This website currently provides access to nearly forty letters written by Florence Nightingale. The site has been created by the Clendening History of Medicine Library at the University of Kansas in order to make its collection of Florence Nightingale letters freely available.T he original letters have been scanned and are available from the site as facsimile images. These images are accompanied by a transcription of the text. Further research is being carried out on the letters and as this information become available footnotes are being added. The letters can be viewed chronological, alphabetically or can be searched. The site also has a list of links to other sites related to Florence Nightingale.
This website encourages exploration and understanding of and participation around the collection of Aberdeen Art Gallery and Museums (Aberdeen Art Gallery, Aberdeen Maritime Museum, Provost Skene's House and the Tolbooth). A selection of images have been digitized to represent the scope and depth of the collections and arranged in virtual tours, including some of relevance for art history, maritime history, the history of science and industry, archaeology and numismatics. There is also an online catalogue of this selection of objects from the collection of Aberdeen Art Gallery and Museums. It is possible to view these objects in various ways: single image with basic cataloguing information; 6 images with a simple caption of the object's title or name; or a list of objects without images. All the images can be enlarged to a full-screen size.
The website "About Great Ormond Street Hospital" is produced by the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust (with UCL The Institute of Child Health), which was initially launched to mark the 150th birthday of Britain's first hospital for sick children. The site draws together medical notes and photographs that reveal a revolution in how young patients were treated. Quick links from the home page lead to: the whole story; what nursing and surgery were like; key facts and achievements; Gallery; Peter Pan; Museum and Archives services. On the site you can see that Florence Nightingale opposed the hospital, but Charles Dickens approved. So did J.M. Barrie - Great Ormond Street hospital still benefits from the royalties of Peter Pan. From 10 beds when it was first established in 1852, the hospital grew to 200 beds by the end of the 19th century, with 60 more for convalescence in north London. Today the 335-bed hospital treats 22,000 in-patients and 77,000 out-patients each year. The top-navigation of the site provides access to the hospital's current online presence.
'Aestimatio: Critical Reviews in the History of Science' is a full-text ejournal, published by the Institute for Research in Classical Philosophy and Science in the U.S.A. Book reviews are freely available for download, as either colour or black & white PDF files. At June 2009 there are five volumes freely available, from 2004 to 2008, with all reviews written in English. Recently reviewed books include: 'Following Pausanias: The Quest for Greek Antiquity'; 'Through a Glass Darkly: Magic, Dreams and Prophecy in Ancient Egypt'; 'Harmonious Triads: Physicists, Musicians, and Instrument Makers in Nineteenth-Century Germany'; and 'The Symbol at Your Door: Number and Geometry in Religious Architecture in the Greek and Latin Middle Ages', among others. Most books reviewed appear to be in English, but there are also a few written in other languages, such as 'Naturwissenschaften im Kulturvergleich: Europa-Islam-China'. Text may not be copied and pasted from the PDFs. This will be a useful journal for those seeking to keep pace with new books in the history of science and technology.
Established to support the International Polar Year 2007-2008, this series AHRC of AHRC funded workshops and related research project aims to uncover the hitherto hidden histories of the IPY Field Stations. The project sees the international field station as a crucial and under researched ‘nexus’ in the organisation of science, which nevertheless has tended to become the focus of competing social and geopolitical tensions. With this perspective, the project aims to understand the impact of the ‘archipelago’ of international field stations on the surrounding territories and on the science produced, both from a cultural and historical perspective and as a way of furthering the aims and acceptance of future science. As well as abstracts of papers presented at the first workshop, the website includes biographies of researchers involved in the project and its relationship to the International Polar Year 2007-2008.
The website of the American Association for the History of Medicine provides information about the work of the organisation. Details of meetings to be held, their publications (including their newsletter, with a online edition that is regularly updated), and on how to join are provided. The site has a news section which issues calls for conferences, details of awards etc. Information on jobs, grants and fellowships are also available from the site. A searchable database of members of the association has been included on the site, but is only accessible to current members. Other features of the site include a useful list of links to relevant sites and organisations, and officers and bylaws of the association.
The website "The Nature of Diamonds" is an online exhibition from the American Museum of Natural History. It accompanied an exhibition at the Museum from 1997-1998, which explored "the nature of diamonds". Illustrated text is organized in clearly navigable sections that examine scientifically and historically: What is a Diamond?; Origins; History; Mining and Distribution; Industry and Technology; Jewelry and Gems. There is also a lengthy bibliography of printed material. The 'History' section, for example, delves into: the concepts and images of the diamond as a royal gem, significant for love and betrothal; the origins and traditions, trade, and myths and legends in India (including caste and Buddhism) and ancient Greece and Rome, and the mediterranean cultures; picking the story up again in the middle ages, through the Renaissance, and modern history, to the twentieth century. The images, photographs and maps, which have detailed captions, may be enlarged.
The Archie Cochrane Archive website is part of the Cardiff University site, and was the first project of the Centre for the History of Evaluations in Healthcare. On the site there is a great deal of information on the archival holdings for Dr. Archibald Leman Cochrane, 1909-1988, who pioneered evidence-based medicine. There is a complete catalogue for the archive, which contains photographs, personal items and professional papers, including documents on his experiences in the Spanish Civil War, and the 1950 Rhondda Fach Scheme. In addition to the catalogue there is a biographical outline of Cochrane, a complete list of his publications, a section on his experience as a Prisoner of War, and information about access to the archive. Some of the documents from the archive and archive catalogues have been digitised and can be viewed in PDF on the site, and there is also a video clip that requires QuickTime to view it.
The Archive of Women in Science and Engineering aims to preserve the historical heritage of American women in these fields. The collection is held at the Special Collections Department of Iowa State University and is intended to serve as a local, regional, national and international resource. The website gives details of the archive and the motivation behind putting the archive together. Descriptions of each collection are provided and include biographical information and details of the scope and content of each collection. Bibliographic details of the rare books held by the archive are also available from the site. Other features of the site include details of an oral history project being undertaken, a bibliography and related links.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Gdańsku (State archive in Gdańsk)" is in Polish with a less detailed but useful English version, and provides details of the opening hours, location, accessibility, and holdings of the archive. The collections of the archive reflect the history of Gdańsk, which was formerly the German city of Danzig and the Free City of Gdańsk. The site features the history, structure and preservation of the archive. Of use to the researchers is the information on the access to holdings. The records are divided into the following categories: state and local administration records between 18th and 20th century; records of the cities of Gdańsk and Elbląg, records of smaller Pomeranian towns; church, monastic, and public register records; judicial records; guild and merchants' records; and records of scientific, educational, and cultural institutions. The archive also has a good collection of maps and private papers. The catalogues of the holdings can be searched via SEZAM, the database run by the State Archives of Poland with several town archives and significant cultural institutions of the country. The archive is part of the Baltic Connections project. An excellent site for those researchign Polish, German, or Pomeranian history.
The Athanasius Kircher Correspondence Project presents digitised images of the correspondence of this neglected 17th century Jesuit thinker. Based in Rome, Kircher had one of the most wide-ranging intellects of his day, pursuing subjects as diverse as alchemy, Egyptology and engineering. Much of his research was based on correspondence with foreign thinkers, travellers and missionaries, and the collection digitised here is based on the 2,000 plus letters Kircher received from over 700 correspondents. The website provides information on recent publications and bibliographical data on works about Kircher and his correspondence. To view the correspondence itself, it is necessary to download the Insight program from the site: users can then search the database using a range of categories, and will be presented with digitised images of the letters relevant to their search terms.
The Atomic Archive, published by AJ Software and Multimedia (San Digeo), presents resources relating to the history of the development of the atomic bomb. The site is intended to supplement a CD-ROM of the same name published by the company. The site is primarily aimed at supporting the US school curriculum and includes introductions to the science underlying nuclear weapons and a collection of data relating to the development, location and storage of nuclear weapons in the present day. The sections which may be of particular interest are the sample primary documents and photographs relating to the early history of the atomic age. Documents include: Lise Meitner and O.R. Frisch, "Disintegration of Uranium by Neutrons: A New Type of Nuclear Reaction." Nature 143 (11 Feb 1939): 239-240; the report by MAUD Committee on the Use of Uranium for a Bomb (1941); the founding of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; eye-witness accounts of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and documents relating to the subsequent development of the hydrogen bomb. The site also includes brief biographies, timelines, and maps.
The Bibliography and Methods in Medieval Studies website is an online course outline with detailed bibliographies and links to resources for bibliographic research in medieval studies. The site is divided into sub-sections, representing the topics covered each week in the course, including: general bibliographies and Internet sources; medieval history sources; ecclesiastical sources; Latin authors and texts; interpretations of the Bible; the liturgy; hagiography; iconography; manuscript research; science; and popular culture and folklore. Each section is linked to a bibliography, covering "the major reference guides, encyclopaedias, bibliographies and electronic databases". Some of the links to electronic resources are only available to students and staff of the University of Illinois, but those that are freely available are worth looking at. There are also eight library exercises designed to train the undergraduate medievalist in the scholarly tools which make the discipline possible.
The "Big & Bouncy" website brings together much of the academic and enthusiasts research with photographs and illustrations to tell the story of the "bouncing" bomb developed by Sir Barnes Wallis during the Second World War. This was used by the specially-formed 617 Squadron of the RAF to destroy the Möhne and Eder dams in Germany's Ruhr district in May 1943. Barnes Wallis was a scientist and engineer, working mostly for Vickers aircraft, who earlier in his career worked on the R.100 airship. Wallis later went on to design the 6-ton Tallboy and 10-ton Grand Slam earthquake bombs (which were used successfully against many enemy targets in the later years of World War 2) and after the war developed the practicalities of swing-wing aircraft. As well as the special weapons developed by Wallis this website includes information about the Vickers Windsor bomber aircraft. The author's sources are cited here, and there are links to websites on similar subjects.
The excellent website of the Bill Douglas Centre for the History of Cinema and Popular Culture provides information on the academic research centre and its museum. The Centre houses one of the UK's largest collections of books, prints, artefacts and ephemera, collected by Bill Douglas and Peter Jewell. These depict the history of the cinema illustrating the development of 'optical recreation' and popular entertainment from the late 18th century to the present day. The centre also encompasses what it calls the "pre-history" of cinema, boasting a copy of Athanasius Kircher's "Ars Magna Lucis et Ombrae" of 1671, the first book to illustrate the magic lantern. There is a teaching and learning section, a searchable database of the collections, and further information about the onsite museum. An excellent section on further reading recommends the best publications on cinema and related themes. The website hosts virtual exhibitions and provides information about forthcoming events. The Teaching and Learning section includes information on degree courses, research opportunities and resources for schools for Key Stages 1 to 3. Worksheets are provided and the Centre can be used as a part of science projects, and 19th- and 20th-century history. The Centre's EVE online catalogue and virtual exhibition space received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and is preserved at AHDS Performing Arts.
