This online resource provides details of a wide range of software which is available in the Internet for those studying or teaching classical subjects. Included are the following: instructional software for Latin, Greek, classical civilisation and etymology; productivity tools such as fonts and utilities; bibliographies; dictionaries; e-textbooks; and images. Where resources are available for free online, links are provided to the relevant websites; in the case of those which require payment of a fee, contact details for publishers are given. There is also on this website an archive of Rob Latousek’s 'Random Access' column in The Classical Outlook journal (1989-2008), updating teachers about computer-based tools with educational applications. Users may browse the topic and coverage of each column, then hyperlinks lead to the full-text of each article. There is a also resource guide to additional websites for the classics, which supplements the Directory.
Anatolian Databases provides a corpus of transcriptions of texts in Lydian, Lycian and Cuneiform Luvian, some of the extinct Indo-European languages of ancient Anatolia (modern Turkey) spoken and written in the 2nd and 1st millennia B.C, although the origin of the texts provided is not clearly stated on the site, which may make the resource less useful. The site forms part of the home page of historical linguist Dr H. Craig Melchert of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and includes an online version of his Cuneiform Luvian Lexicon (1993).The material is presented in an Adobe Acrobat Reader format with thumbnails for easy navigation through the extensive text which can be extracted, copied or printed. The absence of translations, critical apparatus and minimal commentaries and further references, however, demonstrate the specialist nature of this resource. The non-specialist reader will have to make use of other resources for a wider appreciation of the subject. In addition, Melchert's home page provides free online access to several of his papers on the languages featured in the Anatolian Databases as well as an outline of the linguistic courses he teaches at UNC. This is a specialist resource which will interest advanced undergraduate students and researchers in ancient history and linguistics of Turkey and the Aegean basin.
This website offers excellent free online tutorials in Ancient Greek. The site was developed by Donald Mastronarde based on his book and CD-ROM 'Introduction to Attic Greek', and features audio recordings to assist pronunciation, as well as interactive tests and exercises. The tutorials are divided into the following sections: a pronunciation guide; pronunciation practice; an accentuation tutorial; accentuation practice; principal parts; vocabulary; verb drill; noun drill; paradigms; and an English-Greek drill. The full tutorial consists of forty-two units, and, with appropriate commitment, should lead to a competent grasp of Ancient Greek. Anyone wishing to learn Greek would do well to have a look at this resource.
On the website of the classics scholar Andreas U. Schmidhauser there is a page on Apollonius Dyscolus, containing an introduction, a complete bibliography, works (in Greek) to download including the 1495 Aldina edition of Apollonius's Syntax and a list of Apollonius scholars. Apollonius was an influential Greek author of the second century AD, considered to be the founding father of European reflection on language. He wrote texts on morphology, syntax, prosody, semantics, orthography, and dialectology. The bibliography consists of around 340 items arranged alphabetically. Its compiler claims comprehensiveness for works written in English, French, German, Italian, or Latin. Review articles in the bibliography are hyperlinked to the entry they describe. The Aldina edition of the syntax is a very large file (17MB). The text is in Greek. The bibliography is not at present searchable, although it is possible to restrict the display to editions of Apollonius's works, or to translations of his primary texts. There is the option to subscribe to bibliography updates through an RSS feed.
For those searching for primary resources on Zoroastrianism, the Avesta Zoroastrian Archives are an excellent starting point. Zoroastrianism was a major world religion from the 6th century BC to the 7th century AD, and still has several hundred thousands adherents in India, Iran and North America. The site includes the whole of the Avesta (ancient scriptures of Zoroastrianism) in both English and Avestan (though the latter is provided in Latin script), an assortment of the middle-Persian/Pahlavi texts, and a selection of modern works. Introductory discussions on Zoroastrianism and the Avestan language are also offered. The linguistic section contains a helpful dictionary and descriptions of the language, but caution should be exercised with some of the other Zoroastrian resources, as not all information presented here reflects the best of scholarly opinion. Nevertheless, they do offer an intriguing view into modern expressions of the faith.
For anyone who has struggled with the considerable variation in Latin nomenclature, the website of the Bibliographic Standards Committee (BSC) : Latin Place Names will help with the process of identifying towns, cities and other locations. Developed and maintained by Robert Maxwell (Brigham Young University and Chair BSC), the site contains an online alphabetical database of locations in their Latin forms which are then cross-indexed with modern vernacular forms. The forms are those found in books printed before 1801. Variations in spelling are handled through a series of links which always return the user to the one of the more common linguistic forms. The site also provides a few links to other related resources on place names.
Maintained by Michel Buijs of the University of Utrecht, this up-to-date online bibliography lists books and articles which will be of use to those working on various aspects of ancient Greek linguistics. The list is divided thematically into the following topics: clause types (participial clauses and subclauses); particles; pragmatics and word order; tense/aspect; reference works; and a miscellaneous section. There is also a list of links to other web resources for linguistics. The works which are featured on the list are written in a wide range of European languages. Most were written in the last twenty years, although reference is made to key texts from as far back as the late nineteenth century.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
This is the official website of the "Centro Internazionale per lo Studio dei Papiri Ercolanesi" directed by Marcello Gigante. The centre studies the library of the Villa dei Papiri in Herculaneum. The website is poor in contents with only basic information and several incomplete sections, including the English version. It includes the summaries of "Cronache Ercolanesi" and there is an extensive bibliography. This website requires Flash. The first owner of the villa appears to have been Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, but other names have been suggested. Several texts in the library were written by members of the Epicurean school of philosophy. It is known that Piso Caesoninus was a supporter of the school and he probably hosted Philodemus of whom he may have been patron. The first person to open the charred papyri and read from them was father Antonio Piaggio, an expert from the Vatican Library who invented a device for the purpose. Large parts of the villa are yet to be excavated, including the supposed Latin library. Only a few texts have been read so far given their poor state of preservation; some of the papyri were already centuries old on 79 AD, when the villa was destroyed by the eruption of the Vesuvius.
