The main feature of the website '15 Ancient Greek Heroes from Plutarch's Lives', compiled by Wilmot McCutchen, is a set of English translations of fifteen of the ancient Lives originally written in Greek by Plutarch (c46-120 AD). This easily-navigable site contains the following Lives: Theseus; Lycurgus; Solon; Aristides; Pericles; Nicias; Agesilaus; Pelopidas; Dion; Timoleon; Alexander the Great; Phocion; Pyrrhus; Agis; and Philopoemen. There is also a short biography of Plutarch himself, and a timeline of events in ancient Greece, which enables the reader to place the personalities in their relevant chronological context. For ease of reference the site also has a set of shortcuts which allows the user to jump to sections in Plutarch's work on particular key topics (for example: the Trojan War; the battles of Salamis, Marathon and Plataea; Atlantis; Plato). A glossary of terms also provides definitions of key English words in the texts; this feature, the site explains, is aimed at students wishing to improve their SAT verbal score, or at adults learning English as a second language.
The "Actas y Comunicaciones" (ISSN 1669-7286) from the University of Buenos Aires' Instituto de Historia Antigua y Medieval present research papers from the Institute in electronic format, in PDF files. The first issue of this electronic peer reviewed publication appeared in 2005, bringing together papers presented at a conference held at the Institute entitled 'Cuestiones historiográficas y representaciones históricas. Europa, ayer y hoy' (Historiographic Questions and Historical Representations. Europe, Yesterday and Today'). The articles are written in either Spanish or Italian and focus on such themes as: political power and intellectual development in the Middle Ages; the university as 'hammer and chisel' of medieval society, using 15th century Salamanca University as a case study; and, in a move away from medieval history, a study of Italian intellectuals and the fascist movement in Italy. The editors hope that the electronic format will permit greater dissemination of research output from the Institute, but they also welcome contributions from international scholars for future issues. At the time of review (2009) the PDF files three (2005-2007) of all four volumes posted online were not downloading properly.
Aesopica is an excellent online resource which collects the fables of Aesop (probably originally composed in the sixth century BC) in one easy-to-use reference tool. It offers a range of available versions of each fable, in ancient Greek as well as in Latin and English translations, as recorded by later writers. Included are, for example, William Caxton's 1484 English translation as well as those of Roger L'Estrange (1692), George Townsend (1887), Joseph Jacobs (1894) and recent translations made by the site's author, Laura Gibbs. The Latin versions given range from Phaedrus (first century AD) to the thirteenth-century AD Odo of Cheriton. Greek texts include those of Babrius (second century AD) and Chambry's 1925/6 edition. Many of the texts are accompanied by explanatory notes as well as details of the writer who recorded them. Several of the English texts are also accompanied by illustrations. The fables are fully cross-referenced, which allows for ease of comparison between different versions (prose and verse, and in different languages) of the same story. The site is also searchable by key word. As well as being of use to those with a particular interest in Aesop, this site is also a good source of Latin and Greek reading exercises as the text is in manageable chunks for language practice.
This is an electronic version of Aeschylus' "Agamemnon", translated and edited by Ian C. Johnston. The material was prepared for courses he originally taught at Malaspina University College, Nanaimo, Canada. This resource is available via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website and can be downloaded as a zipped file in HTML format. It is necessary to apply for approval from the OTA before download, and a link is provided to the terms and conditions of use, and a form to apply for permission.
The Ancient Commentators on Aristotle Project is run by the Department of Philosophy at King's College London, and this is its website. The project aims to make available in English translation the principal ancient commentaries on the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC). This site makes available online several documents (in PDF format) related to the project. It should be noted, however, that the translated commentaries themselves are unavailable here (links are provided for those wishing to purchase these online). Nonetheless, researchers of Aristotle will find several items of interest. Chief among these is an extensive bibliographical guide to recent works on the commentators. This is an annotated list of articles and books relating to the ancient Greek, Arabic and Latin commentaries on Aristotle. Also provided here are lists of volumes produced by the project, including translations and explanatory works.
Ancient Greece is a website consisting of a general introduction to Greek history and culture from the archaic to the Hellenistic period. There are pages on the culture and organisation of the city states Sparta and Athens, and on the Delian League (centred on Delos) and the Theban Hegemony. Other pages describe the background to, and consequences of, the important wars and conflicts fought by the Greeks. Philip II and Alexander the Great both receive attention. As well as describing the historical events, the website introduces some of the key elements of Greek philosophy, from the pre-Socratics to Hellenistic thought. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are all featured, with extracts from their key works reproduced. Pages on Greek literature and drama include extracts from Homer's 'Odyssey' and Thucydides' 'History of the Peloponnesian War'. The origins and significance of comedy and tragedy are explained. The site also includes two rather rudimentary maps of the Greek regions and cities. 'Ancient Greece' forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
Ancient Greek Cities is an attractive and easily navigable website which gives detailed information on a number of key cities of the ancient Greek world. Featured places are: Athens; Sikyon; Corinth; Sparta; Thebes; Argos; Mycenae; Delphi; and Olympia. Each city has a section of the website devoted to it; these sections are then divided into further sub-sections dealing with topics such as: history; legend; art and architecture; coinage; athletics; and famous individuals from the cities (for example, writers, people of historical importance and legendary characters). Pages are clearly set out and accompanied by a wealth of images from ancient art, as well as maps. The site is also fully searchable. This is an ideal starting-point for anyone seeking to find out more about particular locations in ancient Greece, although unfortunately the lack of referencing and failure to cite sources means that it is unsuitable for more advanced study.
Ancient Journeys is the online Festschrift in honour of the distinguished American classicist and ancient historian Eugene Numa Lane, and contains the full-text of 20 articles written by his colleagues and students on a wide range of subjects dealing with Greek and Roman art, archaeology, history, religion and literature. The resource also offers biographical information, a tabula gratulatoria and series of personal memoirs by his associates, as well as a bibliography of Lane's published work. Published by the Stoa Consortium, the Festschrift is notable for its broad range of topics but also for the absence of a paper version. A hypertext medium is used throughout and links are provided to Perseus for Latin and Greek words. Many of the articles are illustrated and the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at larger scales. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Greek and Roman studies.
This is the online presence of Ancient Narrative, a journal which focuses on ancient Greek, Roman and Jewish novelistic traditions as well as early Christian narrative texts and those of the Byzantine era. Although users must subscribe in order to access the full-text of published articles, the tables of contents and abstracts of issues of the journal (dating back to its first volume published in 2000) are free to view here. Topics covered in the past include: Apuleius' Metamorphoses; Xenophon of Ephesus; Achilles Tatius' Leucippe and Clitophon; metaphor in the ancient novel; utopian themes; Bakhtin and ancient narrative; the feminine in the novel; and the overlap between history and fiction. The website also features archives of the newsletter of the Petronian Society, which is free to access. This contains bibliographies of new publications on the ancient novel, details of forthcoming conferences, and book reviews.
This introductory online guide to the ancient Greek and Latin novel, a literary form which flourished from the second century AD onwards, is aimed at university-level students. Ancient Greek authors who are highlighted include Longus, Chariton, Achilles Tatius and Xenophon of Ephesus and Latin works cited include Apuleius' Metamorphoses and the anonymous novel Apollonius, King of Tyre. The site's most useful feature is an annotated bibliography of secondary literature, with comments by student readers and chapter summaries of many of the works mentioned. There is also a study guide to Longus' Daphnis and Chloe, with information on characters, a book-by-book summary, and notes on key themes and ideas. Finally, a series of papers written by student authors on special topics relating to the ancient novel can also be found here. Topics covered include: the romantic hero and heroine; dream interpretation; travel by sea; representations of Persia; literacy and the novel; burial rituals and the afterlife; and the themes of love and desire.
This website acts as an introduction to ancient rhetoric, and was constructed by Malcolm Heath of the classics department at the University of Leeds in order to assist students taking his course on the ancient art of persuasion. As well as a very useful downloadable course handbook (in PDF format) which provides an introduction to ancient rhetorical theory, the site also provides: papers on rhetorical invention and declamation; an introduction to Hermogenes' On Issues; and translations of parts of some ancient textbooks on rhetoric, Aphthonius' and Libanius' Preliminary Exercises (progymnasmata). Given the less familiar nature of these texts, this site is a useful contribution to rhetoric studies on the Internet.
The Ancient World website offers free (and copyright-free) downloads of English translations of a variety of ancient Greek and Latin texts from the archaic period (eighth century BC) to the Second Sophistic (second century AD). These are available as zipped files. Greek authors whose works can be found here include: Homer (Iliad and Odyssey); Hesiod (Works and Days, Theogony, Homeric Hymns and Homerica); Aesop; Herodotus; Sophocles (the Oedipus trilogy and Philoctetes); Euripides (Iphigenia in Tauris); Plato (philosophical dialogues); Epictetus; and Plutarch (Lives). Featured Latin authors are: Lucretius (De rerum natura); Caesar (Gallic War); Cicero (orations and letters, De senectute, De amicitia); Augustus (Res gestae); Propertius; Virgil (Aeneid, Eclogues, Georgics); and Tacitus (Germania). Many of the texts found here are provided by Project Gutenberg.
Ancient Worlds: The Hellenic World is a lively interactive online community for devotees of ancient Greek history. For academic purposes, the most useful feature of the site is a list of Greek regions with links to maps, images, and historical and geographical details on each. The regions featured are: Attica; the Peloponnese; Macedon; Thessalia; the Greek islands; Boeotia; Phocis; and Greek Asia Minor. Also featured on the website is a series of chatrooms on a vast array of specific topics relating to Hellas. Themes include: Sparta; Alexander the Great; Greek theatre; Greek mythology and religion; modern Greek; papyrology; and the Aegean Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages. QuickTime is required for some of the dynamic views on the site. Whilst the site as a whole is aimed at the enthusiast rather than the serious academic, there is much here which may be of interest to undergraduate students. The site is also a good demonstration of the appeal and relevance of ancient history in the modern world.
Aoidoi is a website dedicated to archaic and classical Greek poetry, from the early Homeric epics (eighth century BC) to the late antique Anacreontea. The author aims to appeal to amateurs as well as academics, although the level of depth here is most suited to university study and research. Featured articles give information on dialects (Lesbian Aeolic, Choral Doric and Bucolic Doric) and an introduction to Greek metre, with further information on the dactylic hexameter and the use of the epic caesura. There are also guides to Greek verse composition, with some of the author's own compositions. One page offers articles which help with Pharr's textbook on Homeric Greek. The most detailed part of the site is a series of downloadable ancient Greek poetic texts. In many cases the poems are accompanied by an English introduction and commentary written by the author, along with information on metre and vocabulary. Poets whose works are included are: Anacreon and the Anacreontics; the Greek Anthology; Archilochus; Hesiod; Ibycus; Mimnermus; Pindar; Sappho; Simonides of Ceos; and Theognis.
On the website of the classics scholar Andreas U. Schmidhauser there is a page on Apollonius Dyscolus, containing an introduction, a complete bibliography, works (in Greek) to download including the 1495 Aldina edition of Apollonius's Syntax and a list of Apollonius scholars. Apollonius was an influential Greek author of the second century AD, considered to be the founding father of European reflection on language. He wrote texts on morphology, syntax, prosody, semantics, orthography, and dialectology. The bibliography consists of around 340 items arranged alphabetically. Its compiler claims comprehensiveness for works written in English, French, German, Italian, or Latin. Review articles in the bibliography are hyperlinked to the entry they describe. The Aldina edition of the syntax is a very large file (17MB). The text is in Greek. The bibliography is not at present searchable, although it is possible to restrict the display to editions of Apollonius's works, or to translations of his primary texts. There is the option to subscribe to bibliography updates through an RSS feed.