'The Black Death' website provides a basic summary of the great plague that struck Europe in 1347 and 1348, and wiped out around a third of the population. The site consists of a number of brief articles arranged into chapters. These cover the history of the plague, the disease itself, the social and medical response to it, and the effects of the disease on different aspects of life and culture. The site lacks full bibliographic notes, and is useful more as a general introduction to the subject rather than as a scholarly text.
Bletchley Park was home to the Second World War codebreaking initiative which famously defeated the German Enigma machine, employing Alan Turing’s innovation of the Bombe, a predecessor of the early electromechanical computers. It now operates as a visitor attraction, and this official site is relatively commercial: there is, however, some historical information including a loose narrative chronology of events in the period September 1941-March 1942 (author unspecified) and an account of early Polish successes in breaking Enigma, often overlooked, plus photographs and a Java simulation of an Enigma machine (also available at the website of its author, Russell Schwager). The material is popular in tone and would be suitable for presenting to school-age or first-level undergraduates as background or a basis for project work; there is little of potential use to researchers, however, with the possible exception of a paper, written by Bletchley Park mathematician Frank Carter, entitled "Mathematics in Action". This discusses some of the principles behind the breaking of the Lorenz cipher: the full-text is available in PDF format. The site also provides conference details, briefly annotated links, and general information about visiting the site. The layout is rather busy and a little confusing: most of the useful material is to be found in the sections "Enigma" and "History".
The website "The British Empire", created by an enthusiast teacher, is devoted to the history of the British Empire, and offers a range of material dealing with Britain's colonial past. The site is split into several sections, and covers various aspects of the British Empire, from the armed forces to art, culture and science. Also available are maps, useful timelines, which record Britain's activities alongside world events and developments in the arts and sciences, articles, biographies and a bibliography. At present the site is particularly strong on the cultural impact of the existence of the British Empire, as Professor John MacKenzie has contributed a lot of material on this subject. The site does not actually focus on the history of any individual countries, and there is little attention paid to decolonisation and the end of empire. Instead the focus is much more on the structures of empire, like the armed forces, and the experience of individuals.
This useful Internet site briefly describes various calendars, modern and historic, from around the world (including, for example, Chinese, Christian, Persian, Roman and lunar calendars). Each calendar is named and explained, with any adjustments due to the irregular solar or lunar orbits noted. Where relevant, such as with the Gregorian calendar, the dates on which various countries adopted the calendar are provided, along with the dates lost during the changeover. A comparative table enables quick comparisons between the various methods that have been employed to keep track of the days in a year. The resource can be searched by type of calendar or by topic. Themes which are covered include: the Earth's orbit; Kepler's laws of planetary motion; counting years; months, weeks and days; and New Year's Day. This site should prove to be a convenient reference source for arts students studying subjects with an historical dimension.
'Captain Cook: voyages of discovery' is a website about the three expeditions of the explorer Captain James Cook (1728-1779). The site forms part of the Hunterian Museum of the University of Glasgow, and the accounts of Cook's journeys are accompanied by images of some of the artefacts that he collected, which are now on display in the Museum. Cook's first voyage, on the 'Endeavour' lasted from 1768-1771, his second, on the 'Resolution', from 1772 to 1775, and his final voyage, again on the Resolution, left Plymouth in 1776 but was curtailed by Cook's demise at the hands of irate Hawaiians. His travels took in the Islands of Australia, New Zealand, Tonga, the Cook Islands, Tahiti, Hawaii, the New Hebrides, and New Caledonia. Each of the voyages has its own web page with an interactive map of the route taken. Clicking on an island brings up a short account of Cook's discoveries and reception there. These in turn link to images of artefacts held in the museum's collections. There are also a few web pages that describe eighteenth-century navigation, and the kinds of danger that Cook and his men faced. This is a nicely presented website that gives a good sense of Cook's undertaking and provides a clear, if simple, introduction to his voyages. Hopefully, more artefacts will be added to the site in the future.
The Chronology of Animation website, part of 'Richard's Animated Divots', provides a guide to key dates in the history of animation from 1824 to the present day. The time-line includes entries for animated films, television series, and short cartoons as well as for important people, studios, and events. Each entry for an animated film includes its title, studio and country of production, type of animation, and artist(s). The main focus is on animation created for artistic/entertainment purposes, although there is also some coverage of animation created for education or advertising. The site generally does not cover animation techniques used to create special effects in live action cinema or television. The information is presented in a clear and easily readable table, with links in the bottom frame to other dates and the other resources of this chronology. The site is designed to be browsed, but can also be searched by specific film, studio or animation personnel. A bibliography of animation and an annotated list of links to related websites are also included.
The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online is a website providing unprecedented, comprehensive access to Darwin's published works and unpublished papers as well as to his private papers. With at least one exemplar of all known Darwin publications available here, this impressive resource provides over 40,000 pages of searchable text and over 150,00 images. Complementing these primary texts (which have either been scanned or transcribed, or both) are a number of other valuable resources. These include: the largest Darwin bibliography, based on the work of R.B.Freeman; the largest catalogue of Darwin manuscripts (from the University of Cambridge Library); hundreds of additional texts such as reviews of Darwin's works, obituaries, biographies, and works useful for studying Darwin; and editorial introductions to contextualise Darwin's work and aid understanding. As from April 2008, Darwin's private papers are also available, including his diaries, field notebooks, drafts, drawings and diagrams, photographs and much more.
The site may be navigated in a number of ways, including searching and browsing, as described on the User Guide page. Additions and improvements to the site are being made continually; more editions, translations and introductions are planned, and new materials added can be found in the 'What's New' section. MP3 files of some of the works may be downloaded for free, and a user guide is available to help make the most of this vast website. This immensely important and rich resource will appeal to anyone interested in the works of Charles Darwin, and represents a major contribution to the digital humanities.
The Correspondence of William Henry Fox Talbot is a well-designed website that provides extensive information on Fox Talbot, the inventor of photography, as well as an online database of nearly 10,000 letters to and from the photography pioneer. He left a substantial amount of correspondence, manuscripts, research notes and of course photographs, and due to his niece's efforts to preserve these materials, a large part of the collection is still extant. The project has transcribed Talbot's letters and these are made available as fully searchable text files, with an increasing number also annotated. Files can be searched by date, correspondent, catalogue number and by words and phrases appearing in the text. Amongst his correspondents were: Sir John Herschel, an astronomer and ingenious inventor of photography; the Scottish physicist and scientific journalist Sir David Brewster; the Irish poet Thomas Moore; politicians and reformers; important figures in the establishment of the American photographic industry; those who worked closely with him; and his family. Aside from the correspondence, the website also describes Fox Talbot's early years and childhood, and his interests in botany, mathematics and ultimately photography. There is also a selection of photographs displayed on the site, a glossary, and a bibliography. There is an excellent resources page, and links to subjects of interest such as documentary editing, Talbot studies, and the history of photography. Images can be accessed from the Visual Arts Data Service (VADS) website. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB - now the AHRC) within the Research Grants scheme.
"Cracking Dams" is a website designed for the American K-12 curriculum to assist in the teaching of fracture mechanics and concrete dams using interactive multimedia. This site supports the teaching of the science and social aspects of the failure of a dam structure. However, the site illustrates the science behind cracking dams with some clips from "The Dam Busters" feature film, 1953. Therefore, it may be of interest to those teaching the development of the weapons used to destroy the Möhne and Eder dams in Germany's Ruhr district in May 1943 during the Second World War. The postgraduate thesis behind this project is linked to from this page.
'The Creation of Color in Eighteenth-Century Europe' is a scholarly historical monograph and online exhibition, hosted by Gutenberg-e and Columbia University Press. The focus of this cross-disciplinary book is on England and France, and includes Germany and the Netherlands as well, and it examines both the scientific, philosophical, and cultural aspects of the history of the development of colours in those nations. The website is illustrated, and PDF print-ready versions of each section are available. There is an index of all media included in the website. In addition to the free access/open access version, the book is available through the Humanities E-Book series of the ACLS (US).
Cahiers de recherches médiévales (CRM) is the website of a French journal devoted to interdisciplinary study of the Middle Ages. The journal's official languages are French and English, but articles in: Italian; Spanish; Portuguese; and German will also be considered (depending on subject). The journal also looks at the interpretation of the medieval period during the Renaissance and up to the present day. Each issue of the journal presents articles on a main theme and several sub-themes, together with book reviews. The full text of articles from issues more than three years old are available on the site, which can be searched via an author index, or alternatively via the site's keyword search facility. The website also provides a statement of the journal's aims, as well as: contact details; details of the editorial board; subscription information; notes for submission of articles; and details of the themes for forthcoming issues. This site would be of interest to scholars and students studying any aspect of the Middle Ages, especially those interested in Europe.
The website "Croness Pumping Station" is published by the Crossness Engines Trust, and is part of the National Grid for Learning. The site covers the history of the Crossness Pumping station, built in 1865 by Joseph Bazalgette as part of London's new drainage system. There is a sizeable section on the pumping station's history, taken from Ian G. Hampson's 'A popular history of Crossness'. This covers the building and it's engines, as well as including a biography of Joseph Bazalgette, and information on the state of London's sanitation and public health in the Victorian age. There is also information about the Trust and it's work to restore Crossness since the 1980s.
This is ‘virtual museum’ of the Cornubian Orefield – the mineral rich geological formation which underlies much of Cornwall. Exploited for thousands of years, the orefield was mined industrially from the early nineteenth century, and the Cornish mining landscape is now a UNESCO world heritage site. This website, the result of AHRB (now AHRC) funded research introduces the geology and industrial history of the Cornubian Orefield, illustrated with items prepared from the extensive collections of Camborne School of Mines, the Royal Cornwall Museum, Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Penzance, Cornwall, Bodmin Town Museum, and various individuals. The website includes a substantial bibliography relating to the history of mining and geology in Cornwall.
'Darwin 200' is the website of a national event in the UK, which aims to celebrate the 200th birthday of the scientist Charles Darwin. The website has been created by the Natural History Museum and has a full description of the project, its aims, and partner events such as a BBC 'Darwin season' on television. There is also an events listing which is searchable by keyword or can be filtered by place. Visitors to the website can create their own customised programme of events. The website also has a guide to online Darwin resources, and an interactive map of "Darwin's Britain". This may be a useful website for those studying media coverage of science, public understanding of controversy in scientific history, and the role of the arts in contemporary science education.
The website "The Darwin Correspondence Online Database" is not only an online database, but also provides an extended and extremely comprehensive bibliography of works on the eminent scientist and thinker. It is of use to those researching or studying any aspects of Darwin's thinking, nineteenth century correspondence, or any other figures connected to Darwin, as well as botanists, biologists, and sociologists. It contains information on all the known correspondence of Charles Darwin, which can be searched by name, places, plants, animals, geological terms, and many other terms. There is also a list of correspondents, supplemented with their biographical details. The correspondence is also arranged chronologically, consisting of almost fourteen thousand items from 1821 to Darwin's death in 1882, at the time of cataloguing. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) within the Resource Enhancement scheme.