The checklist presented in this website is prepared by academic papyrologists from a variety of universities; its primary aim is to provide for papyrologists and librarians a complete bibliography of monographs, current and past, on documentary papyri written in Greek, Latin, Coptic and Demotic, and preserved on papyrus, ostraca, or wooden tablets. The site is published under the auspices of Duke University and achieves its aims admirably, providing a very full resource organised into a variety of sub-headings which are conveniently hot-linked at the side of every page. The site, which is frequently updated, is based on the fifth printed edition of the checklist (March 2001). Users should note that the site confines itself to documentary papyri, and no literary material is cited. Moreover, there are neither any actual papyri or texts available for viewing, nor any links to sites providing them. That said, the site should prove a useful bibliographic resource for scholars and graduate students working in this field.
Provided by Princeton University, the website of the Classical Language Instruction Project (CLIP) makes available online recordings of extracts from classical Greek and Latin texts read by various scholars; the resource is designed to familiarise students with the sound of the ancient languages as they would have been spoken. A variety of styles of writing is presented, and both prose and poetry are featured. Extracts from works by the following authors can be found here: Homer; Plato; Pindar; Virgil; Tacitus; Horace; Ovid; Seneca; and Propertius. The sound recording of each extract is accompanied by the text in the original language; in most cases the user may also view an English translation if required. The site is clear and easy to navigate, and will be a valuable tool for those who are learning the ancient languages.
The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon, hosted by the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, USA, aims to create a lexicon of all Aramaic words from 900 BCE till the Early Middle Ages. The resource consists of a database section with facilities allowing for concordance, dictionary, dialect and lexicon searches, and a searchable, very well updated bibliography. A few pages introduce the Aramaic language, which is still spoken today.
CPL Online is an e-journal produced by the Classical Association of the Middle West and South (Committee for the Promotion of Latin) and is written by, and aimed primarily at, those who are involved in teaching the Latin language at all levels. The journal is published twice a year and provides insights into and advice on teaching and pedagogical theory relevant to ancient language studies. Via the website users may access back issues of the journal dating from 2004. Articles cover Latin teaching at both school and university level and topics featured include: prose composition; Latin hexameter; grammar; epigraphy; and translation. Although the primary emphasis is on Latin there are also some articles on teaching ancient Greek. Articles may all be downloaded in PDF format. The website also provides details of the journal's editorial board.
Cretan Hieroglyphic Texts by John G. Younger is a simplified edition of the Corpus Hieroglyphicarum Inscriptionum Cretae (CHIC). It is an important reference work that can disseminate the study of Cretan Hieroglyphic inscriptions (mostly from Knossos and Malia) and eventually distribute updates fast. Cretan Hieroglyphic was used in Minoan Crete and there is evidence of similarities between Linear A and Cretan Hieroglyphic; both scripts are undeciphered.
This technical website may be valuable to researchers in archaeology, linguistics and classics specialising in Linear A and Minoan scripts.
Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI) is an online collection of resources on cuneiform, the international writing system of the ancient Near East for thousands of years, in which were recorded historical, religious and administrative documents in a wide variety of languages including Sumerian, Akkadian (or Babylonian) and Hittite. The (CDLI) is an collaborative project led by the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin and the University of California at Los Angeles to create a digital record of the earliest horizon of cuneiform texts ca. 3300-2000 B.C. to facilitate research and cast further light on the origins of writing and of urban civilisation. The resource, published as two mirrored websites hosted by the project partners, consists of a series of inter-related databases of fourth and third millennia B.C. cuneiform texts, including proto-cuneiform, from a variety of institutions including the University of Leiden, the Hilprecht Collection and the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin. The databases include extensive glossaries of words and sign types and high resolution photographs of many of the writing tablets. Navigating the databases is sometimes confusing and the limited introductory material indicates that this a website for specialist in ancient Near Eastern languages and scripts. Bibliographic resources include the Gelb Library of over 10,000 references to scholarly works on the origins of writing and a special section on proto-cuneiform. The full-texts of several scholarly articles is also available, including one on the undeciphered script Proto-Elamite. Technical information on the digitisation process is also provided as is news about the on-going CDLI programme. This is a specialist resource will interest students of the Sumerian and Akkadian languages and archaeologists and cultural historians working on the origins of writing and administration in the Near East.
This specialist resource is an online edition of Dr Nicolle Hirschfeld's 1996 book The PASP database for the uses of scripts on Cyprus (Minos Supplement 13) which aims in the long-term to provide a comprehensive account of all the ancient inscriptions and glyphs from Cyprus, whether on stone, clay or metal and coin. The people of the island of Cyprus employed a variety of writing systems to record their spoken languages in the Bronze and Iron Ages, including the syllabic Cypro-Minoan and Cypro-Classical scripts as well as alphabetic Greek and Phoenician letters. The current database includes Cypro-Minoan writings from the Late Bronze Age circa 1700-1000 BCE which record an undeciphered language (or languages) and the closely related Cypro-Classical script of the succeeding Iron Age which lasted down to the 3rd century BC when it was displaced by the Greek alphabet. Cypro-Classical was used to record both the local Greek dialect and an undeciphered tongue called Eteo-Cypriot. Phoenician and Roman inscriptions will be added in future editions of the database, in addition to the inscriptions in cuneiform, Egyptian and Ugaritic which have also been found in the island. The database is searchable by inscription number, object type, geographical context, nature and material and is prefaced by various instructions on how to use the data. This resource will benefit researchers in the ancient writings and scripts of the Mediterranean world, particularly those interested in the transmission of the alphabet to the Greek world and the interaction of cultures in the region in the Bronze and Iron Age, as well as more general students of Cypriot and Near Eastern archaeology.