Arachnion is an online journal specialising in Latin and Greek literature and ancient history. Its website lists the contents of a limited range of previous issues (from 1995 and 1996) and allows the reader access to the full-text versions of all articles from these issues. Although the site is based in Italy, the papers are written in a variety of European languages. The journal's primary content relates to ancient literature, with authors such as Homer, Plutarch, Apollonius, Seneca, Lucan, Statius and Catullus amongst those discussed. Other topics covered in the online articles include computing and the humanities and literary theory, and the journal also contains book reviews of newly published material. At the time of this review no additional issues appear to have been included recently to the site.
This is the online presence of the Archive of Performances of Greek and Roman Drama (APGRD), an inter-disciplinary research project at the University of Oxford which is aimed at establishing the international history of the production and reception of classical plays from the Renaissance to the present day, and to trace all extant evidence for performance and re-performance of plays within antiquity. The purpose of the APGRD is both to serve as a repository of physical materials relating to the stage history of the works in performance (such as playbills, programmes, reviews, drawings, photographs and audio-visual recordings) and to compile a comprehensive production history of ancient drama on the modern stage (revivals and adaptations on stage and film, and in opera and dance). Users may register to search the online APGRD Database of more than 9,000 productions of Greek and Roman drama on the modern stage, plus bibliographical sources for them. Playwrights whose works feature are Euripides, Sophocles, Aeschylus, Aristophanes, Menander, Plautus, Terence, and Seneca. This site provides information about the project, its events (including seminars, conferences and colloquia) and publications, as well as links to further research resources and listings of current and forthcoming productions of ancient drama. Links to relevant online resources include those for the reception of ancient drama, Classics in general and theatre studies. Funding is received from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
This site contains the text of the Argonautica, written in 3rd Century B.C. by the Alexandrian poet Apollonius Rhodius. The epic concerns the legend of the voyage of Jason and the Argonaunts, sailors of the Argo, who sailed from Iolocos to Colchis in quest of the Golden Fleece. The text is part of the Berkley Digital Library SunSITE.
This website consists of an online text of Aristotle's Rhetoric and a short bibliography of secondary works. The text used as the basis for this is W Rhys Roberts' English translation of 1954. Each of the three books of the rhetoric is given its own web page, with Roberts' extended indexes linking to precise paragraphs within the work. The entire site may be searched by keyword, and a Bekker index is also included to allow users to access sections of the text using the referencing system based on the definitive text. Although unannotated, the secondary bibliography is extensive, and organised in reverse chronological order of publication (that is, with the most recently-published items listed first). The entire site may also be downloaded in HTML format.
This is a free-to-view online edition of Gregory Nagy's book The Best of the Achaeans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry, which was first published in 1979. The version which appears here is the 1999 revised edition published by Johns Hopkins University Press. The book looks at the epics of Homer (both the Iliad and the Odyssey) and other forms of archaic (pre-fifth-century BC) Greek poetry, most notably the so-called Homeric Hymns (with a particular focus on the Hymns to Apollo, Demeter and Aphrodite), and the Theogony and Works and Days of Hesiod. There is also reference to the poetry of Pindar and Archilochus and the early versions of Aesop's fables. Each chapter is based around a reading of a section of ancient text and focuses particularly upon what these texts reveal about the concept of the hero (figures such as Achilles and Hector) in the archaic Greek world, whilst looking at the ancestral practices of hero-cults as well as the poetry, prose and song relating to the figures of the heroes. This machine readable text is presented in a number of versions including HTML, although it may be necessary to download Greek font.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
The Catalogue of Paraliterary Papyri (CPP) contains descriptions and texts from Greek papyri and other written materials. For each document, several metadata including bibliographic references are provided. Most texts catalogued in CPP cannot be found in the standard electronic corpora of literary and documentary papyri, such as the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) and the Duke Data Bank of Documentary Papyri (DDBDP) and therefore this catalogue is one of the essential reference tools for Greek papyri. The simple interface simplifies access to the catalogue, which can be searched or browsed. At the time of review the catalogue contained about 500 texts, several of which make reference to Greek mythology. The catalogue benefited of two grants from the Onderzoeksraad K.U.Leuven.
Chaironeia is a website is devoted to the Greek biographer, historian and moral philosopher Plutarch (c.AD 46-c.120) - the site is named after his birthplace in Boeotia. The most useful section of the site is an extensive bibliography of works on Plutarch, organised by theme and including: editions and translations; the second sophistic and the background to Plutarch and his works; philosophy; religion; literature and aesthetics; textual criticism; and influence; as well as articles and books on specific volumes of Plutarch's Lives and his Moralia. The resource also features a page on Plutarchan Nachleben (influence/reception), with remarks on Plutarch from later authors and historical figures, including Agathias, Shakespeare's 'Henry IV', Ben Jonson, Mary Shelley, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Harry S. Truman. A list of Plutarch links on the Web is also given.
This is the website of The Chicago Homer, a multilingual database of early Greek epic and twentieth-century scholarship. The website presents all of the texts of ancient Greek epic (including the works of Hesiod and the Homeric Hymns as well as the poetry attributed to Homer) in the original language, as well as English and German translations. These include: Richmond Lattimore's translation of the Homer's Iliad; Daryl Hine's translations of Hesiod's Theogony, Works and Days, and Homeric Hymns; and the 18th century German translations of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey by Johann Heinrich Voss; and an English translation of the Odyssey by James Huddleston. The Greek texts in the Chicago Homer are derived from the electronic texts used in the Perseus Project. The database supports all scholarly searches of the text archive of the almost the entire extant corpus of Early Greek epic. There are excellent pages of supporting information, to help the new user manipulate the database and un derstand the source material. The Chicago Homer is also associated with other scholarly projects online. Each line, for example, links to early papyri, manuscripts or printed texts and other research work in the field. All the functionalities of the Chicago Homer work with modern Web browsers. The transliterated Greek can be displayed on any browser, but the display of Greek characters requires a browser with a Unicode (UTF-8) font that includes the extended Greek character set.
The Classic Text: Traditions and Interpretations is an online exhibition compiled by the Special Collections departments of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, based on a physical exhibition that was on view during 1996 and 1997. The exhibition features a range of texts and authors, including the Bible, a number of classical writers, Dante and Chaucer, Shakespeare, and several poets and novelists from the 16th to the early 20th century. Each section gives historical information about the author and works under consideration, plus details of key editions, including those to be found in the Library's Special Collections. Illustrative images are also provided. The exhibition is concerned less with the content of the texts themselves than with the works as 'cultural icons', and with the question of what leads to a book becoming regarded as a classic.
This Web page, 'Classical documents for Christian research', features a series of links to English translations of ancient texts (originating from Greece, Rome, and Egypt) which may be of use to those undertaking research into parallels between Biblical texts and stories featured in classical literature. As the full-text of many of the works is included, these may also be of interest to anyone seeking online translations of the featured authors. Works which appear here are: Aristophanes' 'Peace', 'Clouds' and 'Ecclesiazusae'; Euripides' 'Bacchae'; Hesiod's 'Theogony' and 'Works and Days'; the Homeric Hymns; selected works of Plato; Herodotus' Histories; and extracts from Catullus, Pausanias, Aristotle and Athenaeus, as well as a number of Egyptian texts.
This well-organised website accompanies a course on classical drama and theatre run by Mark Damen of Utah State University. Although the material is designed for students on this particular course, there is much here which will be of interest to anyone studying or teaching these aspects of the ancient world. The site is divided into sections; within each section are several 'chapters', each of which corresponds to one week's teaching; the text of a lecture, along with some accompanying illustrations, is provided for each chapter. Section headings are as follows: the origins of western theatre (including chapters on theatre in the early Greek world and early Greek tragedy); classical Greek tragedy (with information on Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides); Greek comedy (covering satyr plays, Aristophanes and Menander); and Roman drama (dealing with the comedy of Plautus and Terence and the tragedy of the younger Seneca). Texts which are discussed are included in English translation (as 'readings') and are accompanied by questions for students to consider.
The website Classical Epic, designed by Robin Mitchell-Boyask, accompanies a course on Classical Epic at Temple University and makes accessible a wide range of resources to assist the student of both Greek and Latin epic poetry. Of particular relevance to classicists are the extensive sections on Homer and Virgil. There is also information on the Indian Mahabharata and the Sumerian epic Gilgamesh (for comparative study) Whilst the site provides several annotated links to relevant pages of external sites (with, for example, images and scholarly works relating to epic poetry) it also contains a number of specific resources created by staff at Temple. The most useful of these are the study guides accompanying the Homeric poems; these provide book-by-book guides to the Iliad and Odyssey, and include questions for discussion.
This online resource is a concise guide to the major classical writings which provide our source material for the myths of the Olympian gods and goddesses, illustrated with a selection of images from ancient and modern artists. The classical passages are taken from the Perseus Digital Library; this allows the interested reader to delve more deeply into the original sources and to pursue further research. No knowledge of Latin or ancient Greek is required or assumed. The resource also features a short but critical bibliography for further reading, a guide to identifying divinities from their iconographic attributes, and a timeline of Greek history and literature. While this modest website will largely benefit a general or undergraduate audience (it is intended for undergraduate students in Greek and Roman studies at the University of Victoria, BC) it will also serve as a quick and useful reference source or aide-memoire to the more knowledgeable or experienced student of classical myth, particularly for its iconographic content.
This website was set up by Dr Robin Mitchell-Boyask of Temple University to accompany his course in classical mythology. It is focused largely on Greek mythology, and is written primarily with undergraduates in mind, covering a range of mythological subjects, such as the gods and the Trojan War. Included are a series of study guides, compiled by Dr Mitchell-Boyask and featuring the following works: Homer's Iliad and Odyssey; selected Homeric Hymns; Sophocles' Oedipus and Antigone; Euripides' Medea and Hippolytus. Also featured are: a list of links for studying ancient mythology; details of the myths relating to Zeus; and links to images of myths relating to Heracles, Apollo, the city of Athens and the Trojan War (these lead ultimately to relevant pages of the Perseus website). This resource is a very straightforward site which would be of use to any student of Greek mythology.
This website accompanies a course on Classical Mythology run by Professor William A Johnson at Bucknell University. Whilst some of the information here is specific to that particular course, there is much which will be of interest to those looking for information on the myths of the ancient world in general. Individual pages of the site contain notes on particular topics and questions for discussion, and would be useful aids to anyone preparing tutorials or lectures relating to the themes covered here. Many pages are also accompanied by images from ancient art. The focus is primarily on ancient Greek myth, and individual sections deal with the following subjects: myth in literature (including the Near Eastern background, Gilgamesh, Homer and Hesiod, and the Greek dramatists Aeschylus and Sophocles); myth in art (with images relating to the myths of Heracles, Medea and Jason, and Perseus); myth in religion (including both gods and heroes); myth and thought (covering some of the ways in which philosophy and science deal with myth); and theories of myth. There is also a quick-reference study guide dealing with key names, concepts and episodes in myth. A further section gives sample exam/essay questions.
Written by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, this is an excellent online study guide to classical Greek and Roman culture through its key literary, historical and philosophical writers. The resource, which is intended for use by undergraduates taking classics options, combines historical, critical and literary material with practical exercises and questions in reading, comprehension and interpretation. The authors featured are: Homer; Thucydides; Sophocles; Euripides; Aristotle; Aristophanes; Plato; Lucretius; and Virgil. Each literary genre is accompanied by sections providing cultural and intellectual background. The entries are hyperlinked to Perseus for easy reference, as is the excellent glossary of personal names, technical terms and placenames, though there is no bibliography. This resource provides a clear and reliable learning resource for classics and ancient history students.
