoted to many of the less well-known Latin authors. This will be a useful starting-point for anyone seeking reading material on a wide range of topics relating to the study of works written originally in Latin.
This regularly-updated online bibliography brings together details of publications relating to the study of Renaissance Latin texts. The extensive bibliography is organised thematically and covers the following broad topics: lexicographical aids (including dictionaries and word lists); characteristics of humanistic Latin (with sub-sections on: language and style; prose; poetry and metre; and individual texts and authors); and editing Renaissance Latin texts. Each section gives information on both general reference works and more detailed studies on the topic. Included in the list are references to journal articles as well as scholarly monographs. Links are also provided to those items which are available online.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
Catullus is a website devoted to the Roman writer of Latin lyric verse, Gaius Valerius Catullus (84-54 BC). The site, created and maintained by Dr Rudy Negenborn of Delft University of Technology, contains the Latin texts of Catullus' work and translations of it in many languages, including, among others English, Dutch, German, Swedish, Italian, Estonian, Chinese, Spanish, Hungarian and Norwegian. Users may compare translations in different languages side-by-side with one another or with the original Latin texts. The modern-language translations should perhaps be approached with some caution, however, as although the site lists translators there is no guarantee of the credentials of the contributors. Also included is a brief biography of Catullus and a listing of Latin and Greek related links. There is a discussion forum on Catullus, to which users may contribute.
Devoted to the Roman orator and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43BC), the Cicero Homepage is a useful online starting point for anyone approaching the study of Cicero for the first time, and also provides suggestions for more in-depth exploration of his works. The site offers full Latin text of some of the author's speeches (De amicitia; Pro archia; In Catilinam; In Verrem; Pro Ligario; Pro Marcello and Brutus). There is also a brief chronology of Cicero's life and works, as well as an extensive bibliography of suggestions for further reading. Although this is not annotated, giving only publication details of books and articles, it is divided, helpfully, into sections on: oratory and rhetoric; Cicero's life and reputation; philosophy and religion; and the publication of Cicero's works, with further sections on secondary material relating to the specific writings of Cicero.
The Classic Text: Traditions and Interpretations is an online exhibition compiled by the Special Collections departments of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, based on a physical exhibition that was on view during 1996 and 1997. The exhibition features a range of texts and authors, including the Bible, a number of classical writers, Dante and Chaucer, Shakespeare, and several poets and novelists from the 16th to the early 20th century. Each section gives historical information about the author and works under consideration, plus details of key editions, including those to be found in the Library's Special Collections. Illustrative images are also provided. The exhibition is concerned less with the content of the texts themselves than with the works as 'cultural icons', and with the question of what leads to a book becoming regarded as a classic.
This Web page, 'Classical documents for Christian research', features a series of links to English translations of ancient texts (originating from Greece, Rome, and Egypt) which may be of use to those undertaking research into parallels between Biblical texts and stories featured in classical literature. As the full-text of many of the works is included, these may also be of interest to anyone seeking online translations of the featured authors. Works which appear here are: Aristophanes' 'Peace', 'Clouds' and 'Ecclesiazusae'; Euripides' 'Bacchae'; Hesiod's 'Theogony' and 'Works and Days'; the Homeric Hymns; selected works of Plato; Herodotus' Histories; and extracts from Catullus, Pausanias, Aristotle and Athenaeus, as well as a number of Egyptian texts.
This well-organised website accompanies a course on classical drama and theatre run by Mark Damen of Utah State University. Although the material is designed for students on this particular course, there is much here which will be of interest to anyone studying or teaching these aspects of the ancient world. The site is divided into sections; within each section are several 'chapters', each of which corresponds to one week's teaching; the text of a lecture, along with some accompanying illustrations, is provided for each chapter. Section headings are as follows: the origins of western theatre (including chapters on theatre in the early Greek world and early Greek tragedy); classical Greek tragedy (with information on Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides); Greek comedy (covering satyr plays, Aristophanes and Menander); and Roman drama (dealing with the comedy of Plautus and Terence and the tragedy of the younger Seneca). Texts which are discussed are included in English translation (as 'readings') and are accompanied by questions for students to consider.
The website Classical Epic, designed by Robin Mitchell-Boyask, accompanies a course on Classical Epic at Temple University and makes accessible a wide range of resources to assist the student of both Greek and Latin epic poetry. Of particular relevance to classicists are the extensive sections on Homer and Virgil. There is also information on the Indian Mahabharata and the Sumerian epic Gilgamesh (for comparative study) Whilst the site provides several annotated links to relevant pages of external sites (with, for example, images and scholarly works relating to epic poetry) it also contains a number of specific resources created by staff at Temple. The most useful of these are the study guides accompanying the Homeric poems; these provide book-by-book guides to the Iliad and Odyssey, and include questions for discussion.
This online resource is a concise guide to the major classical writings which provide our source material for the myths of the Olympian gods and goddesses, illustrated with a selection of images from ancient and modern artists. The classical passages are taken from the Perseus Digital Library; this allows the interested reader to delve more deeply into the original sources and to pursue further research. No knowledge of Latin or ancient Greek is required or assumed. The resource also features a short but critical bibliography for further reading, a guide to identifying divinities from their iconographic attributes, and a timeline of Greek history and literature. While this modest website will largely benefit a general or undergraduate audience (it is intended for undergraduate students in Greek and Roman studies at the University of Victoria, BC) it will also serve as a quick and useful reference source or aide-memoire to the more knowledgeable or experienced student of classical myth, particularly for its iconographic content.
Written by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, this is an excellent online study guide to classical Greek and Roman culture through its key literary, historical and philosophical writers. The resource, which is intended for use by undergraduates taking classics options, combines historical, critical and literary material with practical exercises and questions in reading, comprehension and interpretation. The authors featured are: Homer; Thucydides; Sophocles; Euripides; Aristotle; Aristophanes; Plato; Lucretius; and Virgil. Each literary genre is accompanied by sections providing cultural and intellectual background. The entries are hyperlinked to Perseus for easy reference, as is the excellent glossary of personal names, technical terms and placenames, though there is no bibliography. This resource provides a clear and reliable learning resource for classics and ancient history students.
Classics Ireland is the journal of the Classical Association of Ireland; this website provides the online version of the printed edition. Volumes 1-12 (1994-2005) are available here at the time of writing. Classics Ireland publishes scholarly articles and reviews on all aspects of the ancient world. Topics covered in the journal's articles, of which the full-text is available to view here, include: ancient Greek and Latin drama and poetry; Greek and Roman history and historiography; the reception of classical works and themes in modern literature; sexuality and gender; slavery; art and architecture; and teaching and learning classical subjects.
Andrew Wilson's Classics Pages form an extensive and well-designed website devoted to all aspects of ancient Greece and Rome. Several of the features have an interactive element, and there is something here to appeal to all levels of interest, from school to university teaching. A huge range of topics is covered here, with featured sections on: Greek literature (Homer's Iliad, Sappho, Aeschylus' Agamemnon, Sophocles' Oedipus and Antigone, Euripides, Aristophanes' Lysistrata and Peace, and Lucian); Latin literature (Catullus, Sulpicia, Virgil, Horace, Propertius and Apuleius, with extracts from texts in English and Latin); Plato's philosophy; a guide to figures from Greek mythology; an introduction to Greek architecture, pottery and sculpture (with images of artefacts); women in ancient Greece; the symposium; ancient technology; Eros; the Olympic Games; oracles; and the archaeology of ancient Greece and Sicily (accompanied by photographs and interactive tours of ancient sites). There is also a commentary, notes and vocabulary for Andrew Wilson's ancient Greek translation of Harry Potter. A lighthearted entertainment section features: quizzes and word games; rude Latin; classical phrases in everyday usage; the etymology of modern English names and words; and famous people who have had a classical education. The site is searchable by keyword, and if the search does not return an answer then the author is open to receiving email questions on any aspect of Classics. This resource is an excellent example the way in which the classical world can be made accessible to the current generation.
The Classics Technology Center is a website which provides a wealth of free electronic resources for the teaching and learning of Classics-based subjects. These range from school to university level and cover Greek and Latin languages, ancient history, archaeology and literature, as well as more general material and teaching tools to help with the use of web-based Classics resources. Also featured are pedagogical guidelines for teachers of Latin and Greek, and advice from classicists relating to the teaching of a range of topics based on personal teaching experience (themes covered include: classical literature; the Olympics; Alexander the Great; Latin mottoes; Roman gladiators; Plato; Troy; the Greek gods; Latin and Greek languages). There is also a 'showcase' of academic papers on teaching Classics, an extensive glossary of Greek and Latin terms, and a variety of word games and trivia quizzes, including a classical crossword. There is so much material here that the site can be difficult to navigate but teachers of classical topics will find that it is certainly worth spending time exploring what is available.