'Databases about Aegean Subjects' is a website by the University of Florence that publishes archaeological databases on the subject of Aegean prehistory. At the time of review only the database on Middle Minoan hieroglyphic seals was accessible and allowed to perform complex search queries, though it is still incomplete. Each record is catalogued according to CMS and CHIC identification numbers and includes at least one black and white photograph (obtained with macro lens); a drawing and detailed captions. It is possible to access enlarged versions of the photographs and drawings by clicking on them. Before using this database, the authors suggest downloading and installing a special set of specialist fonts, which may be useful to researchers. Other databases are planned, including one on the Hittite tablets mentioning the Ahhiyawa; one on archaeological artefacts conserved at Florence, Italy; and one on "textile work areas in Bronze Age Crete". Details of each database and the associated projects can be read on the website. In section "the Ahhiyawa question" of "bibliographies" there are copies and transcripts of Hittite tablets mentioning the Ahhiyawa in PDF format as well as hyperlinks to online papers. There is also a news section. This website may be useful especially to specialist researchers.
The Diccionario Griego-Español (DGE) is a project based in the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Madrid) which aspires to use modern lexicographical methods to provide a complete and up-to-date bilingual dictionary of ancient Greek and Spanish, with reference to all texts and papyri from Mycenean times to the end of antiquity. This website gives full details of the project, its authors and the current publication situation: information is given relating to the volumes and supplements published so far, along with details of how to order copies. There is a section on bibliography related to the DGE, including articles written both by its authors and its readers. The website provides other bibliographical tools too, including the Supplement to the Bibliographical Repertorium of Greek Lexicography (PBLG), which lists new publications in this field. Also found here is the Claros database, which offers a searchable concordance of Greek inscriptions designed to make it easier for those interested in epigraphy to locate new editions of the inscriptions.
This is the online text of an educational psychology paper which looks at the ways in which studying Latin can help to improve English skills, facilitate the learning of foreign languages and aid the development of critical thinking skills. The paper covers the following topics: Latin in the curriculum in the US; recent research which relates to the benefits gained by students of Latin; the relationship between learning Latin and the development of higher order thinking skills and improved grades; and other additional benefits of studying the ancient language. The article is well-referenced with a detailed bibliography and will be of interest to anyone seeking support for the view that Latin is a valuable component of the school or university curriculum.
The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature is based at the University of Oxford. It contains nearly 400 literary works composed in the Sumerian language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) during the late third and early second millennia BCE. The materials available include a variety of historical, mythological, and literary texts from a number of different Sumerian city-states including Ur, Babylon and Nippur. All resources are available in non-ASCII character transliterations and are accompanied by a typically brief, but essential bibliography. As the vast majority of texts are also available in English, this resource is open to researchers at all levels, whether they are student or professional. The texts are grouped thematically, and may be browsed by category or number, or searched via a customised search engine. The editors of the site plan to introduce English labels to further facilitate searching the Sumerian transliterations. The list of bibliographic references is impressive, and those both new and familiar with this field may wish to spend some time browsing the references. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme. This corpus can also be ordered via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)), on completion of a request access form.
Elpenor is a website which offers a bilingual anthology of Greek literature, featuring extracts of texts written in ancient, New Testament and modern Greek and accompanied by English translations. These are easily accessible and manageable chunks of original Greek works which could be used as a language learning tool. Both prose and poetry appear here, with featured authors including (among many others): Homer; Thucydides; Aristophanes; Plato; Origen; Plotinus; Gregory of Nyssa; and Cavafy. The site also offers a course in the Greek language, from learning the alphabet to the basics of Greek grammar, accompanied by extracts from original texts. A further section, entitled Libraries, offers: extracts from post-classical authors referring to classical themes or texts (this will be of use to those with an interest in the modern reception of the ancient world); Greek pronunciation audio files; extracts from secondary texts on aspects of the ancient world; a section dedicated to Constantinople; and an image gallery of paintings of Greece. The website also provides a discussion forum, and links to downloadable fonts to enable the user to read or write Greek. Whilst the site offers a range of useful resources, the presence of several advertisements on every page is distracting for the academic user and can make it tedious to navigate.
Enchiridion is online teaching guide by Elaine Woodward and Marianne Pagos of the Boston Latin School for those who want to learn ancient Greek. This e-book is available to download here in PDF format. Individual chapters cover the following topics relating to Greek grammar: the Greek alphabet and pronunciation; cases (nominative, accusative etc), number, and gender; nouns and their forms; verb forms and tenses; participles; pronouns. Each chapter provides both explanatory text and grammatical/translation exercises. Other pages of the website offer further exploration of the Greek language, and include: readings from Homer's Iliad for translation; a section listing prepositions; a list of irregular verbs; a 'glossary' (which is in fact a dictionary of transliterated Greek words); and an appendix of the various charts which appear in the main text. The site is easy to navigate and the text is clear.
Ephemeris is a website which offers translations into Latin of an extensive range of contemporary news stories, updated on a weekly basis. (The less comprehensive Akropolis World News does something similar in ancient Greek, and there is also another Latin news site, Nuntii Latini.) Topics which are covered by Ephemeris include European and world current affairs, sport, culture, and science. Also featured are: articles on European history; weather reports; film reviews; biographies of famous people from the past; recipes; poetry; Latin crosswords; and cartoons. This is an excellent site for Latin reading practice which, with its focus on familiar stories from daily life, will appeal both to Latin learners and their teachers.