Classical Receptions in Drama and Poetry from c.1970-Present is a research project based within the Department of Classical Studies at the Open University (UK) and directed by Professor Lorna Hardwick; this is its online presence. The project aims to document and analyse the theatrical and literary interest in Greek texts and drama. This aim is accomplished through two broad aspects of the project. First, the project is publishing a series of case studies which examine relationships between the ancient texts and their corresponding modern creative art forms. Second, the project is developing a database of performances staged in the late twentieth century. Evidence is drawn from programmes, acting scripts, interviews and other texts. The Reception of Classical Texts database can be searched online after registration. A Poetry database is under development. The project publishes two peer-reviewed ejournals: New Voices and Practitioners' Voices, which are available from the website, as is the series of critical essays: 'Documenting and Researching Modern Productions of Greek Drama: The Sources'. The project has set up an electronic seminar series to enable informal contact and discussion among researchers working in the area, and these eseminars are archived and available on the project site (going back to 1998). The website also contains: information about the project and its methodology; a list of project publications; a specialist bibliography of material relating to modern productions of ancient Greek drama; and information about their Masks Workshop (2000). The project publishes listings of current and forthcoming productions in UK & Ireland and conferences, seminars and lectures, and the site makes avalable a list of links to related online resources.
This online resource is the homepage of Malcolm Heath, a professor of Greek Language and Literature at Leeds University, who is responsible for a number of major studies on Greek literature and rhetoric since the late 1980s. His website provides a full list of his publications, with abstracts and, where available, links to full-text versions online. Topics covered include: Aristotle; Aristophanes; Thucydides; ancient literary criticism (including ancient interpretations of Homer); Hesiod; and Pindar. Here Heath also makes accessible a wide range of course materials which he has used for the teaching of classical subjects including: Aristotle's Poetics; ancient rhetoric; Greek tragedy; Homer's Iliad; and literary theory. For each topic there are bibliographies, synopses of key texts and short papers on important issues. There is much here which will be of interest to both students and teachers of undergraduate classical courses.
Classics Ireland is the journal of the Classical Association of Ireland; this website provides the online version of the printed edition. Volumes 1-12 (1994-2005) are available here at the time of writing. Classics Ireland publishes scholarly articles and reviews on all aspects of the ancient world. Topics covered in the journal's articles, of which the full-text is available to view here, include: ancient Greek and Latin drama and poetry; Greek and Roman history and historiography; the reception of classical works and themes in modern literature; sexuality and gender; slavery; art and architecture; and teaching and learning classical subjects.
Andrew Wilson's Classics Pages form an extensive and well-designed website devoted to all aspects of ancient Greece and Rome. Several of the features have an interactive element, and there is something here to appeal to all levels of interest, from school to university teaching. A huge range of topics is covered here, with featured sections on: Greek literature (Homer's Iliad, Sappho, Aeschylus' Agamemnon, Sophocles' Oedipus and Antigone, Euripides, Aristophanes' Lysistrata and Peace, and Lucian); Latin literature (Catullus, Sulpicia, Virgil, Horace, Propertius and Apuleius, with extracts from texts in English and Latin); Plato's philosophy; a guide to figures from Greek mythology; an introduction to Greek architecture, pottery and sculpture (with images of artefacts); women in ancient Greece; the symposium; ancient technology; Eros; the Olympic Games; oracles; and the archaeology of ancient Greece and Sicily (accompanied by photographs and interactive tours of ancient sites). There is also a commentary, notes and vocabulary for Andrew Wilson's ancient Greek translation of Harry Potter. A lighthearted entertainment section features: quizzes and word games; rude Latin; classical phrases in everyday usage; the etymology of modern English names and words; and famous people who have had a classical education. The site is searchable by keyword, and if the search does not return an answer then the author is open to receiving email questions on any aspect of Classics. This resource is an excellent example the way in which the classical world can be made accessible to the current generation.
The Classics Technology Center is a website which provides a wealth of free electronic resources for the teaching and learning of Classics-based subjects. These range from school to university level and cover Greek and Latin languages, ancient history, archaeology and literature, as well as more general material and teaching tools to help with the use of web-based Classics resources. Also featured are pedagogical guidelines for teachers of Latin and Greek, and advice from classicists relating to the teaching of a range of topics based on personal teaching experience (themes covered include: classical literature; the Olympics; Alexander the Great; Latin mottoes; Roman gladiators; Plato; Troy; the Greek gods; Latin and Greek languages). There is also a 'showcase' of academic papers on teaching Classics, an extensive glossary of Greek and Latin terms, and a variety of word games and trivia quizzes, including a classical crossword. There is so much material here that the site can be difficult to navigate but teachers of classical topics will find that it is certainly worth spending time exploring what is available.
Classics@ is an online peer reviewed journal published by the Center for Hellenic Studies at Harvard University, which aims to bring contemporary classical scholarship to a wide Internet audience. Each issue dedicated to in-depth exploration of a single important problem in the field of Classics. Volume 1 is devoted to the 600 new lines of Hellenistic epigrammatic poetry attributed to Posidippus of Pella (fl. 300) discovered in the wrappings of an Egyptian mummy in 2001, and provides introductory material, translations and commentary based on original Italian edition. The Internet format allows on-going revision of the texts and their interpretation and facilitates academic discussion. Volume two is a valuable series of papers on the nature and future of electronic publication in classics ('Ancient Mediterranean cultural informatics') based on a workshop at the CHS in 2003, with articles on the issue of reconciling traditional standards and conventions of text editions with the technical potential of the Web. The text of each issue is regarded as an in-progress project which is subject to future revision so will lack the static nature of traditional journals and allow rapid dissemination of new research.
'Demos : Classical Athenian democracy' is a on-going digital project aiming to provide a comprehensive online guide to Athenian political life in the 5th and 4th centuries BC in a fully interactive, hypertext medium. This attractively presented digital encyclopaedia, sponsored and published by the Stoa Consortium, makes extensive use of original historical and epigraphic source material as well as providing detailed essays on many aspects of the political institutions and leaders of Athens in the classical period. Extensively cross-referenced with the Perseus project, the resource also includes much iconographic material and many bibliographic citations. The long-term aim is to provide information on many aspects of Athenian life in this period for a wide audience at all levels of academic and general interest. Useful features include: details of tribal heroes and personifications of political and social ideas; a series of essays on ancient historians and literary genres; a section on the nature of the sources themselves; and a list of relevant inscriptions and potted accounts of political institutions. A general A-Z index is complemented by a more specialised index of historical sources. All of the major articles can be downloaded as PDF files. Other useful features include a series of FAQs and a guide to work-in-progress. This useful and stimulating website will benefit students, teachers and researchers in ancient history, classics and classical archaeology as well as those from the wider disciplines of politics and sociology who are interested in a comparative and historical perspective.
'Didaskalia: Ancient Theatre Today' (ISSN 1321-4853) is an English-language Web resource that combines an online full-text journal with short introductory essays. There are also listings and links to ancient theatre resources online. The online journal, published sporadically since 1994, covers modern performances of Greek and Roman music, drama and dance. At September 2008 there are 21 issues available online. Each issue carries a mixture of features, performance and book reviews. Themes have included: Masks; Tantalus; Electra; crossing the ancient stage; Homeric epic; contemporary research trends and electronic initiatives in ancient theatre studies. Contributors to the journal have included scholars and theatre professionals. This is a useful resource for anyone interested in ancient theatre in general or in its modern performance and reception in particular.
The basis of the website "Die Sprache Alkmans : Textgeschichte und Sprachgeschichte" is the PhD thesis of George Hinge, written at the University of Aarhus and completed in 2001. The thesis is based upon the dialect and language used by Alcman of Sparta, the archaic Greek lyric poet (seventh century BC). Whilst the main text of the thesis is given in German, there are also summaries in English and Danish. Individual sections of the thesis focus on the following themes: the performance of Alcman's poems in antiquity; phonetics; morphology; phraseology; and metrical forms. There are also discussions of pronunciation of the Doric dialect. The overall argument of the thesis is that Alcman's dialect was fundamentally the same language as that used in other archaic poetry, but that the poetry which has been transmitted to us looks more like the Laconian vernacular because of local performance in Sparta. The site includes an extensive bibliography. The text is available either in HTML or as a PDF.
Digressus, launched in 2001, is a fully refereed online journal whose primary aim is to provide opportunities for graduate students in classics and related subjects to publish book reviews and articles in their subject areas. Articles deal with a wide variety of aspects of the classical world, including ancient Greek and Roman history, literature, philosophy, art and archaeology. The journal also features reviews of academic books. A collaborative project between the Universities of Nottingham and Birmingham, the journal accepts reviews and articles in English, German, French, Italian and Spanish as well as publishing proceedings of conferences. The papers are presented in PDF format. The resource also includes a guide for contributors and a page of external links to conferences and events of interest to classicists; the editors invite their readers to submit news and information for inclusion on the website.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
The Divine Sappho is an excellent website devoted to the Greek female lyric poet who lived on Lesbos in the late seventh and early sixth centuries BC. It brings together a range of useful resources for the study of the poet, including a variety of modern translations of the surviving fragments of her poetry, original Greek texts and articles relating to her life and works. An index of first lines allows the user to access and compare the different English translations of Sappho's poetry. The text of Henry Thornton Wharton's 1895 Life of Sappho is also given here; this is particularly interesting for the Victorian perspective which it gives on the issue of Sappho's sexuality. In addition, other highlights of the site include: Pope's 1707 translation of Ovid, Heroides XV, (Sappho to Phaon); articles on Sappho contributed by Joseph Addison to the Spectator in 1707; translated passages on Sappho from Demetrius' On Style (probably first century BC) and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (first century BC); and post-Renaissance literary and artistic responses to Sappho from, among others, Laurent Chapman, Gilbert Murray and K. O. Müller. There is also an extensive series of annotated links to other relevant Web pages.
The website of The Ecole Initiative : The Eleusinian Mysteries is dedicated to the ancient Greek festival held annually in honour of Demeter and Persephone. The Eleusinian Mysteries were the most sacred and revered of all the ritual celebrations of ancient Greece. The website has been compiled by Edward Beach of the University of Wisconsin. The site offers an account of what little is known about the Mysteries, and some of this is necessarily speculative. This includes discussion of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. The site also offers images of Demeter, Persephone and Eleusis. There is also a bibliography. The resource would primarily be of interest to ancient historians working on Greek religion.
First published in 1993, Electronic Antiquity is an online peer reviewed journal which carries articles, reviews and notices (including job vacancies and conference information) relevant to the study of Greek and Roman classics and ancient history. Topics covered by articles published here include, among others: Greek and Latin poetry; biography; ancient drama; ancient philosophy; social history; ancient mythology; and Egyptology. The full-text of all articles published since the first volume is available at no cost to the user. Contents may be browsed by volume and issue or via a general search interface. Submission guidelines are also provided for those wishing to contribute. Greek text is transliterated. Articles since July 2004 are available to download in PDF format.
Elpenor is a website which offers a bilingual anthology of Greek literature, featuring extracts of texts written in ancient, New Testament and modern Greek and accompanied by English translations. These are easily accessible and manageable chunks of original Greek works which could be used as a language learning tool. Both prose and poetry appear here, with featured authors including (among many others): Homer; Thucydides; Aristophanes; Plato; Origen; Plotinus; Gregory of Nyssa; and Cavafy. The site also offers a course in the Greek language, from learning the alphabet to the basics of Greek grammar, accompanied by extracts from original texts. A further section, entitled Libraries, offers: extracts from post-classical authors referring to classical themes or texts (this will be of use to those with an interest in the modern reception of the ancient world); Greek pronunciation audio files; extracts from secondary texts on aspects of the ancient world; a section dedicated to Constantinople; and an image gallery of paintings of Greece. The website also provides a discussion forum, and links to downloadable fonts to enable the user to read or write Greek. Whilst the site offers a range of useful resources, the presence of several advertisements on every page is distracting for the academic user and can make it tedious to navigate.
Enchiridion is online teaching guide by Elaine Woodward and Marianne Pagos of the Boston Latin School for those who want to learn ancient Greek. This e-book is available to download here in PDF format. Individual chapters cover the following topics relating to Greek grammar: the Greek alphabet and pronunciation; cases (nominative, accusative etc), number, and gender; nouns and their forms; verb forms and tenses; participles; pronouns. Each chapter provides both explanatory text and grammatical/translation exercises. Other pages of the website offer further exploration of the Greek language, and include: readings from Homer's Iliad for translation; a section listing prepositions; a list of irregular verbs; a 'glossary' (which is in fact a dictionary of transliterated Greek words); and an appendix of the various charts which appear in the main text. The site is easy to navigate and the text is clear.