'DIO: The International Journal of Scientific History' is a full-text ejournal, edited from Florida State University. The editors are inclined to accept articles by... "astrononomers, physicists, mathematicians, & classicists - not historians". Published three times a year, at June 2009 the journal has 27 issues online. Issues usually offer between two and six articles, freely available as PDF files. Example article titles include: 'The Babylonian Theory of the Planets'; 'The Southern Limit of the Ancient Star Catalog'; 'The Instuments Used by Hipparchos'; and 'Columbus's Landfall at Plana Keys', among others. The journal occasionaly collaborates with the The Journal for Hysterical Astronomy on special issues and articles on historical scientific hoaxes. The journal appears to have a special interest in papers on Hipparchos, ancient planetary observations, the maps of Ptolemy, and the early exploration of the polar regions. Three $1000 prizes are offered by the journal.
The directory of history of medicine collections website has been created by the National Library of Medicine in the United States. The site aims to provide information about history of health sciences collections providing research, reference and inter library loan facilities. The main focus of the site is on collections held in the United States. Limited information on collections held in Canada, France, Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom is also available. The information on the site is organized alphabetically by U.S. state and the non-U.S. collection are presented alphabetically by country. Each collection entry provides contact details (including web addresses), a brief abstract describing the collection and a holdings record.
This website provides information on the Dittrick Medical History Center (Cleveland, Ohio) and its collections of 60,000 rare books, 60,000 museum artifacts, 10,000 images, and archive listings. Originally part of the Cleveland Medical Library Association (est. 1894), the Dittrick is now an interdisciplinary centre within the College of Arts and Sciences of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. It is an international resource for the study of the history of medical technology, and provides research material for the study of speciality areas and local and international medical institutions. The site has six main sections: the Dittrick Museum of Medical History which consists mainly of a collection of instruments gathered from Cleveland physicians dating from 19th and 20th centuries; the rare medical book collection dating from late 14th century to 20th century; a section featuring 4 small online exhibits (Cleveland's smallpox epidemic of 1902; Images of dissection; a tour of Lake View Cemetery, Cleveland; and Asklepios Murals at the Allen Memorial Library); sample lists and overviews of the centre's archives; the image collection; and a What's New? section. Each section provides a very small sample of the collections housed at the center through the use of online images accompanied by brief background essays. There are also pages listing the Centre's publications, events and links to medical museums, archives and libraries both in the USA and worldwide. This site is regularly updated and includes news of forthcoming events and publications.
The Documentaries on Modern International Conflict (DOMIC) project provides detailed descriptions of the research archives for ten TV documentary series. The collections are held by the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, King's College London. The collections deal with Vietnam, the Falklands War, the Gulf Wars, the Cold War, the Arab-Israeli Wars, conflict in the former Yugoslavia, chemical and biological testing and the development of nuclear technology and its impact on international relations and defence policies.In total, the collections cover 92,000 separate items. Collection descriptions are comprehensive and thorough, although individual items are described only briefly. A search engine is provided within each collection (but not on the main page).As well as being of obvious application to studies dealing with international politics, peacekeeping, ethnicity, and technology, the project's authors hope the archives will also prove useful to media researchers and those interested in interview techniques. Modern military historians should find plenty of interesting sources amongst the archived materials.The DOMIC project received funding from the Research Support Libraries Programme (RSLP).
'Dreams of space' is a large free online 'image bank' of illustrations and paintings. The images illustrate how future and actual space travel was imagined, with most of the material being book illustrations that date from 1883 until 1974, 1974 being the year when there was little possibility of future manned moon landings continuing. The bulk of the collection is focussed on illustrations taken from children's books. The collection also covers some non-English European books on the subject. Most images are of small to medium size. There is a short directory of artists and illustrators, and a basic listing of authors and editors. The website republishes a short section from the 1978 book Space Art, titled 'The Archeology of Space Art'. The website appears to be a personal website created by John Sisson of the Science Library at the University of California at Irvine.
This online database contains over 3,000 photographs, illustrations, engravings, and bookplates for the history of medicine and life sciences in the Duke University Medical Center Library's History of Medicine collections. It is searchable by general keyword or by individual fields (description; author/artist name; title of image; title of source; place; date; subjects). The images presented via the web are reasonable but not of publication quality. Access to three special collections is also included in the database : 107 slides from Georg Bartisch's Ophthalmodouleia; Das is Augendienst (published 1583); The Four Seasons - 504 slides of 4 seventeenth-century copperplate engravings depicting seasons of the year with each season used as a metaphor of one of the 'ages of man'; and the 'Stewart Album' containing 206 photographs of German, French, Spanish, Italian and English physicians and scientists prominent in the mid nineteenth century. These subsets may be searched separately or as part of the entire HIM database.
The site provides an introduction to the 20,000 monographs, 4,000 manuscripts, as well as medical instruments, photographs and illustrations housed in the Duke University (Durham, North Carolina, USA) Medical Center Library's History of Medicine Collections. Six online exhibitions based on the collections are accessible. The site also provides a gateway to the Historical Images in Medicine (HIM) database (over 3,000 items) and to the National Library of Medicine's HISTLINE database. The Collections include histories of medicine, medical institutions, biographies of doctors, and other practitioners, and the historical aspects of every field of medicine. Online lists of guides, bibliographies and encyclopaedias available in the Library are provided.
The website of the Dundee Local History Centre of Dundee Central Library gives the Department's opening hours, and lists the special collections that it houses. The site contains sample images from several of the Department's collections. The following collections are described in some detail: the Photopolis and Andrew Wilson Bequest archives consist of photographs of life and working conditions in Dundee, 1880-1925; The James Bowman Lindsay archive, recording the life of the Scottish inventor; the rare books and manuscripts catalogue (which may be downloaded for browsing); the Wrighton Collection of Old Scottish music; the William McGonagall archive, celebrating the notoriously inept poet's life and work; the Ivory Collection of over 300 books on scientific subjects, dating from the sixteenth century; and the Mary Slessor (1848-1915) collection of books and letters. The website also contains some of the exhibitions that Dundee central library has staged in recent years.The site provides more than bare catalogues, describing not just the content of each of the collections, but their background and creation as well. Most of the pages in the site are nicely presented and usefully hyperlinked to related material, including images, the occasional sound file, and other websites.This website will prove extremely useful to researchers studying Dundee, or Scottish urban history, as well as to those studying the more specialist fields associated with each collection.
E-ressourcer (formerly known as Elektra) is an online resource developed by the Department of Manuscripts and Rare Books at the Royal Library (Kongelige Bibliothek) in Copenhagen. It contains complete digital facsimile editions of manuscripts held in the library. The manuscripts on the website are divided into three categories: Middle Ages and Renaissance, 17th and 18th century, and Modern Manuscripts. Complete manuscripts have been digitised, including full bindings where present.The earliest manuscripts include books of hours, prayer books, and historical and scientific works, mostly from France, England and Germany, with texts in Latin, French or German. There is also an online exhibition: 'Living words & luminous pictures: Medieval Book Culture in Denmark' showing twelve medieval manuscript books held by the library.The four 17th-18th century manuscripts include an Inca Chronicle, an Edda, a description of Greenland and an illustrated work on ancient monuments. The modern manuscripts are by Scandinavian writers, including Hans Christian Andersen and Henrik Ibsen. Diaries, letters and literary manuscripts are included in the collection.Each manuscript is accompanied by a description of its background and content, its official location, and its format. Most descriptive matter is in English, but the Scandinavian manuscripts, particularly the modern ones, offer Danish text only.The full colour images are copyrighted, but may be downloaded or printed for personal, scientific or educational purposes. The website can be viewed both in Danish and in English. The website is of best benefit to the general public who may be interested in learning about and accessing library collections.
The Elizabeth Blackwell, America's First Woman M.D. (Medical Doctor) website is an online version of an exhibition held at the National Library of Medicine from January to September 1999. The site provides a basic outline of the training and work of Elizabeth Blackwell, who in 1849 was the first woman to graduate from a medical school in the United States. This narrative is interspersed with a number of primary source documents held by the National Library of Medicine. The documents have been scanned and are available as facsimile images. Transcriptions of the documents are provided. The website is divided into four main sections: admission; college life; graduation; and career.
Published by the National Library of Australia, the 'Endeavour: Captain Cook's Journal 1768-71' website provides excerpts from the journal of Captain James Cook, which was written aboard HMS Endeavour during his epic sea voyage when he, and the English naturalist and botanist, Sir Joseph Banks, circumnavigated the world and discovered Australia. The site is advertising a CD-ROM, Endeavour: Captain Cook's Journal 1768-71, published by the library and designed with teachers and school students in mind. The site offers a sample of the material available on the CD-ROM, with an except from the journal (covering 10-13 June 1770, when the Endeavour crashed onto the Great Barrier Reef), which can be viewed as a facsimile image, or read as a transcript. In the 'Voyage' section of the website, it is possible to click on a month and see a map and a brief description of the route travelled during that time.
'The European Enlightenment' is designed as a student introduction to the key events and intellectual developments in European history during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Beginning with a discussion of what exactly the enlightenment was and when it could reasonably be said to have begun, the site moves on to examine a number of relevant topics. Many of these topics are discussed in some detail. There are pages on: English seventeenth-century history (including the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, The Restoration, and the 'Glorious Revolution'); seventeenth-century enlightenment thought (Hobbes, Locke, and Spinoza); there are separate pages on Descartes, Rousseau, and Pascal; a page on the Scientific Revolution (Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton); eighteenth-century social developments; the French and British 'Philosophes' (Rousseau, Voltaire, Diderot, Montesquieu, Hume, Adam Smith, Edward Gibbon). There are also pages on the position of women within society, notions of absolute monarchy, and on the early stages of the industrial revolution. The site also features a selection of resources to assist students. These include a gallery of famous paintings from the period, a reader, a glossary of terms, and a list of links to other sites. The enlightenment reader reproduces excerpts from texts by Descartes, John Milton, Rousseau, Voltaire, and Adam Smith. All texts are in English. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is one of the more comprehensive units in the series. It is targeted primarily at first year undergraduate students.
This is the website of the Exploratorium: The Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception. Primarily the education arm of the museum, the site contains many interactive resources aimed at school pupils, but also of interest to those in more advanced education. For example, there is a fascinating online multimedia exhibit focusing on biodiversity, which provides readers with an excellent introduction to the issues involved, the models used by scientists, and some of the studies that have been carried out. Online features such as this often utilise the full capabilities of the Internet, particularly favouring video footage.The site also contains links to other sites of interest.