This website publishes a series of free and full-text final reports produced by the French School of Athens on excavations carried out in Crete, and primarily at the Minoan palace of Malia. The series was incomplete at the time of review, but even so the available volumes are a reference resource for anybody studying or researching Minoan archaeology. In addition to several volumes on the palace of Malia (including some of the "Le Palais de Malia" series and some on the quartier Mu), there are volumes on the Minoan palace of Knossos ("La Palais du second millénaire à Knossos" by Jacques Raison, 1993); the necropolis of Mirabello; Linear A tablets ("Recueil des inscriptions en Linéaire A" by Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier); ideograms on Linear B tablets ("Les idéogrammes archéologiques du Linéaire B" by Jean-Pierre Olivier and Frieda Vandenabeele, 1979); the hieroglyphic inscriptions from Crete ("Corpus Hieroglyphicarum Inscriptionum Cretae" by Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier, 1996); archaeological anthropology (by Robert Charles, 1965); and wine amphorae in the Classical to Roman Imperial period ("Le Vin et les Amphores de Crète de l’époque classique à l’époque impériale" by Antigone Marangou-Lerat, 1996). The reference volumes on hieroglyphic, Linear A and B volumes as well as the fundamental monographs on the palaces of Malia and Knossos are essential tools for many scholars and students specialising on Aegean archaeology.
This Web page, created and maintained by Marc Huys, a professor of Ancient Greek at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium), provides detailed comments on all kinds of online resources on the ancient Greek language. It is divided into the following sections or subpages (note that some of the reviewed websites may be listed in more than one section): Greek fonts; the alphabet, numerals, accentuation and pronunciation; introductory language courses; elementary training; dictionaries and lexica; systematic grammar - morphology and syntax; history of the Greek language; advanced study of the language; the reading of ancient Greek texts; other online surveys and bibliographies. There is also a section which links to material for the promotion of the study of the Greek language. This website intends to support anyone teaching or learning ancient Greek, and to show the relevance of this language in today's world.
HandHeldClassics.com is a website dedicated to supplying tools and content that enable the reading and study of classical languages on a handheld computer. It is likely to be of use to ancient language learners at all levels. Based on theories of language learning that include reading text in its original language and in translation concurrently, the site's author, John Jackson, draws upon the ideas of Heinrich Schliemann, John Milton and Sydney Smith to suggest models that can be interpreted via modern technology. The site includes access to free downloads to enable the installation of the language programmes and also a simulation of a Palm Pilot with the Bible+ interlinear text reader programme. The site is well-presented and while it requires an understanding of the use of hand held computers, its approach will be useful to beginners as well as more experienced users.
This website, from Harvard University Classics Department, aims to foster an understanding of the performative aspect of ancient literature by providing recordings of extracts from ancient Greek and Latin texts (both poetry and prose) as recited by staff and students. Each recording is accompanied by the original-language text and notes. Featured works are: Ovid's Amores; Homer's Iliad; Propertius; Statius' Silvae; Virgil's Aeneid; Catullus; Cicero's first Catilinarian. A further section features students' declamations (in English) in the style of Ovid and Seneca. There is also a link here to the Homer in Performance pages which feature readings of selected parts of the Iliad, accompanied by Greek text and notes by Gregory Nagy.
This free and full text collection of monographs by members of the French School of Athens may be useful to both researchers and students in Greek and Aegean archaeology. There are volumes on recognising the signatures of ancient Greek sculptors; Thasos; Delphi; Kirrha (Phocis); the necropolis of Myrina; Turkey; and the disk of Phaistos ("Le disque de Phaistos" by Jean-Pierre Olivier, 1992).
The volume on the disk of Phaistos includes a brief summary of the discovery and past researches as well as pictures of all the ideograms. The disk itself remains undeciphered.
This is the website of the Imagines Italicae Project, which is based at the Institute of Classical Studies in London, and which aims to produce a scholarly, contextual database of texts and inscriptions in Italic languages from central Italy with regard to both their epigraphic and their archaeological properties. This website provides an online guide to the aims and methods of the project and a sample of material from the database as well as information about the participants. Apart from chronicling the progress of the project, readers are encouraged to submit material for inclusion in the database or offer advice and suggestions regarding any aspect of the work, including problems raised by the editors. There is also a discussion group devoted to the languages and scripts of Central Italy other than Latin or Greek and a guide to references and conventions used by the editors. The final database will be an indispensable tool for ancient historians, archaeologists, epigraphists and linguists interested in the questions of literacy and social identity in the non-Latin speaking peoples of Italy. The project has received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council.
The InscriptiFact project at the University of Southern California publishes photographs of ancient Middle Eastern inscriptions, mainly from Phoenicia, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. To access the website it is necessary to register by faxing a signed user agreement; read the instructions (PDF files); and install Java components (administrator rights required). The database is accessed using a special Java browser (Mac and Windows supported). After logging in, it is possible to browse the inscriptions by period, site, language, support and collection, or search them. Once a list of relevant inscriptions is produced, clicking on any entry will display the metadata associated with that inscription. Clicking on the "go" button on the list of inscriptions provides access to a series of thumbnails of all the available photographs for that inscription; there is a set of BW and colour photographs for each inscription. The thumbnails can be saved as TIFF or JPEG pictures, or preferably as full resolution JPEG2000 photographs (recommended). There is also a standalone viewer to visualise Reflection Transformation Imaging (RTI) images.
There are no transliterations or translations of the inscriptions. Among the scripts are Ammonite; Arabic; Aramaic; Coptic; Cuneiform (Akkadian; Babylonian; Sumerian; Ugaritic); Egyptian hieroglyphs; Greek; Hebrew; Latin; Nabatean; Phoenician; Semitic and others. There are also early alphabetic inscriptions such as that from Wadi el-Hol and some Dead Sea scrolls. This website can be useful primarily for teaching and researching, but postgraduate students specialising in ancient languages may also find it useful. The project has been funded by several organisations, including the Underwood Family Trust Fund; the Ahmanson Foundation; and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Designed for both students and teachers of Classics, this is the website for the Joint Association of Classical Teachers (JACT), an organisation which promotes the teaching and learning of classics in schools and universities. JACT provides an information service for classicists, offering details of forthcoming events, productions of Greek plays and JACT summer schools for intensive study in Greek and Latin. The website also features: details of how to join or contact JACT; a range of teaching resources for Latin, Greek, Classical Civilisation and Ancient History in schools; information for teachers (including examination syllabi, announcements of job vacancies, school trips related to Classics, and specialist book stores); details of JACT's journals, 'Omnibus' and 'Journal of Classics Teaching' (with sample articles available online); information on projects supported by JACT; links to other Classics-related websites. Also featured is 'The Good Text Guide', a searchable guide to recommended editions of ancient texts.