Epicurus and Epicurean Philosophy is a website which aims to introduce Epicureanism both to the serious student of philosophy and to anyone seeking useful and inspiring ideas. Epicurus (341-270 BC) helped to lay the intellectual foundations for modern science and for secular individualism, with many aspects of his system still highly relevant some twenty-three centuries after they were first taught to his students at his school, known as 'The Garden', in Athens. The site includes: translations of Epicurean texts (including works by, as well as Epicurus himself: Diogenes Laertius; Lucretius; Cicero; Horace; Lucian; Cornelius Nepos; Plutarch; and Lactantius); background information on the period in which he and his followers wrote; general material on ancient philosophy; and pages of annotated links to other relevant online resources. There is also a discussion list associated with the site.
This series of eight online essays, part of the Johnstonia pages created by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, deals with a range of different aspects of Homer's Iliad. The author is keen to stress the importance and relevance of this epic poem for modern readers, and does so by considering Homer's fatalistic view of war as an unchanging condition of human life. The essays deal with the following topics: Homer's war; Homer's similes; the gods; the heroic code; arms and the men; Hector and Achilles; Homer and the modern imagination; and modern English translations of the Iliad. Throughout, the Iliad itself is quoted in English translation, and there is also a bibliography listing works cited in the essays.
The Eumenides is a collection of material prepared for courses originally taught by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University College, relating to the Greek tragedy of that name by Aeschylus. The material can be freely downloaded in HTML format from the Oxford Text Archive's website, which was formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS).
This Web page, part of the Johnstonia website created by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Vancouver, is described by the author as an introductory note to Euripides' tragedy, the Bacchae. It takes the form of a detailed essay discussing various aspects of the play. A summary of the key features of the play's plot is followed by sections on the following topics: the theme of impiety; Dionysian religion; the play as a 'choice of nightmares' or vision of despair. There are also brief notes on the historical context of the play and its mythological framework. Links are provided to an English translation of the Bacchae, also written by Ian Johnston.
From the Humanities Department of Reed College, this concise Web page focuses on the Greek drama Bacchae, composed by the tragedian Euripides (c485-406 BC) and first produced in 405 BC. The site features a range of resources to aid students' understanding of the play. These include: an outline of the plot; a series of images (taken from Perseus), with explanatory text, depicting Maenads and Dionysus as shown on ancient vases and coinage; links to extracts from primary sources which shed light on passages from the Bacchae (featured texts include Aristophanes' Frogs, Euripides' Cyclops, the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus, and Herodotus); some extracts from the works on the play's modern commentators. There is also a series of external links relating to the play and to the figure of Dionysus.
Facta et Verba is an online collection of classical electronic texts, produced by a project that describes itself as 'a laboratory that investigates the automatic processing and presentation of data'. In practice, there is little discussion of the theoretical issues surrounding text encoding and presentation to be found in this website, which acts rather as a page allowing the user to see the results of such encoding. Items featured on the site include: an annotated hypertext edition of Suetonius's Vita Augustus, with links to an English translation; text, commentary, translation of and concordance to Boethius' Consolatio Philosophiae; a concordance to Virgil's Aeneid (Book IV); and an extract (in English translation) from Aeschylus' Agamemnon, with commentary (lines 266-316, the section containing Clytemnestra's famous monologue). At the time of writing this review, the site had not been updated since March 2001.
This online resource is the complete text of a lecture on Sophocles' fifth-century BCE tragic play, Oedipus the King (Oedipus Tyrannos or Oedipus Rex), given by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Vancouver, as part of a Liberal Studies class. This forms part of the author's Johnstonia Web pages. The following topics are discussed in the course of the essay: fate and fatalism; the notion of the hero; the character of Oedipus; the seer/prophet Teiresias; the Chorus; irony, fate and free will; the tragic hero; the appeal of tragedy; interpreting tragedy; the end of the tragedy; and the historical development of tragic drama. There is also a link to a complete English translation of the play itself, produced by Ian Johnston.
Designed to accompany a series of lectures given by Professor Kirk Summers of the University of Alabama, this website on Greek and Roman mythology provides links to images of the slides used as visual aids (showing primarily ancient art and architecture). The course is based around the theme of Greek and Roman mythology, and focuses on specific deities and texts relating to their stories. These include literary interpretations of particular myths from archaic Greece to Roman times, including Hesiod's Theogony, Ovid's Metamorphoses and Euripides' Bacchae. Lectures are based on the following themes: the creation myths; Zeus and Hera; Poseidon, Hermes and Hephaestus; Artemis and Athena; Cybele and Aphrodite; Demeter and Persephone; Apollo at Delphi; Dionysus; the underworld (including Orpheus); Heracles; and Perseus and Theseus. Each slide is accompanied by descriptive text, and although the actual text of the lectures is not featured here the site is nonetheless a valuable source of images for anyone seeking to illustrate teaching material on these topics. Links to relevant external websites are also given.
The Greek Mythology Link is a vast online repository of detailed information on Greek myths. Created by Carlos Parada, it is based partly on his book 'Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology' (Jonsered, 1993), and thus pays particular attention to the relationships of mythical characters with one another. It bases its information on primary sources, all of which are collated in the bibliography. The site consists of key sections which cover the following: 'Biographies' (outlining the roles, deeds and relationships of the gods, men, women, personifications and monsters in the mythical stories); 'Groups' (referring to the collectives which populate Greek mythology); 'Places and Peoples' (on the mythical history of cities and regions that feature in Greek mythology, such as Corinth, Troy and Ionia, as well as the Underworld), an extensive dictionary of mythological characters and places; a catalogue of images (primarily showing pictures of post-classical illustrations and sculptures dealing with the ancient myths). There are also illustrated essays on the myths in general, divinities, events, and a section of varia, including 'Murders', 'Life and Deeds of the Pelopides' and 'Disney's Hercules and Original Hercules compared'. The site is fully searchable and each page contains hyperlinks which direct the reader to other relevant articles within the resource. Justifiably, the site has received a number of awards, and should be a primary resource for anyone interested in Greek mythology and its reception in modern times.
Greek Prose Style is an informative and easy-to-use website which accompanies a course on Greek prose writing run by the Classics Department at the City University of New York. The course comprises an insight into the prose writings of various ancient Greek authors (from the fifth and fourth centuries BC) as well as the composition of Greek prose as translated from English. Authors who feature as part of the course include orators, historians and philosophers: Lysias; Anaxagoras; Plato; Gorgias; Antiphon; Isocrates; Thucydides; and Demosthenes. Introductory sketches of the work of each author are given here, along with links to online texts of their writing, analyses of some key passages and extracts from ancient commentators on their works. There is also: an extensive bibliography of secondary material (although unfortunately this is unannotated); a lengthy essay on Greek sentence structure; and a checklist highlighting the stylistic features used by each of the featured authors. Finally, users may also access here (under the link entitled 'Syllabus') assignments which were set for students on the course in 2007 - this may be useful for teachers planning to run a similar course.
Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies (GRBS) is a journal which has been published quarterly online since 2004 by Duke University and which focuses on Classics. The website lists tables of contents for all volumes since 1958, and provides access to abstracts and the full text of all articles written since 2004. These can be viewed in PDF format. Most of the published articles concentrate on classical and Byzantine literature, but archaeology is represented too. Papers include general literary themes such as "ancestors as icons" and the titanic origin of humans" as well as authors such as Homer, Herodotus and Plutarch. There are also papers on classical epigraphy and the archaeological excavations investigating late antique Palestine.
This website, from Harvard University Classics Department, aims to foster an understanding of the performative aspect of ancient literature by providing recordings of extracts from ancient Greek and Latin texts (both poetry and prose) as recited by staff and students. Each recording is accompanied by the original-language text and notes. Featured works are: Ovid's Amores; Homer's Iliad; Propertius; Statius' Silvae; Virgil's Aeneid; Catullus; Cicero's first Catilinarian. A further section features students' declamations (in English) in the style of Ovid and Seneca. There is also a link here to the Homer in Performance pages which feature readings of selected parts of the Iliad, accompanied by Greek text and notes by Gregory Nagy.
The Hellenistic Bibliography - an online resource from the University of Leiden - is a compilation of a series of bibliographies on post-classical Greek poetry and its influence. Most sections feature a list of the most recent publications as well as a list of modern editions of the ancient works and a general bibliography (arranged alphabetically according to author surname) of important articles and books on each author. The resource records works written in most major European languages and will be of particular value to scholars seeking secondary material on some of the less well-known Greek authors. More obscure poets such as Anyte, Colluthus and Phanocles appear alongside the more familiar names of Callimachus and Theocritus, for example. There is also a section cataloguing bibliography on the influence of Hellenistic poetry on Latin writers such as Horace, Ovid and Virgil, as well as a topic-based section featuring works on Hellenistic history, Ptolemaic Egypt, ideology and patronage and Alexander the Great.
This Web page belongs to the History of Western Civilization course page by Dr Ellis L Knox of Boise State University, and provides a chronological account of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). Written for undergraduates, the style is easily readable, if informal. The straight narrative is divided into seventeen short parts. Sometimes this leads to a glossing over of important events: the First Peloponnesian War is described as a 'nasty war' between Sparta and Athens, Sphacteria receives an undetailed mention, and the establishment of the oligarchy in 411 is discussed in the simplest terms. The account will be of most use to those requiring an easy introduction to this difficult period of Greek history. A brief reference page offers full-texts (in English) of Thucydides' history, Plutarch's Lives of Alcibiades and Pericles and a very brief bibliography.
Based around Homer's archaic Greek epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey (probably eighth century BC), this online resource provides detailed summaries of the texts as well as short discussions of a range of aspects of the ancient epics. It is aimed primarily at those who are new to the study of Homer. Further sections look at Greece in Homeric times and the historical background to Homer and his work. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of the site is, however, a series of explorations of other (modern) texts which are based on Homer. These include: Joyce's Ulysses (with a chapter-by-chapter summary of the novel as compared with the Odyssey); Tolkien's Gondolin; and Scott's Ivanhoe. A basic bibliography is also provided.
This Web page, authored by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Vancouver, provides the revised version of a lecture on Homer's ancient Greek epic poem, the Odyssey. The resource is part of the author's Johnstonia website. The lecture is divided into sections on the following topics: a historical note on Homer; the Odyssey as an epic poem; structure and style of the Odyssey; the Odyssey's vision of life; the gods as visual manifestations of the divine; the character of the hero Odysseus; comedy in the poem. Throughout the lecture the author also compares aspects of the Homeric epic with the Old Testament Book of Genesis.
Homerica is a French website devoted to the life and works of the archaic Greek epic poet Homer. Featuring a bibliography, and filmography; information on iconography; and chronologies of the Trojan War; Homerica is a valuable resource for understanding the Iliad and Odyssey. Although the site is primarily a gateway to seminars, conferences and publications, it also contains many images; extracts from the Homeric texts in the original Greek; reviews of exhibitions; and catalogues. The section on the historical versus mythical Homer is particularly rewarding, detailing some of the evidence pertaining to the poet's life, and providing helpful links to other material available on the Internet. Some sections may be useful to archaeologists, such as the one on Mycenology (photo and drawing of tablet Ta 641) and various sections on the Trojan War. As a portal to Homeric studies this site is essential reading for those working on literature, Greek culture and archaeology.
HyperEpos: Epic on the Internet is an annotated web gateway for those interested in both Classical (Greek and Roman) epic poetry, and English language epics from the Middle Ages to the present day. In addition to the more familiar categories of Renaissance and Medieval epic, the site lists an extensive number of sub-genres. These include Women's epic, American epic, Modernist epic and Contemporary epic. A further category, Non-Western epic, provides a range of resources for the study of texts such as the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Epic of Shahnameh Ferdowsi. The site covers Indian epic, African epic, Arabic epic, Japanese epic, and Turkish and Persian epic. Resources on these topics include texts, commentaries, and translations.The site is a valuable resource for genre-based study and would be particularly useful for students and scholars working on comparative or cross-cultural studies.