Compitum is a French-language website which is aimed primarily at researchers and is devoted to news about events and publications relating to the study of Roman antiquity, Latin language and literature. Information is given here about relevant conferences and lectures (some in France itself, others taking place elsewhere in the world). There is also an extensive (and annotated) section listing useful online resources (including bibliographies and publications as well as websites on particular themes relating to the ancient Roman world). Recent publications on ancient Roman themes are also listed here, with brief details of contents. Users may register in order to receive Compitum's newsletter via email.
This online concordance to the fourth book of Virgil's Aeneid (first century BC) allows the user to look up and compare occurrences of particular Latin words. An alphabetical list of every word in the book has been compiled, and each entry is accompanied by a list of references to the points in the poem where the vocabulary occurs. The user may then click on the required reference and is taken to the relevant line of the poem in a full Latin text of Book IV. As no translation of either individual words or complete text is given this electronic tool will be of most use to accomplished Latinists who are interested in researching the use of words in specific contexts.
The Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum (CSL), part of the Forum Romanum site, is a collaborative project among scholars from a variety of disciplines with the main purpose of creating a digital library of the entire body of Latin literature, including translations and commentaries. This resource represents the first phase of this project by providing a comprehensive index to all available text editions on the Internet together with supplementary texts and resources. The website can be searched by author, title, genre or date, or browsed by author; other indices are still being compiled so are not yet available for browsing. The list of available authors and writings is impressive, from the earliest inscriptions recording the Latin language to Neo-Latin writers of the 18th century, although many texts remains to be added and the editors solicit contributions from interested scholars.
Other links provide access to secondary sources which are out of copyright; these include Johnson's 'Private life of the Romans' (1903), Morley's 'Outline of Roman history' and Buck's Grammar of Oscan and Umbrian (1904), though the latter is now very dated. Individual pages are enhanced by scenes from the ancient world imagined by 18th and 19th century painters. In its present state this resource will benefit more advanced students and scholars of classics and related subjects. The many links to translated texts will also benefit undergraduates, although the latter will need to exercise judgement in using old or out-of-date editions and translations which may not represent modern scholarship.
Curculio is a weblog (blog) whose main focus is Classics, featuring regularly-updated articles on trivia relating to the ancient world, with a particular emphasis on Latin language and literature. Examples of highlighted topics include: Latin Scrabble; the etymology of modern English words; classical conferences; textual commentaries; and other Classics blogs. The home page also contains links to critical editions of some classical Latin texts produced by the site's author, Michael Hendry. These include the Elegies of Propertius (first century BC), Juvenal's Satires (second century AD) and the poetry of Claudian (late fourth century AD). Also featured are and a series of teaching tools in the form of annotated extracts from Propertius, Martial, Aulus Gellius and Seneca. There is also a quiz on Latin animal noises, a page on ancient jokes and two Greek crosswords.
'Didaskalia: Ancient Theatre Today' (ISSN 1321-4853) is an English-language Web resource that combines an online full-text journal with short introductory essays. There are also listings and links to ancient theatre resources online. The online journal, published sporadically since 1994, covers modern performances of Greek and Roman music, drama and dance. At September 2008 there are 21 issues available online. Each issue carries a mixture of features, performance and book reviews. Themes have included: Masks; Tantalus; Electra; crossing the ancient stage; Homeric epic; contemporary research trends and electronic initiatives in ancient theatre studies. Contributors to the journal have included scholars and theatre professionals. This is a useful resource for anyone interested in ancient theatre in general or in its modern performance and reception in particular.
Digressus, launched in 2001, is a fully refereed online journal whose primary aim is to provide opportunities for graduate students in classics and related subjects to publish book reviews and articles in their subject areas. Articles deal with a wide variety of aspects of the classical world, including ancient Greek and Roman history, literature, philosophy, art and archaeology. The journal also features reviews of academic books. A collaborative project between the Universities of Nottingham and Birmingham, the journal accepts reviews and articles in English, German, French, Italian and Spanish as well as publishing proceedings of conferences. The papers are presented in PDF format. The resource also includes a guide for contributors and a page of external links to conferences and events of interest to classicists; the editors invite their readers to submit news and information for inclusion on the website.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
First published in 1993, Electronic Antiquity is an online peer reviewed journal which carries articles, reviews and notices (including job vacancies and conference information) relevant to the study of Greek and Roman classics and ancient history. Topics covered by articles published here include, among others: Greek and Latin poetry; biography; ancient drama; ancient philosophy; social history; ancient mythology; and Egyptology. The full-text of all articles published since the first volume is available at no cost to the user. Contents may be browsed by volume and issue or via a general search interface. Submission guidelines are also provided for those wishing to contribute. Greek text is transliterated. Articles since July 2004 are available to download in PDF format.
Elpenor is a website which offers a bilingual anthology of Greek literature, featuring extracts of texts written in ancient, New Testament and modern Greek and accompanied by English translations. These are easily accessible and manageable chunks of original Greek works which could be used as a language learning tool. Both prose and poetry appear here, with featured authors including (among many others): Homer; Thucydides; Aristophanes; Plato; Origen; Plotinus; Gregory of Nyssa; and Cavafy. The site also offers a course in the Greek language, from learning the alphabet to the basics of Greek grammar, accompanied by extracts from original texts. A further section, entitled Libraries, offers: extracts from post-classical authors referring to classical themes or texts (this will be of use to those with an interest in the modern reception of the ancient world); Greek pronunciation audio files; extracts from secondary texts on aspects of the ancient world; a section dedicated to Constantinople; and an image gallery of paintings of Greece. The website also provides a discussion forum, and links to downloadable fonts to enable the user to read or write Greek. Whilst the site offers a range of useful resources, the presence of several advertisements on every page is distracting for the academic user and can make it tedious to navigate.
Epicurus and Epicurean Philosophy is a website which aims to introduce Epicureanism both to the serious student of philosophy and to anyone seeking useful and inspiring ideas. Epicurus (341-270 BC) helped to lay the intellectual foundations for modern science and for secular individualism, with many aspects of his system still highly relevant some twenty-three centuries after they were first taught to his students at his school, known as 'The Garden', in Athens. The site includes: translations of Epicurean texts (including works by, as well as Epicurus himself: Diogenes Laertius; Lucretius; Cicero; Horace; Lucian; Cornelius Nepos; Plutarch; and Lactantius); background information on the period in which he and his followers wrote; general material on ancient philosophy; and pages of annotated links to other relevant online resources. There is also a discussion list associated with the site.
Facta et Verba is an online collection of classical electronic texts, produced by a project that describes itself as 'a laboratory that investigates the automatic processing and presentation of data'. In practice, there is little discussion of the theoretical issues surrounding text encoding and presentation to be found in this website, which acts rather as a page allowing the user to see the results of such encoding. Items featured on the site include: an annotated hypertext edition of Suetonius's Vita Augustus, with links to an English translation; text, commentary, translation of and concordance to Boethius' Consolatio Philosophiae; a concordance to Virgil's Aeneid (Book IV); and an extract (in English translation) from Aeschylus' Agamemnon, with commentary (lines 266-316, the section containing Clytemnestra's famous monologue). At the time of writing this review, the site had not been updated since March 2001.
From University College London's Department of History, the website of the Festus Lexicon Project provides comprehensive information on the Lexicon of Festus, or 'De verborum significatu', an encyclopaedic Latin dictionary compiled in the Roman Imperial era. Despite the fragmentary state of the dictionary, it is a rich source of information and citations, from and about the period. It is of use to those interested in Roman history, Latin grammar, legal and antiquarian learning, culture, politics, religion and social aspects of the period. The project will prepare a database of texts, a complete translation, extensive commentary, and bibliography. At the time of cataloguing there were no sample database entries available. There is information about the four main writers conected with the Festus Lexicon: Marcus Terentius Varro; Verrius; Festus; and Paul the Deacon. Also included is a bibliography of secondary works. Working from an eleventh century text, the project team aims to reconstruct the lexicon from medieval tomes, glossaries, and manuscripts. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
Forum Romanum is a website which provides several useful resources for classics. The core element of the resource is the Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum (CSL) which is a digital library of Latin literature. Authors are listed alphabetically and the user can access Latin texts, translations (in English and occasionally in other European languages) and in some cases secondary material available online. Included are texts from the earliest epigraphic documents to 18th century neo-Latinists. As well as the CSL, Forum Romanum also makes available online some reproduced out of copyright texts: H.W. Johnston's Private Life of the Romans (1903, revised by Mary Johnston in 1932); William C. Morey's Outlines of Roman History (1901); and John Stewart Milne's Surgical Instruments in Greek and Roman Times (1907). The individual chapters of each work can be viewed in a clear user-friendly format.