This useful site is part of the Spartacus Educational Web resource, and it contains a wealth of information pertaining to German history from 1900-1945. The main subject areas are clearly listed in a table of contents, which consists of hyperlinks to further tables of contents that provide access to full-text documents in the relevant area. As well as a vast range of material relating to the Third Reich and World War II, the site includes substantial sections on the following topics: World War I; the Weimar Republic; German art; foreign policy; political leaders; the Holocaust; military leaders; and scientific research in Nazi Germany. In addition, the site offers a collection of hyperlinks to other history-related resources on the Spartacus Educational website. The site also contains advertising; it should be helpful for students and teachers.
This website is published by Andrew Bamji, the curator of the Gillies archive of plastic surgery at Queen Mary's Hospital in Sidcup. The website provides details of the Gillies archive, which is one of the most complete archives of medical records from the First World War. The archive holds over 2,500 case files on facial plastic surgery performed between 1917 and 1925 on injured servicemen. Although the website is of quite a clunky design it houses some excellent resources, including digital images of the complete Macalister watercolours archive, which show a range of injuries treated at the hospital. The images are graphic, and are somewhat disturbing. Another image gallery of postcards of Queen Mary's Hospital is also on the site, as well as an extremely useful bibliography of surgery and medicine during the Great War.
The Global Project on the History of Leprosy is an ongoing project aimed at creating a database of locations where leprosy archives can be found, so as to facilitate historical research into leprosy. The site intends to cover the modern history of leprosy, post 1847 (when Danielssen and Boeck published 'Om Spedalskhed'), although there are some materials and timelines that refer to the prior history of the disease.While the database creates pathways for researchers, the project will also encourage the preservation of archives and a network of researchers. The site includes an appeal for more leprosy archives, and guidelines on how to preserve such archives.The database can be browsed according to a number of different categories, as well as searched by keyword. Results give contact details for each archive, plus a fairly detailed summary of what materials are held in the archive.This is a major global project which must already be an invaluable resource for those studying the history of leprosy, or working in the broader field of the history of medicine.
This is the home page of Göttinger Digitalisierungs-Zentrum (GDZ), the Centre for Retrospective Digitization in Göttingen, Germany. The site describes the founding of the Centre in 1997; its connection with the State and University Library of Lower Saxony; its methods of image capture and digitization; file conversion services; and GDZ events. But the highlight of the site is its impressive set of online document collections, most of which hail from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Researchers may browse the collections under the following headings: Autobiographica; DigiWunschbuch; North American Literature; Mathematical Literature; Travel Literature; History of the Humanities and the Sciences; Sibirica (Siberia); Zoologica; Varia; and Maps. This resource allows visitors to search for sources in simple and complex terms using search engines. Navigation can be a little confusing, but it improves once the documents are directly accessed. A zoom function aids closer examination of the documents themselves. Occasionally the images have problems loading; the majority however, load successfully and offer an invaluable and outstanding resource for historians and scholars in German, Russian and American Studies, as well as those working in the History of Mathematics and the Sciences. The site also provides a PDF download option to download sections of books, whole books may be transfered or saved on CD-ROM, but these must be ordered via the library for a stated price. The resource also offers an in-depth, detailed list of related digitization projects at other institutions emphasising the progress that has been made in Germany in the online posting of valuable historical documents and resources.
This is the website of the Historical and Cultural Geography group, based in the Department of Geography at the University of Exeter. The group is dedicated to stimulating research in historical and cultural geography, with work on areas such as landscape and identity, power and authority, and geographies of imperialism, colonialism and post-colonialism, as well as in established areas like the history of cartography and urban historical geography. On the site are details of members of the group and their research interests, as well as synopses of the recent research undertaken by them. Also on the site are details of forthcoming conferences and postgraduate opportunities. The group has recieved a number of AHRC grants for its projects, which include: 'The Uses and Meanings of Heritage'; 'Landscape Archaeology and the Community in Devon: An Oral History Approach'; 'Negotiating the Cultural Politics and Poetics of Identity Within the Creative Industries of South West'; 'Spectral Geographies: Unsettling Place and Self'.
Professor Don Mabry's "Historical Text Archive" is a wide-ranging directory of texts, articles and images which pertain to random subjects in History. The author is an academic at Mississippi State University. The site is of use to anyone interested in History and is arranged by geography and theme, including sections on: the Persian Gulf War; Science History; Psycho History; Africa; Islamic History; the USA; Womens' History; Terrorism; and many more. However, coverage varies and whilst for example there are over forty references for European History, other areas contain only three or four items. The material ranges from digitalisation of complete books, to articles penned by the site's author. There is also a helpful section of essay questions, and book recommmendations by Amazon. This site has won over twenty awards, but is a rather random collection of material, with no visible collection policy.
This is the website of the Center for Cooperative Research - a research institute devoted to the study and facilitation of revolutionary historical change. The philosophy of the centre is that neither individuals nor ideas shape history, but technologies and economic systems. Analysis of the War on Terrorism is particularly strongly represented on the site. The background to the attack on World Trade Center and its consequences - including information about US Government support for Bin Laden, the Taliban, and Iraq's biological weapons programme - is painstakingly examined. Each detail is backed up by a short introductory essay, fact-sheets (in a number of formats, time-lines, comprehensive chronologies, newspaper and magazine articles, government press releases, interviews etc.
History of Medicine On-Line is a peer reviewed online journal from Priory Lodge Education. The journal aims to publish articles on a broad range of medical history topics. The full-text of the articles on this site are available free of charge. There are currently only a limited number of articles available, although further articles are planned. Topics discussed include: The influence of somatic and psychiatric medical theory on the design of nineteenth century American cities; Insulin coma therapy in schizophrenia; the history of Liverpool psychiatry; and the history of depression before the twentieth century. Another feature of the site under development is the creation of an annual bibliography relating to the history of medicine. Submissions to the journal are encouraged from anyone with an interest in medical history. Submission guidelines are available from the site. ISSN 1471-5279
The website "HMB Endeavour replica" hosted by the Australian National Maritime Museum gives the latest news and information about the 'Endeavour', a replica of the ship in which Captain James Cook made his first voyage to Oceania. The ship has been described by the National Maritime Museum, Greenwic, as the world's best replica of an 18th century ship. She has sailed from Australia to Britain in several voyages and is very much a functioning vessel as well as a floating tourist attraction. The Captain's and crewmembers' reports may be read at the site, along with the charts of recent voyages. Information about refits and repairs is also included. There is also a section of the site devoted to the history of the project, and information for those who wish to sail the Endeavour, or assist with her maintenance. The history of the original ship, its specifications, the aim of its voyaged to the South Seas and more resources on Captain Cook's missions are also offered on the site.
'HOST: journal of history of science and technology' is a full-text ejournal, which aims to explore... "the cultural and social dimensions of science and technology in history across the world". It is published in English - jointly by the University of Lisbon, the University of Evora, and the New University of Lisbon. At January 2009 there are two issues online, offering articles and book reviews in HTML format. Example article titles are: 'The Emergence of Early Modern Commons: Technology, Heritage and Enlightenment'; 'What Can Local Circulation Explain? The Case of Helmholtz’s Frog-Drawing-Machine in Berlin'; and 'Bringing it all back home: Portuguese engineers and their travels of learning (1850-1900)', among others. The website has details of the editors, Editorial Board, Advisory Board, and the submissions process. There is an RSS feed.
The Humanities Research Institute is a consortium of technology-related research projects from within the University of Sheffield's Faculty of Arts. Their core mission is to use new technologies to formulate and investigate research questions in the humanities which cannot be easily answered by the use of conventional methodologies. The cultural material in electronic form can range from medieval literary manuscripts, public records and early printed books through to modern music manuscripts, novel holographs and scientific writings. "They are conceived and published electronically to give the widest possible access to primary research materials, which would otherwise be available only to scholars travelling to the world's greatest libraries." This online service includes links to the following projects: André Gide Editions; Bakhtin Centre; Cotton Catalogue; East Asian Languages; Fairbank Archive; Flora Tristan; French Stars; Hartlib Papers; Hebrew Dictionary; Hospice History; Illuminated Manuscripts; John Foxe; Latin Stemmer; National Fairground Archive; Pérez Galdós Editions; SciPer; Strafford Papers; Stuart London.
'Hygiea Internationalis' (ISSN: 1404 4013) is a refereed electronic journal publishing on the history of public health. It is the official journal from the International Network for the History of Public Health (INHPH) based at Linköping University in Sweden. The INHPH aims to promote the study of the history of improvements in the health of populations from antiquity to modern times, with a particular focus on the interaction between ideas on public health, their implementation, public health organisations, and their social and demographic consequences. 'Hygiea Internationalis' was started in 1999 and published annually until 2005, but the site has details of a new pattern of more regular publication, starting in October 2006. The articles are freely available from the website as PDF files. The journal was set up with the support of the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, Swedish Council for Social Research and Swedish Council for Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Information for authors wishing to submit material to the journal is available from the site.
The biographies listed here include those of people whose work promoted the science of navigation. They are: Tobias Mayer (1723-1762), a German Professor, whose lunar and solar tables published in England in the 18th Century were good enough to determine longitude at sea with an accuracy of half a degree; John Hadley (1682-1744) who invented the sextant which measured the altitude of the Sun or a star above the horizon to find geographic positions at sea; Nevil Maskelyne (1732-1811) a British astronomer who experimented with the determination of longitude by observations of the Moon's position and introduced this method into navigation by publishing `The British Mariner's Guide' (1763). He published the first volume of the `Nautical Almanac' in 1766 and continued the supervision of the almanac until his death; John Flamsteed (1646-1719) founder of the Greenwich Observatory, and the first Astronomer Royal of England; and Jonas Moore (1627-1679) famous for his strong support of mathematics and astronomy which made many other mathematical and astronomical advances possible.
The site 'The Industrial Revolution and the Railway System', created by Julia Lee and maintained by Robert Schwartz of Mount Holyoke College, presents a wide variety of information on the railway system of nineteenth century England and Wales. The website includes primary source material in the form of extracts from six prominent Victorians voicing their opinions on the railways and articles from the Illustrated London News. The newspaper articles are divided into different categories relating to the railways, such as: accidents and disasters; stations; personalities; and politics and economics. The images section of the site contains a large number of Victorian images portraying the period as a whole and not just the railways. These images have, unfortunately, not been annotated. The site as a whole is also well illustrated. The data analysis section contain a wealth of information. There are, for example, maps showing growth of the railways, population distribution and natural resources distribution. Robert Schwarz provides a commentary on his data analysis. Other features of the site include student research projects and a section of links.
Insects, Disease and History is a history of medicine website edited by two academics. The focus of the website is on the impact insect-borne diseases have had on world history. On the site there are a handful of articles on the connections between military history and disease, with mention of yellow fever in the Mexican-American war, typhus fever in World War One, and insects as biological weapons. In addition there is reference information on various diseases and the insects that cause them, and a timeline of diseases, epidemics and historical periods. A glossary completes the useful tools that this site offers. For further research there is suggested reading, and web links.