This website acts as a very basic introduction to Homer's Iliad for those reading the epic for the first time, contextualising the poem both chronologically and geographically. It includes a map showing the locations of key sites and events in the poem, as well as timelines locating the work in relation to real historical events and other ancient Greek literature of the archaic and classical periods (covering very briefly the period from 3000BC to the fourth century BC). A concise book-by-book outline of the Iliad is also given, as well as several images of Greek vases which relate to the Homeric epic. The site also gives links to the relevant pages of Perseus, which offers English and Greek texts of the Iliad as well as information on key sites for Homeric archaeology (Mycenae, Pylos and Troy).
The Digital Texts Project website of the Institute for Learning Technologies (ILT), based at Columbia University, offers free full-text editions of many classic philosophical works in English. Texts available include: Aristotle's 'Nicomachean Ethics'; Plato's 'Meno'; 'Crito'; 'Protagoras'; 'Phaedrus'; 'Gorgias'; 'Ion'; 'Symposium'; 'Phaedo'; and 'Republic'; John Dewey's 'Democracy and Education'; John Locke's 'An Essay Concerning Human Understanding'; and Machiavelli's 'The Prince'. There are also texts by George Berkeley, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, David Hume, and Virgil, amongst others. Brief biographic sketch of authors are also provided, plus links to other major sites with digital texts available. However, it should be noted that this site is still a work in progress: texts are not yet available for all the authors listed on the home page, and some of those which are available are only in plain text format (HTML versions are said to be forthcoming, but site updates do not appear to be particularly frequent). Nevertheless, there is already enough material here to make this an extremely useful resource.
This is the website of the International Plutarch Society, which aims to further Plutarchan studies and to encourage communication between scholars who are researching various aspects of Plutarch's works. The site gives a page of links to English translations of writings of the Greek biographer, historian, and moral philosopher, (found in the Internet Classics Archive) as well as a large downloadable bibliography (in PDF format) of secondary material on Plutarch which, although comprehensive, gives only the title and author of works with no annotation detailing their content. Details of how to become a member of the International Plutarch Society are also given on the website, as well as information on new publications and upcoming conferences on Plutarch and tables of contents for the Society's paper journal, Ploutarchos.
The Internet Classics Archive offers access to online editions of classical texts. It currently offers over four hundred works by over fifty different authors, primarily Greek and Roman but also some Chinese (for example Confucius) and Persian (for example Omar Khayyam). All texts are in translation. The site offers a facility (through a link to the Perseus website) by which texts can be searched by work, author or by the entire archive. Users can view brief biographical information on each author through links to the online Encyclopaedia Britannica. The site has been affected by some technical problems which mean that searches can be slow. This is a resource which would mainly be of use to undergraduates looking for translations of major texts. It would be less useful for advanced or specialist research.
This website provides a lecture-style illustrated introduction to ancient Greek and Roman comedy, an excellent overview (by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College) of the subject for school and undergraduate level students of classics and related disciplines. The 29 sections introduce the origins of classical comedy and its role in the religious festivals of Athens, which were established in honour of the god Dionysius. It particularly relates to the Great (or City) Dionysia, one of the two Dionysian festivals (the other being the Rural Dionysia) that was probably established in the 6th century BC, but that is best documented from the 5th century BC onwards. The website outlines the form and function of the theatres and their technical equipment with reference to surviving literary, iconographic and archaeological evidence. There is much useful information on genre, aspects of performance, the role of actors and chorus, and on music, as well as a modest bibliography suitable for undergraduate reading. The text is hypertexted throughout to the Perseus digital library for convenient reference, which makes it an ideal online resource for students taking classical civilisation at an elementary level.
This online resource is a clearly-written and well-illustrated introduction to Greek tragedy aimed at undergraduates studying Classics and related subjects, by Roger Dunkle of the Classics Department of Brooklyn College, New York. Presented in lecture form, the course consists of 24 sections which include the following: an explanation of the origins of tragedy in the religious festivals of ancient Greece (particularly the City Dionysia in Athens); information about the locations of ancient theatres and an analysis of their architectural and technical details; a discussion of the written and iconographic sources for the Greek theatre; and sections on the actors, chorus, music and production of a play. The only drawback is the absence of a bibliography or of sources for the archaeological material such as the admirable series of painted vase scenes which reflect the origin of the text in the lecture hall. Nonetheless, the resource will benefit school and undergraduate students of ancient literature and society, as well as those interested in comparative literature and drama.
This website deals with the life and work of the Greek mathematician, Euclid (c. 300 BC). The site has been compiled by Donald Lancon, a freelance mathematical enthusiast who was educated at the University of Houston in the United States. The site consists mainly of an extended essay prepared by Lancon while he was a student at Houston. This includes biographical information about Euclid, which would be of general interest to classicists and ancient historians. Source references are given throughout. The site deals in some detail with Euclid's contributions to geometry and mathematics, paying particular attention to the Elements. This work by Euclid deals with topics including plane geometry, solid geometry and number theory. The site also provides a detailed bibliography of suggestions for further study relating to works on Euclid and other aspects of Greek mathematics.
Designed for both students and teachers of Classics, this is the website for the Joint Association of Classical Teachers (JACT), an organisation which promotes the teaching and learning of classics in schools and universities. JACT provides an information service for classicists, offering details of forthcoming events, productions of Greek plays and JACT summer schools for intensive study in Greek and Latin. The website also features: details of how to join or contact JACT; a range of teaching resources for Latin, Greek, Classical Civilisation and Ancient History in schools; information for teachers (including examination syllabi, announcements of job vacancies, school trips related to Classics, and specialist book stores); details of JACT's journals, 'Omnibus' and 'Journal of Classics Teaching' (with sample articles available online); information on projects supported by JACT; links to other Classics-related websites. Also featured is 'The Good Text Guide', a searchable guide to recommended editions of ancient texts.
This online classics resource was created by John Paul Adams, a professor in the department of Modern and Classical Languages and Literature at the California State University. His website is of benefit to all students of Classics, as it contains numerous links to detailed resources, as well as presenting many useful passages of text in translation. Impressive in its scope, the site is divided into themed sections, each of which contains study notes, teaching handouts, links to relevant websites and English translations of relevant ancient texts. Sections cover the following broad topics: Greek and Roman history; Greek and Roman art and archaeology; Greek and Roman literature; Greek mythology; ancient texts; a Roman army bibliography; resources on ancient Sparta. Other parts of the site link information on the Latin courses taught by John Adams; these in turn offer handouts and links with information on Latin language, vocabulary and grammar. There is much here which will be of interest and value both to the teacher and student of classical subjects.
Johnstonia is the home page of Ian Johnston, formerly an instructor at Vancouver Island University in Canada. The website offers a substantial collection of primary texts, many of which were translated by Johnston, plus many of Johnston's own essays, lecture transcripts, book reviews, and other study materials. Most of the primary texts fall within the disciplines of classics and philosophy, including works by: Aristophanes; Homer; Nietzsche; Rousseau; and several others. The lectures and other material cover many of the same authors, plus a number of literary writers: T. S. Eliot, John Milton, and Tom Stoppard are among those included, and there is a section devoted to the study of Shakespeare. The site describes itself as 'designed to provide curricular material for various courses in literature and Liberal Studies'. The works are freely available for educational and other non-commercial uses.
The website of the Commission for ancient literature and Latin tradition at the division of the Austrian Academy of Sciences is devoted to research in Classics and provides a range of useful resources for classicists and ancient historians namely: a list of reviews published in the journal Wiener Studien from 1998 onwards; a Homeric bibliography from 1978-1992; fascinating pages on Homeric singing, ancient Greek music and Classical Greek pronunciation with audio links to recordings of reconstructed ancient Greek sounds; a section on the role of classical myth in the Renaissance provides the texts of books such as Boccaccio's Genealogie deorum gentilium (1951 Romano edition) and Gyraldus's Historiae deorum gentilium of 1548 which can be downloaded as PDF files. This is largely a specialist resource which will appeal to students and researchers in the classics and philology.
The Ancient Greek Music subsite - for example - consists of recordings of all published fragments of ancient Greek music which comprise more than a few notes, ranging in date from the 5th century BC to the 3rd century AD. The recordings, edited and arranged by Stefan Hagel of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, are based on texts published in West's Ancient Greek Music (Oxford 1992) and Pöhlmann's Dënkmaler Altgriechischer Musik (Nürnburg 1970). Subscription is free and users may download copies for personal and academic use. RealPlayer or Midi audio packages are required to listen to the fragments though some sound distortion may result depending on the hardware used. While ostensibly an academic resource for classicists, ancient historians and musicologists, this website will interest students and teachers of classical studies in schools as well as the general public who can experience the thrill of hearing ancient music resurrected in this way.
The website of the Laboratorio Informatico per le Lingue Antiche (LILA) provides information about their software 'SNS - Greek and Latin'. The software is for Macintosh computers, and enables the user to search two important data banks of classical writing: the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae; and parts of the Packard Humanities Institute's bank. The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae contains ancient Greek texts ranging from Homer to authors in the fifteenth century A.D. The Packard data banks available to users are PHI #5.3, containing classic Latin texts, and PHI #7, containing Greek documentary papyri and inscriptions. The software provides the user with a fairly sophisticated search engine, catering for Boolean logic operators, special characters, and restrictions by various bibliographic factors. Results may be exported in different text formats.A single-user licence costs around 150 Euros. A free demonstration version of the software may be ordered from the site, although this allows access to a limited selection of the texts. The site also allows users to subscribe to the SNS mailing list.
The Last Days of Socrates is a website designed by two faculty members of Clarke College, Iowa, and intended to provide help for those students who are reading the work of Socrates (469-399 BC) for the first time (typically first year undergraduates). It provides the complete texts (in English translation) of the Euthyphro, Apology, Crito and the Phaedo, the four central addresses attributed to Socrates and reported by Plato (429-347 BC). Each text is accompanied by explanatory notes of the important philosophical issues such as those that are concerned with Socratic irony, value and reason. The translations include cross-references with clickable links giving explanations of key terms or proper nouns. The site also offers a series of audio links to recordings of extracts from the speeches (RealPlayer is required in order to access these). A less comprehensive Spanish language version of the site is also available.
The Library of Ancient Texts Online (LATO) is a gateway site which has been created by Peter Gainsford, a classicist in New Zealand, as a catalogue of online editions of ancient Greek texts, both in the original language and in English or modern Greek translation. The sites are listed alphabetically by ancient author, and alternative online versions are given where they exist. The editor has omitted sites which require a subscription or registration or those which are not easily navigable. This resource will interest in particular school and university students of classics and related subjects and encourage the judicious use of online editions of ancient Greek texts.
Lectrix is an innovative online resource for the teaching, understanding, and analysis of ancient Greek and Latin texts. It is a collaborative project between the University of Cambridge Faculty of Classics and Cambridge University Press. Subscribers can access Greek and Latin texts, and each text is supported by an extensive range of study tools, including a dictionary and a grammatical parser, basic and advanced commentaries (the latter taken from the relevant volume of the Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics series), and a newly commissioned English translation. The texts are intended to be suitable for students who have completed an introductory course in either language, and include works by: Lysias; Plato; Sophocles; Euripides; Virgil; Ovid; Apuleius; and Cicero. It is envisaged that the number of texts available will be expanded regularly. Lectrix is available by annual subscription to libraries, institutions, and individuals in three separate packages: either Greek or Latin texts only, or both. Price quotes are available on request. Institutions and libraries may sign up for a free 30-day trial; individuals can access a complete online tour. The site is clear and intuitively navigable.
Founded in 2002, Leeds International Classical Studies is an open-access online journal associated with the Leeds International Classics Seminar. It publishes articles and interim discussion papers on all aspects of Greek and Roman antiquity, and of the history of the classical tradition. Topics covered by journal articles include: comedy; didactic poetry; marriage and sex; oratory and rhetoric; philosophy; and tragedy. As well as presenting the full text of journal articles in PDF format, the website also provides: guidelines for those who wish to contribute articles to the journal; a statement of editorial policy; and information regarding the copyright of articles submitted.
