On the website of the classics scholar Andreas U. Schmidhauser there is a page on Apollonius Dyscolus, containing an introduction, a complete bibliography, works (in Greek) to download including the 1495 Aldina edition of Apollonius's Syntax and a list of Apollonius scholars. Apollonius was an influential Greek author of the second century AD, considered to be the founding father of European reflection on language. He wrote texts on morphology, syntax, prosody, semantics, orthography, and dialectology. The bibliography consists of around 340 items arranged alphabetically. Its compiler claims comprehensiveness for works written in English, French, German, Italian, or Latin. Review articles in the bibliography are hyperlinked to the entry they describe. The Aldina edition of the syntax is a very large file (17MB). The text is in Greek. The bibliography is not at present searchable, although it is possible to restrict the display to editions of Apollonius's works, or to translations of his primary texts. There is the option to subscribe to bibliography updates through an RSS feed.
This is the website of The Chicago Homer, a multilingual database of early Greek epic and twentieth-century scholarship. The website presents all of the texts of ancient Greek epic (including the works of Hesiod and the Homeric Hymns as well as the poetry attributed to Homer) in the original language, as well as English and German translations. These include: Richmond Lattimore's translation of the Homer's Iliad; Daryl Hine's translations of Hesiod's Theogony, Works and Days, and Homeric Hymns; and the 18th century German translations of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey by Johann Heinrich Voss; and an English translation of the Odyssey by James Huddleston. The Greek texts in the Chicago Homer are derived from the electronic texts used in the Perseus Project. The database supports all scholarly searches of the text archive of the almost the entire extant corpus of Early Greek epic. There are excellent pages of supporting information, to help the new user manipulate the database and un derstand the source material. The Chicago Homer is also associated with other scholarly projects online. Each line, for example, links to early papyri, manuscripts or printed texts and other research work in the field. All the functionalities of the Chicago Homer work with modern Web browsers. The transliterated Greek can be displayed on any browser, but the display of Greek characters requires a browser with a Unicode (UTF-8) font that includes the extended Greek character set.
The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon, hosted by the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, USA, aims to create a lexicon of all Aramaic words from 900 BCE till the Early Middle Ages. The resource consists of a database section with facilities allowing for concordance, dictionary, dialect and lexicon searches, and a searchable, very well updated bibliography. A few pages introduce the Aramaic language, which is still spoken today.
Cretan Hieroglyphic Texts by John G. Younger is a simplified edition of the Corpus Hieroglyphicarum Inscriptionum Cretae (CHIC). It is an important reference work that can disseminate the study of Cretan Hieroglyphic inscriptions (mostly from Knossos and Malia) and eventually distribute updates fast. Cretan Hieroglyphic was used in Minoan Crete and there is evidence of similarities between Linear A and Cretan Hieroglyphic; both scripts are undeciphered.
This technical website may be valuable to researchers in archaeology, linguistics and classics specialising in Linear A and Minoan scripts.
This specialist resource is an online edition of Dr Nicolle Hirschfeld's 1996 book The PASP database for the uses of scripts on Cyprus (Minos Supplement 13) which aims in the long-term to provide a comprehensive account of all the ancient inscriptions and glyphs from Cyprus, whether on stone, clay or metal and coin. The people of the island of Cyprus employed a variety of writing systems to record their spoken languages in the Bronze and Iron Ages, including the syllabic Cypro-Minoan and Cypro-Classical scripts as well as alphabetic Greek and Phoenician letters. The current database includes Cypro-Minoan writings from the Late Bronze Age circa 1700-1000 BCE which record an undeciphered language (or languages) and the closely related Cypro-Classical script of the succeeding Iron Age which lasted down to the 3rd century BC when it was displaced by the Greek alphabet. Cypro-Classical was used to record both the local Greek dialect and an undeciphered tongue called Eteo-Cypriot. Phoenician and Roman inscriptions will be added in future editions of the database, in addition to the inscriptions in cuneiform, Egyptian and Ugaritic which have also been found in the island. The database is searchable by inscription number, object type, geographical context, nature and material and is prefaced by various instructions on how to use the data. This resource will benefit researchers in the ancient writings and scripts of the Mediterranean world, particularly those interested in the transmission of the alphabet to the Greek world and the interaction of cultures in the region in the Bronze and Iron Age, as well as more general students of Cypriot and Near Eastern archaeology.