This site contains Martin Guy's 1996 online edition of 'The Golden Asse' by Lucius Apuleius and is published by EServer, a Web archive of arts and humanities texts, based at the University of Washington. Though characters have been modernized, spelling contemporary to the late 16th century has been preserved within the text which has been made freely available for the use of undergraduates, postgraduates and scholars. Guy's edition is based on the London : Simpkin Marshall, 1933 reprint of the 1639 edition, and provides, in addition, direct access to translator William Adlington's 1566 dedicatory epistle, the Notes to the reader, the Preface, each of the text's eleven chapters, and 'The Life of Lucius Apulius', as well as Guy's brief 20th century bibliography of the title.
Designed to accompany a series of lectures given by Professor Kirk Summers of the University of Alabama, this website on Greek and Roman mythology provides links to images of the slides used as visual aids (showing primarily ancient art and architecture). The course is based around the theme of Greek and Roman mythology, and focuses on specific deities and texts relating to their stories. These include literary interpretations of particular myths from archaic Greece to Roman times, including Hesiod's Theogony, Ovid's Metamorphoses and Euripides' Bacchae. Lectures are based on the following themes: the creation myths; Zeus and Hera; Poseidon, Hermes and Hephaestus; Artemis and Athena; Cybele and Aphrodite; Demeter and Persephone; Apollo at Delphi; Dionysus; the underworld (including Orpheus); Heracles; and Perseus and Theseus. Each slide is accompanied by descriptive text, and although the actual text of the lectures is not featured here the site is nonetheless a valuable source of images for anyone seeking to illustrate teaching material on these topics. Links to relevant external websites are also given.
Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies (GRBS) is a journal which has been published quarterly online since 2004 by Duke University and which focuses on Classics. The website lists tables of contents for all volumes since 1958, and provides access to abstracts and the full text of all articles written since 2004. These can be viewed in PDF format. Most of the published articles concentrate on classical and Byzantine literature, but archaeology is represented too. Papers include general literary themes such as "ancestors as icons" and the titanic origin of humans" as well as authors such as Homer, Herodotus and Plutarch. There are also papers on classical epigraphy and the archaeological excavations investigating late antique Palestine.
This website, from Harvard University Classics Department, aims to foster an understanding of the performative aspect of ancient literature by providing recordings of extracts from ancient Greek and Latin texts (both poetry and prose) as recited by staff and students. Each recording is accompanied by the original-language text and notes. Featured works are: Ovid's Amores; Homer's Iliad; Propertius; Statius' Silvae; Virgil's Aeneid; Catullus; Cicero's first Catilinarian. A further section features students' declamations (in English) in the style of Ovid and Seneca. There is also a link here to the Homer in Performance pages which feature readings of selected parts of the Iliad, accompanied by Greek text and notes by Gregory Nagy.
The Hellenistic Bibliography - an online resource from the University of Leiden - is a compilation of a series of bibliographies on post-classical Greek poetry and its influence. Most sections feature a list of the most recent publications as well as a list of modern editions of the ancient works and a general bibliography (arranged alphabetically according to author surname) of important articles and books on each author. The resource records works written in most major European languages and will be of particular value to scholars seeking secondary material on some of the less well-known Greek authors. More obscure poets such as Anyte, Colluthus and Phanocles appear alongside the more familiar names of Callimachus and Theocritus, for example. There is also a section cataloguing bibliography on the influence of Hellenistic poetry on Latin writers such as Horace, Ovid and Virgil, as well as a topic-based section featuring works on Hellenistic history, Ptolemaic Egypt, ideology and patronage and Alexander the Great.
HyperEpos: Epic on the Internet is an annotated web gateway for those interested in both Classical (Greek and Roman) epic poetry, and English language epics from the Middle Ages to the present day. In addition to the more familiar categories of Renaissance and Medieval epic, the site lists an extensive number of sub-genres. These include Women's epic, American epic, Modernist epic and Contemporary epic. A further category, Non-Western epic, provides a range of resources for the study of texts such as the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Epic of Shahnameh Ferdowsi. The site covers Indian epic, African epic, Arabic epic, Japanese epic, and Turkish and Persian epic. Resources on these topics include texts, commentaries, and translations.The site is a valuable resource for genre-based study and would be particularly useful for students and scholars working on comparative or cross-cultural studies.
The Internet Classics Archive offers access to online editions of classical texts. It currently offers over four hundred works by over fifty different authors, primarily Greek and Roman but also some Chinese (for example Confucius) and Persian (for example Omar Khayyam). All texts are in translation. The site offers a facility (through a link to the Perseus website) by which texts can be searched by work, author or by the entire archive. Users can view brief biographical information on each author through links to the online Encyclopaedia Britannica. The site has been affected by some technical problems which mean that searches can be slow. This is a resource which would mainly be of use to undergraduates looking for translations of major texts. It would be less useful for advanced or specialist research.
This website provides a lecture-style illustrated introduction to ancient Greek and Roman comedy, an excellent overview (by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College) of the subject for school and undergraduate level students of classics and related disciplines. The 29 sections introduce the origins of classical comedy and its role in the religious festivals of Athens, which were established in honour of the god Dionysius. It particularly relates to the Great (or City) Dionysia, one of the two Dionysian festivals (the other being the Rural Dionysia) that was probably established in the 6th century BC, but that is best documented from the 5th century BC onwards. The website outlines the form and function of the theatres and their technical equipment with reference to surviving literary, iconographic and archaeological evidence. There is much useful information on genre, aspects of performance, the role of actors and chorus, and on music, as well as a modest bibliography suitable for undergraduate reading. The text is hypertexted throughout to the Perseus digital library for convenient reference, which makes it an ideal online resource for students taking classical civilisation at an elementary level.
Designed for both students and teachers of Classics, this is the website for the Joint Association of Classical Teachers (JACT), an organisation which promotes the teaching and learning of classics in schools and universities. JACT provides an information service for classicists, offering details of forthcoming events, productions of Greek plays and JACT summer schools for intensive study in Greek and Latin. The website also features: details of how to join or contact JACT; a range of teaching resources for Latin, Greek, Classical Civilisation and Ancient History in schools; information for teachers (including examination syllabi, announcements of job vacancies, school trips related to Classics, and specialist book stores); details of JACT's journals, 'Omnibus' and 'Journal of Classics Teaching' (with sample articles available online); information on projects supported by JACT; links to other Classics-related websites. Also featured is 'The Good Text Guide', a searchable guide to recommended editions of ancient texts.
This online classics resource was created by John Paul Adams, a professor in the department of Modern and Classical Languages and Literature at the California State University. His website is of benefit to all students of Classics, as it contains numerous links to detailed resources, as well as presenting many useful passages of text in translation. Impressive in its scope, the site is divided into themed sections, each of which contains study notes, teaching handouts, links to relevant websites and English translations of relevant ancient texts. Sections cover the following broad topics: Greek and Roman history; Greek and Roman art and archaeology; Greek and Roman literature; Greek mythology; ancient texts; a Roman army bibliography; resources on ancient Sparta. Other parts of the site link information on the Latin courses taught by John Adams; these in turn offer handouts and links with information on Latin language, vocabulary and grammar. There is much here which will be of interest and value both to the teacher and student of classical subjects.
The website of the Commission for ancient literature and Latin tradition at the division of the Austrian Academy of Sciences is devoted to research in Classics and provides a range of useful resources for classicists and ancient historians namely: a list of reviews published in the journal Wiener Studien from 1998 onwards; a Homeric bibliography from 1978-1992; fascinating pages on Homeric singing, ancient Greek music and Classical Greek pronunciation with audio links to recordings of reconstructed ancient Greek sounds; a section on the role of classical myth in the Renaissance provides the texts of books such as Boccaccio's Genealogie deorum gentilium (1951 Romano edition) and Gyraldus's Historiae deorum gentilium of 1548 which can be downloaded as PDF files. This is largely a specialist resource which will appeal to students and researchers in the classics and philology.