Let's Review Greek! is a website from Cornell College which brings together a range of useful resources designed to help the student of ancient Greek to revise their knowledge of the language independently. It states that it is aimed primarily at students who have been learning Greek for one or two years. Although much of its content is drawn from external websites (such as Perseus) the site is organised in such a way as to make it much easier for users to access manageable and relevant chunks of information quickly. A section on Greek grammar, language and culture gives links to pages on the alphabet, syntax and grammatical forms, as well as background information on Greek society. Further sections are entitled 'Easy Readings' and 'Intermediate Readings' and contain links to bite-sized extracts from original Greek texts (including New Testament works) which are selected in order to encourage students to practise reading the ancient language. Each extract is designed to take between fifteen and thirty minutes.
This website provides access to the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB), a searchable catalogue of Latin and Greek works in circulation from the fourth century BC to AD 800. It allows one to explore the transmission of ancient and classical texts and ideas from the ancient world through to late antiquity, and it builds on previous research by Roger Pack, Joseph van Haelst, and Marcello Gigante, whose catalogues of ancient books are incorporated here. The database has been created in FileMaker Pro, and this program must be available on one's machine in order to use the database. The LDAB contained information on just under 14,000 ancient literary texts at the time of writing this review, and it includes material written on papyrus, ostraka, parchment, and tablets. Each entry includes details of published material about the text, the ancient author, title of the work, material inscribed, the bookform, the genre, the culture (Greek, Latin, Hebrew), religion, the text's provenance, date of writing, description of the lettering, and the subjects covered by the text. The LDAB can be searched on most of the fields listed above. More than one field can be selected for searching. Results can be displayed in a variety of attractive formats. For example, a search for all editions of a Euripides play gives a list of catalogue entries in plain text. Other functionality is available with the CD-ROM version of the database. Using this webpage, you can search through the entire LDAB database, but you cannot download it it as a whole. Results can be printed out.
The Literary Encyclopedia provides bibliographies and text profiles for a wide range of authors, as well as critical summaries of many classic texts. Whilst the encyclopaedia's primary focus is on English literature, classical authors and works are also well represented, and their is a growing body of entries on European and international literature. Basic records are free to read (this is normally the first 400 words); whilst subscription is required to view the full entries. There are about 5,900 authors listed, 17,500 works and 1,500 topics all written by experts in their field. Using the advanced search facility it is possible to list authors according to genre, sex, period and culture. The site is constantly under development with the aim of adding many new entries and expanding existing ones. It includes an extensive Links database (over 4,000 links), a stylebook and glossary.
The Little Sailing is an online resource providing access to downloadable texts written in both ancient and modern Greek. Ancient texts available here as PDF or zipped files date from the archaic period (eighth century BC) to the Second Sophistic (second to third century AD) and a wide range of genres is covered. This includes: epic and lyric poetry (Homer, Hesiod, Pindar); tragedy (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides); historiography (Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon); comedy (Aristophanes, Menander); oratory (Aeschines, Isocrates, Lysias); philosophy (Aristotle, Epictetus, Epicurus, Plato); biography (Diogenes Laertius, Plutarch); medicine (Hippocrates); satire (Lucian); and geography (Pausanias). Many of the ancient Greek texts are accompanied by modern Greek translations which may be browsed alongside the original. There are also poems and short stories by the modern Greek authors Giannis Skaribas and Stelios Doumenis as well as a range of miscellaneous extracts from Greek literature. The site is fully searchable.
This is an excellent resource offering articles on ancient history and archaeology together with an impressive library of photographic images of ancient sites which can be down-loaded for free for non-commercial use. The website is laid out geographically with sections on Greece, Persia, Anatolia, Carthage and Punic Sicily, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Judaea, Germania and Rome (as well a Dutch language resource on Dutch history) while the authoritative but very readable text has many cross links between them. There is no overall structure to individual sections: the Greek entries have a strong emphasis on Alexander the Great and his successors, on various authors such as Plutarch and Herodotos (including selections of extracted texts) and a series of short encyclopaedia-style entries on politicians, philosophers and literary figures. The Judaean passages discuss, for instance, Messianic claimants, the Diaspora and anti-Semitism in the ancient and mediaeval worlds, alongside more linear accounts of the Roman wars and potted biographies of leading Jewish figures. This website will benefit both students and teachers of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern world but the author makes the pointed observation that students must combine the use of electronic resources with proper library research for which the Web is not a substitute.
'Lost Trails' is a non-commercial educational resource whose main aim is to provide an English language version of the 'Histories' or 'Enquiries' of the 5th century BC Greek historian Herodotus. The site features many high quality photographs and maps illustrating the locations mentioned in the text, which will help to elucidate the complex and wide-ranging narrative. The photographs are hyperlinked to the translation, which is divided into 48 convenient instalments. The website also features folk handicrafts and music from Greece and other parts of south-eastern Europe as well as a notice board for feedback and comments on the various items featured. Donations are solicited from individuals who wish to support the work of the project. A caveat for less experienced A level or undergraduate students of ancient history (or the general reader) is that, at present, this edition of Herodotus falls short of academic standards in that it lacks line numbers, glosses of words or unfamiliar terms, or footnotes. The project is however work in progress, and these features should be added at some point. Users should also be aware that several of the photographs lack commentary and, inevitably given later rebuilding, depict structures or objects that post-date the events recorded in the Herodotean text. Nevertheless this is a useful online supplement to existing printed or electronic resources for students of classics, ancient history or archaeology.
The Multitext Homer is an on-going research project, supported by Harvard University's Center for Hellenic Studies and the Stoa Consortium, which aims to provide a definitive and interactive Web edition of the Homeric and related texts based on all of the surviving evidence from the pre-Classical to mediaeval periods as preserved in manuscripts and papyri and in ancient commentaries and scholiasts. The absence of a definitive edition of Homer is due in part to the lack of academic agreement as to which of the various texts and fragments of Homer, between which there are often considerable variations, may be regarded as 'primary'; this project is addressing this problem by including all of the relevant testimonia supported by modern critical commentaries.The website publishes numerous components of the wider research project and includes: a fully searchable relational database of the Homeric papyri based on the original research of Dana Sutton; an edition of Comparetti's 1901 facsimile of the Venutus A manuscript and of Villoison's 1788 edition of the Iliad; a translation of Proclus' summary of the Epic Cycle; a major commentary on the poems of Theognis of Megara. The full-text of Nagy's important 1996 work 'Homeric Questions' is also available. This is an important and expanding Web project which will benefit students and researchers of Greek literature and culture and those interested in manuscript studies and literary transmission from the ancient world.
Hosted by the Department of Classical Studies at the Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands, this website is the home page of the Network for the Study of Archaic and Classical Greek Song, which was founded in 2007. The network is devoted to the study of lyric, elegiac and iambic poetry in archaic and classical Greece, and was co-founded by Ewen Bowie of the University of Oxford and André Lardinois of the Radboud University Nijmegen. The site gives details of the activities of the network (including meetings and conferences), as well as names and contact details of its members. Perhaps the most useful aspect of the site for researchers is, however, the extremely comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography of publications on archaic and classical Greek poetry. This is divided into the following sections: Greek song (general); Greek elegy and iambus; Greek lyric poetry; and dramatic chorus. Each of these sections is then divided into sub-sections devoted to individual poets and playwrights. Where articles or abstracts are available online, links to these are provided. There is also a list of forthcoming publications on relevant topics, as well as a list of postgraduate dissertations-in progress.
This website contains the full text of Homer's 'Odyssey' (written 800 BC), in a prose translation by Samuel Butler (1835-1902) first published in 1900. The epic is a mythical narrative of Odysseus' ten-year long voyages and adventures after the Trojan War, which influenced all subsequent maritime literature.
This website contains the text of the first twelve books of George Chapman's rare translation of Homer's Odyssey, published in 1614. The epic is a mythical account of Odysseus' ten year long voyages and adventures after the Trojan War. The site also contains a bibliographic record, a reproduction of the title page, and the original Introduction. Chapman's footnotes are also included. The text is part of Bartleby.com, an Internet publisher of literature.
This Web page is the revised version of a lecture on Aeschylus' fifth-century BCE tragic trilogy, the Oresteia (comprising the Agamemnon, Choephoroi and Eumenides - although the primary focus of this lecture is the Agamemnon). The text was written by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Vancouver, and it forms part of his Johnstonia website. The following topics are covered in the lecture: the Trojan War; the house of Atreus; the revenge ethic; the theme of revenge in the Agamemnon; the role of the Chorus in the Agamemnon; and the characters of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra. There is also a link to an online English translation of the Oresteia, also produced by Ian Johnston.
Berkeley's Online Medieval and Classical Library (OMACL) is a collection of literary works from classical and medieval times. The site has been developed by Douglas Killings, who has written a brief introduction to each text explaining when it first appeared, which language it was originally written in, who wrote it, and which edition the online text was prepared from. Around 40 texts are available from the site, ranging from Hesiod to Henryson's Testament of Cresseid. The bulk of the texts are from the medieval period rather than the classical. Some of the site's more notable texts include: Orlando Furioso; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; the works of Chretien de Troyes; a number of pieces by Geoffrey Chaucer; John Gower's notorious Confessio Amantis; the Song of Roland; the Nibelungenlied; works by Tasso and Ariosto; the Lay of the Cid; and a number of Icelandic sagas in Old Norse, including Laxdaela. Each text is split into its constituent chapters or parts for the purpose of online reading, thus keeping download times more manageable. A brief introduction is given for each text which includes a note on the translation used. Books and essays for further reading are also recommended, along with details of other translations available. The website also provides links to other sites which hold e-texts of medieval and classical works. Navigation of the site is straightforward as there is a search option and it is possible to browse the collection by title, author, genre and language.
Orpheus is a website from Washington State University which relates to a project designed to enrich introductory humanities courses. The primary focus of the site is ancient mythology but it aims to encourage students to think about the ways in which ancient thought can be related to the modern world and to human psychology in general. The site contains a wealth of resources on a wide range of topics which fall within this remit; included are detailed pages on particular myths, as well as study guides and thought-provoking questions on ancient texts, and images from ancient and modern art. Broad section headings are divided into more detailed sub-sections and include: the ancient world (with items on Gilgamesh, creation myths, the Old Testament, gods and heroes); Greek mythology (Homer, Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns, the Greek gods and the Muses); Greek plays (focusing on Sophocles and Euripides); Roman mythology (Ovid); thematic connections of myth (including sections on animals, Hell, war, mythology of state, mythology of self and the myth of love); and mythology in film (with reference to westerns, monsters in film, and science fiction films). Whilst there are countless other websites dealing with ancient mythology this one stands out because it does not simply narrate the stories but raises interesting questions about the place of myth in the world in general, and its relevance to all human beings.
This online encyclopaedia from the Perseus digital library is a comprehensive reference source for a vast range of aspects of the classical world. Via the encyclopaedia's table of contents the user is able to click on the first letter of the term for which they are searching and then browse through entries beginning with that letter. Alternatively they may type in a search term. The breadth of information here to some extent defies summary, but among other things the following are included: key individuals (authors and statesmen, for example); important sites throughout the Greek and Roman world; mythology and religion; art and architecture; historical events; literary works. Each encyclopaedia entry provides hyperlinks to relevant resources in the Perseus library, including cross references to other articles in the encyclopaedia and direct links to primary and secondary sources as well as to any related images. The encyclopaedia is an excellent starting-point for those seeking information on classical topics.