The basis of the website "Die Sprache Alkmans : Textgeschichte und Sprachgeschichte" is the PhD thesis of George Hinge, written at the University of Aarhus and completed in 2001. The thesis is based upon the dialect and language used by Alcman of Sparta, the archaic Greek lyric poet (seventh century BC). Whilst the main text of the thesis is given in German, there are also summaries in English and Danish. Individual sections of the thesis focus on the following themes: the performance of Alcman's poems in antiquity; phonetics; morphology; phraseology; and metrical forms. There are also discussions of pronunciation of the Doric dialect. The overall argument of the thesis is that Alcman's dialect was fundamentally the same language as that used in other archaic poetry, but that the poetry which has been transmitted to us looks more like the Laconian vernacular because of local performance in Sparta. The site includes an extensive bibliography. The text is available either in HTML or as a PDF.
This website is primarily a well-annotated gateway providing links to and information about online resources which are specifically related to the study of the Greek language (covering ancient, New Testament and modern Greek). It features sections on: online bibliographies for works on Greek language and linguistics; web-based reference grammars and tutorials; details of lexica (both online and in print); ancient Greek manuscripts on the web; research projects on the Greek language; software links for learning and using Greek; downloadable Greek fonts. Resource links are accompanied by informative and concise evaluative descriptions. The site also contains short articles on the history of the Greek language, Linear B script and the Greek alphabet, along with a pronunciation guide.
Greek Prose Style is an informative and easy-to-use website which accompanies a course on Greek prose writing run by the Classics Department at the City University of New York. The course comprises an insight into the prose writings of various ancient Greek authors (from the fifth and fourth centuries BC) as well as the composition of Greek prose as translated from English. Authors who feature as part of the course include orators, historians and philosophers: Lysias; Anaxagoras; Plato; Gorgias; Antiphon; Isocrates; Thucydides; and Demosthenes. Introductory sketches of the work of each author are given here, along with links to online texts of their writing, analyses of some key passages and extracts from ancient commentators on their works. There is also: an extensive bibliography of secondary material (although unfortunately this is unannotated); a lengthy essay on Greek sentence structure; and a checklist highlighting the stylistic features used by each of the featured authors. Finally, users may also access here (under the link entitled 'Syllabus') assignments which were set for students on the course in 2007 - this may be useful for teachers planning to run a similar course.
This is the website of the Imagines Italicae Project, which is based at the Institute of Classical Studies in London, and which aims to produce a scholarly, contextual database of texts and inscriptions in Italic languages from central Italy with regard to both their epigraphic and their archaeological properties. This website provides an online guide to the aims and methods of the project and a sample of material from the database as well as information about the participants. Apart from chronicling the progress of the project, readers are encouraged to submit material for inclusion in the database or offer advice and suggestions regarding any aspect of the work, including problems raised by the editors. There is also a discussion group devoted to the languages and scripts of Central Italy other than Latin or Greek and a guide to references and conventions used by the editors. The final database will be an indispensable tool for ancient historians, archaeologists, epigraphists and linguists interested in the questions of literacy and social identity in the non-Latin speaking peoples of Italy. The project has received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council.
This is the website of the Lexicon of Greek Personal Names (LGPN) which is an ongoing project based at Oxford University, but using the expertise of scholars from several institutions across the world. It is an onomastic project, dealing with the study of ancient proper names and their origins. Its aim is to collect and publish all known ancient Greek personal names, drawn from all available sources; it encompasses all names recorded in Greek, and all Greek names recorded in Latin, from the beginnings of Greek writing to approximately the 6th century AD. Volumes are organised geographically, covering all regions in which Greek names were used, from Italy to Southern Russia to Asia Minor. The website offers: bibliographic data, reviews, statistics, and state-of-completion information for all current and forthcoming volumes of the LGPN; an introductory section on Greek names, including information on name formation and meaning, and also some details on modern Greek names; and an extensive archive of images of material objects with inscribed names (for example, tombstones, vases, inscriptions, ostraka and coins). The website does have a search tool which allows the user to ascertain how many times a particular name occurs in each of the LGPN's published volumes; however, only the statistics rather than the entries themselves can be viewed by those accessing the site from outside Oxford University.