The Ancient Greek Music subsite - for example - consists of recordings of all published fragments of ancient Greek music which comprise more than a few notes, ranging in date from the 5th century BC to the 3rd century AD. The recordings, edited and arranged by Stefan Hagel of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, are based on texts published in West's Ancient Greek Music (Oxford 1992) and Pöhlmann's Dënkmaler Altgriechischer Musik (Nürnburg 1970). Subscription is free and users may download copies for personal and academic use. RealPlayer or Midi audio packages are required to listen to the fragments though some sound distortion may result depending on the hardware used. While ostensibly an academic resource for classicists, ancient historians and musicologists, this website will interest students and teachers of classical studies in schools as well as the general public who can experience the thrill of hearing ancient music resurrected in this way.
The website of the Laboratorio Informatico per le Lingue Antiche (LILA) provides information about their software 'SNS - Greek and Latin'. The software is for Macintosh computers, and enables the user to search two important data banks of classical writing: the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae; and parts of the Packard Humanities Institute's bank. The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae contains ancient Greek texts ranging from Homer to authors in the fifteenth century A.D. The Packard data banks available to users are PHI #5.3, containing classic Latin texts, and PHI #7, containing Greek documentary papyri and inscriptions. The software provides the user with a fairly sophisticated search engine, catering for Boolean logic operators, special characters, and restrictions by various bibliographic factors. Results may be exported in different text formats.A single-user licence costs around 150 Euros. A free demonstration version of the software may be ordered from the site, although this allows access to a limited selection of the texts. The site also allows users to subscribe to the SNS mailing list.
LacusCurtius : Into the Roman World is a significant online collection of a range of useful resources for students of Classics. The site features a Roman Gazetteer, which consists of a photographic guide to various Roman towns and monuments, along with descriptions of archaeological excavations and visitor information. Featured locations include, among others: Rome; Assisi; Ostia; Perugia; and Rimin. The site also hosts around 40 Latin texts by authors such as: Pliny the Elder; Isidore of Seville; Suetonius; Polybius; Quintilian; Celsus; Cato; Procopius; and Macrobius. Some texts are available in Latin, some English, and some in both Latin and English translation. Each text is introduced by the site editor, Bill Thayer, with information about the copy text used (often old Loeb editions now in the public domain) and editorial notes. Other significant online resources include a variety of public-domain reference works. These include a selection of entries from William Smith's 1875 'Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities' and Samuel Ball Platner's 'Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome'. Other resources include: a Roman atlas; a catalogue of Roman Umbria; a section on Latin inscriptions; and an online version of W. R. Lethaby's 'Tomb of Mausolus'. This is an impressive site both in terms of the quantity and quality of the materials it offers.
The Latin Library website houses a large collection of Latin texts, available for viewing online. Authors and works present include: the younger and elder Plinys; the oratorical, philosophical, and epistolary works of Cicero; Catullus; Martial; Seneca; Suetonius; Horace; Vitruvius; and about 50 others. As well as works of classical literature, the site offers legal and religious texts, along with a selection of medieval works. The texts are divided by book, chapter, and paragraph, so navigating to the right part of the required work is fairly straightforward. No translations, commentary, apparatus or vocabulary help are provided, but the range of texts is so broad that the site is still a very valuable resource. The texts come from a variety of sources, either scanned in by the site's compiler from public domain sources, or submitted by other online Latinists around the world. The compiler gives a list of links to the providers of the texts, and is careful to point out that his collection is not a substitute for published critical editions.
These Web pages offer a wide range of downloadable tools and exercises for help with teaching and learning Latin at beginners' and intermediate levels. Featured are a series of explanatory lesson notes on aspects of grammar and vocabulary, including, for example, declension of nouns, verb conjugation, and sentence construction. Also included are grammar and vocabulary help and exercises for practising reading and composition. The site contains several 'elementary readers' which provide basic textbook Latin for reading practice, as well as more advanced 'acceleration readers' - extracts from texts by Caesar, Cicero, Livy, Pliny, Quintilian and Sallust arranged in such a way as to facilitate the understanding of Latin sentence construction. There is also a page of links to articles on methods of Latin teaching and the history of Latin pedagogy.
This website, produced by retired lecturer Julia Bolton Holloway, is concerned with the comedies of the Latin playwright Terence (Publius Terentius Afer, ca 186-159 BCE) and their reception during the medieval period. It provides the Latin texts of his plays Heauton Timoroumenos ('The Self-Tormentor' and Eunuchus, and provides links to other online texts of his works. It also contains medieval texts influenced by the plays of Terence, such as Hrotswitha of Gandesheim's 'Abraham and Mary' and 'Pafnutius and Thais', also in Latin. There are a number of secondary essays about Terence and his legacy, and links to sites about Terence manuscripts and iconography. A bibliography of manuscripts and early printed editions is included, along with medieval illustrations.
Lectrix is an innovative online resource for the teaching, understanding, and analysis of ancient Greek and Latin texts. It is a collaborative project between the University of Cambridge Faculty of Classics and Cambridge University Press. Subscribers can access Greek and Latin texts, and each text is supported by an extensive range of study tools, including a dictionary and a grammatical parser, basic and advanced commentaries (the latter taken from the relevant volume of the Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics series), and a newly commissioned English translation. The texts are intended to be suitable for students who have completed an introductory course in either language, and include works by: Lysias; Plato; Sophocles; Euripides; Virgil; Ovid; Apuleius; and Cicero. It is envisaged that the number of texts available will be expanded regularly. Lectrix is available by annual subscription to libraries, institutions, and individuals in three separate packages: either Greek or Latin texts only, or both. Price quotes are available on request. Institutions and libraries may sign up for a free 30-day trial; individuals can access a complete online tour. The site is clear and intuitively navigable.
The basis of this website is the text of a lecture on the Metamorphoses of Ovid (43BC-AD17) delivered by Ian Johnston, a Research Associate of Malaspina University College, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The content of the lecture is suitable for those who are new to the study of this Latin poet. After a brief insight into the historical events preceding the composition of Ovid's poem, the author focuses primarily on the reasons why the Metamorphoses has remained so popular since its composition. Specific sections examine the following: Ovid's popularity since classical times; elements of Ovid's narrative style; Ovid's vision of life in relation to the concept of metamorphosis; the poet's transformation of mythological themes. There is also a short introductory bibliography. All extracts from the text are given in English translation.
Founded in 2002, Leeds International Classical Studies is an open-access online journal associated with the Leeds International Classics Seminar. It publishes articles and interim discussion papers on all aspects of Greek and Roman antiquity, and of the history of the classical tradition. Topics covered by journal articles include: comedy; didactic poetry; marriage and sex; oratory and rhetoric; philosophy; and tragedy. As well as presenting the full text of journal articles in PDF format, the website also provides: guidelines for those who wish to contribute articles to the journal; a statement of editorial policy; and information regarding the copyright of articles submitted.
This website provides access to the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB), a searchable catalogue of Latin and Greek works in circulation from the fourth century BC to AD 800. It allows one to explore the transmission of ancient and classical texts and ideas from the ancient world through to late antiquity, and it builds on previous research by Roger Pack, Joseph van Haelst, and Marcello Gigante, whose catalogues of ancient books are incorporated here. The database has been created in FileMaker Pro, and this program must be available on one's machine in order to use the database. The LDAB contained information on just under 14,000 ancient literary texts at the time of writing this review, and it includes material written on papyrus, ostraka, parchment, and tablets. Each entry includes details of published material about the text, the ancient author, title of the work, material inscribed, the bookform, the genre, the culture (Greek, Latin, Hebrew), religion, the text's provenance, date of writing, description of the lettering, and the subjects covered by the text. The LDAB can be searched on most of the fields listed above. More than one field can be selected for searching. Results can be displayed in a variety of attractive formats. For example, a search for all editions of a Euripides play gives a list of catalogue entries in plain text. Other functionality is available with the CD-ROM version of the database. Using this webpage, you can search through the entire LDAB database, but you cannot download it it as a whole. Results can be printed out.
The Literary Encyclopedia provides bibliographies and text profiles for a wide range of authors, as well as critical summaries of many classic texts. Whilst the encyclopaedia's primary focus is on English literature, classical authors and works are also well represented, and their is a growing body of entries on European and international literature. Basic records are free to read (this is normally the first 400 words); whilst subscription is required to view the full entries. There are about 5,900 authors listed, 17,500 works and 1,500 topics all written by experts in their field. Using the advanced search facility it is possible to list authors according to genre, sex, period and culture. The site is constantly under development with the aim of adding many new entries and expanding existing ones. It includes an extensive Links database (over 4,000 links), a stylebook and glossary.