This Web page provides access to the vast range of written sources relating to the ancient Greek and Roman worlds which are available online via the Perseus digital library. Featured works include ancient texts (with searchable versions in both English and in the original Latin or Greek) and a wide variety of secondary sources. To some extent the range of material to be found here defies summary, but featured ancient material includes the following: ancient drama (tragedy, for example, Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, and comedy, such as Aristophanes and Plautus); oratory (including Cicero and Demosthenes); historiography (Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon and Caesar, among others); epic (Homer and Virgil); letters (Cicero); and poetry (including Ovid and Horace). Also provided in the section on primary sources are links to Perseus' online versions of the Old and New Testaments. Secondary sources which may be accessed here include: commentaries on various ancient texts; works on the ancient Greek and Latin languages; specialist dictionaries on a range of aspects of the classical world; and a miscellany of other texts.
The Perseus Greek anthology is an online selection of popular passages from ancient Greek texts which feature in the Perseus digital library. Users may access either the passages in either the original language or in English translation. The following authors are featured: Euripides; Herodotus; Homer; Lysias; Plato; Sophocles; Thucydides; Xenophon; and the New Testament. The sections of text are also hyperlinked to other pages of the Perseus website, providing access to linguistic help and relevant secondary reading (including modern commentaries on the texts). This resource, providing as it does quick access to manageable chunks of texts, would be particularly useful for those involved in setting translation exercises for students.
This is the website of the Petronian Society, which is devoted to the study and appreciation of the ancient novel; the genre flourished from the second century AD onwards. Previous issues of the Society's newsletter (dating back to 1970) can be found online here; this includes articles relating to the ancient novel, notices of recently published books/papers, and information about relevant conferences. As well as the newsletter, the site offers resources for the study of Greek and Latin novels, including detailed plot summaries of various works. These include: Chariton's Chaereas and Callirhoe; Heliodorus' Ethiopian Story; Xenophon of Ephesus' Ephesian Romance; Longus' Daphnis and Chloe; Achilles Tatius' Leucippe and Cleitophon; and the anonymous Apollonius, King of Tyre. There is also an extensive bibliography of secondary works. Whilst this is vast, it is arranged only alphabetically without division into subheadings or annotation, which may make it difficult to use. It is, however, searchable by keyword. A list of useful websites is also provided.
Philoctetes is a website which offers several key early philosophical texts in ancient Greek, along with English and French translations. In most cases the translation appears opposite the Greek text for ease of comprehension. Featured authors are: Thales (c. 600BC); Anaximander (sixth century BC); Heraclitus (c. 540-c. 480 BC); Parmenides (c. 515-c. 450 BC); Empedocles (fifth century BC); and Zeno (fifth century BC). Also included, with French translation only, are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, as well as works by Aeschylus (525-456BC), Plato (427-347BC) and Euclid (c. 300BC). Texts can be downloaded in PDF format. There is also a searchable dictionary of Greek gods. Results appear in French and give references to, and quotations from, key passages in the ancient texts.
This is the website of the Phoenix journal, a publication of the Classical Association of Canada, whose stated aim is to publish articles in all the major aspects of classics (literature, history, archaeology, philosophy, religion, art, architecture and so on) up to AD 600. Although Phoenix is a specialist journal it claims that its articles are also written for the more general reader. Two editions of Phoenix are produced each year (the first was in 1946). The site provides access to abstracts of current articles as well as to contents lists for previous editions of the journal. There is a search facility which allows the user to search the titles of all articles published in the journal. (Note that the full text of the journal is provided by J-STOR for those affiliated to institutions which subscribe to the service). The website also provides information for those wishing to contribute to the journal.
This regularly updated online resource, produced by Dr Marc Huys of the Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, provides an annotated list of links to bibliographical sites for Classics. As well as listing general bibliographies, there are also links to bibliographies grouped by theme, including those on: literature; linguistics and grammar; mythology and religion; history; and archaeology. A further list details bibliographies arranged alphabetically according to the ancient author to whom they relate. This is a useful resource which will be a good starting point to those studying or teaching Classics and seeking details of secondary source material on specific topics.
An online text of Gregory Nagy's book 'Pindar's Homer: the Lyric Possession of an Epic Past' (originally published in 1980) may be found here. The book explores the relationship between the poetic traditions of Pindar (518-after 446 BC) and other lyric traditions as well as the poetry of Homer. Although the focus is primarily on Pindar, Nagy also considers the archaic Greek poetry of Alcman, Stesichorus, Alcaeus, Sappho, Ibycus, Anacreon, Simonides and Bacchylides. Themes which are considered include: the definitions of oral poetry and song; connections between the ritual of athletics and the ritual of epinician poetry; the ideology which links athletes, heroes and poets; the parallelism between poetry and the fifth-century BC prose writing of Herodotus; choral performance; and the evolution of the democratic poetics of Athenian theatre as compared with the aristocratic poetics of Pindar's poetry. An appendix offers a comparative survey of the poetic metres used by Pindar. This machine readable text is presented in a number of versions including HTML, although it may be necessary to download Greek fonts.
This is the homepage of Plato, the internet journal of the International Plato Society. It is an impressive site committed to encouraging debate, and the exchange of ideas, between thinkers throughout the world. It consists primarily of essays that interpret texts by Plato and his followers. Work in the history of ideas is also prominent, some articles examining the popularity of Plato in modern Japan, others exploring the transmission of Platonic ideas from one period to another. True to the influence of Plato, the papers carried by this elegantly designed journal are in a number of languages, but English is the most important. Anyone working in philosophy, the history of ideas or theology will find the journal invaluable.
Plato and his Dialogues is an online essay written by Bernard F Suzanne, a data processing systems architect and student of Plato. The essay provides a useful introduction to the ancient Greek philosopher and is divided into sections on the following topics, based on Plato's writings and ideas: Plato's autobiography; investing in education for political purpose; the just man and the philosopher-king; soul searching; the whole of being; rhetoric vs dialectic; man's happiness in the city; know thyself; Platonic theory. References to the texts of Plato are linked to their English translations on the Perseus website. There is also an alphabetical list of Plato's works, with links to their full English and Greek versions from Perseus.
This Web page forms part of the online Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. It offers a commentary on Plato's hugely influential discussions of poetry and rhetoric, based on the texts of the Ion, the Republic, the Phaedrus, and the Gorgias. Each text is examined in turn, followed by a brief analysis of Plato's own dialogues as rhetoric and poetry. There is an extensive bibliography, and links to online editions of the texts being considered. This encyclopaedia entry offers a good scholarly introduction to Plato's ideas that should be of use to literature students as well as classicists and literary philosophers.
This website presents an online English translation of the Geography, written by the little-known Greek astronomer and geographer Claudius Ptolemy some time during the second century AD. The text which features here is based on the 1991 edition by Dover Publications, itself a republication of a public domain work, originally published in 1932. It includes simple maps drawn from Ptolemy's data, with an index of the places mentioned in Ptolemy's text. The website is still a work in progress, which means that the text is not yet here in its entirety. Also included is a brief introduction to Ptolemy and his importance as a geographer, along with links to relevant external sites.
A translation into English and a commentary on Ptolemy's Geographia Books I & II, which contain a discussion of the art of mapmaking and an exhaustive description of the northern Roman Empire. It allows us to see not only the region through Ptolemy's eyes in the second century AD., but also the view of the cartographer Marinus, of unknown date, but almost certainly well before the occupation of Britain in 43AD. This resource is available via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website, and can be dowloaded as a zipped file in HTML format.
Written by William Harris, Professor Emeritus at Middlebury College, this web page consists of the text of an article designed to encourage independent study of Homeric poetry by those who already have a basic knowledge of the ancient Greek language. Harris puts forward some of the reasons why Homer is a good author with which to begin reading original texts (although many courses favour beginning with other authors), and also looks at some of the problems which may be encountered by the student reader of his epic poems. The text contains links to articles on other relevant topics, also written by William Harris (Greek musical pitch, and the Homeric tradition in the modern world). The paper also gives a detailed summary of some of the key texts and resources available to the student of Homeric Greek, as well as annotated bibliography on scholarly works providing background information.
'Epos' is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal of philology by the Spanish Open University (UNED). Although Spanish philological studies may be more prominent, the journal also publishes articles within the fields of Classics; French; English; and comparative literary studies. Contributions are accepted in all relevant languages, but a good command of Spanish is recommended as this seems to be the main language of the publication. First published in 1984, the repository of the Spanish Open University has made available the full-text content for all issues published since then. Some articles published by Epos include: "History of Rome in Spanish Phraseology"; "Black Africa in Spanish Travel Books from the 16th and 17th centuries"; "A note on the meaning of os in the Old English Rune Poem"; and "Women and Marriage in Les quinze joies de mariage : le monde à l´envers".
Rheinisches Museum für Philologie is a scholarly journal for classicists with papers primarily written in German, and this is its website. Here the user can access, free of charge, the full-text of articles from issues 93 (1950) to 147 (2004) are now accessible online (at the time of writing this review). Further articles will be added regularly (three years after publication), and currently the tables of contents are also available here for all issues since 1990. To access the full-text papers in PDF format readers should click on the small arrow next to each title. Papers deal with ancient Greek and Latin texts and authors in a range of genres (poetry, drama, historiography, epic and satire, for example). Authors discussed in some of the papers include, among others: Aeschylus; Aristophanes; Lucian; Martial; Sappho; Seneca; Suetonius; Theophrastus; and Virgil.
Rhetorical Theory is a website providing information on classical and modern rhetoric and rhetoricians. The site also acts as a gateway to a great many related but independent sites offering additional information, criticism, and debate on the subjects covered. Specific authors featured include: Socrates; Plato; Aristotle; Cicero; Quintilian; and Augustine. In addition to these there is a long list of other 'rhetorical scholars' from all periods. The site includes definitions of the various rhetorical divisions, and links are provided to some of the classical treatises on rhetoric. This website forms part of virtualology.com, an educational service aimed primarily at pre-university students, and which publishes students' class assignments on the web. This particular part of the site is however evidently aimed at the more advanced student. Unfortunately commercial advertising on the site is somewhat distracting.
Sacred Texts: the Classics is part of the Internet Sacred Text Archive, a free repository of ebooks run by amateur John B Hare. This site includes English translations of several Greek and Latin literary texts. Featured Greek authors include: Homer; Sophocles; Euripides; Sappho; and Plato. Latin authors include: Virgil; Apuleius; and Julius Caesar. This website makes available non-copyrighted books and for this reason most of the translations were completed over a century ago. In addition to ancient works, a section of the site contains many scholarly books, dating from the eigtheenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These include Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776-88). The works may be of interest to those tracing the history of classical scholarship. Sacred Texts sells a CD-ROM with all the ebooks in order to fund the running of the site.
Scholia : Studies in Classical Antiquity is an international journal of classical and related studies published by the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university. This website provides an index of articles from 1992 onwards as well as information about the staff, editors and advisory committee of the journal and the usual advice to prospective contributors. (You need to be in an institution which subscribes to ProQuest or to LOCKSS to make full use of this journal, e.g. to browse by author and volume, view thumbnails of the articles and of course to download abstracts and texts of articles.) The site is linked to Scholia Reviews, a related electronic site from the University of Natal which publishes a wider range of reviews that those printed in the paper publication of Scholia. The remit of the journal is very broad and includes articles on late antiquity and the mediaeval world, as well as the reception of classical learning during the renaissance and early modern periods and the continued relevance of classical studies in the modern world. The editors advise the use of Netscape 7.0 for optimal results when downloading papers. This online publication will benefit students and researchers in classical studies and ancient history.
Scholia Reviews is an electronic journal of reviews for classics, ancient history, and related subjects. Subjects of books recently reviewed include: Greek historiography; late antiquity; Roman art and architecture; classical myth; Roman religion; Greek and Roman literature. The journal has been published on an annual basis since 1992. Book reviews are available via email as well as on the website. A selection of reviews are also published in the international printed journal, Scholia. Reviews tend to be between 1500-2500 words long. The Scholia Reviews website also includes details of books received and requiring review and guidelines for review authors (including the system for transcribing Greek).