"L'aventure des écritures" is a French-language site that provides a detailed, multi-layered and richly illustrated introduction to the history of writing. There are three section: one dealing with the origin and diffusion of some 25 world writing systems from ca. 3300 B.C. to ca. 1200 A.D (Naissances); one introducing the various supports for writing (Matters and forms - Matière et formes); and the third introducing "the page" (La page) namely presenting the history of the printed paper and the book. The website reflects an exhibition at the BNF in 1999. Using a hypertext medium, the reader is guided through the history, mythology and cultural context of the world major writing systems: Cuneiform, Egyptian, Chinese, African and Pre-Columbian and related scripts. These are complemented by sections outlining theoretical and cultural aspects of writing systems such as signs and cryptography, the relationship between writing and speech, and the symbolic and religious associations of letters and scripts. In addition to the wide-ranging bibliography and glossary of terms, there is extensive citation of academic and literary reflections on writing. The related, and equally splendidly presented 'dossiers pédagogiques' deal with the physical aspects of writing, book making and printing from inscribed clay tablets to illuminated manuscripts to the CD-rom. The excellent education section provides a very useful resource for teachers at all levels of education though it will be particularly useful for schools. This website has a wide potential audience from the general public to students, teachers and researchers of archaeology, classics and ancient languages or else to those interested in e-publication and education.
The website of the Laboratorio Informatico per le Lingue Antiche (LILA) provides information about their software 'SNS - Greek and Latin'. The software is for Macintosh computers, and enables the user to search two important data banks of classical writing: the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae; and parts of the Packard Humanities Institute's bank. The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae contains ancient Greek texts ranging from Homer to authors in the fifteenth century A.D. The Packard data banks available to users are PHI #5.3, containing classic Latin texts, and PHI #7, containing Greek documentary papyri and inscriptions. The software provides the user with a fairly sophisticated search engine, catering for Boolean logic operators, special characters, and restrictions by various bibliographic factors. Results may be exported in different text formats.A single-user licence costs around 150 Euros. A free demonstration version of the software may be ordered from the site, although this allows access to a limited selection of the texts. The site also allows users to subscribe to the SNS mailing list.
The online Latin Dictionary and Grammar Aid from the University of Notre Dame allows the user to search for a word by entering the stem and ending of the desired word in order to find its meaning. The vocabulary of this online dictionary is over 15,000 words. One can search for a translation from English into Latin as well as from Latin into English. There is also an alphabetical Latin 'wordlist' or dictionary, as well as a grammar aid which illustrates uses of the different cases (ablative, accusative, dative and genitive) and parses verb and noun endings. The site also provides links to other online sources of help with translating and understanding the Latin language.
This is the website of the Latin Programme (formerly CAGSE Foundation until September 2010), a registered charity whose mission is to bring Latin into primary schools as a way of improving literacy. The foundation's pilot scheme (entitled Latin and Literacy) was launched in five London boroughs in 2007/2008, and this website provides details of the foundation's methods and objectives, as well as highlighting the benefits of learning Latin. The following information is available here: details of events for schoolteachers and children (including storytelling events and a project to encourage children to explore the relationship between London's present and its ancient Roman past); biographies of CAGSE's teachers (with links to blogs written by the teachers and some of their pupils); and a list of participating schools. There are also links to some Latin resources for pupils, including fun Latin facts and recordings of songs to help children to remember key grammatical points. This resource demonstrates the way in which study of the ancient world can successfully be brought to children of any age, and in doing so it helps to refute the assertion that classical subjects are no longer relevant in today's world.
These Web pages offer a wide range of downloadable tools and exercises for help with teaching and learning Latin at beginners' and intermediate levels. Featured are a series of explanatory lesson notes on aspects of grammar and vocabulary, including, for example, declension of nouns, verb conjugation, and sentence construction. Also included are grammar and vocabulary help and exercises for practising reading and composition. The site contains several 'elementary readers' which provide basic textbook Latin for reading practice, as well as more advanced 'acceleration readers' - extracts from texts by Caesar, Cicero, Livy, Pliny, Quintilian and Sallust arranged in such a way as to facilitate the understanding of Latin sentence construction. There is also a page of links to articles on methods of Latin teaching and the history of Latin pedagogy.
Latinitas is a website whose main aim is to promote the ongoing study and use of Latin as a living language among academics, students and amateurs across traditional language borders. Anyone is free to use and contribute to the discussion groups as long as it is in Latin. There is also a library of Latin texts by various humanist writers (such as Boccaccio, Cervantes, Erasmus) and the Tudor poet George Buchanan as well as more recent translations such as a latin version of Robinson Crusoe and of passages from Dante and Homer. Also featured is a very extensive series of annotated weblinks on many aspects of Latin learning from all over the world which will particularly benefit those who find the uncompromising use of Latin of the main resource too much for their linguistic skills but which will also serve to highlight possible learning resources.
The Latinteach website is aimed primarily at teachers of Latin in secondary schools, but it is also of interest to those studying Latin. The site offers a wide range of resources for Latin teachers and information on all aspects of teaching the Latin language, including reviews of teaching materials, lesson plans and advice on classroom management. The 'resources' section is an extensive and well-organised annotated gateway arranged by topic; it provides information about, and links to, a vast range of online resources of interest to those teaching Latin (or classics more generally). Sample topics include; methodologies for teaching Latin; promoting Latin, Greek and the classics; Latin quizzes and games; and discussion lists for Latin teachers and learners. The site also hosts a blog and an email discussion forum.