This website, from the Humanities Department of Reed College, acts as a brief introduction to the Roman historian Livy (59BC-AD17) and his work Ab Urbe Condita (From the Founding of the City). It provides a short biography of the writer and a timeline listing the events described in the books of his history. There is also a selection of short extracts from modern writers' works on Livy, and the site gives links to a Latin text and English translation of the work (from Perseus). Finally, a bibliography offers a selection of articles and books which will enable the interested user to explore the topic further.
This themed online bibliography (which, at the time of reviewing, had last been updated in 2008) has been compiled by Timothy J. Moore of the Department of Classics, University of Texas at Austin, and lists books and papers which will be of relevance to the student of the Roman historian Livy (59BC-AD17). Specific sections cover editions of the text, other bibliographies and commentaries (both book-by-book and on the whole of his Ab Urbe Condita). There is also a section on general works, as well as further sections on particular themes: Livy and Augustus; philosophical and religious views; moral outlook; women; Livy's sources; his style and language; and the lost books of his history. The majority of the works listed here are written in English, although there are several in German, French and Italian.
This bilingual (Spanish/English) website, created by researcher and teacher Martín Pozzi of Buenos Aires University, is devoted to the study of the first century AD Latin poet Marcus Manilius, whose best known work is the Astronomica, a 4500 line hexametric poem which combines astrology with Stoic philosophy. The site offers links to online editions of the text (Loeb and Intratext) as well as commentaries, articles, secondary literature and reviews. A useful and extensive bibliography of works on Manilius also provides a list of publications on ancient astrology and the zodiac. Much of the secondary material referenced in the bibliography is in English. There is an excellent range of links including ones on the wider history of astrology. There is also a discussion group to which readers can subscribe. This resource will benefit researchers and teachers in classics and related subjects, including the history of science and religion.
This website is a blog dedicated to the epigrams of the 1st-century CE Latin poet Martial. The author of the blog aims to post a Latin text accompanied by an English translation of each of Martial's 1,565 poetic epigrams, as well as the five prose prefaces to the published works. Since the blog started in June 2004 he has posted the epigrams at a rate of around one a day (with a gap in 2005). The site can be used as a quick-reference guide for anyone seeking a text or translation of one of Martial's poems, although the lack of any commentary or referencing means that the user would need to look elsewhere for further clarification.
Montclair Electronic Text Archive, from Montclair State University, is an online repository for a limited selection of ancient Latin and Greek texts. Featured authors at the time of writing this review included: Boethius; Caesar; Catullus; Demosthenes; Horace; Persius; Propertius; Prudentius; Tibullus; and Vergil. Texts are available in XML, HTML, and PDF format, but may be of limited use as they are not accompanied by English translation. Viewing many of the texts requires the DJVu software which is available for free download from the home page. There is also a search facility which enables the user to search for specific words in the Latin texts. Also included on the site is a range of secondary texts relating to classical antiquity. These include works on Greek and Roman philosophy, grammar and literature. The site also gives details of the broader projects and activities of the Technology Awareness Group (TAG) which promotes discussion of the use of leading edge technologies in an academic context.
The Neo-Latin Colloquia is a collection of resources for the study of neo-Latin texts for students and faculty associated with the UK Institute for Latin Studies. The website contains a number of lectures in Latin by famous medieval scholars, such as: Desiderius Erasmus; Franciscus Cervantes de Salazar; Sebastianus Castalio; and Maturinus Corderius. Some of the lectures are available as podcasts. IN a ddition there is a collection of quick time films with lectures by Erasmus. There are, in addition, introductions and study questions for several of the dialogues by Erasmus. This is a useful resource for any student of neo-Latin. The webpage is also available in a Latin version. At the time of review, the site had not been updated since 2006 but it is still a valuable resource.
Dedicated to the American poet Charles Bukowski (1920-1994), this website is devoted to obscene expressions in the classical Latin language, particularly in the poetry of Catullus (c 84BC - c 54BC). The site's author is keen to see similarities between Catullus' poetry and that of Bukowski: whilst this is open to interpretation, the site nonetheless provides a range of useful resources for the study of Catullus in particular and Latin obscenity in general. On offer here is a full Latin text of each of Catullus' poems, along with a concordance which lists vocabulary and gives references to enable the reader to locate recurring words in Catullus' work. Also featured is a Latin-English vocabulary list of obscene Latin words.
This excellent online resource, put together by an enthusiast, is devoted to the Odes (carmina) of the Latin poet Horace (65-8 BCE). The key feature of the website is a selection of Horace's poetry, in both Latin and English translation; each ode is accompanied by a synopsis and detailed critical notes/commentary. Among other things, the commentaries clarify linguistic points, elaborate upon obscure references, give cross-references to other ancient texts, and provide links to other relevant websites. Each ode is accompanied by a selection of different English translations in a variety of styles; this feature will be invaluable for anyone teaching these texts in translation and wishing to compare different versions of the poems. Featured translators include: Robert Herrick (1591-1674); Richard Fanshawe (1608-1664); Thomas Creech (1659-1700); Samuel Johnson (1709-1784); Edward George Earle Bulwer Lytton (1803-1873); William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898); and Franklin P. Adams (1881-1960). Also provided is a variety of other literary responses to, and adaptations of, the poetry of Horace; these will be of particular interest to those researching the modern (post-Renaissance) reception of classical texts. Other featured texts on the website include: Suetonius' Life of Horace (in Latin and English); poems on Horace by Eugene Field (1850-1895), Austin Dobson (1840-1921) and Alfred Austin (1835-1913); the Encyclopaedia Britannica's entry on Horace; and Latin prose paraphrases of Horace's odes. The site is easy to navigate and contains a wealth of useful resources relating to this ancient Latin poet who has received little attention elsewhere on the Web.
Berkeley's Online Medieval and Classical Library (OMACL) is a collection of literary works from classical and medieval times. The site has been developed by Douglas Killings, who has written a brief introduction to each text explaining when it first appeared, which language it was originally written in, who wrote it, and which edition the online text was prepared from. Around 40 texts are available from the site, ranging from Hesiod to Henryson's Testament of Cresseid. The bulk of the texts are from the medieval period rather than the classical. Some of the site's more notable texts include: Orlando Furioso; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; the works of Chretien de Troyes; a number of pieces by Geoffrey Chaucer; John Gower's notorious Confessio Amantis; the Song of Roland; the Nibelungenlied; works by Tasso and Ariosto; the Lay of the Cid; and a number of Icelandic sagas in Old Norse, including Laxdaela. Each text is split into its constituent chapters or parts for the purpose of online reading, thus keeping download times more manageable. A brief introduction is given for each text which includes a note on the translation used. Books and essays for further reading are also recommended, along with details of other translations available. The website also provides links to other sites which hold e-texts of medieval and classical works. Navigation of the site is straightforward as there is a search option and it is possible to browse the collection by title, author, genre and language.
Orpheus is a website from Washington State University which relates to a project designed to enrich introductory humanities courses. The primary focus of the site is ancient mythology but it aims to encourage students to think about the ways in which ancient thought can be related to the modern world and to human psychology in general. The site contains a wealth of resources on a wide range of topics which fall within this remit; included are detailed pages on particular myths, as well as study guides and thought-provoking questions on ancient texts, and images from ancient and modern art. Broad section headings are divided into more detailed sub-sections and include: the ancient world (with items on Gilgamesh, creation myths, the Old Testament, gods and heroes); Greek mythology (Homer, Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns, the Greek gods and the Muses); Greek plays (focusing on Sophocles and Euripides); Roman mythology (Ovid); thematic connections of myth (including sections on animals, Hell, war, mythology of state, mythology of self and the myth of love); and mythology in film (with reference to westerns, monsters in film, and science fiction films). Whilst there are countless other websites dealing with ancient mythology this one stands out because it does not simply narrate the stories but raises interesting questions about the place of myth in the world in general, and its relevance to all human beings.
The University of Virginia Electronic Text Center, whose website this is, hosts a wide variety of resources related to Ovid's Metamorphoses. This Ovid collection includes a number of Latin and English versions of the Metamorphoses, as well as an excellent archive of Renaissance responses to the poem. Readers can view eight digitized versions of the original Latin, some scanned and some fully transcribed. The site also hosts five English translations by Golding, Sandys, Garth, Brookes More and Kline. The ca. 1904 Ehwald Latin text is cross-linked with three of the English translations so readers can browse or search texts together. The site's growing archive of Renaissance pictorial and textual responses to the Metamorphoses is particularly excellent, and includes readings and reworkings in Latin, French, German, Dutch, Italian and English.