This is the website of the Institut des Traditions Textuelles. The institute conducts interdisciplinary research in philosophy, history, history of religion, and history of science in many languages, including Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Arabic, Coptic, Ethiopian, and Syriac. It was created in 1996 by bringing together four research units of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS): Histoire des doctrines de la fin de l'Antiquité et du Haut Moyen Âge; Centre d'études des religions du livre; Centre d'histoire des sciences et des philosophies Arabes et Médiévales; Laboratoire de médiévistique occidentale de Paris. The website provides only basic details for access to the institute and its library. A separate Web page is dedicated to the collection entitled 'Textes et traditions' published by Librairie philosophique J. Vrin. There is a list of titles already published, which leads through hyperlinks to each book's title page (including a scanned image), a brief abstract and / or the table of contents.
The Institute for Psychohistory, headquartered in New York with eighteen centres around the world, is a research centre concerned with the science of historical motivation. Psychohistory tries to combine the methodologies of psychotherapy and social sciences to understand the emotional origins of social and political behaviour. The website of the Institute for Psychohistory provides details of the organisation, their aims and information about their journal ‘The Journal of Psychohistory’. The site provides access to a handful of full-text articles from its journal. There are also three full-text online publications from Lloyd deMause, the director of the Institute. The Institute for Psychohistory hosts an online discussion list, details of which are available from the site. The site also has a list of other relevant links and details of a free online course for those interested in psychohistory.
The website 'Internet History Sourcebooks Project', created by Paul Halsall at Fordham University, provides access to online primary source material for a number of branches of history. The project offers a combination of locally hosted material and links (often annotated) to documents on other sites. The three main sourcebooks cover ancient, medieval, and modern history; in addition to these, there are subsidiary sourcebooks, which take a thematic approach. There are, for example, sourcebooks on: Jewish history; Islamic history; East Asian history; history of science; and women's history. The material within the sourcebooks is well organised into categories, and is searchable. The home page provides general information about the sourcebooks project, including details of updates (maintaining a resource of this scope is a considerable task, and consequently some broken links are almost inevitable). Overall, this is a very valuable site, as the sources offered have the potential to be of immense use to historians; however, the user does need patience to browse what can be rather eclectic collections of sources. Also, the editor warns that the site had last been updated in 2006.
The website 'Istoriia rossiiskoi sovetskoi kosmonavtiki' was created by Aleksandr Krasnikov as an amateur project, and deals with the history of the Soviet / Russian space exploration. The first page contains photos of Russian and Soviet scientists and space ships designers, from Nikolai Kibalchich (executed at the age of 28 for his participance in the assassination of Alexander II) to Sergei Korolev. By clicking on a photograph users can access information on the particular person, which focuses on the biography and the person's contributions in space exploration. All in all there is information on 13 scientists and 90 cosmonauts. When users select a specific name from the list they are taken to the page devoted to this particular cosmonaut. The site also includes chronology of all the manned space flights from the 1st one in 1961, to number 208 carried out by Russia in August 1998. The American participance is also included in the chronology. The site provides information on the Russian space exploration projects and contains links to other sites on the subject. The only language of the site is Russian, for which a special Cyrillic character set is required. The site is not updated any longer.
'Jesuits and the sciences 1540-1995' offers a brief historical outline tracing the relationship between the Society of Jesus and scientific development over the last half-millennium. The site begins with an introduction and is then divided into a series of short historical sketches, each covering a few decades. The site deals with such thinkers as Clavius (1538-1612), Kircher (1602-1680), and Boscovich (1711-1787). Though this work is by no means comprehensive, it satisfactorily introduces students who are interested in the history of scientific development or the interaction between Christianity and science to a number of major figures and the arenas in which they operated. A short but useful bibliography accompanies this resource.
The website "John Gaunt (1620-1674)" is published by an academic at the Western Washington University. On it is the transcribed first edition of John Graunt's Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality, written in 1662, along with two biographies of Graunt, one by his contemporary John Aubrey, and one by the site's author. In addition there are several resources on related topics, including the Black Death, the Plague, the Great Fire of London, portraits of notable individuals, and a timeline of seventeenth century England. This is a useful website for those interested in statistical and medical history.
John Frerichs of the University of California School of epidemiology created this site in order to encourage interest in the life and work of John Snow. The site includes biographical information on John Snow including portraits. There are details of his work as an anaesthesiologist as well as his work on cholera. There is also a section which outlines the nineteenth century debates on what caused cholera. The full-text of Snow's 1855 publication On the Mode of Communication of Cholera is included on the site. A fascinating feature of this site are the online maps. There is a copy of a map originally published by James Reynolds in 1859. It is possible to zoom in and out of this map. There is also a map showing where the different water companies in London operated. The John Snow site is continually being developed. John Frerichs is also developing audio and broadband access. The site provides an interesting insight into the work of John Snow and the history of cholera in nineteenth century London. The site works best with Internet Explorer.
This site from the Australian Science Archives Project provides access to the text of the journal of Syms Covington from December 1831 to September 1836. Syms Covington was the assistant to Charles Darwin on the second voyage of HMS Beagle. The text on the website has been provided as an edited and annotated transcription of the original journal text, divided into eight chapters. Each chapter is illustrated and appendices of crew lists and Covington’s travels are also provided. A bibliography of suggested readings is available from the site, which includes references to both primary and secondary sources. This site is text-heavy, with the material presented as densely written scroll-down pages. However, while this can be tiring on the eyes, the tone is very readable and offers useful context and commentary of the main content, while the annotations provide valuable additional understanding.
This website describes the Foyle Special Collections Library at Kings College London. Built up over centuries, the library contains some 150,000 items and is particularly strong in the fields of the history of science and medicine, travel and exploration, the history of Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean, the British Empire and 20th century German and Jewish studies. The website describes the collection in detail, and provides 'canned searches' of items within the university's library catalogue.
This extensive Latin American prehistory web page is part of the eMuseum at the Minnesota State University. It describes the peoples and events of Mesoamerican prehistory from the first settlers to the Spanish conquest, covering the Aztecs, Incas, Maya, and other significant cultures. The main page links to short articles on themes such as: the peopling of Central and South America; big game hunting; the transition to domestication; the history of Latin American archaeology; and the arrival of the Spanish. There are menu pages for Mesoamerican and South American sites and cultures. These contain pages for each major group and for important archaeological sites associated with them. The pages are organised according to the traditional time periods of the region: preclassical, classical, and postclassical. Each page offers a brief overview of the history of its subject, accompanied by illustrations and a short bibliography. A 'technology and society' section contains information about calendars, sports and games, religion, farming, social structures, and other aspects of everyday life in Mesoamerican societies. The site provides a straightforward overview of Latin American history before the arrival of the Europeans, and is suited to school use or as a reference guide for those with no specialist knowledge of the field.
This website, part of the BBC Science & Nature section, looks at Leonardo da Vinci as an all-round genius, thinker, artist, scientist and engineer. The site includes online galleries of paintings, sketches and works by other artists, providing additional information and high-quality images. An interactive area presents Leonardo's 'studio' which, by navigating around select items in the studio, links to additional biographical and historical information about the artist and the Renaissance period, covering Leonardo's designs for flying machines, the materials used by Renaissance artists, camera obscura, anatomy and the unfinished work 'Adoration of the Magi'. In addition, there is a link to an illustrated timeline of his life with a series of 12 questions to test your Leonardo knowledge, plus an interactive 'what kind of thinker are you?' quiz. The site is exciting to explore and allows a closer look at masterpieces such as the Mona Lisa, Lady with Ermine, The Last Supper, and drawings and sketches. Experts in the fields of art history, architecture, and engineering share their opinions on the website.
This is an online exhibition of maps and navigational instruments developed by the University of Virginia, exploring how the American continent has been portrayed. There are links to sites of further information.
The "Lunacy Commission, A Study of its Origin, Emergence and Character" is a somewhat busy, but extremely useful, website is published by an academic at Middlesex University. It is an online monograph on the history of the Lunacy Commission in England and Wales. The book features an introductory chapter, which outlines the establishment of the Lunacy Commission as a government department in the mid-nineteenth century, and its evolution over the years, as well as examining its predecessors in full too. The subsequent chapters look at the individual commissions that preceded the Lunacy Commission, with a chapter each on the organisation and development of the Physician, Metropolitan, and Inquiry Commissions. The two final chapters provide a directory of commissioners, with biographies, and a list of relevant statutes with reference information.
This site contains information on the collection highlights of the Mariners' Museum, located in Virginia, United States of America. Collections covered are those of ephemera, figureheads, fine and decorative arts, ship models, photography, and scientific instruments.
This Open University website accompanies a series of BBC Four television lectures delivered by Mark Steel, stand-up comedian, journalist and political satirist. The series is an adaptation of Steel's earlier broadcasts on Radio 4 and presents the left-wing comedian's own opinions on the lives and works of "people with a passion" (including Aristotle, Byron, Cromwell, Darwin, Descartes, Marx, Newton, Paine, and Pankhurst). The television lectures were well-researched, and are forcefully and clearly delivered. They avoid comical lecturing, but comedy pervades every episode. Genuine historical comment and insight captures the attention of all - including the "MTV generation". Although obviously accessible for the general reader, the website will be of interest for school and undergraduate students. As well as information about the presenter, the site includes brief essays by Open University tutors on the Steel's lectures and their subjects: Aristotle (by Jon Pike); George Gordon, Lord Byron (by Hamish Johnson); Charles Darwin (by Paul Underhill); Sigmund Freud (by Richard Stevens); Karl Marx (by Sue Hemmings); Isaac Newton (by Robin Wilson). There is also the opportuntiy to follow the history of thought and philosophy further with links to Open University courses, and an email discussion forum about the lectures.
Todd Hammond's (Truman State University) impressive Mathematics and the Liberal Arts site, is a substantial list of annotated resources focused on the relationship between the mathematical sciences and their impact and interaction with other non-scientific disciplines. Directed towards advanced students and teachers on the history and philosophy of science, the bibliographic citations listed here are organized by geography, but can be restricted into increasingly specific categories by selecting the appropriate link at the head of the page such as nation, epoch, mathematical subset, and even individual philosophers and/or mathematicians. While the annotations are extremely helpful in locating good resources on the history of mathematics, navigation of the site is not as accommodating as one would hope. The citations are not stored in a larger database but pre-set into different web pages and no search utility has been provided which would allow users to quickly locate references. To find information on a specific topic one must move through the geographical links at the top of the page. Users should also note that the link above leads to the section on European mathematics, for the specific starting page to this resource, if it exists, has proved to be elusive. If you are struggling to locate a reference and comfortable navigating by using the file directory, it can be found at the following address: http://math.truman.edu/~thammond/history/.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the Mathematics in Britain, 1860-1940 dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as a Kleio database. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. This project aims to study the growth of mathematics in Britain between 1860 and 1940, and in particular to study the growth of mathematical research; the emergence and growth of a mathematical profession; changes in the mathematical syllabus at universities; and ways in which aspects of mathematical life were related. The dataset includes biographical details of mathematicians working in Britain between 1860 and 1940 (amateur as well as professional); mathematics departments in universities and training colleges, and mathematics courses; details of learned societies, mathematical journals and mathematical prizes. These data were compiled using kleio, a data management system designed specifically to cater for the computing needs of historians. Users wishing to use software other than kleio to analyse these data, should be aware that they will have to undertake editing and restructuring of the material if they are to fully exploit its potential for analysis.