Scholiastae is a wiki which allows classical scholars to share their notes, or commentaries, on ancient texts. The site contains a selection of texts in ancient Greek and Latin formatted in such a way as to allow contributors to add their own explanatory comments on vocabulary, grammar, and interesting or obscure references. The very nature of this site means that it will evolve over time, but at the time of compiling this review texts available here included the following: the Greek Anthology; Herodotus; Homer (Iliad and Odyssey); Pindar; Sappho; Ovid's Metamorphoses; Caesar's Bellum Gallicum; and Cicero's Catilinarian I. As with any wiki, of course, the quality of the material is heavily dependant upon the calibre of the contributors, but this has the potential to be a useful tool for students and researchers of classical texts.
This is the website of the Society for the Oral Reading of Greek and Latin Literature (SORGLL), which adheres to the principle that literature written in the classical Greek and Latin languages was intended primarily for oral performance and that therefore the sounds of these languages are crucial for our understanding. As well as giving general information relating to the Society and its officers, this website contains downloadable recordings of spoken Latin and Greek accompanied by extracts of texts in both the original language and English translation. Greek authors who feature are: Homer; Archilochus; Alcman; Sappho; Sophocles; Pindar; Aristophanes; and Demosthenes; these are accompanied by a written and spoken guide to Greek pronunciation. Extracts in Latin are taken from works of: Terence; Cicero; Virgil; Catullus; Horace; Seneca; and Martial. Users will need to download RealPlayer in order to listen to the recordings.
This is the website of the Hellenic Society, one of the foremost organisations in the British Isles promoting the study of ancient Greek and Byzantine culture. Included here are: information on membership; details of publications (including the Journal of Hellenic Studies, Archaeological Reports and numerous supplementary volumes); details of available grants, prizes and support for schools; listings of events such as lectures and meetings; a list of the Society's current officers. Via the publications section users may also view contents lists for the Journal of Hellenic Studies from 1999-2008, along wiith abstracts for the volumes from 2001 onwards.
This online resource is the text of a lecture given by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Vancouver, and forms part of his Johnstonia website. The lecture is an introduction to classical Greek literature and was originally aimed at first-year literature students. It acts to provide important background information, dealing with some of the key concepts relevant to those wishing to develop an understanding of ancient Greek literature. The primary concerns of the lecture are issues to do with Greek religion and concepts of the divine, and the question of justice ('dike' in ancient Greek). The author makes reference to several genres of literature including: Homeric epic; tragedy; comedy; and philosophy.
Studia Humaniora Tartuensia (SHT) is a peer-reviewed scholarly electronic journal which publishes research articles and notes in any area of the humanities, but some emphasis on classical studies, ancient history, neo-Latin studies, classical tradition, and the history of scholarship and philosophy. Published by the University of Tartu in Estonia, and online since 2000, SHT is a well-established and diverse journal which is sure to contain material of interest to scholars of classical studies and ancient history. Articles may be written in English, French, German and Latin. The journal provides a free mailing list to users wishing to keep informed of developments in the journal, and a news section for further information. Full article submission details are also provided.
The Suda Online is a large and developing database which makes accessible in electronic format the Suda, a huge Byzantine historical encyclopaedia of the ancient Mediterranean world written in the 10th century. The encyclopaedia is derived from much earlier works and, as such, preserves details and fragments of works no longer extant. The Suda has around 30,000 entries arranged in alphabetical order. The Suda Online Project is a collaborative effort to put online the Greek text of the Suda, an English translation, and commentary. Many of the entries include a bibliography and links to other Internet resources. There are also useful cross-links with the Perseus Project and the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae texts. Users may browse by subject area or perform a more specific search.
Textkit is a free online learning resource for the study of Ancient Greek and Latin. Textkit's core site content is Greek and Latin public domain grammar books. These include classics such as North and Hillard's Greek Prose Composition, complete with keys to the exercises. These can be downloaded in PDF format. Featured language-related works include dictionaries, guides to prose composition and Greek and Latin language courses. Textkit also provides an extensive collection of classical ebooks by ancient Greek and Latin authors such as Aristotle, Herodotus, Plutarch, Lucretius, Cicero, Tacitus and Sophocles. Some of the texts are available in the original language, others only in translation. It is possible to search by author or by title of work. In addition to these features, the site provides links to tutorials and other online resources (including supported e-study groups, which are free to use, but which require the user to register with the site) for the study of Greek and Latin.
The Theoi Project is primarily an online encyclopaedia of figures from Greek religion. Each alphabetical entry has a short description of the god, spirit or monster; a longer description can then be accessed with further details and extracts from primary source material, as well as illustrations from Greek art. The site is impressive for its scope - even the most obscure and minor divinities merit an entry in this excellent quick reference tool. Further detailed sections of the site are devoted to the following topics: gods and goddesses; Titans and Titanesses; fabulous creatures; giants; heroes, kings and villains; nymphs; a family tree of the Greek gods; 'art galleries' depicting images from mythology; and a section providing access to key ancient texts for the study of mythology. The library includes English translations of ancient Greek and Latin poets, including: Callimachus; Theocritus; Aratus; Apollonius Rhodius; Lycophron; Quintus Smyrnaeus; Parthenius; Colluthus; Tryphiodorus; Philostratus; Callistratus; Nonnus; Statius; Hyginus; and Valerius Flaccus. Whilst there are many online resources devoted to classical mythology, this is one of the higher quality sites, making good use of the primary sources and providing a high level of detail.
This is the website of the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG), a research centre at the University of California, Irvine, which has digitized the majority of the corpus of extant Greek texts from Homer to fall of Byzantium in AD 1453. The main feature of the website is the search facility which allows users access to these texts online. Only subscribers (or those from subscribing institutions) may access the full database here; however, an abridged version is available for non-subscribers. This in itself is extensive and features texts by several key Greek authors including; Thucydides; Aeschylus; Euripides; Plutarch; Plato; and the Athenian orators. Users may browse the full texts or search for keywords. (It is necessary to have Greek fonts installed in order to view the Greek texts.) The website also includes details about the project itself, as well as details about how to subscribe.
This is the website of Thiasos, a London-based theatre company which aims to revive the performance of ancient Greek tragedy and comedy by using music, dance and spectacle, and in particular by emphasising the role of a singing and dancing Chorus. The company also aims to draw lessons from other world theatrical cultures and to apply these to its performance of Greek drama (for example by recasting Euripides' Hippolytus as an Indonesian-style dance drama). Their productions attempt to recreate ancient music and choreography using what scant evidence remains, and their website offers insights into this approach. This site will therefore be of particular use to those interested in the performance reception of classical drama. Details are given here of the plays which have been produced by Thiasos: Aeschyluls' Persians; Euripides' Hippolytus, Medea, and Bacchae; and Aristophanes' Wealth and Peace. The approach undertaken for each play is described, and the explanatory text is accompanied by production photographs as well as samples of music which can be downloaded by the user. The site also features the text of interviews with members of the company on particular aspects of performance: music, masks and the Chorus.
This website is a very basic description of a series of AHRC-funded workshops which brought together scholars from different disciplines to discuss the way ancient Greek historian and thinker Thucydides “has been read, studied and reinterpreted since the eighteenth century”. The workshops were held in 2007 at the Universities of Bristol, Oxford and Cambridge.
This website provides the complete text of 'Thucydides and the Ancient Simplicity', a 1998 monograph by Gregory Crane which is also published in paper format by the University of California Press. Thucydides, the great Greek historian of the Peloponnesian War in the fifth century BC, is renowned for his apparent rationalism and 'political realism', a trait which Crane analyses as a propensity to view the course of the war as the logical product of the self-centred pursuit of each player's own interests. Athens, in Thucydides' history and Crane's reading of it, emerges as a new power-house, disregarding Greek precedent and custom to meet with initial military success and then catastrophic political failure. Crane argues that Thucydides' political realism is too often taken for granted by modern readers, who can fail to realise that what they view as commonplaces of political thought were, in fact, deeply radical when Thucydides first introduced them: the ruthless pursuit of self-interest, the domination of the strong over the weak and the constant turbulence of interstate relations add up to to what GEM de Ste Croix called Thucydides' 'moral bleakness', an outlook that seems natural in modern political historical scholarship. Crane's contention, though, is that Thucydides 'wrote to shock', and his book is an elaboration of this argument. The site presents the whole book in an easy-to-use format, divided by chapter headings. Footnotes are hyperlinked for ease of reference, and the presence of a search function offsets the lack of index. There is also a complete bibliography.
The website Thucydides at Peithô's Web brings together a range of useful resources on the fifth-century BC Greek historiographer Thucydides and his History of the Peloponnesian War. It includes the full-text of Benjamin Jowett's 1900 English translation, which may be viewed as single chapters, series of episodes, or diverse chapters side-by-side for comparison. Jowett's appendix to his first (1881) edition of Thucydides, in which he compares the Greek historian's account of the Athenian plague with accounts of other great plagues, is also given here. The site also presents R.C. Jebb's chronological tables of speeches in Thucydides with links to the relevant passages in the text, as well as the text of Gilbert Murray's essay on Thucydides from 'A History of Ancient Greek Literature' (1897). In addition, there is an English translation of Dionysius of Halicarnassus's letter on the language of Thucydides.
This resource, compiled by Charles Lohr of the University of Freiburg, is essentially a vast online bibliography of books and articles relating to the reception of classical authors and texts throughout Europe up to 1650. It deals with publications in most major European languages. Organised alphabetically by ancient author, the list covers works dealing with translations, adaptations and transmission of texts as well as, for example, productions of ancient drama, the influence of ancient philosophy and the broader impact of Greek and Latin texts on modern western literature and education. Every genre of ancient literature is covered here, including: epic; lyric; tragedy; comedy; historiography; oratory; philosophy; and satire. Also included are several medieval and Renaissance authors. Whilst the entries are not annotated (the sheer number of references contained here prohibits this), these pages are nonetheless an excellent starting point for researchers interested in the classical tradition and the reception of ancient texts since the Renaissance. The site is navigable in English and German.
Diane Thompson of Northern Virginia Community College has created a fascinating web resource reflecting on the central role of the story of Troy and the Epic Cycle in Greek, Roman and European culture based on the content of her 2004 book 'The Trojan War: literature and legends from the Bronze Age to the present' (McFarland). She takes the reader on a 3,000 year journey from the archaeology of Troy and Mycenae and the Bronze Age origins of the epics, to the establishment and dissemination of the Homeric texts as seminal books in Greek and Roman times, to their transformation into Christian and later European literature during the Middle Ages, to the Renaissance and the Enlightenment periods and finally down to the reinvention of the tales in the 20th century by James Joyce, Wilfred Owen, Derek Walcott, Jean-Paul Sartre and the generation of writers who reflected their experiences of the Vietnam War through the poetry of Homer. One major section, focusing on the role of women in the Epics and how they have been central to recent feminist discourse, is also used to introduce important bibliographical material on ancient and modern interpretations of goddesses, powerful ancient women and gender roles generally, from both academic and literary authors. Each chapter, arranged in roughly chronological order, contains a summary of the historical context and links to etexts, images, film references and background material, including very useful bibliographic material. A linked series of pages provides a course guide to the module Myths and stories of the Trojan War taught by Thompson to college level students. The website is ideal for students of classics and ancient history (or European history generally), but also for those interested in the evolution of Western literary and artistic models.
Women in Greek Myths is a well organised website devoted primarily to introducing the female figures of ancient Greek mythology. This may be searched alphabetically or by keyword, but is also organised according to theme. Individual sections focus on the following topics: goddesses (featuring minor goddesses as well as the more well-known); nymphs; mortals; Amazons; and monstresses. There is also a section on some of the key men of Greek myth. A further section ('Myth Pages') brings together summaries of versions of important myths as told by ancient authors. Included here are: the creation; births of gods and goddesses; myths relating to love; and a range of other stories (such as the stories of Pandora, the Judgement of Paris, the Labours of Heracles and the Seven against Thebes). The most appealing aspect of the site is that it is richly illustrated by images of ancient sculpture and pottery, neoclassical art, and even film stills, although these are unfortunately given no captions citing sources.