This website provides access to the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB), a searchable catalogue of Latin and Greek works in circulation from the fourth century BC to AD 800. It allows one to explore the transmission of ancient and classical texts and ideas from the ancient world through to late antiquity, and it builds on previous research by Roger Pack, Joseph van Haelst, and Marcello Gigante, whose catalogues of ancient books are incorporated here. The database has been created in FileMaker Pro, and this program must be available on one's machine in order to use the database. The LDAB contained information on just under 14,000 ancient literary texts at the time of writing this review, and it includes material written on papyrus, ostraka, parchment, and tablets. Each entry includes details of published material about the text, the ancient author, title of the work, material inscribed, the bookform, the genre, the culture (Greek, Latin, Hebrew), religion, the text's provenance, date of writing, description of the lettering, and the subjects covered by the text. The LDAB can be searched on most of the fields listed above. More than one field can be selected for searching. Results can be displayed in a variety of attractive formats. For example, a search for all editions of a Euripides play gives a list of catalogue entries in plain text. Other functionality is available with the CD-ROM version of the database. Using this webpage, you can search through the entire LDAB database, but you cannot download it it as a whole. Results can be printed out.
This is the website of the Lexicon of Greek Personal Names (LGPN) which is an ongoing project based at Oxford University, but using the expertise of scholars from several institutions across the world. It is an onomastic project, dealing with the study of ancient proper names and their origins. Its aim is to collect and publish all known ancient Greek personal names, drawn from all available sources; it encompasses all names recorded in Greek, and all Greek names recorded in Latin, from the beginnings of Greek writing to approximately the 6th century AD. Volumes are organised geographically, covering all regions in which Greek names were used, from Italy to Southern Russia to Asia Minor. The website offers: bibliographic data, reviews, statistics, and state-of-completion information for all current and forthcoming volumes of the LGPN; an introductory section on Greek names, including information on name formation and meaning, and also some details on modern Greek names; and an extensive archive of images of material objects with inscribed names (for example, tombstones, vases, inscriptions, ostraka and coins). The website does have a search tool which allows the user to ascertain how many times a particular name occurs in each of the LGPN's published volumes; however, only the statistics rather than the entries themselves can be viewed by those accessing the site from outside Oxford University.
This website, published by John Younger of the Department of Classics of the University of Kansas, provides a brief introduction to the script, transliterations of all the major Linear A texts from Crete and the Aegean, a comprehensive bibliography of related publications from 1980 and a series of free downloadable fonts for Macintosh and Windows users of all the ancient Aegean scripts (Hieroglyphic, Linear A, Linear B and the Phaistos disc). Linear A, the main writing system of the Minoan civilisation of Bronze Age Crete in the second millennium BC, is one of the last undeciphered scripts of the ancient Mediterranean. The website also supplies a rudimentary grammar and vocabulary of Linear A and speculates on the language underlying the script, which Younger believes to be related to one of the Indo-European Hittite languages of Anatolia. Linear A is first attested in Middle Minoan (MM) I B palatial contexts circa 2000 BC but its use and occurrence expanded dramatically throughout Crete and the Aegean the during the MM II-III periods and finally disappeared in the course of the 16th century BC (Late Minoan IB), probably as a result of major cultural or political influence from the Greek Mainland. While there are no photographs or drawings of the actual Linear A documents themselves, the texts are presented in a way which allows the reader to reconstruct the original layout of the tablets. In addition, all the various epigraphic conventions and abbreviations are also provided. The editor has also usefully grouped together all the texts believed to be of religious significance. While this is a specialist resource for professional archaeologists, ancient philologists and epigraphists, it will also interest undergraduates and the interested amateur.
Minos is a journal focusing on Aegean philology (largely Linear B) and this website publishes its archive with the free and full text PDF editions of many early issues (vol. 1-14; 18; and 25). It is possible to contact the editors ("acerca de"); search by keyword or author ("buscar"); and the browsable archives ("archivos"). Some readers may find useful the possibility to register to the journal and be notified when new issues are published. Minos is an essential resource for students and researchers of Mycenaean Greece and Linear B. The papers are in English; Spanish; French; and Italian and aimed at an advanced readership. Some postgraduate students and researchers will find this website very useful.
This is the website of the National Committee for Latin and Greek (NCLG), a North American organisation which promotes the study of Classics and raises public awareness of classical subjects. The site is also a useful source of support and information for those who teach classical subjects in schools and universities. Much of the material found here is aimed at justifying the study of Classics in the twenty-first century: various articles on the value of teaching Latin, Greek and the classical world are featured, along with links to articles in the media which may help to promote classical subjects by highlighting their relevance in the modern world. The site also gives details of useful teaching materials, books on the history of teaching Classics and information on curricula. Inevitably some of these are more relevant to colleagues in the US, although classicists elsewhere will find much that is of interest too. Other features include: details of North America's annual national Latin Teacher Recruitment Week; extracts from the NCLG's newsletter, Pro Bono; and pages of links to external classical sites.
This website provides access to Nestor, an international bibliography of: Aegean studies (including all of Greece, Albania, the southern coast of Bulgaria, the western and southern coasts of Turkey, and Cyprus); Homeric society; Indo-European linguistics especially concerning the development of Greek; and related fields (such as Philistine culture and the Classical Cypriot syllabary). It is published in print by the Department of Classics, University of Cincinnati, and editions published since 1959 are available here on this site. Nestor includes over 37,500 citations for all articles, books, monographs, and journals on prehistoric, ancient and classical Greece, and neighbouring areas. For each reference, Nestor gives the author, year of publication, title, place of publication, and publisher, but does not give any indication of the content of the article. The digital collection is searchable by author, title, journal name, and year (but not by subject or keyword), and results give a list of references. The website also provides access to a searchable International Dictionary of Aegean Prehistorians, via which it is possible to trace academics working in this field.