Taken from the rare book department of the University of Vermont, this website is an image database of engravings of illustrated works of Ovid by the 17th-century German artist, Johann Wilhelm Bauer (1607-1642). The exhibition is divided into two sections: images from 'The Metamorphoses' by Ovid, with engravings by Baur - the 1703 edition printed in Nuremberg; and secondly, Ovid's 'Metamorphoses' "Englished mythologized and represented in figures", translated by George Sandys - the 1640 edition. Other classical images from the Department of Classics at the University of Vermont are also available. This resource will be useful to anyone interested in the post-classical reception of the work of Ovid.
This online encyclopaedia from the Perseus digital library is a comprehensive reference source for a vast range of aspects of the classical world. Via the encyclopaedia's table of contents the user is able to click on the first letter of the term for which they are searching and then browse through entries beginning with that letter. Alternatively they may type in a search term. The breadth of information here to some extent defies summary, but among other things the following are included: key individuals (authors and statesmen, for example); important sites throughout the Greek and Roman world; mythology and religion; art and architecture; historical events; literary works. Each encyclopaedia entry provides hyperlinks to relevant resources in the Perseus library, including cross references to other articles in the encyclopaedia and direct links to primary and secondary sources as well as to any related images. The encyclopaedia is an excellent starting-point for those seeking information on classical topics.
This Web page provides access to the vast range of written sources relating to the ancient Greek and Roman worlds which are available online via the Perseus digital library. Featured works include ancient texts (with searchable versions in both English and in the original Latin or Greek) and a wide variety of secondary sources. To some extent the range of material to be found here defies summary, but featured ancient material includes the following: ancient drama (tragedy, for example, Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, and comedy, such as Aristophanes and Plautus); oratory (including Cicero and Demosthenes); historiography (Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon and Caesar, among others); epic (Homer and Virgil); letters (Cicero); and poetry (including Ovid and Horace). Also provided in the section on primary sources are links to Perseus' online versions of the Old and New Testaments. Secondary sources which may be accessed here include: commentaries on various ancient texts; works on the ancient Greek and Latin languages; specialist dictionaries on a range of aspects of the classical world; and a miscellany of other texts.
Provided by the Perseus digital library, this online resource presents a selection of extracts from popular Latin texts which feature on the Perseus website. Users may access either the Latin original or English translation of the texts. Featured authors are: Caesar; Catullus; Cicero; Horace; Ovid; Virgil; and the Vulgate Bible. Sections of texts are hyperlinked to other pages of the Perseus website, providing access to linguistic help and secondary reading (including modern commentaries on the texts). The resource provides easy and quick access to manageable chunks of well-known texts and would therefore be of particular interest to anyone involved in language teaching and setting translation exercises for students.
This is the website of the Petronian Society, which is devoted to the study and appreciation of the ancient novel; the genre flourished from the second century AD onwards. Previous issues of the Society's newsletter (dating back to 1970) can be found online here; this includes articles relating to the ancient novel, notices of recently published books/papers, and information about relevant conferences. As well as the newsletter, the site offers resources for the study of Greek and Latin novels, including detailed plot summaries of various works. These include: Chariton's Chaereas and Callirhoe; Heliodorus' Ethiopian Story; Xenophon of Ephesus' Ephesian Romance; Longus' Daphnis and Chloe; Achilles Tatius' Leucippe and Cleitophon; and the anonymous Apollonius, King of Tyre. There is also an extensive bibliography of secondary works. Whilst this is vast, it is arranged only alphabetically without division into subheadings or annotation, which may make it difficult to use. It is, however, searchable by keyword. A list of useful websites is also provided.
This is the website of the Phoenix journal, a publication of the Classical Association of Canada, whose stated aim is to publish articles in all the major aspects of classics (literature, history, archaeology, philosophy, religion, art, architecture and so on) up to AD 600. Although Phoenix is a specialist journal it claims that its articles are also written for the more general reader. Two editions of Phoenix are produced each year (the first was in 1946). The site provides access to abstracts of current articles as well as to contents lists for previous editions of the journal. There is a search facility which allows the user to search the titles of all articles published in the journal. (Note that the full text of the journal is provided by J-STOR for those affiliated to institutions which subscribe to the service). The website also provides information for those wishing to contribute to the journal.
This short Web page, compiled by Dr Norman Prinsky of Augusta State University, is a useful basic starting point for anyone interested in the post-classical reception and translation of Virgil's Latin epic poem, the Aeneid. The site provides a list of English translations of the poem since the sixteenth century, with details of whether these are in verse, blank verse or prose. It also makes available a collection (although rather limited) of images of post-Renaissance artistic works (sculptures and paintings) based on scenes from the Aeneid. There is also a list of musical works which are based on the poem. Finally, a series of sample essay questions on the Aeneid is given - these could be used or adapted by tutors at university level.
Project Libellus is an online service which aims to provide an archive of classical texts at no cost to the user. Latin authors whose works were online here (in the original language) at the time of writing this review are: Apuleius; Ausonius; Caesar; Catullus; Cicero; Horace; Livy; Nepos; Ovid; Propertius; Sallust; Tibullus; and Virgil. Also included are Holmes' commentaries (in English) on Caesar's Bellum Gallicum (Gallic War) and Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar. The site's introduction offers the caveat that its main aim to provide free texts; those included are either donated by the editors or are texts whose copyright has expired and this means that they may not always be of the highest quality. For those seeking higher-quality texts, however, the site also offers a list of links to other institutions providing a similar service.
'Epos' is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal of philology by the Spanish Open University (UNED). Although Spanish philological studies may be more prominent, the journal also publishes articles within the fields of Classics; French; English; and comparative literary studies. Contributions are accepted in all relevant languages, but a good command of Spanish is recommended as this seems to be the main language of the publication. First published in 1984, the repository of the Spanish Open University has made available the full-text content for all issues published since then. Some articles published by Epos include: "History of Rome in Spanish Phraseology"; "Black Africa in Spanish Travel Books from the 16th and 17th centuries"; "A note on the meaning of os in the Old English Rune Poem"; and "Women and Marriage in Les quinze joies de mariage : le monde à l´envers".
Rheinisches Museum für Philologie is a scholarly journal for classicists with papers primarily written in German, and this is its website. Here the user can access, free of charge, the full-text of articles from issues 93 (1950) to 147 (2004) are now accessible online (at the time of writing this review). Further articles will be added regularly (three years after publication), and currently the tables of contents are also available here for all issues since 1990. To access the full-text papers in PDF format readers should click on the small arrow next to each title. Papers deal with ancient Greek and Latin texts and authors in a range of genres (poetry, drama, historiography, epic and satire, for example). Authors discussed in some of the papers include, among others: Aeschylus; Aristophanes; Lucian; Martial; Sappho; Seneca; Suetonius; Theophrastus; and Virgil.
Rhetorical Theory is a website providing information on classical and modern rhetoric and rhetoricians. The site also acts as a gateway to a great many related but independent sites offering additional information, criticism, and debate on the subjects covered. Specific authors featured include: Socrates; Plato; Aristotle; Cicero; Quintilian; and Augustine. In addition to these there is a long list of other 'rhetorical scholars' from all periods. The site includes definitions of the various rhetorical divisions, and links are provided to some of the classical treatises on rhetoric. This website forms part of virtualology.com, an educational service aimed primarily at pre-university students, and which publishes students' class assignments on the web. This particular part of the site is however evidently aimed at the more advanced student. Unfortunately commercial advertising on the site is somewhat distracting.
Compiled by Timothy J. Moore of the Department of Classics, University of Texas at Austin, this online bibliography provides an extensive list of references and is therefore a useful starting point for the student or researcher seeking secondary literature which relates to Roman drama. The page is organised thematically, beginning with a section on general discussions of Latin plays and the theatre. There follow sections on both comedy and tragedy. Where comedy is concerned, Plautus and Terence are highlighted, with details of commentaries and concordances as well as of papers on particular aspects of their works. Lost comedy is also given attention, with some articles on Naevius, Turpilius and Caecilius. On tragedy, the bibliography is not so extensive, with the main focus being on Ennius. Works written in English, German and Italian are featured, and many of the entries are given a short annotation which indicates the nature of their content and argument.