Part of the University of Minnesota's College of Liberal Arts' website, the Media History Project promotes the study of media history. Sub-titled "promoting the study of media history from petroglyphs to pixels", it contains a media time line, ranging from the prehistoric to the present day, articles and quizzes for media studies students. The articles explore the way technology; politics; economics; cultural and moral change; and institutions have contributed to the development of the media throughout its history. Subjects include printing and publishing; journalism; photography; advertising and comics; telegraphy, telephony and sound recording; radio, film, television and computing.
Constructed by James McNelis (Wilmington College), the Medieval Science Page is a quick-reference online gateway to a host of topics related to scientific development, primarily between the fifth and fifteenth centuries. The gateway focuses predominantly on European discoveries and innovations, and includes links to sites dealing with such topics as alchemy, astronomy, botany, calendrics, cartography, mathematics, physics and scientific instruments. The site is best used as a general starting point for students interested in a specific scientific discipline during the Middle Ages, as it does not provide a comprehensive list of electronic resources currently available, nor resources focused on methodological or philosophical issues that affected scientific development. However, by following the many links, one should be able to move to increasingly specific resources off-site.
The essential premise behind the electronic book 'Misconceptions about the Middle Ages' is that there are common misconceptions students tend to have about the Medieval period, which need to be corrected by those teaching medieval studies. Edited by Stephen J. Harris (University of Massachusetts) and Bryon L. Grigsby (Centenary College), Misconceptions about the Middle Ages comprises a number of essays on a range of topics including: the Crusades; the myth of the mounted knight; medieval medicine; medieval drama; medieval children; and the corruption of the medieval Church. The site is part of ORB: the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies.
MuslimHeritage.com is a website dedication to improving knowledge of the contributions to science, technology, and the arts made by Muslims, particularly during the European (so-called) Dark Ages period. The site features articles explaining how the Islamic world both kept alive earlier technologies and ideas whilst developing new ones and promoting science during the period after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. It also argues that this period of intellectual history is not given the attention that it deserves.The site features: an interactive timeline; biographies of Muslim scholars and scientists; and features covering fields as diverse as medicine, agricultural technology, conflict between science and religion, and architecture.This is a site with a point to prove, and it contains a lot of fascinating information. Some of the articles do, however, fail to flag points that might be considered contentious, and sometimes one suspects that words such as science or agricultural revolution are being used rather loosely. Nevertheless, students of the history of science would be well advised to have a look at the perspectives here offered.The site does not appear to function properly in Netscape browsers, but its presentation under Internet Explorer is clean and effective.
The National Museum of Civil War Medicine website provides general information on the Museum, together with a brief overview of the various aspects of medicine practised during the American Civil War (1861-5) and select bibliographies for further reading and research on the subject. It offers a useful starting point for researchers in Civil War history and the history of medicine. The National Museum of Civil War Medicine, located in Frederick,Maryland, is an independent corporation which collects, exhibits and preserves medical artifacts, manuscripts, books, documents and other materials related to the Civil War. It is the national centre for study and research of American Civil War medicine. The website features an exhibits section, which provides a short guide to the exhibits housed at the museum accompanied by images of featured objects and reconstructed scenes of camp life, evacuation, field hospital, etc. The research section provides suggestions for further reading on nurses and women, diseases and drugs, hospitals and prisons, surgeons, soldiers, medical definitions and medical equipment and information on records held at the National Archives in Washington. It also gives details for researchers wishing to use its library. The site also features an online shop and details on opening hours, location, events and news.
This website describes the 250 year old collection of scientific instruments at the University of Aberdeen. Originally used for teaching and demonstration, these historic instruments offer a tremendous insight into the evolution of scientific methods. The collection, numbering over 2500 instruments and associated objects, is partially displayed at locations around the university, but the intention is to make as much as possible accessible through this website – currently the website describes the history and scope of the collection and provides a searchable illustrated database of key items.
Nicolaus Copernicus: de revolutionibus is part of the Glasgow University Library Special Collections' 'Book of the Month' series. The page shows selected images from the 1543 (first) edition of 'De Revolutionibus orbium coelestium libri sex', which famously posited the theory that the Earth travels around the Sun, rather than the other way round. The images are accompanied by a description of the book and its contents, as well as notes on the provenance of the featured copy of the work. A list of further reading is also provided. This resource provides a good introduction to Copernicus's work for anyone interested in the subject matter or in early printed books.
Nineteenth Century Studies is a journal dedicated to interdisciplinary studies in American, British, European, and Imperial colonies' nineteenth-century history. Essays and reviews in literature, architecture, visual arts, music, science and ideology can be found within this journal. To read the articles a subscription is needed. However, the user is able to search the tables of contents (dating back to volume one in 1987). Topics come from many scholars in subjects areas such as Charles Dickens, Imperialism, Cholera, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Nonconformists, Classicism, Tennyson, Comic Strips, Art Nouveau, Impressionism, and many more.
This is the full text of an article on the role nurses played in the Nazi's euthanasia programme during the 1930s and 1940s. Written by Professor Susan Benedict from the College of Nursing at the Medical University of South Carolina, it outlines the euthanasia programmes that were established by the Nazis to kill handicapped and mentally ill children and adults, such as the T-4 adult euthanasia programme, and the 'wild' programmes. It also focuses on the women who participated in these events as nurses, and their motivations for doing so. This is a useful resource for a topic not much documented on the Internet and will complement historians' related work in Holocaust Studies.
Part of the British Library's website, 'Turning the Pages' presents digitised texts of books, missals, psalters, atlases and other important documents that are held at the British Library. Based on the award-winning interactive display system used within the library itself to provide virtual public access to these rare texts which include: Leonardo Da Vinci's notebook; the Lindisfarne Gospels; the Sherbourne Missal; and Sultan Baybars' Qur'an. To view the books that are listed, a Macromedia Shockwave plug-in is required - although there are alternative versions for some of the texts. The Shockwave versions provides interactive animation that allows the user to turn the pages digitally, and also use zoom features to look at sections in detail. An introduction is provided for each book, along with audio descriptions of each page, which requires the use of a Real Audio player. Also of interest is a "highlights" tour of the texts, and a showcase of other manuscripts housed at the British Library.
An even more sophisticted version of Turning the Pages is available online now on the british Library website, for users who have fast broadband and Windows Vista.
'OV: the Open Video Project' is an online video bank that aims... "to collect and make available a repository of digitized video content for the digital video, multimedia retrieval, digital library, and other research communities". It contains historical and some arts videos, all released under open source licenses. These include videos from: the Digital Himalaya Project (34 early films from anthropologists in the Himalayas); and SIGGRAPH Video (10 videos); among others. At April 2008 the OV video bank contained around 4,000 videos, although some of these are longer films cut into shorter sections for ease of download. The bias of the collections seems to be strongly toward films from the United States - for instance, a sample search for keyword 'London' only calls up six videos, although these include a 13 minute 'Tour through central parts of London' (1920), as a 370Mb MPEG file. The archive can be searched using a variety of options, including colour/B&W, sound or silent, and by duration. The website also has a weblog-like listing of project news, and additional information about each collection. This may be an especially useful website for historians of the United States, and may also interest artists seeking historic film footage that is free to use in new works. The website also has full details of the OV project, its staff, aims, and future plans.
The introductory section of this site briefly outlines the bubonic plague in Renaissance Europe. The introductory section also outlines the original aims of the project, which were to create a 'hypertext archive of narratives, medical consilia, governmental records, religious and spiritual writings and images documenting the arrival, impact and response to the problem of epidemic disease in Western Europe between 1348 and 1530'. The site currently provides access to some primary source material on Florence, Pistoia and Lucca in 1348. It will be interesting to see whether the site will fulfil its original aims as it has been a while since the content was last added to.
Through the "Portsmouth and Macclesfiedl Collections" website, Cambridge University Library makes available digital images of important material relating to the life and work of Sir Isaac Newton. These documents are taken from the Portsmouth and Macclesfield collections, which contain Newton's correspondence and notes, together with copy letters and scientific papers. They cover the period 1606 to 1742, and include material on: gravitation; the Principia Mathematica; calculus; comets; optics; and chemistry. They thus reflect the breadth and depth of Newton's scientific interests. Other correspondents are represented in the collections, such as: Christiaan Huygens; Henry Oldenburg; Edmund Halley; Samuel Fermat; Robert Hooke; and many others. These manuscripts illuminate the development of scientific method and understanding in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, in the context of the work of members of the Royal Society and their European peers and correspondents. The documents often include diagrams drawn by the authors. Each document is digitised in full. The site can be searched by author, year, and language, or browsed using the drop-down menus provided in the search fields. Search results are presented as a list; each item links to a page showing thumbnails of the document images, each of which can be clicked to show a larger image. The document images are of high quality, but cannot be enlarged further and there is no zoom function. This is slightly unfortunate, as in many documents the script is small in size and can be hard to decipher. Each document is accompanied by brief bibliographic information. This web resource is aimed at researchers and research students and is presented with very little contextualising information, but the material itself is most rich and valuable.
PubMed Central is a free Web-based archive of journal literature for all of the life sciences. The JISC Digitisation Programme funded the Medical Journals Backfiles Project in the UK to digitise and make available a selection of medical journals through PubMed. Some of these date back to the early 19th century, e.g. 1809 (the first edition of the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine). Historical discoveries are obviously part of these papers: Sir Alexander Fleming's use of penicillin to fight bacterial infections; Thomas Hodgkin’s description of lymphadenoma (Hodgkin’s disease). Moreover, current issues can be understood through the study of earlier literature - the example given by the Project is that in order to understand the recent MMR scare, researchers can turn to the discussion surrounding autism in the 1940s and 1950s. Medical journal backfiles digitised in this way have had to be indexed and new xml citations are being created and added to PubMed Central. You can search the site by journal title, or by keyword across the range of journals included.
The website 'Renaissance Secrets' is published by the Open University and the BBC as a companion to a series of short programmes about this period of history. Subjects covered include the architecture of the dome of Florence Cathedral; Venice; Italian Renaissance medicine and healthcare; and the question of whether Gutenberg really did invent movable type, as has usually been believed. For some of the subjects, full transcripts of the programmes are provided. There are also reading lists, together with biographies of the academic experts involved. The course also includes interesting insights from non-academic experts, such as Daniel Libeskind and Cecil Balmond. Additionally, there are links to pages on four major historiographical approaches, including those connected to Marxist theories and women's history. The website is obviously intended to be used in conjunction with courses on the Renaissance, in particular that of the Open University. The subjects are not covered in depth, but the site serves as an entertaining and basic introduction to the topics covered. The site is well laid out, and excellent images are also interspersed with the texts.