This website gives access to a range of useful resources for teaching ancient Greek which were compiled by the site's author, Helma Dik of the University of Chicago. These handouts may be downloaded as PDFs and printed by the user. Grammatical topics covered include: verb endings and stems (regular and irregular verb forms in all tenses); a guide to the use of the subjunctive and optative; conditional sentences; declension of nouns and adjectives; pronouns and the definite article. There is also an introduction to breathings and accents, and a list of principal parts.
This Web page provides access to a range of useful tools for searching and browsing the Perseus digital library, and is a good starting point for anyone who is unfamiliar with the Perseus online resource. There is a wide range of Latin and ancient Greek linguistic tools, including: word searches from English into Greek or Latin (using LSJ and Lewis and Short as their basis); morphological analyses for Greek and Latin words; tools which generate vocabulary lists for Greek and Latin texts; and a search which allows the user to find Greek or Latin words in context in the original texts. Other resources on classical topics include the following: the Perseus art and archaeology browser (catalogued elsewhere on Intute); a summary of information about all collections in the digital library, grouped by subject; an index for searching all English texts (primary and secondary) found on Perseus; the Perseus table of contents; an interactive atlas; and a variety of search tools. Links are also provided here to important documents giving further information about the Perseus resource, including: FAQs; information on displaying Greek fonts; help pages for the various tools listed above; and details of the website's policies.
This is the website of the Philoponia Project, a research group which is based at the Faculty of Classics, University of Cambridge and which was formed with the aim of investigating the use of 'unseen' translations in the teaching of ancient Greek and Latin. In 2003 the project produced a report, entitled 'Rethinking Unseen Translation', which detailed the results of a survey of language instructors; this report may be viewed via the site. The website also offers a facility by which language teachers may share passages set for unseen translation; users may upload their own contributions or download those submitted by others. Each extract from an ancient text is assigned a level of difficulty and accompanied by brief notes detailing the thematic content of and syntactical topics covered by the passage. The original language text is also accompanied by background information. The site also offers an interactive document, in the form of a Microsoft Word template, which can be used by instructors as the basis of their own unseen translation exercises. This online resource will be of interest to those involved in the teaching of ancient Greek and Latin at all levels.
Based on the life's work and surviving archive of renowned Oxford epigrapher Lilian ('Anne') Jeffery (1915-1986), this online resource provides a major database and scholarly tool for the study of early Greek writing and literacy from circa 800-500 BC. Published by the University of Oxford's Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD), the website provides information on thousands of inscriptions and their archaeological context as well as a biography of Jeffery by David Lewis reproduced from the Proceedings of the British Academy. The inscriptions can be searched by publication sequence, script types, letter form, site context, object type, region and sub region, and date range. Each entry is given an individual data sheet which includes detailed information about the inscriptions, as well as images, transcriptions and translations. There is also a series of maps showing the distribution of the inscriptions. Jeffery's book 'The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece' (first published in 1961) remains a seminal text for early Greek epigraphy but her archive contains a far larger collection of drawings, notes and supplementary material not included in the original publication or in the revised second edition edited by Alan Johnston in 1990. The archival material provided here is of considerable interest in expanding and elucidating the original publication.
Written by William Harris, Professor Emeritus at Middlebury College, this web page consists of the text of an article designed to encourage independent study of Homeric poetry by those who already have a basic knowledge of the ancient Greek language. Harris puts forward some of the reasons why Homer is a good author with which to begin reading original texts (although many courses favour beginning with other authors), and also looks at some of the problems which may be encountered by the student reader of his epic poems. The text contains links to articles on other relevant topics, also written by William Harris (Greek musical pitch, and the Homeric tradition in the modern world). The paper also gives a detailed summary of some of the key texts and resources available to the student of Homeric Greek, as well as annotated bibliography on scholarly works providing background information.
Scholiastae is a wiki which allows classical scholars to share their notes, or commentaries, on ancient texts. The site contains a selection of texts in ancient Greek and Latin formatted in such a way as to allow contributors to add their own explanatory comments on vocabulary, grammar, and interesting or obscure references. The very nature of this site means that it will evolve over time, but at the time of compiling this review texts available here included the following: the Greek Anthology; Herodotus; Homer (Iliad and Odyssey); Pindar; Sappho; Ovid's Metamorphoses; Caesar's Bellum Gallicum; and Cicero's Catilinarian I. As with any wiki, of course, the quality of the material is heavily dependant upon the calibre of the contributors, but this has the potential to be a useful tool for students and researchers of classical texts.
The website of the School of History, Classics, and Archaeology at Birkbeck College, University of London, essentially provides information for those considering courses at Birkbeck, or who are already on one of the courses. However, the website also has a excellent set of resources aimed at its students which can be used by any interested party. The sections Undergraduate, Classics, and Medieval resources point the student towards useful websites and other resources in the field. There is also information on forthcoming conferences and projects within the School, as well as links to pertinent lecture and seminar lists at IHR and ICS. Each individual department has listings of its staff, their research interests, and contact details.
The Silver Muse is an online reader and companion to Roman imperial poetry. The website features poems by Ovid, Lucan, Valerius Flaccus, Statius, and Silius Italicus. Most of the poetry excerpts are relatively short, but enhanced by every word being hyperlinked to a Latin-English dictionary and a grammatical and syntactic commentary. This feature should make the resource a helpful tool for students learning the Latin language. In addition to the reading guides, the site includes a biography and a number of secondary essays about each of the featured authors, along with overviews and bibliographies of their works. Introductory materials include notes on epic versification, and an extract from H. E. Butler's essay on post-Augustan poetry. Appendices include: a glossary of rhetorical terms; an explanation of Roman names; a Roman calendar; a guide to Roman money, weights, and measures; sample syllabi; and excerpts from Allen and Greenough's 'New Latin Grammar'. This is an excellent site which should be of particular use to classics undergraduates.