This website accompanies a television series, The Roman Empire in the First Century, which was first broadcast by the US Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) in 2001. As well as providing details of the programme's production, the site also features a range of resources relating to the history of ancient Rome. It includes an introduction to this period of history, with information on the transition from Republic to Empire and details on the period from the age of Augustus (27 BC-AD 14) to the rule of Trajan (AD 98-117). There are also features on: writers of the period, including Virgil, Ovid, Seneca, Petronius, and the Elder and Younger Plinys; the social order, with information about emperors, senators, equestrians, plebeians and slaves; and daily life, covering marriage and the family, the home, Roman baths, entertainment and religion. A timeline and a Julio-Claudian family tree are also provided. Although the site is primarily aimed at schools (including lesson plans related to the topics it covers) it offers a broad and clear overview of the historical period which serves as a useful introduction to anyone studying the Roman Empire for the first time.
The Roman Law Library is an extensive and growing online database of Latin legal texts, many of which are accompanied by translations in Spanish, French or English. The extracts, taken from inscriptions and Latin authors such as Cicero and Livy, are organised by type of law, including: senatus consulta; edicta magistratuum; ius iurandum; and corpus iuris civilis. Those without knowledge of Latin may find this system difficult to navigate. Within each category the texts are organised chronologically. Details of sources, editions and extensive bibliographies are given for each piece. Links to relevant online articles in William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities are also given. There is also an extensive general bibliography listing both printed sources and online information, and a large, but unannotated, selection of links to web resources on broader classical subjects.
Roman Law Resources is a website containing a great deal of material relating to Roman law, and which also acts as a gateway to other sites that may be of interest to researchers in this field. The site itself is fully searchable by keyword and offers information on the following topics: secondary literature; reviews of publications; teaching materials; primary sources; bibliographies; electronic reprints; errata in Roman Law books; corrections to Alan Watson's English translation of Justinian's Digest; and palingenesiae of Latin private rescripts and imperial Latin laws. Websites which are listed are each given a full description. Several of the resources available via this website are searchable databases providing a wealth of primary information. In addition to these materials, there are several information sections, detailing journals, web portals, prominent historians of ancient law, future events, etc. This is a clear and comprehensive website which provides an excellent starting page for research. It is navigable in German as well as in English.
Sacred Texts: the Classics is part of the Internet Sacred Text Archive, a free repository of ebooks run by amateur John B Hare. This site includes English translations of several Greek and Latin literary texts. Featured Greek authors include: Homer; Sophocles; Euripides; Sappho; and Plato. Latin authors include: Virgil; Apuleius; and Julius Caesar. This website makes available non-copyrighted books and for this reason most of the translations were completed over a century ago. In addition to ancient works, a section of the site contains many scholarly books, dating from the eigtheenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These include Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776-88). The works may be of interest to those tracing the history of classical scholarship. Sacred Texts sells a CD-ROM with all the ebooks in order to fund the running of the site.
Scholia : Studies in Classical Antiquity is an international journal of classical and related studies published by the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university. This website provides an index of articles from 1992 onwards as well as information about the staff, editors and advisory committee of the journal and the usual advice to prospective contributors. (You need to be in an institution which subscribes to ProQuest or to LOCKSS to make full use of this journal, e.g. to browse by author and volume, view thumbnails of the articles and of course to download abstracts and texts of articles.) The site is linked to Scholia Reviews, a related electronic site from the University of Natal which publishes a wider range of reviews that those printed in the paper publication of Scholia. The remit of the journal is very broad and includes articles on late antiquity and the mediaeval world, as well as the reception of classical learning during the renaissance and early modern periods and the continued relevance of classical studies in the modern world. The editors advise the use of Netscape 7.0 for optimal results when downloading papers. This online publication will benefit students and researchers in classical studies and ancient history.
Scholia Reviews is an electronic journal of reviews for classics, ancient history, and related subjects. Subjects of books recently reviewed include: Greek historiography; late antiquity; Roman art and architecture; classical myth; Roman religion; Greek and Roman literature. The journal has been published on an annual basis since 1992. Book reviews are available via email as well as on the website. A selection of reviews are also published in the international printed journal, Scholia. Reviews tend to be between 1500-2500 words long. The Scholia Reviews website also includes details of books received and requiring review and guidelines for review authors (including the system for transcribing Greek).
Scholiastae is a wiki which allows classical scholars to share their notes, or commentaries, on ancient texts. The site contains a selection of texts in ancient Greek and Latin formatted in such a way as to allow contributors to add their own explanatory comments on vocabulary, grammar, and interesting or obscure references. The very nature of this site means that it will evolve over time, but at the time of compiling this review texts available here included the following: the Greek Anthology; Herodotus; Homer (Iliad and Odyssey); Pindar; Sappho; Ovid's Metamorphoses; Caesar's Bellum Gallicum; and Cicero's Catilinarian I. As with any wiki, of course, the quality of the material is heavily dependant upon the calibre of the contributors, but this has the potential to be a useful tool for students and researchers of classical texts.
The Silver Muse is an online reader and companion to Roman imperial poetry. The website features poems by Ovid, Lucan, Valerius Flaccus, Statius, and Silius Italicus. Most of the poetry excerpts are relatively short, but enhanced by every word being hyperlinked to a Latin-English dictionary and a grammatical and syntactic commentary. This feature should make the resource a helpful tool for students learning the Latin language. In addition to the reading guides, the site includes a biography and a number of secondary essays about each of the featured authors, along with overviews and bibliographies of their works. Introductory materials include notes on epic versification, and an extract from H. E. Butler's essay on post-Augustan poetry. Appendices include: a glossary of rhetorical terms; an explanation of Roman names; a Roman calendar; a guide to Roman money, weights, and measures; sample syllabi; and excerpts from Allen and Greenough's 'New Latin Grammar'. This is an excellent site which should be of particular use to classics undergraduates.
The Society for Ancient Languages is based at the University of Alabama, and holds reading classes for the study of ancient and medieval Latin texts as well as other events relating to the Latin language. The Society's website gives details of such events as well as providing a range of useful online resources concerning particular Latin authors. Included are detailed biographies of the first-century BC writers Julius Caesar, Cicero, Virgil and Sallust. The site also features a selection of online Latin texts from the first century BC: here selected works of Caesar, Cicero, Horace, Livy, Sallust, Tacitus and Virgil appear, as well as the work of the medieval Latin writer Augustine of Hippo (fourth to fifth century AD). There is also a selection of secondary source material on the Roman constitution, Roman oratory and Roman warfare.
This is the website of the Society for the Oral Reading of Greek and Latin Literature (SORGLL), which adheres to the principle that literature written in the classical Greek and Latin languages was intended primarily for oral performance and that therefore the sounds of these languages are crucial for our understanding. As well as giving general information relating to the Society and its officers, this website contains downloadable recordings of spoken Latin and Greek accompanied by extracts of texts in both the original language and English translation. Greek authors who feature are: Homer; Archilochus; Alcman; Sappho; Sophocles; Pindar; Aristophanes; and Demosthenes; these are accompanied by a written and spoken guide to Greek pronunciation. Extracts in Latin are taken from works of: Terence; Cicero; Virgil; Catullus; Horace; Seneca; and Martial. Users will need to download RealPlayer in order to listen to the recordings.
This online study guide to Virgil's epic poem, the Aeneid, is one of a series of study guides created for students on the website SparkNotes.com. The following features are included: a summary of the poem's historical context; an overview of the complete plot; a brief list summarising the main characters (including gods as well as mortals); more detailed analysis of the major characters (focusing on Aeneas, Dido and Turnus); a discussion of key themes, motifs and symbols. There is also a more in-depth book-by-book plot summary, accompanied by critical analysis. Several important quotations from the poem are given (in English translation) and analysed in more depth. The site also provides a list of suggested study/essay questions, with sample answers, along with a multiple-choice quiz and suggestions for further reading. The site will be of use to those studying the Aeneid for the first time.
Studia Humaniora Tartuensia (SHT) is a peer-reviewed scholarly electronic journal which publishes research articles and notes in any area of the humanities, but some emphasis on classical studies, ancient history, neo-Latin studies, classical tradition, and the history of scholarship and philosophy. Published by the University of Tartu in Estonia, and online since 2000, SHT is a well-established and diverse journal which is sure to contain material of interest to scholars of classical studies and ancient history. Articles may be written in English, French, German and Latin. The journal provides a free mailing list to users wishing to keep informed of developments in the journal, and a news section for further information. Full article submission details are also provided.