The Research on Wren website was created by Dr. James Campbell at the Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban Studies, University of Cambridge. The site provides a helpful outline of the life and works of Sir Christopher Wren in four main sections: a biography on Wren, details of his scientific work, details of his architectural works and a bibliography. The biography of Wren gives details of both his professional and personal life. The scientific works section provides a list of Wren’s papers and experiments. The architectural works section lists Wren’s works by date of construction, by location, by type of building and by current state of the building. Other features of the site include a list of relevant links and a list of the latest updates, the most recent being in 2002.
The website "Resources in the History of Idiocy" is published by an academic at the University of Dundee and provides a number of resources for those interested in the history of learning disabilities and mental health. On the site users will find two lengthy bibliographies of secondary and primary sources, as well as a handful of online articles and a selection of transcribed historical texts spanning 1797 to 1882. Also on the site is a selection of links to relevant websites and to other historical documents. The contents are mainly concerned with American and British history, although some European material is also included. The site seems to be archived now since it was last updated in 2004.
The website Roman Numeral and Date Conversion, with Roman Numerals Calculator and Roman Numerals Test, has been constructed by Steven Gibbs, a freelance enthusiast based in Guernsey.The site provides online tools for the calculation of dates in the Gregorian calendar in Roman numeric form. The site not only provides help with converting year dates into Roman numerals, but also in translating dates from the Gregorian calendar into their equivalent Julian form. The dates are expressed either in full Latin text, or in the more abbreviated form used by the Romans. For each date entered, users will be offered five variant forms.The site also offers useful notes on the historical development of the calendar, and the transition from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. There are links to other web resources relating to calendars, and a short bibliography of works on the subject.There is also an online tool for the conversion of Arabic numbers into Roman numerals. Other features include a Roman calculator, which carries curiosity rather than practical value.The site will be a very useful resource for those needing help with conversion of Roman dates and numbers, and could prove especially useful as a classroom tool.
The Royal Observatory and the National Maritime Museum have teamed together to create this comprehensive subsite dedicated to the holdings and activities of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich. The information on the site is manifold. The history of the Royal Observatory and events related to the International Year of Astronomy 2009 are present on the main page. Sections on the site are: Planetarium Shows; Peter Harrison Planetarium; Meridian line; 28-inch telescope; Time ball; Camera obscura; Observing evenigs; Astronomy galleries; Time galleries; and For schools. Each section has subsequent chapters with background information; history; aspects of physics or astronomy explainedl or answers to various questions related to time or observation of the skies. Photographs on the site and on Flickr! and 360 degrees panoramas accompany the text. The online learning resources were stil under development at the time of review. This site introduces an exciting place to visit and offers a great deal of information to anyone interested in astronomy, physics and time reckoning.
This is the website for Salomons Museum, the onetime home and estate of the Salomons family. The Salomons included Sir David Salomons, Member of Parliament, equality campaigner and the first Jewish Lord Mayor of London and his son, the scientist and road transport pioneer Sir David Lionel Salomons. As well as the family's historic home and estate (one of the earliest buildings in the country be powered by electricity and including Sir David Lionel Salomons' purpose-built Science Theatre) the museum is cares for the various collections built up by the family: badges; ballooniana; Jewish history; London; electrical/scientific; estate and family; transport; medals; World War I. The collection’s illustrated catalogue is available online, and the website includes a virtual museum tour and information about public access. Salomons Museum has received AHRC funding.
The "Scientific Revolution" website is part of web page of Dr. Robert A. Hatch and is made available by the University of Florida. It provides access to a range of resources for the study and teaching of the Scientific Revolution, covering developments from Copernicus to Isaac Newton over the period 1550 to 1700. At the time of review, some links on the site were incomplete or broken. Nevertheless, the site presents much useful information about the resources available for the study of the Scientific Revolution and the scientists and thinkers involved. The site is divided into the following sections: Introduction; Overview and Background; Outlines, Timelines and Tools; Biography and the Scientific Revolution; Intermediate Resources; Research - Primary Texts; and Research - Early English Books Online. It is aimed at undergraduate students and teachers. The content available at the time of cataloguing included: an introductory essay discussing the concept of periodisation in relation to the Scientific Revolution; bibliographic essays by Robert Hatch and Richard Westfall; an account of basic concepts of various world and cosmological systems, from the Aristotelian cosmos to Newton; timelines; bibliographies of secondary and important primary material; and a guide to online resources, in particular Early English Books Online and Gallica. Hatch's "History of Science Study Guide", which covers developments in astronomy and related scientific disciplines from pre-scientific times to Newton, is a very useful overview. The site also makes available Richard Westfall's browsable prosopographical list of over 600 individuals involved in the scientific community. This is a valuable tool and will be of use to students and researchers. The study guide and account of cosmological concepts will also be of considerable interest to those involved in the history of science in the early modern period. The bibliographical material will be of use to all students of the subject. There is no indication of updates and the site seems to be archived.
This is the website of the Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) - library, museum, research and teaching department part of the Faculty of Earth Sciences and Geography, in the School of Physical Sciences of the University of Cambridge. There are online resources and new about the acquisition of the Shackleton papers. It is the oldest research centre (established in 1922) in the world covering both the Arctic (including northern Russia) and Antarctic. It was created as a memorial to Captain Robert Falcon Scott, RN, and his four companions, who died returning from the South Pole in 1912. The library is named to honour the contribution made to polar research by Sir Ernest Shackleton and his son, Lord Shackleton. The SPRI also has archives (named The Thomas H. Manning Polar Archives), map collection, and picture library. There is visitor information as well as the opportunity to view bibliographies as well as information resources, including searchable databases and polar directories.In addition to these research facilities, of general interest is the online presentation of the SPRI picture library which houses photographs from the Arctic and Antarctic, including those of Frank Hurley, (Shackleton's photographer on the Endurance expedition), and Herbert Ponting, (official photographer with Scott's Last Expedition). There are also photographs taken by missionaries, traders, whalers and others visiting the polar regions. You can search for pictures by subject, author, place, expedition or date of publication. There are online galleries of these expeditions, and arranged by themes like: Biographical; Land transport; Penguins; People and places; and Scenery.
A Short History of the Development of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology provides a chronological overview of technological developments in this field since the nineteenth century. Much of the information on the site has been written by the site creator, Joseph Woo, although links to external sites are also used where appropriate. As well as providing a chronology the site has an index which divides the information into the following categories: Early developments in ultrasonics; Short histories of the developement of medical ultrasonics in pioneering countries; Biographies and mentions; Gray scale and scan converter; The Real-time Scanner; The Transvaginal Scanner; Early Doppler ultrasound; Applications; Amniocentesis; Three dimensional ultrasound; Tissue characterization; Bio-safety; and Others.
This site, created by the State Library of New South Wales in Sydney Australia, provides access to papers of Sir Joseph Banks. Joseph Banks was an independent botanist who sailed with Cook on the Endeavour (1768-1761). This was to be his only journey to the area although he was heavily involved with pacific exploration, botany and early Australian colonial life. This site offers access to Sir Joseph Bank’s papers which are held in the Mitchell and Dixson collection at the State Library of New South Wales. Approximately 10,000 manuscript pages which include correspondence, reports, invoices and accounts, as well as a small number of maps, watercolours and charts are available from the site. The correspondence on the site includes letters from and concerning many notable figures in early pacific exploration such as James Cook, William Bligh and Lachlan Macquarie. The online collection is presented as facsimile copies and have been extensively indexed. The site has been divided into sections which make it straightforward to browse. It is possible to search the site by author, date, subject, notes and transcript.
This website on Latino History and Culture is published by the Smithsonian Institution as part of its Explore and Learn web pages. Latino History and Culture offers a mixture of online resources, including web exhibitions, essays, and images on a diverse range of topics concerning Latino immigrants to the United States, and Central American history. These include general histories, scientific expeditions, business, agriculture, identity and community, research, biographies, migrations, cultural encounters, international relations, and relevant publications and programmes. Amongst the countries covered are the United States, Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico.
'Spacearts: the space art database' aims to "document this important and exciting art form and to make it publicly accessible on this website". The project is a joint one, between the French branch of Leonardo/ISAST (the International Society for the Arts, Science and Technology) and the Swiss OURS Foundation. Partners include the International Academy of Astronautics and the European Space Agency. At June 2007 the database had details of 21 space art artists. Artists are represented by their photograph, a short biography, small-sized samples of their work, and external links to their websites.
The web page "Spirits, Witches and Science: Why the Rise of Science Encouraged Belief in the Supernatural in 17th-Century England" presents an essay written by Richard Olson, for the Skeptics Society. The essay discusses one of the most important intellectual debates and shifts of the early modern period, which had consequences for religious, social and even political issues. The early modern theological and scientific debates on the existence of spirits and their forms has recently been the subject of renewed interest by witchcraft historians. The often-claimed juxtaposition between the rise of scientific belief and the decline in the belief in witches, has received a variety of attention. The author traces changes in the perception of demonic power, citing several interesting and well-known examples, before he embarks upon the central point of his essay - the scientific defender of witches, Joseph Glanvill. Glanvill, a member of the Royal Society, is famous for his treatise "Saducismus Triumphatus: or Full and Plain Evidence Concerning Witches and Apparitions" published in 1689, at a time when scepticism was evinced towards belief in witchcraft in most English circles.
This is the website of a project to organise and publish the papers of Thomas Alva Edison (microfilms, book editions, and a digital edition), which in all number over five million pages. It is sponsored by Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; the National Park Service; the Smithsonian Institution; and the New Jersey Historical Commission, and supported by over 60 public and private foundations, corporations and individuals. The site makes available a searchable document database linked to document images for Parts I-III of the Thomas A. Edison papers (1847-1898) and some of the editorial materials from the image and text publications, with continual additions. The project intends that in its final form the full digital edition will include the text of the print volumes. The website has a series of headings through which the material may be accessed: Edison Papers; Thomas Alva Edison; Outreach and Search. Each of these has several sub-headings, which include Edison's patents and companies; chronologies; bibliographies; details about the microfilm and book editions of the project; maps and images, and related resources on the Web. There are also details about the Thomas A. Edison papers, and the project (history, staff and funders), as well as a Latest Edison Papers News sidebar. This is a huge project and the website reflects the comprehensive nature of the endeavour in a way which makes a large amount of material easily accessible.