This is the website of the Society for the Oral Reading of Greek and Latin Literature (SORGLL), which adheres to the principle that literature written in the classical Greek and Latin languages was intended primarily for oral performance and that therefore the sounds of these languages are crucial for our understanding. As well as giving general information relating to the Society and its officers, this website contains downloadable recordings of spoken Latin and Greek accompanied by extracts of texts in both the original language and English translation. Greek authors who feature are: Homer; Archilochus; Alcman; Sappho; Sophocles; Pindar; Aristophanes; and Demosthenes; these are accompanied by a written and spoken guide to Greek pronunciation. Extracts in Latin are taken from works of: Terence; Cicero; Virgil; Catullus; Horace; Seneca; and Martial. Users will need to download RealPlayer in order to listen to the recordings.
Coptic is the name given to the latest stage of the ancient Egyptian language from the first century BC and written in an alphabet deriving from Greek and Demotic. The term is applied more generally to the distinct culture of Egyptian Christianity and its diaspora which still uses the Coptic language in its religious rituals. This website, produced by the St Shenouda the Archimandrite Coptic Society of Los Angeles, is part of an on-going project to preserve and promote Coptic culture by providing digital resources for Coptic language, literary, archaeological and artistic study. Projects include the Coptic Microfilm Library (CML) which aims to put all relevant Coptic and Arabic texts online and the Mapping of Coptic Monuments project, which will record all Egyptian Christian architectural and archaeological sites. The Manual of Coptic Studies (at the time of review almost completely empty and not updated since 1996) includes: the liturgy and texts of Coptic Christianity; a history of the language; a guide to Coptic writing; a directory of Coptic scholars. Other features include a useful slide show of frescoes from Coptic churches and monasteries. There is also a run of newsletters from the mid-1990s and downloadable software. The links page provides further information on websites of Coptic interest.
This is the website of the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG), a research centre at the University of California, Irvine, which has digitized the majority of the corpus of extant Greek texts from Homer to fall of Byzantium in AD 1453. The main feature of the website is the search facility which allows users access to these texts online. Only subscribers (or those from subscribing institutions) may access the full database here; however, an abridged version is available for non-subscribers. This in itself is extensive and features texts by several key Greek authors including; Thucydides; Aeschylus; Euripides; Plutarch; Plato; and the Athenian orators. Users may browse the full texts or search for keywords. (It is necessary to have Greek fonts installed in order to view the Greek texts.) The website also includes details about the project itself, as well as details about how to subscribe.
Directed primarily towards academics and scholars examining and researching the papyrological remnants from the first few centuries of Christianity, the University of Michigan Papyrus Collection (maintained by the University’s library) houses one of the largest papyri collections anywhere in the world with over 10,000 individual fragments. At present approximately one third of the total collection is accessible online. Using the Advanced Papyrological Information System (APIS), one can trawl through the entire archive by searching for specific key words, allowing users to quickly identify all texts held in the Michigan collection with a common theme. Searches may also be executed based on the names of a papyrus’ editor(s), or its inventory code numbers. The great advantage of the system is once you have located your fragment not only does the APIS provide information on its characteristics and publication history, but it also includes a bitmap photograph that can be enlarged to view details at a high magnification. Where possible the compilers of this site have also included English translations for some of the fragments, making the text of some fragments accessible to a wider audience. The site also offers: a select bibliography of papyrology; topic-based sections (including, for example, writing in Graeco-Roman Egypt, the transmission of the English Bible, and ancient seals); learning resources for papyrology; and a substantial list of links to other useful sites.
Via Facilis is the weblog of Richard Gilder, an experienced teacher of Latin and ancient Greek in both the US and the UK at every level from elementary to advanced. This online resource aims to inspire those who teach classics and the ancient languages and gives voice to his thoughts on the relevance of teaching and studying Latin and Greek in the modern world. As well as viewing posts in chronological order, users may also browse according to themes. These include: Latin in the modern world; grammar; reading and Latin; and teaching and Latin. Also provided here are sample chapters of Richard Gilder's book Via Facilis : Mastering Latin and Understanding Language. These chapters are available to download in PDF format.
VRoma is an online collection of resources for the teaching and learning of Latin and ancient Roman culture at secondary school and undergraduate level. It acts as a repository for online teaching material (holding an extensive collection of texts, commentaries, maps, images, teaching resources and more). Its central feature is a virtual classroom based on the city of Rome of c. AD150, where students and staff can log on and travel around the city and hold discussions with others visiting VRoma. Groups based in different institutions can arrange to visit VRoma at the same time and hold collaborative classes. Travel instructions and conversations can be in English or Latin. Using this element of VRoma introduces students to the monuments of ancient Rome, encourages them to use Latin, and to interact with peers. Background information to the VRoma project, help, and guidance on using the virtual city are all available on the website.
This is an online version of S C Woodhouse's English-Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language, which was originally published in 1910. Woodhouse's original introduction, cited here, states that he based his lexicon on vocabulary found in the fifth-and fourth-century BC prose writers Thucydides, Plato, Xenophon, Demosthenes and the orators, and in the poets Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes. The user enters a search term in English and is then taken to an image of the page on which the term and its possible ancient Greek translations features. The site, produced by the University of Chicago Library, is both a useful tool for assistance with Greek prose or verse composition and an insight into the history of lexicography.
This is the website of the Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, an international journal of Greek and Roman antiquity focusing on research into epigraphic and papyrological material. This resource provides a guide to the contents of the journal from 1967 to the present together with the digitised texts of articles from 2001-2004 which are available free of charge for private study (free volumes made available might vary from year to year). The indexes of most volumes can be browsed in PDF format. The reproduced articles are in German, English, French and Italian.Information on the print version of the journal is also provided, such as editorial advice for authors and subscription details.This website provides useful a bibliographic guide to publications in an important classics and ancient history journal for university students and researchers, particularly for those competent in European languages.