Written by Paul Brians of the Department of English, Washington State University, this online resource is designed as part of his course on Love in the Arts. It provides basic introductory notes to accompany the translation by Rolfe Humphries of the Amores and Ars Amatoria of the Latin poet Ovid (43BC-AD17). After brief introduction to Ovid's poetry, a breakdown of several of the individual poems is given, with explanations of important names, key themes and emphasis on points of note in the texts. These notes are accompanied by questions to encourage students to consider important issues in the poems. Whilst this is by no means a comprehensive commentary, it could be used as a starting-point for discussion of the works of this poet and the ways in which he treats the theme of love. It is aimed at students with no knowledge of Latin.
Textkit is a free online learning resource for the study of Ancient Greek and Latin. Textkit's core site content is Greek and Latin public domain grammar books. These include classics such as North and Hillard's Greek Prose Composition, complete with keys to the exercises. These can be downloaded in PDF format. Featured language-related works include dictionaries, guides to prose composition and Greek and Latin language courses. Textkit also provides an extensive collection of classical ebooks by ancient Greek and Latin authors such as Aristotle, Herodotus, Plutarch, Lucretius, Cicero, Tacitus and Sophocles. Some of the texts are available in the original language, others only in translation. It is possible to search by author or by title of work. In addition to these features, the site provides links to tutorials and other online resources (including supported e-study groups, which are free to use, but which require the user to register with the site) for the study of Greek and Latin.
In the website “Theorizing Satire: A Bibliography”, Brian A. Connery, Associate Professor of English at Oakland University, provides an online bibliography of critical works on satire and satirical writing. The bibliography contains a contents page and focuses on works that treat satire generically rather than concentrating upon individual works. An extensive amount of bibliographical material is listed and a diverse range of historical periods (classical, medieval and beyond) and national literatures (mostly Roman, British and American) are encompassed. An index of categories is provided with links to the relevant bibliographical material. None of the material catalogued appears to be available online, but this resource is nonetheless of use to anyone studying or researching satire in almost any of its numerous forms.
This resource, compiled by Charles Lohr of the University of Freiburg, is essentially a vast online bibliography of books and articles relating to the reception of classical authors and texts throughout Europe up to 1650. It deals with publications in most major European languages. Organised alphabetically by ancient author, the list covers works dealing with translations, adaptations and transmission of texts as well as, for example, productions of ancient drama, the influence of ancient philosophy and the broader impact of Greek and Latin texts on modern western literature and education. Every genre of ancient literature is covered here, including: epic; lyric; tragedy; comedy; historiography; oratory; philosophy; and satire. Also included are several medieval and Renaissance authors. Whilst the entries are not annotated (the sheer number of references contained here prohibits this), these pages are nonetheless an excellent starting point for researchers interested in the classical tradition and the reception of ancient texts since the Renaissance. The site is navigable in English and German.
This is a downloadable recource from the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website, available as a zipped HTML file. The text seeks to explore Book IV of Horace's Odes not as isolated works of adulatory verse, but as a collection of subliminal vignettes on Roman society in the early days of the Principate. That they were written as individual items over a period of time, ranging from 13 BC. to 8 BC., is not disputed. That they were really intended by Horace as a complete entity in their own right is the primary argument of this work and is supported by a full translation, commentary and analysis of the Latin text in which the order of the odes has been reconstituted. After downloading this text, click on the file "Contents.html" to begin at the Contents page of the text. Please note that the file must be extracted to a local folder on your computer to enable the HTML linkage. English translations are newly done by the editor.
One of the digital text projects, run by the Institute for Learning Technologies at Columbia University in New York, this is the full electronic text of Virgil's Aeneid, as translated into English from the original Latin by John Dryden. The text is taken from the Harvard Classics, Volume 13, first published in 1909. The Aeneid tells the story of the voyage of Aeneas, who has been instructed by the gods to found the city of Rome, following the destruction of Troy. There are links to the text of each of the twelve books.
Virgil Resources is a website which provides a comprehensive range of resources for students and scholars of the ancient Latin poet Virgil (Vergil 70-19 BC). The site is attractively designed and illustrated, and provides comprehensive bibliographies and book reviews of recently published secondary works on Virgil. There is also biographical material on the poet's life, including a translation of Aelius Donatus' fourth-century AD Life of Virgil. The site provides well-annotated links to internet resources relating specifically to Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus, as well as to other web pages on Virgil and Latin poetry. There are also images of maps relating to Aeneas' Italy and the ancient world. The site provides particularly useful information about the post-classical reception of Virgil. Also provided here is a link to the Mantovano mailing list for discussion of Virgil and related studies.
The Vitae Patrum website provides an English translation of a collection of early Saints' Lives of the Desert Fathers which was compiled in the 17th century by Heribert Rosweyde. The translation of the text from Latin and the creation of the website was a personal retirement project of the Reverend Benedict Baker. This website would be of most value to readers who are not predominantly concerned with the nuancing of the original work because the introduction from the translator indicates that this project was undertaken without scholarly apparatus. The outcome is a useful and openly accessible Web resource which provides sections from all ten books of the Vitae Patrum, including: various Saints' Lives from the 3rd, 4th and 5th centuries; Sayings of the Fathers; extracts from the Dialogues of Severus Sulpicius and the Institutes and Conferences of John Cassian; Palladius' Lausiac History; and the Spiritual Meadow by John Moschus.
VRoma is an online collection of resources for the teaching and learning of Latin and ancient Roman culture at secondary school and undergraduate level. It acts as a repository for online teaching material (holding an extensive collection of texts, commentaries, maps, images, teaching resources and more). Its central feature is a virtual classroom based on the city of Rome of c. AD150, where students and staff can log on and travel around the city and hold discussions with others visiting VRoma. Groups based in different institutions can arrange to visit VRoma at the same time and hold collaborative classes. Travel instructions and conversations can be in English or Latin. Using this element of VRoma introduces students to the monuments of ancient Rome, encourages them to use Latin, and to interact with peers. Background information to the VRoma project, help, and guidance on using the virtual city are all available on the website.
The Worlds of Late Antiquity website is the home page for 'miscellaneous materials relating to the culture of the Mediterranean world', covering the period from 200 to 700 CE. Topics include the life and works of Saint Augustine, Cassiodorus' Variae, Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy, Pope Gregory the Great, Junillus/Junilius (quaestor under Justinian c.AD 541-9, who composed the Instituta regularia divinae legis in AD 542), Aelius Donatus (the mid 4th century grammarian who was the teacher of Jerome), and Cosmas Indicopleustes (a 6th century Alexandrian merchant who eventually became a monk, and who wrote the Christian Topography, based on his travels). All of the sections are composed by James O'Donnell of Georgetown University, primarily for a course he taught in 1995 (the exception to the above is the section on Cosmas, which is by Andrew Weisner also of the University of Pennsylvania). The site focuses on particular works by the aforementioned ancient writers, making the texts available on the net. For instance, Gregory the Great's 'Moralia in Iob' consists of the first five volumes of this book of which the first book is available in HTML format with clickable footnotes, while the remaining four are on ASCII format without footnotes. The Christian Topography of Comas is based upon McCrindles' (1887) translation, using Winstedt's (1909) edition of the Greek text. Generously, O'Donnell includes (a complete edition) of his own book on Cassiodorus, written in 1979, which is now out of print.
The Worlds of Roman Women is a Latin reader which is an annotated compilation of texts relating to women's lives in ancient Roman society: this well-organised website is the online companion to the printed text. Its quality and detail mean that it stands out as being exceptional among the wide range of online resources relating to gender studies and the ancient world. It makes available a vast collection of unadapted Latin texts (from inscriptions as well as written texts) by or about Roman women. These are accompanied by illustrative images and short essays relating to women's roles in ancient Rome. The site is divided into two key sections. The first of these, 'Instruction', consists of a variety of resources providing pedagogical support for the use of the texts and images. These include: a bibliography of relevant publications (online and in print); syllabi and lesson plans for the teaching of Roman women in Latin and translation; a selection of activities, based on ancient sources, for classroom use; and a list of links to online resources for the translation and interpretation of Latin. The other section of the site, entitled 'Worlds', consists primarily of Latin texts and images, with commentary. This is divided into ten sub-sections: childhood; learning; marriage; family; body; state; class; work; flirtation; and religion. Texts are hyperlinked to allow cross-referencing between different sections of the site. English translations of key words in the texts can also be viewed by clicking on the Latin word.