This website, published by John Younger of the Department of Classics of the University of Kansas, provides a brief introduction to the script, transliterations of all the major Linear A texts from Crete and the Aegean, a comprehensive bibliography of related publications from 1980 and a series of free downloadable fonts for Macintosh and Windows users of all the ancient Aegean scripts (Hieroglyphic, Linear A, Linear B and the Phaistos disc). Linear A, the main writing system of the Minoan civilisation of Bronze Age Crete in the second millennium BC, is one of the last undeciphered scripts of the ancient Mediterranean. The website also supplies a rudimentary grammar and vocabulary of Linear A and speculates on the language underlying the script, which Younger believes to be related to one of the Indo-European Hittite languages of Anatolia. Linear A is first attested in Middle Minoan (MM) I B palatial contexts circa 2000 BC but its use and occurrence expanded dramatically throughout Crete and the Aegean the during the MM II-III periods and finally disappeared in the course of the 16th century BC (Late Minoan IB), probably as a result of major cultural or political influence from the Greek Mainland. While there are no photographs or drawings of the actual Linear A documents themselves, the texts are presented in a way which allows the reader to reconstruct the original layout of the tablets. In addition, all the various epigraphic conventions and abbreviations are also provided. The editor has also usefully grouped together all the texts believed to be of religious significance. While this is a specialist resource for professional archaeologists, ancient philologists and epigraphists, it will also interest undergraduates and the interested amateur.
This website provides access to Nestor, an international bibliography of: Aegean studies (including all of Greece, Albania, the southern coast of Bulgaria, the western and southern coasts of Turkey, and Cyprus); Homeric society; Indo-European linguistics especially concerning the development of Greek; and related fields (such as Philistine culture and the Classical Cypriot syllabary). It is published in print by the Department of Classics, University of Cincinnati, and editions published since 1959 are available here on this site. Nestor includes over 37,500 citations for all articles, books, monographs, and journals on prehistoric, ancient and classical Greece, and neighbouring areas. For each reference, Nestor gives the author, year of publication, title, place of publication, and publisher, but does not give any indication of the content of the article. The digital collection is searchable by author, title, journal name, and year (but not by subject or keyword), and results give a list of references. The website also provides access to a searchable International Dictionary of Aegean Prehistorians, via which it is possible to trace academics working in this field.
Nuntii Latini - News in Latin - is a website originating in Finland which is designed to keep alive the classical Latin language by providing articles on current affairs and world news in Latin (the less comprehensive ancient Greek equivalent of this site is Akropolis World News; there is also another Latin news site, Ephemeris). The website accompanies a weekly Latin news broadcast on Finnish radio (YLE Radio 1), and users may also listen to this radio broadcast online. The site itself is updated weekly and also hosts a discussion forum to which all contributions are made in Latin. This resource is an ideal tool for higher-level Latin reading practice as well as acting to promote the study and teaching of classical Latin.
The Perseus Digital Library makes available online via this page a searchable edition of the commonly known 'Lewis and Short Latin Dictionary'. The search box permits the searching of headwords (including part words) in the dictionary. The results page provides a list of matching headwords, a link to the corresponding entry in the dictionary, and an indication of the word frequency in the texts within the Perseus Digital Library. These texts may then also be accessed here by the user. The dictionary entry also provides a list of words with similar definitions (in both Latin and Greek).
Based on the life's work and surviving archive of renowned Oxford epigrapher Lilian ('Anne') Jeffery (1915-1986), this online resource provides a major database and scholarly tool for the study of early Greek writing and literacy from circa 800-500 BC. Published by the University of Oxford's Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD), the website provides information on thousands of inscriptions and their archaeological context as well as a biography of Jeffery by David Lewis reproduced from the Proceedings of the British Academy. The inscriptions can be searched by publication sequence, script types, letter form, site context, object type, region and sub region, and date range. Each entry is given an individual data sheet which includes detailed information about the inscriptions, as well as images, transcriptions and translations. There is also a series of maps showing the distribution of the inscriptions. Jeffery's book 'The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece' (first published in 1961) remains a seminal text for early Greek epigraphy but her archive contains a far larger collection of drawings, notes and supplementary material not included in the original publication or in the revised second edition edited by Alan Johnston in 1990. The archival material provided here is of considerable interest in expanding and elucidating the original publication.