'Tiempos Modernos' is a peer reviewed electronic journal devoted to 16th, 17th and 18th century History, with particular emphasis on the history of Spain and Spanish America. The journal includes in its scope History of Art, Literature and Science, as well as political and socio-economic history. The journal aims to publish up to four issues a year, although the issues themselves may only contain three or four articles and thesis abstracts. Articles have focused on such themes as: the Irish presence in the Spanish army between 1580 and 1818; so-called 'hispanic rationalism' and its rejection of the practice of witchcraft in 17th century Europe; Inquisitional censorship and the reading of scientific books; and the struggle between university students in the Spanish Modern Age. Articles are available as either PDF or HTML, and may be written in Spanish, English, Italian or French (the majority are in Spanish). The site allows users to conduct searches across the articles, and links to the online discussion forum, 'Mundos Modernos'. The journal scope and submission details are outlined in full.
The "US Centennial of Flight" website provides resources for museums and teachers (supplemental materials, projects and research tools) to use to "celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Wright brothers' first powered flight at Kill Devil Hills (near Kitty Hawk), North Carolina, on December 17th, 1903. This is the work of the U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission who also promote awareness of 100 years of aviation history through the website. The top-navigation bar points to main sections of the site such as: the Wright Brothers (Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright); the History of Flight; Sights and Sounds (multimedia); Education (resources for teachers) and Links (a gateway of links to more than 50 educational information sources arranged by category and the sponsoring Organization). A timeline and a dictionary are also available. The whole site can be navigated as-is, or by clicking on a link in the left-navigation bar the presentation changes to meet the needs of "kids, educators, enthusiasts, or the media". The images, films, audio files, educational posters, essays, and other media are extremely well presented, easy to identify on the site, and there are excellent notes and indicators to the memory sizer and anticipated download times.
The website 'University of Bristol Special Collections' describes the special collections held by the University of Bristol Library. Covering a wide range of subjects the collections derive from a wide range of subject-specific personal and institutional libraries donated to the university. Particular strengths are in the history of architecture, non-conformist Christian movements, science and medicine as well as rare books, political pamphlets and social history. Other collections include various family archives, often related to the history of Bristol and the nationally important collection of material relating to Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The site informs about catalogues and archives and gives guidance regarding library policy and practical things to know for users.
This website describes the special collections and archives held at the University of Leicester Library. There is a particular strength in holdings related to Leicester, from personal papers of local literary figures Sue Townsend and Joe Orton to archives relating to the history of science and medicine in the area. The collection is more wide ranging than this however, encompassing labour history, European history, 12th-20th century manuscripts, 17th century prints, incunabula and early children's books. As well as briefly describing the contents of each named collection, the website includes access information.
The Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library houses rare books, special collections, manuscripts, archived documents and the official records of the University of Toronto. The Library now holds some 600,000 volumes and approximately 2,500 linear metres of manuscripts. The highlights of this collection are made available online through a series of virtual exhibitions. These include: etchings of the seventeenth century Bohemian artist, Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677); Anatomia, 1522-1867, with historical studies of the human anatomy from sources spanning that time period; the Barren Lands, with over 5,000 images from surveys conducted in 1893 and 1894 of Canada's north (now Nunavut) by James Tyrrell and J. B. Tyrrell; pre-1930 Canadian Pamphlets and Broadsides; Canadian Printer and Publisher, showing the history of the Canadian publishing industry through historic trade journals; the Discovery and Early Development of Insulin; and a classical Papyri collection. An additional 'Images from the Collection' subsite provides a wealth for images related to Canadiana; English and European Literature; Hebraica and Judaica; and Philosophy, Theology and Religion. The site posts exhibition catalogues and other library publications.
Researchers can refer to the Index to Collections, which offers detailed archival information. Those working from the medieval to modern periods should pay particular attention to the Manuscript Collection Index, with notable holdings on Middle East manuscripts; Byzantine manuscripts; a Galileo collection; early modern medical casebooks; 16th century Portuguese poetry; medieval and early modern Hebrew manuscripts; manuscripts and proofs by D.H. Lawrence and Charles Dickens; and valuable sources on early Canadiana. The rare book holdings are equally rich. In this area, historians will especially note a 1968 Czechoslovakia collection; a French Revolution collection; a Spanish Civil War collection; a Polish Solidarity collection; and a collection on Australia. Also not to be missed are important Canadian theatre history collections; special collections relating to philosophy (Aristotle, Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Russell) and the history of philosophy.
The site also gives information on the annual Kenny Prize, for scholarly writing by a Canadian on Marxist, left or labour studies.
Rules for access, registration, photocopying and similar information for visitors are provided. Some images from the collections can be made into postcards, cards and posters which users can order from the site. Navigation is fairly clear and the site has its own search engine.
The Victorian Web provides a comprehensive general overview of nineteenth century British history and literature. The site is divided into sections: on political, social, and economic history; gender matters; philosophy; religion; science; technology; genre and technique; authors; visual arts; and Victorian design. Within each section commentaries present a useful introduction to the topics, abstracts from primary sources, links to other web resources and a bibliography. The Victorian web was created under the direction of George Landow, Professor of English and Art History at Brown University. The site was originally designed as a resource to aid in the teaching of courses in Victorian literature. All the material is in English and is available free of charge.
This is the website of the "ViVa" bibliography of women's history in historical and women's studies journals. "ViVa" is named for the Dutch for Women's History in Professional Journals (Vrouwengeschiedenis in het Vaktijdschrift). ViVa is compiled at the International Institute of Social History, with contributions of New Zealand history (from Massey University) and contributions on women in African history from "AfricaBib" (based at University of Arkansas-Little Rock), and contributions on the history of medicine (from SUNY Upstate Medical University). The bibliography refers to articles on women and gender from historical journals and history from women's studies journals, and focussed especially on social history, in particular labour history. Related topics are also included, such as: prostitution; witchcraft; housework; sexuality; birth control; infanticide; the family; gynaecology; and masculinity. The journals covered are mainly English and American titles, as well as a few journals from India. Contributions are solicited of German and French titles.
This online exhibition published by the Natural History Museum is an interactive exploration of the voyage of the Endeavour in the eighteenth century. Using Flash, Quicktime, or the Cosmo VRML viewer, the exhibition uses a range of multimedia to help users engage with the material, and the history of the Endeavour expedition. The exhibition features an introduction to Cook's voyage, noting the impact it had on astronomy, botany, geography, navigation and medicine, a plan of the ship, brief biographies of Captain Cook, Joseph Banks, Sydney Parkinson and Daniel Solander, and illustrations and specimens that were gathered from around the world during the voyage.
"Whonamedit.com" is a biographical dictionary of medical eponyms aimed at the general user. However the information presented here for some of the entries can be so comprehensive, and so well hyperlinked throughout the database that "Whonamedit.com" [Who named it?] might be of use to school and higher education users. To find a particular person, use the function "List persons by last name" (always visible in the top navigation bar of every page) by clicking on the first letter of the name. Alternatively you can find all persons linked to a particular eponym listed at the top of the eponym description. Biographies can also be displayed by country. To find a particular eponym, you can either browse through the categories or perform a free text-search. In addition, all eponyms relevant to a particular person are listed in his or her biography.The intention is to present a complete survey of all medical phenomena named for a person, with a biography of that person. Currently over 5,700 eponyms have been described in over 2,700 main entries. These eponyms are linked to over 2,300 persons (of whom 68 are female - and there is a category to facilitate access to these). Correction and additions are solicited by the editor.
The World Health Organization (WHO) historical collection was established in 1995 in association with the Institut Louis Jeantet d'Historie de la Médecine of the University of Geneva. The collection includes: administrative documents; information on the foundation of the WHO; official records; International Sanitary Conventions; and rare books dating from 1507. A programme to scan selected works and the rare historical collections is currently being undertaken by the WHO. The facsimile images of these works are being made freely available from the website as PDF files. Documents currently available include: rare books on plague, smallpox and epidemiology; material relating to the History of the World Health Organization; and the League of Nations malaria documents. The WHO's Historical Collections website also provides full details of the scope of the collection and on how to search the collection. Information for researchers wishing to use the collection is also provided on the site.
This site, which is run by the Great War Primary Document Archive, contains a large archive of primary documents relating to the First World War and its immediate aftermath, compiled by members of the World War I Military History List. The documents are indexed under the subject headings of 'Conventions, Treaties, and Official Papers', 'Memorials, Personal Reminiscences' and 'Documents by Year', the latter category containing, in chronological order, those documents which do not fall under either of the other two. In addition, the site contains a large number of related secondary articles, written by members of the group, listed under such headings as 'a WWI Biographical Dictionary', 'The Maritime War' and 'The Medical Front'. The site also contains an image archive, a long and annotated list of links to related websites, and a set of postings recommending reading for various different topics related to the Great War. A mirror of this website is offered by the University of Oxford - linked to from the Brigham Young site.
The Yellow Fever Collection website has been developed by The Claude Moore Health Sciences Library at the University of Virginia. The site has two main sections, the first of which outlines major themes and personalities in the United States Army Yellow Fever Commission’s search for a yellow fever vaccine. The second part of the website provides information about and access to the Philip S. Hench Walter Reed Yellow Fever Collection from the Historical Collection at the University of Virginia Health Services. This collection includes correspondence, notes, reports, photographs, negatives and artifacts from the Walter Reed Series, Jesse Lazear Series, Henry Rose Carter Series, Jefferson Randolph Kean Series and the Philip S. Hench Series. It is possible to browse by date, series and subject. It is also possible to search the collection by keyword. Other features of the website includes a list of links, a who’s who, a collection guide and help on navigating the site.
This website provides a detailed introduction to the library special collections, archives, museums and digital resources held at the University of Aberdeen. These collections have a distinctly Scottish flavour, although their quality is said to be of international significance, and range from the archives of the University’s own five centuries of history, through family and estate records, to items associated with the history of science and medicine, Jacobitism and the Enlightenment. These records can be searched via the library catalogue. The website also acts as a portal to the University’s eight museums, all leaders in their field, ranging from ethnography to zoology. The website also details the various digitisation projects which have taken place, a set of useful resources derived from key collections. Of particular note is the archive of "Collection Highlights" which showcase particular collections or achives as well illustrated online exhibitions.
This website describes the special collections and archives held by the University of Bradford Library. Built around the University’s research interests, the collections cover areqa including: archaeology; local history; history of science and medicine; literature (notably the JB Priestley Archive); religion and peace studies. As well as describing each collection in some detail, the website also explains how to find and access material.
This website offers a guide to the extensive special collections and archives at the University of Strathclyde. Despite their notable focus on Glasgow, these collections cover a wide spectrum of social, economic, political and military history, as well as literature, the built environment, notable Scottish institutions and individuals. Each collection is described, and titles in the catalogue are listed. Details are also provided about access arrangements.
This website describes the special collections held at the University of Ulster’s Coleraine Library. The collections, which are searchable from the University’s main library catalogue (linked to from here) cover a range of subjects but with a particular focus on Irish history, literature and culture.