Quasillum is an excellent resource for those involved in the study of ancient languages; it is a website which hosts online Latin and Greek study groups. These are in the form of mailing lists, to which users subscribe (at no cost); each consists of several smaller study groups, led by a co-ordinator who sets a study agenda, collects and collates assignments and then leads an online discussion about the assignments. The Latin and Greek lists each provide something for a range of abilities, from the beginner to the more experienced linguist. Anyone may join or leave a study group at any time. This is a good way for those studying the ancient languages independently to feel part of a wider learning community.
The LatinStudy list looks at classical, medieval and Neo-Latin authors. It uses Wheelock's Latin Reader as a textbook but also has at any one time several groups devoted to reading various ancient texts (for example, Cicero, Livy or Tacitus) in the original language.
The GreekStudy list has fewer active sub-groups: these look at Biblical (New Testament Greek) as well as Homeric and classical (Attic) Greek. Information is also provided about using Greek fonts (in Unicode and Betacode).
As well as the study lists, the site also provides access to Unicorn, a simple text editor and dictionary program for use with Latin, Hebrew and ancient Greek. This is freeware which requires that users have Java software in order to download it.
Samnites and Samnium publishes a collection of illustrated articles by Davide Monaco, an amateur archaeologist. There are preliminary reports on the 2004 excavations of Vastogirardi; a paper on the sanctuary of Pietrabbondante by Filippo Coarelli and Adriano La Regina; and John Patterson's paper "Una cittí chiamata Sannio" (A city named Samnium). There are articles on Samnite coins; the army; religion; and the Oscan language (including the bronze tablet of Agnone), which are adequate for use in undergraduate essays. There are also an extensive bibliography, a list of ancient sources mentioning the Samnites and a public forum. Readers should be aware that some articles are available only in Italian and that some English articles are abbreviated versions of the original versions in Italian. The Samnites were a fierce Italic people that fought three wars against Rome for the control of the Italian peninsula; they also sided with Hannibal during his incursion in the Italian peninsula and caused trouble to Rome in the following centuries until Sulla defeated them one last time in 82 BC. This website is a good introduction to the Samnites for the general public and undergraduate students.
Silva Rhetoricae: the Forest of Rhetoric has been developed as an online reference guide to rhetorical theories and terms. It covers both the classical and the Renaissance periods. The site offers an alphabetical glossary of technical terms for rhetorical tropes and figures. For each term, there is a definition, examples, pronunciation guideline, etymology, cross references, and a very useful list of sources. It is possible to search the site by keyword. There is a helpful overview of the art of rhetoric, including surveys of the various canons and parts of oratory, such as the judicial, deliberative, and epideictic kinds. Information about classical practices for training in rhetoric is also given. The site is attractively designed, and has won a number of awards for its content. It provides a useful introduction to rhetoric for students of classical and Renaissance literature, and a very good quick reference source for researchers.
This is an online version of S C Woodhouse's English-Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language, which was originally published in 1910. Woodhouse's original introduction, cited here, states that he based his lexicon on vocabulary found in the fifth-and fourth-century BC prose writers Thucydides, Plato, Xenophon, Demosthenes and the orators, and in the poets Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes. The user enters a search term in English and is then taken to an image of the page on which the term and its possible ancient Greek translations features. The site, produced by the University of Chicago Library, is both a useful tool for assistance with Greek prose or verse composition and an insight into the history of lexicography.
Worldwide Ancient Greek is a free-to-access website designed to complement Cecelia Luschnig's 'An Introduction to Ancient Greek: A Literary Approach'. It contains a wide range of materials designed to assist the student of the ancient language. Files are downloadable in PDF format and include: a selection of study guide with detailed introductions to grammar and syntax; reading aids which provide the user with passages of ancient Greek and translation help; a series of selections from original texts, including Homer, Sappho, Herodotus, Thucydides and Plutarch. These are manageable chunks of text which could all help to provide translation practice. A page of links useful to the student of Greek is also given, and there is a bibliography (entitled 'Read More About It') listing works about the Greek language and writing.